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Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447948/roles-of-ihh-signaling-in-chondroprogenitor-function-in-postnatal-condylar-cartilage
#1
Naito Kurio, Cheri Saunders, Till E Bechtold, Imad Salhab, Hyun-Duck Nah, Sayantani Sinha, Paul C Billings, Maurizio Pacifici, Eiki Koyama
Condylar articular cartilage in mouse temporomandibular joint develops from progenitor cells near the articulating surface that proliferate, undergo chondrogenesis and mature into hypertrophic chondrocytes. However, it remains unclear how these processes are regulated, particularly postnatally. Here we focused on the apical polymorphic layer rich in progenitors and asked whether the phenotype and fate of the cells require signaling by Indian hedgehog (Ihh) previously studied in developing long bones. In condyles in newborn mice, the apical polymorphic/progenitor cell layer was ~10 cell layer-thick and expressed the articular matrix marker Tenascin-C (Tn-C), and the underlying thick cell layer expressed Tn-C as well as the chondrogenic master regulator Sox9...
February 12, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438729/hyaluronan-chemistries-for-three-dimensional-matrix-applications
#2
REVIEW
Monica A Serban, Aleksander Skardal
Hyaluronan is a ubiquitous constituent of mammalian extracellular matrices and, because of its excellent intrinsic biocompatibility and chemical modification versatility, has been widely employed in a multitude of biomedical applications. In this article, we will survey the approaches used to tailor hyaluronan to specific needs of tissue engineering, regenerative and reconstructive medicine and overall biomedical research. We will also describe recent examples of applications in these broader areas, such as 3D cell culture, bioprinting, organoid biofabrication, and precision medicine that are facilitated by the use of hyaluronan as a biomaterial...
February 10, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428230/fibrotic-scarring-following-lesions-to-the-central-nervous-system
#3
REVIEW
David Oliveira Dias, Christian Göritz
Following lesions to the central nervous system, scar tissue forms at the lesion site. Injury often severs axons and scar tissue is thought to block axonal regeneration, resulting in permanent functional deficits. While scar-forming astrocytes have been extensively studied, much less attention has been given to the fibrotic, non-glial component of the scar. We here review recent progress in understanding fibrotic scar formation following different lesions to the brain and spinal cord. We specifically highlight recent evidence for pericyte-derived fibrotic scar tissue formation, discussing the origin, recruitment, function and therapeutic relevance of fibrotic scarring...
February 8, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428229/emerging-insights-into-the-role-of-matrix-metalloproteases-as-therapeutic-targets-in-fibrosis
#4
REVIEW
Nikolaos A Afratis, Moises Selman, Annie Pardo, Irit Sagi
Fibrosis is the extensive accumulation and buildup of extracellular matrix components, especially fibrillar collagens, during wound healing in response to tissue injury. During all individual stages of fibrosis ECM proteases, mainly matrix metalloproteinases, have diverse roles. The functional role of MMPs and their endogenous inhibitors are differentiated among their family members, and according to the different stages of fibrosis. MMPs levels are elevated in several inflammatory and non-inflammatory fibrotic tissues contributing to the development, progression or resolution of the disease, whereas in other tissues their expression levels can be diminished or be stable to the baseline...
February 8, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425696/the-pericellular-hyaluronan-of-articular-chondrocytes
#5
REVIEW
Warren Knudson, Shinya Ishizuka, Kenya Terabe, Emily B Askew, Cheryl B Knudson
The story of hyaluronan in articular cartilage, pericellular hyaluronan in particular, essentially is also the story of aggrecan. Without properly tethered aggrecan, the load bearing function of cartilage is compromised. The anchorage of aggrecan to the cell surface only occurs due to the binding of aggrecan to hyaluronan-with hyaluronan tethered either to a hyaluronan synthase or by multivalent binding to CD44. In this review, details of hyaluronan synthesis are discussed including how HAS2 production of hyaluronan is necessary for normal chondrocyte development and matrix assembly, how an abundance or deficit of pericellular hyaluronan alters chondrocyte metabolism, and whether hyaluronan size matters or changes with aging or disease...
February 6, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425695/hyaluronan-in-the-lymphatics-the-key-role-of-the-hyaluronan-receptor-lyve-1-in-leucocyte-trafficking
#6
REVIEW
David G Jackson
LYVE-1, a close relative of the leucocyte receptor, CD44, is the main receptor for hyaluronan (HA) in lymphatic vessel endothelium and a widely used marker for distinguishing between blood and lymphatic vessels. Enigmatic for many years because of its anomalous HA-binding characteristics, the function of LYVE-1 has just recently been identified as that of a lymphatic docking receptor for dendritic cells, selectively engaging with their surface HA glycocalyx to regulate entry to peripheral lymphatics and migration to downstream lymph nodes for immune activation...
February 6, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425694/renal-fibrosis-primacy-of-the-proximal-tubule
#7
REVIEW
Leslie S Gewin
Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the hallmark of chronic kidney disease and best predictor of renal survival. Many different cell types contribute to TIF progression including tubular epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, endothelia, and inflammatory cells. Previously, most of the attention has centered on myofibroblasts given their central importance in extracellular matrix production. However, emerging data focuses on how the response of the proximal tubule, a specialized epithelial segment vulnerable to injury, plays a central role in TIF progression...
February 6, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412171/roles-of-short-fibulins-a-family-of-matricellular-proteins-in-lung-matrix-assembly-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Tomoyuki Nakamura
Cyclical inflation of the lungs depends on the elasticity of lung parenchymal tissues, a mechanical property that is largely determined by elastic fibers and collagen fibers contained therein. Breakdown of elastic fibers in lungs and lack of the ability to repair damaged elastic fibers causes emphysema, and excessive collagen fibrillogenesis in lung parenchyma is critical for the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. Recent studies revealed that fibulin-3, 4, and 5, which are matricellular proteins collectively termed "short fibulins" or "elastic fibulins", play crucial roles in the assembly of elastic fibers...
February 2, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408413/regulation-of-fibrosis-in-muscular-dystrophy
#9
REVIEW
Lucas R Smith, Elisabeth R Barton
The production of force and power are inherent properties of skeletal muscle, and regulated by contractile proteins within muscle fibers. However, skeletal muscle integrity and function also require strong connections between muscle fibers and their extracellular matrix (ECM). A well-organized and pliant ECM is integral to muscle function and the ability for many different cell populations to efficiently migrate through ECM is critical during growth and regeneration. For many neuromuscular diseases, genetic mutations cause disruption of these cytoskeletal-ECM connections, resulting in muscle fragility and chronic injury...
February 2, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408412/chimeric-protein-identification-of-dystrophic-pierson-and-other-laminin-polymerization-residues
#10
Karen K McKee, Maya Aleksandrova, Peter D Yurchenco
Laminin polymerization is a key step of basement membrane self-assembly that depends on the binding of the three different N-terminal globular LN domains. Several mutations in the LN domains cause LAMA2-deficient muscular dystrophy and LAMB2-deficient Pierson syndrome. These mutations may affect polymerization. A novel approach to identify the amino acid residues required for polymerization has been applied to an analysis of these and other laminin LN mutations. The approach utilizes laminin-nidogen chimeric fusion proteins that bind to recombinant non-polymerizing laminins to provide a missing functional LN domain...
February 2, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408278/new-developments-on-skin-fibrosis-essential-signals-emanating-from-the-extracellular-matrix-for-the-control-of-myofibroblasts
#11
REVIEW
Jan-Niklas Schulz, Markus Plomann, Gerhard Sengle, Donald Gullberg, Thomas Krieg, Beate Eckes
Many different diseases are associated with fibrosis of the skin. The clinical symptoms can vary considerably with a broad range from isolated small areas to the involvement of the entire integument. Fibrosis is triggered by a multitude of different stimuli leading to activation of the immune and vascular system that then initiate fibroblast activation and formation of matrix depositing and remodeling myofibroblasts. Ultimately, myofibroblasts deposit excessive amounts of extracellular matrix with a pathological architecture and alterations in growth factor binding and biomechanical properties, which culminates in skin hardening and loss of mobility...
February 2, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408277/molecular-organization-and-mechanical-properties-of-the-hyaluronan-matrix-surrounding-the-mammalian-oocyte
#12
REVIEW
Antonietta Salustri, Luisa Campagnolo, Francesca Gioia Klinger, Antonella Camaioni
Successful ovulation and oocyte fertilization are essential prerequisites for the beginning of life in sexually reproducing animals. In mammalian fertilization, the relevance of the protein coat surrounding the oocyte plasma membrane, known as zona pellucida, has been widely recognized, while, until not too long ago, the general belief was that the cumulus oophorus, consisting of follicle cells embedded in a hyaluronan rich extracellular matrix, was not essential. This opinion was based on in vitro fertilization procedures, in which a large number of sperms are normally utilized and the oocyte can be fertilized even if depleted of cumulus cells...
February 2, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410190/hyaluronan-interactions-with-innate-immunity-in-lung-biology
#13
REVIEW
Robert M Tighe, Stavros Garantziotis
Lung disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Innate immune responses in the lung play a central role in the pathogenesis of lung disease and the maintenance of lung health, and thus it is crucial to understand factors that regulate them. Hyaluronan is ubiquitous in the lung, and its expression is increased following lung injury and in disease states. Furthermore, hyaladherins like inter-α-inhibitor, tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene 6, pentraxin 3 and versican are also induced and help form a dynamic hyaluronan matrix in injured lung...
January 31, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409929/cysteine-cathepsins-in-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-extracellular-matrix-degradation-and-beyond
#14
REVIEW
Matej Vizovišek, Marko Fonović, Boris Turk
Cysteine cathepsins have been for a long time considered to execute mainly nonspecific bulk proteolysis in the endolysosomal system. However, this view has been changing profoundly over the last decade as cathepsins were found in the cytoplasm, nucleus and in the extracellular milieu. Cathepsins are currently gaining increased attention largely because of their extracellular roles associated with disease development and progression. While kept under tight control under physiological conditions, their dysregulated and elevated activity in the extracellular milieu are distinctive hallmarks of numerous diseases such as various cancers, inflammatory disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, bone disorders and heart diseases...
January 31, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408548/endothelial-cell-dysfunction-and-glycocalyx-a-vicious-circle
#15
REVIEW
Xiaohui Zhang, Dong Sun, Jeon W Song, Joseph Zullo, Mark Lipphardt, Leona Coneh-Gould, Michael S Goligorsky
Dysfunctional endothelial cells are an essential contributor to the progression of diverse chronic cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic diseases. It manifests in impairment of nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxation, vascular permeability, and leukocytes deterrent. While endothelial glycocalyx is known to regulate these functions, glycocalyx has been shown to be impaired in pathologic settings leading to endothelial dysfunction. Are these findings coincidental or are they indicative of a potential cooperation of the glycocalyx and the endothelium in inducing a dysfunctional phenotype? The main thrust of this overview is to advance a hypothesis on the existence of vicious circle relations between impaired endothelial glycocalyx and endothelial cell dysfunction...
January 31, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408013/the-big-five-in-fibrosis-macrophages-myofibroblasts-matrix-mechanics-and-miscommunication
#16
REVIEW
Pardis Pakshir, Boris Hinz
Scarring is part of the normal healing response to tissue injury in all organs and required to rapidly repair acute damages, mostly with extracellular matrix. A variety of different cells are activated into myofibroblasts to produce and remodel the scar matrix. Temporal and spatial coordination of myofibroblast activities with inflammatory macrophages is crucial for the controlled healing process. Miscommunication can result in either insufficient (chronic) or exacerbated (fibrotic) repair. In addition to soluble biochemical signals and intercellular contacts, cell-to-cell communication is mediated by biophysical and chemical signals transmitted through the extracellular matrix...
January 30, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408012/biomarkers-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#17
REVIEW
F Drakopanagiotakis, Lukasz Wujak, Malgorzata Wygrecka, P Markart
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, debilitating, fibrotic lung disease leading to respiratory failure and ultimately to death. Being the prototype of interstitial lung diseases, IPF is characterized by marked heterogeneity regarding its clinical course. Despite significant progress in the understanding of its pathogenesis, we still cannot reliably predict the course of the disease and the response to treatment of an individual patient. Non-invasive biomarkers, in particular serum biomarkers, for the (early) diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of therapeutic response are urgently needed...
January 30, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408011/bh3-mimetics-as-antifibrotic-therapy-unleashing-the-mitochondrial-pathway-of-apoptosis-in-myofibroblasts
#18
REVIEW
Tobias Kuehl, David Lagares
Organs and tissues in mammals can undergo self-repair following injury. However, chronic or severe tissue injury leads to the development of dense scar tissue or fibrosis at the expense of regeneration. The identification of novel therapeutic strategies aiming at reversing fibrosis is therefore a major clinical unmet need in regenerative medicine. Persistent activation of scar-forming myofibroblasts distinguishes non-resolving pathological fibrosis from self-limited physiological wound healing. Thus, therapeutic strategies selectively inducing myofibroblast apoptosis could prevent progression and potentially reverse established fibrosis in fibrotic diseases...
January 30, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408010/distinct-roles-for-hyaluronan-in-neural-stem-cell-niches-and-perineuronal-nets
#19
REVIEW
Weiping Su, Steven Matsumoto, Barbara Sorg, Larry S Sherman
Adult neurogenesis in mammals is a tightly regulated process where neural stem cells (NSCs), especially in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, proliferate and differentiate into new neurons that form new circuits or integrate into old circuits involved in episodic memory, pattern discrimination, and emotional responses. Recent evidence suggests that changes in the hyaluronan (HA)-based extracellular matrix of the SGZ may regulate neurogenesis by controlling NSC proliferation and early steps in neuronal differentiation...
January 30, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408009/design-of-peptide-mimetics-to-block-pro-inflammatory-functions-of-ha-fragments
#20
REVIEW
Alexandra Hauser-Kawaguchi, Leonard G Luyt, Eva Turley
Hyaluronan is a simple extracellular matrix polysaccharide that actively regulates inflammation in tissue repair and disease processes. The native HA polymer, which is large (>500 kDa), contributes to the maintenance of homeostasis. In remodeling and diseased tissues, polymer size is strikingly polydisperse, ranging from <10 kDa to >500 kDa. In a diseased or stressed tissue context, both smaller HA fragments and high molecular weight HA polymers can acquire pro-inflammatory functions, which result in the activation of multiple receptors, triggering pro-inflammatory signaling to diverse stimuli...
January 30, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
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