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Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989262/rapid-drinking-challenge-during-high-resolution-manometry-is-complementary-to-timed-barium-esophagogram-for-diagnosis-and-follow-up-of-achalasia
#1
F A Ponds, J M Oors, A J P M Smout, A J Bredenoord
BACKGROUND: Esophageal stasis is a hallmark of achalasia. Timed barium esophagogram (TBE) is used to measure stasis but exposes patients to ionizing radiation. It is suggested that esophageal stasis can be objectified on high-resolution manometry (HRM) as well using a rapid drinking challenge test (RDC). We aimed to assess esophageal stasis in achalasia by a RDC during HRM and compare this to TBE. METHODS: Thirty healthy subjects (15 male, age 40 [IQR 34-49]) and 90 achalasia patients (53 male, age 47 [36-59], 30 untreated/30 treated symptomatic/30 treated asymptomatic) were prospectively included to undergo HRM with RDC and TBE...
July 10, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29971879/technical-report-inter-and-intra-rater-reliability-of-regional-gastrointestinal-transit-times-measured-using-the-3d-transit-electromagnet-tracking-system
#2
G K Kalsi, D Grønlund, J Martin, A M Drewes, S M Scott, M J Birch
BACKGROUND: The 3D-Transit electromagnet tracking system is an emerging tool for the ambulatory assessment of gastrointestinal (GI) transit times and motility patterns, based on the anatomical localization of ingestible electromagnetic capsules. Currently, 3D-Transit recordings are manually analyzed to extract GI transit times. As this is a subjective method, there is some inherent variability in the measurements, which may be experience-dependent. We therefore assessed inter- and intra-rater reliability of GI transit times from 3D-Transit recordings...
July 4, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29971865/preclinical-evaluation-of-the-effects-on-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-the-antineoplastic-drug-vincristine-repeatedly-administered-to-rats
#3
L López-Gómez, S Díaz-Ruano, R Girón, A E López-Pérez, G Vera, E Herradón Pliego, V López-Miranda, K Nurgali, M I Martín-Fontelles, J A Uranga, R Abalo
BACKGROUND: Vincristine is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. It is associated with undesirable digestive side effects. However, the impact of vincristine on gastrointestinal structure and motility or its long-term effects have not been deeply studied in animal models. This could be useful in order to develop therapeutic or preventive strategies for cancer patients. The aim of this study was to analyze such effects. METHODS: Rats received saline or vincristine (0...
July 4, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29971861/trpm8-asic1-and-asic3-localization-and-expression-in-the-human-oropharynx
#4
D Alvarez-Berdugo, L Rofes, J F Casamitjana, A Enrique, J Chamizo, C Viña, C M Pollán, P Clavé
BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a prevalent disease with poor prognosis among older people and has no pharmacological treatment. Polymodal sensory receptors like the TRP or ASIC family receptors are potential targets to treat OD. TRPM8 agonists and acidic solutions can improve the swallow response in patients with OD, but little is known about the expression of TRPM8, ASIC1, and ASIC3 in the human oropharynx. The aim of this study was to assess the expression and localization of TRPM8, ASIC1, and ASIC3 in human samples of the oropharynx to lay the basis for new pharmacological treatments for OD...
July 4, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29971854/corticotrophin-releasing-factor-mediated-effects-of-da-9701-in-postoperative-ileus-guinea-pig-model
#5
S Y Jo, Z Hussain, Y J Lee, H Park
BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus (POI) is abdominal surgery-induced impaired gastrointestinal (GI) motility. We aimed to investigate the effects of DA-9701, a prokinetic agent formulated from Pharbitis Semen and Corydalis tuber, likely mediated via corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) pathways, in a POI model. METHODS: A laparotomy with cecal manipulation was performed to induce POI in guinea pigs. GI transit was measured based on charcoal migration after intragastric administration of DA-9701 1, 3, and 10 mg kg-1 ...
July 4, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29971850/a-new-understanding-of-the-physiology-and-pathophysiology-of-colonic-motility
#6
REVIEW
P G Dinning
BACKGROUND: In recent years, high-resolution manometry has been used in an attempt to gain a greater insight into the physiology/pathophysiology of colonic contractile activity in healthy adults and patients with colonic motility disorders. New colonic motor patterns have been identified and characterized, however, the clinical significance of these findings remains undetermined. PURPOSE: This review will assess the current literature on colonic high-resolution manometry and determine if this procedure has advanced our understanding of colonic motility...
July 4, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968270/targeting-eotaxin-1-and-ccr3-receptor-alleviates-enteric-neuropathy-and-colonic-dysfunction-in-tnbs-induced-colitis-in-guinea-pigs
#7
R T Filippone, A M Robinson, V Jovanovska, R Stavely, V Apostolopoulos, J C Bornstein, K Nurgali
BACKGROUND: The accumulation of eosinophils is mediated by the chemokine receptor-3 (CCR3)-eotaxin axis. Increased expression of eotaxin and its receptor is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Activation of eosinophils causes the release of cationic proteins that are neurotoxic such as eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). Damage to enteric neurons alters neurally controlled functions of the gut correlated with intestinal inflammation. We hypothesized that inhibition of the CCR3-eotaxin axis will prevent inflammation-induced functional changes to the gastrointestinal tract...
July 3, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956861/swallow-strength-training-exercise-for-elderly-a-health-maintenance-need
#8
D Agrawal, M Kern, F Edeani, G Balasubramanian, A Hyngstrom, P Sanvanson, R Shaker
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown high prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia associated with frailty- and age-related muscle weakness. Strength training exercises have been advocated for locomotive health maintenance in the elderly and have shown positive outcomes. As muscles involved in oropharyngeal phase of swallowing are also comprised of striated muscles, the aim of this study was to determine biomechanical effect of a novel resistance exercise program, Swallowing Against Laryngeal Restriction (SALR), on pharyngeal phase swallowing in the healthy elderly...
June 29, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956419/escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-restores-epithelial-permeability-alterations-induced-by-irritable-bowel-syndrome-mediators
#9
M R Barbaro, D Fuschi, C Cremon, M Carapelle, P Dino, M M Marcellini, G Dothel, F De Ponti, V Stanghellini, G Barbara
BACKGROUND: Intestinal permeability is altered in a subgroup of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and may contribute to symptom development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) on Caco-2 permeability alterations induced by mediators released by IBS mucosal biopsies compared to asymptomatic controls (AC). METHODS: Caco-2 cells were used as an in vitro model of intestinal permeability...
June 28, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956418/the-biology-first-hypothesis-functional-disorders-may-begin-and-end-with-biology-a-scoping-review
#10
P Enck, N Mazurak
While it is generally accepted that gastrointestinal infections can cause functional disturbances in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract-known as postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) and functional dyspepsia (PI-FD)-it has still not been widely recognized that such an infection can also initiate functional non-intestinal diseases, and that non-intestinal infections can provoke both intestinal and non-intestinal functional disturbances. We conducted a scoping review of the respective literature and-on the basis of these data-hypothesize that medically unexplained functional symptoms and syndromes following an infection may have a biological (genetic, endocrine, microbiological) origin, and that psychological and social factors, which may contribute to the disease "phenotype," are secondary to this biological cause...
June 28, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956417/rasagiline-an-inhibitor-of-mao-b-decreases-colonic-motility-through-elevating-colonic-dopamine-content
#11
C-Z Liu, X-L Zhang, L Zhou, T Wang, Z-S Quan, Y Zhang, J Li, G-W Li, L-F Zheng, L-S Li, J-X Zhu
BACKGROUND: Dopamine (DA) is a negative modulator of gut motility. Monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) is an important metabolic enzyme degrading DA. Rasagiline, an irreversible MAO-B inhibitor, is used to treat Parkinson's disease because of its neuroprotective effect and increasing central DA. However, it is unclear whether MAO-B exists in the colon and rasagiline increases colonic DA, thereby affecting colonic motility. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry, western blotting, enzyme activity assay, colonic motility recording, gut transit test, and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection were employed in this study...
June 28, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856118/emotional-overactivity-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#12
A Fournier, L Mondillon, C Dantzer, A-S Gauchez, V Ducros, N Mathieu, P Faure, F Canini, B Bonaz, S Pellissier
BACKGROUND: Negativity is often observed in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). No study has examined their emotional expressiveness as a marker of emotional reactivity. We investigated IBS patients' vulnerability to an emotional load by associating their expressiveness with psychological and neurophysiological assessments. We hypothesized that IBS would be characterized by a lack of expressiveness coupled with high scores in psychological and neurophysiological parameters. METHODS: We assessed the emotional facial expressions (EMFACS), psychological (anxiety, depression, alexithymia), and neurophysiological (cortisol, heart rate variability (HRV)) parameters of 25 IBS patients and 26 healthy controls (HC) while they watched fear-eliciting movie extracts...
June 1, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856107/long-term-outcome-of-anorectal-biofeedback-for-treatment-of-fecal-incontinence
#13
Y Mazor, A Ejova, A Andrews, M Jones, J Kellow, A Malcolm
BACKGROUND: Long-term outcome data for anorectal biofeedback (BF) for fecal incontinence (FI) is scarce. Our aims were to describe the long-term symptom profile, quality of life, and need for surgery in FI patients following BF. METHODS: One hundred and eight consecutive female patients with FI who completed an instrumented BF course were identified for long-term follow-up. In 61 of 89 contactable patients, outcome measures were assessed at short-term (end of BF), mid-term (9 months median), and long-term (7 years median) follow-up after treatment...
June 1, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856105/chicago-classification-normative-metrics-in-a-healthy-indian-cohort-for-a-16-channel-water-perfused-high-resolution-esophageal-manometry-system
#14
M Srinivas, M Jain, P Bawane, V Jayanthi
BACKGROUND: High-resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) interpretation by the Chicago Classification (CC) derives its normal values from western volunteers using solid-state catheters. There is no normative data for the 16-channel water-perfused HREM system commonly used in India. AIMS: To determine normal values for a 16-channel water-perfused HREM catheter in supine posture using healthy volunteers and substitute these normal values (if different from CC values) in the CC v3...
June 1, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856103/a-pharmacological-challenge-predicts-reversible-rectal-sensorimotor-dysfunctions-in-women-with-fecal-incontinence
#15
M Sharma, K Feuerhak, A R Zinsmeister, A E Bharucha
BACKGROUND: In order to understand the pathophysiology of rectal sensorimotor dysfunctions in women with fecal incontinence (FI) and rectal urgency, we evaluated the effects of a muscarinic antagonist and an adrenergic α2 agonist on these parameters. METHODS: Firstly, rectal distensibility and sensation were evaluated with a barostat and sinusoidal oscillation at baseline and after randomization to intravenous saline or atropine in 16 healthy controls and 44 FI patients...
June 1, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856100/neither-self-reported-atopy-nor-ige-mediated-allergy-are-linked-to-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
S Nybacka, L Öhman, S Störsrud, M Mybeck, L Böhn, K Wilpart, A Winkvist, U Bengtsson, H Törnblom, M Simrén
BACKGROUND: Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), atopic disease has been proposed as a common comorbidity increasing the IBS symptom burden. We therefore assessed the prevalence of self-reported atopy among patients with IBS as compared to non-IBS controls, and whether atopy and higher serum IgE levels were associated with increased IBS symptom severity. METHODS: Levels of total and specific IgE in serum were measured and questionnaires assessing the presence of atopic disease (ie, eczema, asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and pollen allergy), gastrointestinal symptom burden, food intolerance, somatic, and psychological symptoms were completed...
June 1, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856098/cold-thermal-oral-stimulation-produces-immediate-excitability-in-human-pharyngeal-motor-cortex
#17
J Magara, M Watanabe, T Tsujimura, S Hamdy, M Inoue
BACKGROUND: Current strategies of swallowing therapy include facilitation of swallowing initiation by sensory modulation. Although thermal tactile oral stimulation is a common method to treat dysphagic patients to improve swallowing movement, little is known about the possible mechanisms. This study is aimed to investigate whether thermal oral (tongue) stimulation can modulate the cortico-pharyngeal neural motor pathway in humans. METHODS: Eighteen healthy volunteers participated and were intubated with an intraluminal catheter for recording pharyngeal electromyography...
June 1, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856090/electroacupuncture-via-chronically-implanted-electrodes-improves-gastric-dysmotility-mediated-by-autonomic-cholinergic-mechanisms-in-a-rodent-model-of-functional-dyspepsia
#18
S Zhang, S Li, Y Liu, F Ye, J Yin, R D Foreman, D Wang, J D Z Chen
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) has been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). However, its mechanisms remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate mechanisms of the prokinetic effects of EA in a rodent model of FD. METHODS: A FD model was established by neonatal treatment of iodoacetamide (IA). Eight weeks later, the rats were implanted with electrodes in the stomach for the measurement of gastric slow waves (GSW) and electrodes into acupoints ST36 for EA...
June 1, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797467/the-critical-importance-of-pharyngeal-contractile-forces-on-the-validity-of-intrabolus-pressure-as-a-predictor-of-impaired-pharyngo-esophageal-junction-compliance
#19
M M Szczesniak, P I Wu, J Maclean, T I Omari, I J Cook
INTRODUCTION: Restrictive defects of the pharyngo-esophageal junction (PEJ) are common in both structural and neurological disorders and are amenable to therapies aiming to reduce outflow resistance. Intrabolus pressure (IBP) acquired with high-resolution manometry and impedance (HRMI) is an indicator of resistance and a marker of reduced PEJ compliance. Constraints and limitations of IBP as well as the optimal IBP parameter remain undefined. AIMS: To determine: (i) the impact of peak pharyngeal pressure (PeakP) on the diagnostic accuracy of IBP for the detection of a restrictive defect at the PEJ and (ii) the optimal IBP parameter for this purpose...
May 24, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797382/systemic-cytokines-are-elevated-in-a-subset-of-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-but-largely-unrelated-to-symptom-characteristics
#20
S M P Bennet, O Palsson, W E Whitehead, D A Barrow, H Törnblom, L Öhman, M Simrén, M A L van Tilburg
BACKGROUND: Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines tend to be increased in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients, or subgroups thereof. Still, the link between cytokine levels and IBS symptoms is unclear. We aim to determine systemic cytokine levels in IBS patients and healthy subjects (HS), confirm the presence of a subset of patients with an increased immune activity and to establish if cytokines are linked to IBS symptoms and pathophysiological factors. METHODS: Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and IL-10 were measured...
May 24, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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