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Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441683/cardiovascular-safety-of-prokinetic-agents-a-focus-on-drug-induced-arrhythmias
#1
REVIEW
J R Giudicessi, M J Ackerman, M Camilleri
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal sensorimotor dysfunction underlies a wide range of esophageal, gastric, and intestinal motility and functional disorders that collectively constitute nearly half of all referrals to gastroenterologists. As a result, substantial effort has been dedicated toward the development of prokinetic agents intended to augment or restore normal gastrointestinal motility. However, the use of several clinically efficacious gastroprokinetic agents, such as cisapride, domperidone, erythromycin, and tegaserod, is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular safety profiles, leading to restrictions in their use...
February 14, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441646/bis-p-hydroxyphenyl-pyridyl-2-methane-bhpm-the-active-metabolite-of-the-laxatives-bisacodyl-and-sodium-picosulfate-enhances-contractility-and-secretion-in-human-intestine-in-vitro
#2
D Krueger, I E Demir, G O Ceyhan, F Zeller, M Schemann
BACKGROUND: Stimulant laxatives are widely used to treat constipation. We investigated in human small and large intestinal preparations the effects of bis-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-pyridyl-2-methane (BHPM), the active metabolite of the laxatives bisacodyl and sodium picosulfate on smooth muscle tone and epithelial secretion. METHODS: Circular and longitudinal muscle tone of small or large intestinal preparations were recorded with isometric force transducers. Epithelial ion flux (I SC ) and tissue resistance was measured with Ussing chamber technique after apical and basolateral BHPM application to large intestinal mucosa/submucosa preparations...
February 14, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436142/the-effect-of-arabinoxylooligosaccharides-on-upper-gastroduodenal-motility-and-hunger-ratings-in-humans
#3
E Scarpellini, E Deloose, R Vos, I Francois, J A Delcour, W F Broekaert, K Verbeke, J Tack
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prebiotics such as Arabinoxylooligosaccharides (AXOS) are non-digestible, fermentable food ingredients stimulating growth/activity of colonic bacteria with enhanced carbohydrates fermentation (CF) in humans. The migrating motor complex (MMC) of the gastrointestinal tract has been recently identified as an important hunger signal, but no data are available yet on the role of acute CF on MMC activity and related hunger ratings. Thus, we aimed to study the effect of acute AXOS CF on MMC and hunger in humans...
February 13, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411918/esophageal-dysmotility-according-to-chicago-classification-v3-0-vs-v2-0-implications-for-association-with-reflux-bolus-clearance-and-allograft-failure-post-lung-transplantation
#4
A Tangaroonsanti, M F Vela, M D Crowell, K R DeVault, L A Houghton
BACKGROUND: Proximal reflux and incomplete transit of boluses swallowed are risk factors for obstructive chronic lung allograft dysfunction (o-CLAD) post-lung transplantation (LTx). Likewise, so is esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction (EGJOO), but not hypo-contractility, when diagnosed using Chicago Classification (CC) v3.0. Given, peristaltic breaks as defined using CCv2.0 can prolong esophageal clearance, both swallowed and refluxed, but which are deemed within normality using CCv3...
February 7, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411462/delayed-gastric-emptying-and-altered-antrum-protein-metabolism-during-activity-based-anorexia
#5
S Nobis, A Morin, N Achamrah, L Belmonte, R Legrand, P Chan, J-L do Rego, D Vaudry, G Gourcerol, P Déchelotte, A Goichon, M Coëffier
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa, a restrictive eating disorder, is often associated with gastrointestinal disorders, particularly a delayed gastric emptying. However, the mechanisms remained poorly documented. Thus, we aimed to evaluate gastric emptying and antrum protein metabolism in the Activity-Based Anorexia model (ABA). METHODS: Females C57Bl/6 mice were randomized into 3 groups: Control, ABA, and Limited Food Access (LFA). Food access has been progressively limited from 6 h/day at day 6 to 3 h/day at day 9 and until day 17...
February 6, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405492/effects-of-naloxegol-on-whole-gut-transit-in-opioid-na%C3%A3-ve-healthy-subjects-receiving-codeine-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
H Halawi, P Vijayvargiya, I Busciglio, I Oduyebo, D Khemani, M Ryks, D Rhoten, D Burton, L A Szarka, A Acosta, M Camilleri
BACKGROUND: Nausea, vomiting, and constipation (OIC) are common adverse effects of acute or chronic opioid use. Naloxegol (25 mg) is an approved peripherally active mu-opiate opioid receptor antagonist. AIM: To compare the effects on pan-gut transit of treatment with codeine, naloxegol, or combination in healthy volunteers. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center, parallel-group study in 72 healthy opioid-naïve adults, randomized to: codeine (30 mg q...
February 6, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392854/ghrelin-secretion-in-humans-a-role-for-the-vagus-nerve
#7
S Veedfald, A Plamboeck, B Hartmann, T Vilsbøll, F K Knop, C F Deacon, L B Svendsen, J J Holst
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, is secreted from endocrine cells in the gastric mucosa. Circulating levels rise in the preprandial phase, suggesting an anticipatory or cephalic phase of release, and decline in the postprandial phase, suggesting either the loss of a stimulatory factor or inhibition by factors released when nutrients enter the intestine. We hypothesized that vagal signals are not required for the (i) preprandial increase or (ii) postprandial suppression of ghrelin levels...
February 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392838/cortical-differences-in-diverticular-disease-and-correlation-with-symptom-reports
#8
A Pitiot, J K Smith, D J Humes, J Garratt, S T Francis, P A Gowland, R C Spiller, L Marciani
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that the brain of patients with gastrointestinal disease differ both structurally and functionally from that of controls. Highly somatizing diverticular disease (HSDD) patients were also shown to differ from low somatizing (LSDD) patients functionally. This study aimed to investigate how they differed structurally. METHODS: Four diseases subgroups were studied in a cross-sectional design: 20 patients with asymptomatic diverticular disease (ADD), 18 LSDD, 16 HSDD, and 18 with irritable bowel syndrome...
February 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392797/biogastronomy-factors-that-determine-the-biological-response-to-meal-ingestion
#9
REVIEW
T Pribic, F Azpiroz
BACKGROUND: The biological response to a meal includes physiological changes, primarily related to the digestive process, and a sensory experience, involving sensations related to the homeostatic control of food consumption, eg, satiety and fullness, with a hedonic dimension, ie associated with changes in digestive well-being and mood. The responses to a meal include a series of events before, during and after ingestion. While much attention has been paid to the events before and during ingestion, relatively little is known about the postprandial sensations, which are key to the gastronomical experience...
February 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392796/micro-inflammation-in-functional-dyspepsia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
L Du, B Chen, J J Kim, X Chen, N Dai
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a gastrointestinal disorder of unknown etiology. Although micro-inflammation appears to be important in the pathogenesis, studies evaluating immune activation in FD have been inconsistent. A systematic review of literature and meta-analysis was performed to compare immunologic cell counts and cytokine levels in the mucosa and peripheral blood of individuals with FD and healthy controls. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched. Data on immunologic cell counts and cytokines levels among individuals with FD and control groups were extracted and compared by calculating standard mean differences (SMD)...
February 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392784/acupuncture-for-patients-with-chronic-functional-constipation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
H Zheng, Z-S Liu, W Zhang, M Chen, F Zhong, X-H Jing, P-J Rong, W-Z Zhu, F-C Wang, Z-B Liu, C-Z Tang, S-J Wang, M-Q Zhou, Y Li, B Zhu
BACKGROUND: Acupuncture is used to treat chronic functional constipation (CFC) in China, despite limited evidence. We aim to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in managing CFC. METHODS: A multicenter randomized controlled trial was performed involving 684 patients with CFC; the patients were randomly allocated to receive He acupuncture (n = 172), Shu-mu acupuncture (n = 171), He-shu-mu acupuncture (n = 171), or oral administration of mosapride (n = 170)...
February 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383802/reversal-of-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-rat-by-menthacarin%C3%A2-a-proprietary-combination-of-essential-oils-from-peppermint-and-caraway-coincides-with-mycobiome-modulation
#12
S Botschuijver, O Welting, E Levin, D Maria-Ferreira, E Koch, R C Montijn, J Seppen, T B M Hakvoort, F H J Schuren, W J de Jonge, R M van den Wijngaard
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder associated with altered gastrointestinal microflora and increased nociception to colonic distension. This visceral hypersensitivity can be reversed in our rat maternal separation model by fungicides. Menthacarin® is a proprietary combination of essential oils from Mentha x piperita L. and Carum carvi. Because these oils exhibit antifungal and antibacterial properties, we investigated whether Menthacarin® can reverse existing visceral hypersensitivity in maternally separated rats...
January 31, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380480/recommendations-for-pharmacological-clinical-trials-in-children-with-functional-constipation-the-rome-foundation-pediatric-subcommittee-on-clinical-trials
#13
REVIEW
I J N Koppen, M Saps, J V Lavigne, S Nurko, J A J M Taminiau, C Di Lorenzo, M A Benninga
BACKGROUND: Evidence for the efficacy of commonly used drugs in the treatment of childhood functional constipation (FC) is scarce, studies are often of low quality and study designs are heterogeneous. Thus, recommendations for the design of clinical trials in childhood FC are needed. PURPOSE: Members of the Rome Foundation and a member of the Pediatric Committee of the European Medicines Agency formed a committee to create recommendations for the design of clinical trials in children with FC...
January 30, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377328/nitrergic-signaling-via-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-and-smooth-muscle-cells-influences-circular-smooth-muscle-contractility-in-murine-colon
#14
K Beck, A Friebe, B Voussen
BACKGROUND: Regulation of gastrointestinal motility involves excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Nitric oxide (NO), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter, acts via its receptor NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC). In the GI tract, NO-GC is expressed in several cell types such as smooth muscle cells (SMC) and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Using cell-specific knockout mice, we have previously shown that NO-GC modulates spontaneous contractions in colonic longitudinal smooth muscle...
January 29, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368366/in-ineffective-esophageal-motility-failed-swallows-are-more-functionally-relevant-than-weak-swallows
#15
A Jain, J R Baker, J W Chen
BACKGROUND: Esophageal pressure topography (EPT) diagnosis of ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) can be non-specific with unclear clinical significance. AIMS: To determine whether peristaltic vigor or lower esophageal sphincter (LES) integrity is associated with poor clearance and acid reflux in IEM. METHODS: Bolus clearance on high-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) and available reflux studies in patients with IEM were retrospectively reviewed...
January 24, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356303/rapid-drink-challenge-test-during-esophageal-high-resolution-manometry-in-patients-with-esophago-gastric-junction-outflow-obstruction
#16
D Biasutto, F Mion, A Garros, S Roman
BACKGROUND: Esophago-gastric junction (EGJ) outflow obstruction is of unclear significance. Rapid drink challenge (RDC) test is easy to perform during esophageal high resolution manometry. We aimed to assess the yield of RDC test in patients with EGJ outflow obstruction. METHODS: Manometry studies of patients with EGJ outflow obstruction according to the Chicago Classification v3.0 were retrospectively reviewed. Pan-esophageal pressurization (PEP), esophageal shortening, and pressure gradient across the EGJ were analyzed during RDC test (200-mL free drinking in sitting position) and compared according to the causes of EGJ outflow obstruction determined by charts review...
January 22, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345401/are-characteristics-of-abdominal-pain-helpful-to-identify-patients-with-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-results-of-a-prospective-study
#17
C Melchior, L Bril, A-M Leroi, G Gourcerol, P Ducrotté
BACKGROUND: Some consider that patients with visceral hypersensitivity may represent a separate entity within the IBS population not only from a pathophysiological but also from a clinical perspective. The aim of this prospective exploratory study was to assess whether characteristics of abdominal pain in IBS patients could be suggestive of hypersensitivity. METHODS: This prospective study included consecutive IBS patients selected by Rome III criteria. Validated scores (IBS-SSS, Bristol stool scale, HADS) were used to phenotype patients who were also asked to describe the main location of their abdominal pain on a simple image (abdomen divided into 6 zones)...
January 18, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345097/the-diagnostic-value-of-the-functional-lumen-imaging-probe-versus-high-resolution-anorectal-manometry-in-patients-with-fecal-incontinence
#18
A M Leroi, C Melchior, C Charpentier, V Bridoux, C Savoye-Collet, E Houivet, P Ducrotté, G Gourcerol
BACKGROUND: The functional lumen imaging probe (EndoFLIP® ) is a new technology that measures the distensibility of the anal canal represented by the anal distensibility index. The aims of this study were (i) to compare the anal distensibility index to anal pressure in a cohort of patients with fecal incontinence (FI) and (ii) to compare the diagnostic value of the EndoFLIP® to that of high-resolution anorectal manometry (HRAM) in the same cohort of patients. METHODS: Eighty-three consecutive patients with FI who underwent EndoFLIP® and HRAM assessments were enrolled...
January 18, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345029/high-prevalence-and-functional-effects-of-serum-antineuronal-antibodies-in-patients-with-gastrointestinal-disorders
#19
A Lütt, K Michel, D Krüger, M S Volz, M Nassir, E Schulz, L Poralla, P Tangermann, C Bojarski, M Höltje, B Teegen, W Stöcker, M Schemann, B Siegmund, H Prüss
BACKGROUND: Antineuronal antibodies can be associated with both gastrointestinal (GI) and brain disorders. For example, antibodies against the potassium channel subunit dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DPPX) bind to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and myenteric plexus and cause encephalitis, commonly preceded by severe unspecific GI symptoms. We therefore investigated the prevalence of antineuronal antibodies indicative of treatable autoimmune CNS etiologies in GI patients...
January 18, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327435/impact-of-dietary-induced-precocious-gut-maturation-on-cecal-microbiota-and-its-relation-to-the-blood-brain-barrier-during-the-postnatal-period-in-rats
#20
N Marungruang, E Arévalo Sureda, A Lefrançoise, B Weström, M Nyman, O Prykhodko, F Fåk Hållenius
BACKGROUND: Precocious maturation of the gastrointestinal barrier (GIB) in newborn mammals can be induced by dietary provocation, but how this affects the gut microbiota and the gut-brain axis remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of induced GIB maturation on gut microbiota composition and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. METHODS: Suckling rats were studied at 72 h after gavage with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or microbial protease (PT) to induce maturation of GIB...
January 12, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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