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Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223498/heparin-fibronectin-interactions-in-the-development-of-extracellular-matrix-insolubility
#1
Irene Raitman, Mia L Huang, Selwyn A Williams, Benjamin Friedman, Kamil Godula, Jean E Schwarzbauer
During extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly, fibronectin (FN) fibrils are irreversibly converted into a detergent-insoluble form which, through FN's multi-domain structure, can interact with collagens, matricellular proteins, and growth factors to build a definitive matrix. FN also has heparin/heparan sulfate (HS) binding sites. Using HS-deficient CHO cells, we show that the addition of soluble heparin significantly increased the amount of FN matrix that these cells assemble. Sulfated HS glycosaminoglycan (GAG) mimetics similarly increased FN assembly and demonstrated a dependence on GAG sulfation...
December 6, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221812/role-of-immune-cells-in-crystal-induced-kidney-fibrosis
#2
REVIEW
Ermanila Dhana, Isis Ludwig-Portugall, Christian Kurts
Chronic kidney diseases can lead to kidney fibrosis, which can be considered a futile attempt of tissue healing to replaces functional kidney tissue with connective tissue, basically forming a scar. Chronic inflammation is a frequent cause of kidney fibrosis. Classical as well as recently discovered immune cell subsets and their molecular mediators have been intensively investigated for their contribution to kidney fibrosis and their potential as therapeutic targets. Here we review the current knowledge about the role of immune cells in crystal-induced renal fibrosis...
December 5, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221811/matrix-metalloproteinase-functions-in-hepatic-injury-and-fibrosis
#3
REVIEW
Martin Roderfeld
Liver fibrosis is the most common final outcome for chronic liver diseases. The complex pathogenesis includes hepatic parenchymal damage as a result of a persistent noxe, activation and recruitment of immune cells, activation of hepatic stellate cells, and the synthesis of fibrotic extracellular matrix (ECM) components leading to scar formation. Clinical studies and animal models demonstrated that fibrosis can be reversible. In this regard matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been focused as therapeutic targets due to their ability to modulate tissue turnover during fibrogenesis as well as regeneration and, of special interest, due to their influence on cellular behavior like proliferation, gene expression, and apoptosis that, in turn, impact fibrosis and regeneration...
December 5, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217273/ltbps-in-biology-and-medicine-ltbp-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Daniel B Rifkin, William J Rifkin, Lior Zilberberg
The latent transforming growth factor (TGF) β binding proteins (LTBP) are crucial mediators of TGFβ function, as they control growth factor secretion, matrix deposition, presentation and activation. Deficiencies in specific LTBP isoforms yield discrete phenotypes representing defects in bone, lung and cardiovascular development mediated by loss of TGFβ signaling. Additional phenotypes represent loss of unique TGFβ-independent features of LTBP effects on elastogenesis and microfibril assembly. Thus, the LTBPs act as sensors for the regulation of both growth factor activity and matrix function...
December 4, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196207/inflammation-and-fibrosis
#5
REVIEW
Matthias Mack
Tissue damage and inflammation are important triggers for regeneration and fibrosis. Tissue damage not only induces inflammation in general, it also determines the type and polarization of inflammation by recruiting and activating a variety of different cells types of the innate and adaptive immune system. This review focuses on the pathways leading from tissue damage to inflammation, from inflammation to fibrosis and from fibrosis to function. It covers the pro- and antifibrotic properties of immunological mediators released from T cells, monocytes/macrophages, innate lymphoid cells, basophils and eosinophils and takes into account that extracellular matrix proteins are not only produced by mesenchymal fibroblasts but also by infiltrating hematopoietic cells...
November 28, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191403/laminin-deficient-muscular-dystrophy-molecular-pathogenesis-and-structural-repair-strategies
#6
REVIEW
Peter D Yurchenco, Karen K McKee, Judith R Reinhard, Markus A Rüegg
Laminins are large heterotrimers composed of the α, β and γ subunits with distinct tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression patterns. The laminin-α2 subunit, encoded by the LAMA2 gene, is mainly expressed in skeletal muscle, Schwann cells of the peripheral nerve and astrocytes and pericytes of the capillaries in the brain. Mutations in LAMA2 cause the most common type of congenital muscular dystrophies, called LAMA2 MD or MDC1A. The disorder manifests mostly as a muscular dystrophy but slowing of nerve conduction contributes to the disease...
November 27, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162487/molecular-pathways-of-cell-mediated-degradation-of-fibrillar-collagen
#7
REVIEW
Sara Sprangers, Vincent Everts
Fibrillar collagens are the most abundant components of the extracellular matrix and provide stability to connective tissues, such as bone, cartilage and skin. An imbalance in collagen turnover inevitably affects the function of these tissues. Therefore, the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the synthesis and degradation of collagen have received increasing attention. This short review attempts to summarize our present understanding of how different pathways of collagen degradation are used by different cell types...
November 20, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158163/identification-of-tissue-damage-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-and-bacterial-challenge-as-common-mechanisms-associated-with-high-risk-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#8
Melanie C Föll, Matthias Fahrner, Christine Gretzmeier, Käthe Thoma, Martin L Biniossek, Dimitra Kiritsi, Frank Meiss, Oliver Schilling, Alexander Nyström, Johannes S Kern
In this study we used a genetic extracellular matrix (ECM) disease to identify mechanisms associated with aggressive behavior of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). cSCC is one of the most common malignancies and usually has a good prognosis. However, some cSCCs recur or metastasize and cause significant morbidity and mortality. Known factors that are associated with aggressiveness of cSCCs include tumor grading, size, localization and microinvasive behavior. To investigate molecular mechanisms that influence biologic behavior we used global proteomic and histologic analyses of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue of primary human cSCCs...
November 20, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158162/the-gelatinases-mmp-2-and-mmp-9-as-fine-tuners-of-neuroinflammatory-processes
#9
REVIEW
M-J Hannocks, X Zhang, H Gerwien, A Chashchina, M Burmeister, E Korpos, J Song, L Sorokin
This review focuses on the complementary roles of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in leukocyte migration into the brain in neuroinflammation, studied mainly in a murine model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) that has similarity to the human disease multiple sclerosis. We discuss the cellular sources of MMP-2/MMP-9 in EAE, their sites of activity, and how cleavage of the to-date identified MMP-2/MMP-9 substrates at the blood-brain barrier facilitate leukocyte filtration of the central nervous system (CNS)...
November 17, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138120/recessive-mutation-in-tetraspanin-cd151-causes-kindler-syndrome-like-epidermolysis-bullosa-with-multi-systemic-manifestations-including-nephropathy
#10
Hassan Vahidnezhad, Leila Youssefian, Amir Hossein Saeidian, Hamid Reza Mahmoudi, Andrew Touati, Maryam Abiri, Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh, Sophia Aristodemou, Lu Liu, John A McGrath, Adam Ertel, Eric Londin, Ariana Kariminejad, Sirous Zeinali, Paolo Fortina, Jouni Uitto
Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is caused by mutations in as many as 19 distinct genes. We have developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel targeting genes known to be mutated in skin fragility disorders, including tetraspanen CD151 expressed in keratinocytes at the dermal-epidermal junction. The NGS panel was applied to a cohort of 92 consanguineous families of unknown subtype of EB. In one family, a homozygous donor splice site mutation in CD151 (NM_139029; c.351+2T>C) at the exon 5/intron 5 border was identified, and RT-PCR and whole transcriptome analysis by RNA-seq confirmed deletion of the entire exon 5 encoding 25 amino acids...
November 11, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138119/thrombospondin-4-in-tissue-remodeling
#11
REVIEW
Olga Stenina-Adognravi, Edward F Plow
Thrombospondin-4 (TSP-4) belongs to the thrombospondin protein family that consists of five highly homologous members. A number of novel functions have been recently assigned to TSP-4 in cardiovascular and nervous systems, inflammation, cancer, and the motor unit, which have attracted attention to this extracellular matrix (ECM) protein. These newly discovered functions set TSP-4 apart from other thrombospondins. For example, TSP-4 promotes angiogenesis while other TSPs either prevent it or have no effect on new blood vessel growth; TSP-4 reduces fibrosis and collagen production while TSP-1 and TSP-2 promote fibrosis in several organs; unlike other TSPs, TSP-4 appears to have some structural functions in ECM...
November 11, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133183/fragments-generated-upon-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-biological-regulators-and-potential-drugs
#12
REVIEW
Sylvie Ricard-Blum, Sylvain Vallet
The remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by several protease families releases a number of bioactive fragments, which regulate numerous biological processes such as autophagy, angiogenesis, adipogenesis, fibrosis, tumor growth, metastasis and wound healing. We review here the proteases which generate bioactive ECM fragments, their ECM substrates, the major bioactive ECM fragments, together with their biological properties and their receptors. The translation of ECM fragments into drugs is challenging and would take advantage of an integrative approach to optimize the design of pre-clinical and clinical studies...
November 10, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128506/proteoglycans-remodeling-in-cancer-underlying-molecular-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Achilleas D Theocharis, Nikos K Karamanos
Extracellular matrix is a highly dynamic macromolecular network. Proteoglycans are major components of extracellular matrix playing key roles in its structural organization and cell signaling contributing to the control of numerous normal and pathological processes. As multifunctional molecules, proteoglycans participate in various cell functions during morphogenesis, wound healing, inflammation and tumorigenesis. Their interactions with matrix effectors, cell surface receptors and enzymes enable them with unique properties...
November 8, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080840/decorin-is-a-devouring-proteoglycan-remodeling-of-intracellular-catabolism-via-autophagy-and-mitophagy
#14
REVIEW
Simone Buraschi, Thomas Neill, Renato V Iozzo
Autophagy, a fundamental and evolutionarily-conserved eukaryotic pathway, coordinates a complex balancing act for achieving both nutrient and energetic requirements for proper cellular function and homeostasis. We have discovered that soluble proteoglycans evoke autophagy in endothelial cells and mitophagy in breast carcinoma cells by directly interacting with receptor tyrosine kinases, including VEGF receptor 2 and Met. Under these circumstances, autophagic regulation is considered "non-canonical" and is epitomized by the bioactivity of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan, decorin...
November 7, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122677/inducible-knockdown-of-procollagen-i-protects-mice-from-liver-fibrosis-and-leads-to-dysregulated-matrix-genes-and-attenuated-inflammation
#15
Olena Molokanova, Kai Schönig, Shih-Yen Weng, Xiaoyu Wang, Matthias Bros, Mustafa Diken, Svetlana Ohngemach, Morten Karsdal, Dennis Strand, Alexei Nikolaev, Leonid Eshkind, Detlef Schuppan
Organ fibrosis is characterized by a chronic wound-healing response, with excess deposition of extracellular matrix components. Here, collagen type I represents the most abundant scar component and a primary target for antifibrotic therapies. Liver fibrosis can progress to cirrhosis and primary liver cancer, which are the major causes of liver related morbidity and mortality. However, a (pro-)collagen type I specific therapy remains difficult and its therapeutic abrogation may incur unwanted side effects. We therefore designed tetracycline-regulated procollagen alpha1(I) short hairpin (sh)RNA expressing mice that permit a highly efficient inducible knockdown of the procollagen alpha1(I) gene in activated (myo-)fibroblasts, to study the effect of induced procollagen type I deficiency...
November 6, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106944/proteases-and-glycosidases-on-the-surface-of-exosomes-newly-discovered-mechanisms-for-extracellular-remodeling
#16
REVIEW
Ralph D Sanderson, Shyam K Bandari, Israel Vlodavsky
Emergence of the field of exosome biology has opened an exciting door to better understand communication between cells. These tiny nanovesicles act as potent regulators of biological function by delivering proteins, lipids and nucleic acids from the cell of origin to target cells. Recently, several enzymes including membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), sialidase and heparanase, among others, were localized on the surface of exosomes secreted by various cell types...
October 26, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066153/extracellular-matrix-alterations-in-senescent-cells-and-their-significance-in-tissue-homeostasis
#17
REVIEW
Eleni Mavrogonatou, Harris Pratsinis, Adamantia Papadopoulou, Nikos K Karamanos, Dimitris Kletsas
Normal cells after a defined number of successive divisions or after exposure to genotoxic stresses are becoming senescent, characterized by a permanent growth arrest. In addition, they secrete increased levels of pro-inflammatory and catabolic mediators, collectively termed "senescence-associated secretory phenotype". Furthermore, senescent cells exhibit an altered expression and organization of many extracellular matrix components, leading to specific remodeling of their microenvironment. In this review we present the current knowledge on extracellular matrix alterations associated with cellular senescence and critically discuss certain characteristic examples, highlighting the ambiguous role of senescent cells in the homeostasis of various tissues under both normal and pathologic conditions...
October 21, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066152/extracellular-vesicles-are-integral-and-functional-components-of-the-extracellular-matrix
#18
REVIEW
Kirsi Rilla, Anne-Mari Mustonen, Uma Thanigai Arasu, Kai Härkönen, Johanna Matilainen, Petteri Nieminen
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are small plasma membrane-derived particles released into the extracellular space by virtually all cell types. Recently, EV have received increased interest because of their capability to carry nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and signaling molecules and to transfer their cargo into the target cells. Less attention has been paid to their role in modifying the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM), either directly or indirectly via regulating the ability of target cells to synthesize or degrade matrix molecules...
October 21, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054751/ng2-cspg4-and-progranulin-in-the-posttraumatic-glial-scar
#19
REVIEW
Michael K E Schäfer, Irmgard Tegeder
Traumatic injury of the central nervous system is one of the leading causes of death and disability in young adults. Failure of regeneration is caused by autonomous neuronal obstacles and by formation of the glial scar, which is essential to seal the injury but also constitutes a barrier for regrowing axons. The scar center is highly inflammatory and populated by NG2+ glia, whereas astrocytes form the sealing border and trap regrowing axons, suggesting that the non-permissive environment of activated astrocytes and extracellular matrix components is one of the reasons for the regenerative failure...
October 17, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037761/the-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-1-emilin1-interaction-discloses-a-novel-and-unique-integrin-ligand-type-of-engagement
#20
Alessandra Capuano, Federico Fogolari, Francesco Bucciotti, Paola Spessotto, Pier Andrea Nicolosi, Maria Teresa Mucignat, Marta Cervi, Gennaro Esposito, Alfonso Colombatti, Roberto Doliana
EMILIN1, a homo-trimeric adhesive ECM glycoprotein, interacts with the α4β1 integrin through its gC1q domain. Uniquely among the C1q family members, the EMILIN1 gC1q presents only nine-stranded β-sandwich fold and the missing strand is substituted by a disordered 19-residue long segment spanning from Y927 to G945 at the apex of the gC1q domain. This unstructured loop exposes to the solvent the acidic residue E933, which plays a key role in the α4β1 integrin mediated interaction. Here, we experimentally determined that the three E933 residues (one from each monomer) are all required for ligand binding...
October 14, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
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