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Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407703/upregulation-of-intestinal-mucosal-mast-cells-expressing-vpac1-in-close-proximity-to-vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-murine-colitis
#1
Maite Casado-Bedmar, Stéphanie D S Heil, Pär Myrelid, Johan D Söderholm, Åsa V Keita
BACKGROUND: Mast cells (MCs) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) have been proposed as regulators of the intestinal barrier and inflammation. Our aim was to map the distribution in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and murine colitis. METHODS: MCs, VIP, and VIP-receptors (VPACs) were quantified by immunofluorescence and enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) in ileal tissues (villus epithelium (VE) and adjacent VE, ie, VE next to the follicle-associated epithelium, (FAE)) from Crohn's disease (CD; n = 16) and non-IBD patients, and in colonic specimens of ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 12) and healthy controls (HCs)...
November 8, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407694/detecting-the-effects-of-a-standardized-meal-challenge-on-small-bowel-motility-with-mri-in-prepared-and-unprepared-bowel
#2
Catharina S de Jonge, Alex Menys, Kyra L van Rijn, Arjan J Bredenoord, Aart J Nederveen, Jaap Stoker
OBJECTIVE: MRI is increasingly used to evaluate small bowel contractility. The objective of this study was to validate a clinically practical stimulation test (300-kcal meal) for small bowel motility. METHODS: Thirty-one healthy subjects underwent dynamic MRI to capture global small bowel motility after ±10h fasting, of which 15 underwent bowel preparation consisting of 1 L 2.5% mannitol solution and 16 did not. Each subject underwent (1) a baseline motility scan (2) a food challenge (3) a post-challenge scan, and (4) second post-challenge scan (after ±20 minutes)...
November 8, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406957/non-invasive-transcutaneous-auricular-vagus-nerve-stimulation-prevents-postoperative-ileus-and-endotoxemia-in-mice
#3
Gun-Soo Hong, Anne Zillekens, Bianca Schneiker, Dimitrios Pantelis, Wouter de Jonge, Nico Schaefer, Joerg C Kalff, Sven Wehner
BACKGROUND: The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway comprises the perception of peripheral inflammation by afferent sensory neurons and reflex activation of efferent vagus nerve activity to regulate inflammation. Activation of this pathway was shown to reduce the inflammatory response and improve outcome of postoperative ileus (POI) and sepsis in rodents. Herein, we tested if a non-invasive auricular electrical transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) affects inflammation in models of POI or endotoxemia...
November 8, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402956/alterations-of-colonic-sensitivity-and-gastric-dysmotility-after-acute-cisplatin-and-granisetron
#4
Marta Martín-Ruíz, José A Uranga, Paula Mosinska, Jakub Fichna, Kulmira Nurgali, Mª Isabel Martín-Fontelles, Raquel Abalo
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is a highly emetogenic antineoplastic drug and induces peripheral neuropathy when given in cycles. Granisetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, is clinically used to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea/emesis and abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome. The effects of cisplatin on visceral sensitivity and those of granisetron in the context of cancer chemotherapy are not well known. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats received two intraperitoneal injections 30 minutes apart: granisetron (1 mg kg-1 )/vehicle and cisplatin (6 mg kg-1 )/vehicle...
November 6, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394002/potentiation-of-serotonin-signaling-protects-against-intestinal-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#5
John J Tackett, Neeru Gandotra, Michaela C Bamdad, Eleanor D Muise, Robert A Cowles
BACKGROUND: Knock-out of serotonin re-uptake transporters (SERT) or use of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) potentiates enteric serotonin (5-HT) signaling and stimulates enterocyte proliferation. We hypothesized that increased serotonin signaling would mitigate epithelial injury from intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). METHODS: Mice lacking SERT (SERTKO mice) and wild-type littermates (WTLM) were subjected to intestinal ischemia by superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion...
November 4, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393978/repeatability-and-effect-of-blinding-of-fructose-breath-tests-in-patients-with-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#6
Clive H Wilder-Smith, Søren S Olesen, Andrea Materna, Asbjørn M Drewes
BACKGROUND: Breath tests are used as measures of sugar intolerance or malabsorption in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), although the repeatability or anticipatory bias have not been adequately studied. We examined the repeatability and anticipatory bias during fructose breath testing using a nocebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over, and double-blind study design. METHODS: Gastrointestinal symptoms and breath concentrations of hydrogen and methane were documented during breath tests with fructose (given open twice and blinded once), water (blind neutral nocebo) and a cyclamate/saccharine sweetener (blind sweet nocebo) on 5 days in patients with FGID...
November 4, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393939/development-of-a-real-time-patient-reported-outcome-measure-for-symptom-assessment-in-patients-with-functional-dyspepsia-using-the-experience-sampling-method
#7
Fabiënne G M Smeets, Daniel Keszthelyi, Lisa Vork, Jan Tack, Nicholas J Talley, Magnus Simren, Qasim Aziz, Alexander C Ford, José M Conchillo, Joanna W Kruimel, Jim Van Os, Ad A M Masclee
BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are used to assess symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). Current end-of-day questionnaires have several limitations including sensitivity to recall and ecological bias. The experience sampling method (ESM) is characterized by random and repeated assessments across momentary states in daily life and therefore less sensitive to these limitations. This study describes the development of a novel PROM based on ESM technology...
November 4, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393924/subgroups-of-ibs-patients-are-characterized-by-specific-reproducible-profiles-of-gi-and-non-gi-symptoms-and-report-differences-in-healthcare-utilization-a-population-based-study
#8
Annikka V Polster, Olafur S Palsson, Hans Törnblom, Lena Öhman, Ami D Sperber, William E Whitehead, Magnus Simrén
BACKGROUND: In a previous clinical sample of IBS patients, subgroups characterized by profiles of GI and non-GI symptoms were identified. We aimed to replicate these subgroups and symptom associations in participants fulfilling IBS diagnostic criteria from a population-based study and relate them to healthcare utilization. METHODS: An Internet-based health survey was completed by general population adults from United States, Canada, and UK. Respondents fulfilling IBS diagnosis (Rome III and IV) were analyzed for latent subgroups using Gaussian mixture model analysis...
November 4, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393913/targeting-epigenetic-mechanisms-for-chronic-visceral-pain-a-valid-approach-for-the-development-of-novel-therapeutics
#9
REVIEW
Tijs Louwies, Casey O Ligon, Anthony C Johnson, Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld
BACKGROUND: Chronic visceral pain is persistent pain emanating from thoracic, pelvic, or abdominal origin that is poorly localized with regard to the specific organ affected. The prevalence can range up to 25% in the adult population as chronic visceral pain is a common feature of many visceral disorders, which may or may not be accompanied by distinct structural or histological abnormalities within the visceral organs. Mounting evidence suggests that changes in epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the top-down or bottom-up sensitization of pain pathways and the development of chronic pain...
November 4, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393912/muscarinic-m2-receptor-mediated-actin-polymerization-via-pi3-kinase-%C3%AE-and-integrin-linked-kinase-in-gastric-smooth-muscle
#10
Sunila Mahavadi, John R Grider, Karnam S Murthy
BACKGROUND: Actin polymerization plays an important role in smooth muscle contraction. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) was shown to mediate actin polymerization in airway smooth muscle. The role of ILK in actin polymerization in response to m2 receptor activation was not in gastric smooth muscle. METHODS: Phosphorylation of paxillin, neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASp), and association of paxillin with GEF proteins (Cool2/αPix [Cool2/PAK-interacting exchange factor alpha], Cool1/βPix [Cool1/PAK-interacting exchange factor beta], and DOCK 180 [Dedicator of cytokinesis]) and N-WASp with Arp2/3 complex were measured by western blot...
November 4, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30353623/linaclotide-increases-cecal-ph-accelerates-colonic-transit-and-increases-colonic-motility-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-constipation
#11
Adam D Farmer, James K Ruffle, Anthony R Hobson
BACKGROUND: Linaclotide is efficacious in the management of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C), yet relatively little is known regarding its effect on human gastrointestinal physiology. The primary aim of the study was to examine the effect of linaclotide on change in pH across the ileocecal junction (ICJ), a proposed measure of cecal fermentation, and its relationship to symptoms and quality of life (QoL) in IBS-C. METHODS: A total of 13 participants with Rome III IBS-C underwent a standardized wireless motility capsule (WMC)...
October 23, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30353619/high-dose-linaclotide-is-effective-and-safe-in-patients-with-chronic-constipation-a-phase-iii-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study-with-a-long-term-open-label-extension-study-in-japan
#12
Shin Fukudo, Hiroto Miwa, Atsushi Nakajima, Yoshikazu Kinoshita, Masanori Kosako, Kenta Hayashi, Hiraku Akiho, Kentaro Kuroishi, Jeffrey M Johnston, Mark Currie, Toshifumi Ohkusa
BACKGROUND: A previous phase II dose-ranging study of linaclotide in a Japanese chronic constipation (CC) population showed that 0.5 mg was the most effective dose. This study aimed to verify the hypothesis that 0.5 mg of linaclotide is effective and safe in Japanese CC patients. METHODS: This was a Japanese phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled (part 1), and long-term, open-label extension (part 2) study of linaclotide. CC patients (n = 186) diagnosed using the Rome III criteria were randomly assigned to linaclotide 0...
October 23, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334342/vasopressin-augments-tnbs-induced-colitis-through-enteric-neuronal-v-1a-receptor-mediated-cox-2-dependent-prostaglandin-release-from-mast-cells-in-mice
#13
Dandan Dou, Lixin Chen, Hong Di, Zhuoran Song, Shirui Li, Xinjie Bu, Qing Dai, Shuai Wang, Jing Xin Li, Xiaolong Zhu, Haiyan Jing
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a functional disorder with chronic and relapsing clinical features. Vasopressin (VP) is a hormone responsible for water and stress homeostasis and also regulates gastrointestinal inflammation and motility. We explored whether VP was related to IBD pathogenesis and its possible pathway. METHODS: Colitis was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in mice. The disease activity and colonic damage were evaluated through a scoring system...
October 18, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324641/bolus-volume-and-viscosity-effects-on-pharyngeal-swallowing-power-how-physiological-bolus-accommodation-affects-bolus-dynamics
#14
Isaac Sia, Michael A Crary, John Kairalla, Giselle D Carnaby, Mark Sheplak, Timothy McCulloch
BACKGROUND: Pharyngeal swallowing power (PSP) is a novel measure of pharyngeal bolus-driving function derived from fluid dynamics principles. This study examined the impact of bolus volume and viscosity on PSP to determine bolus effects on pharyngeal bolus dynamics. The impact of bolus accommodation and physical characteristics of boluses were also explored. METHODS: Thirty-four healthy subjects swallowed materials consisting of two bolus volumes (10 and 20 mL) and four bolus viscosities (thin liquid, nectar-thick liquid, honey-thick liquid and pudding)...
October 15, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311722/enteric-ret-inhibition-attenuates-gastrointestinal-secretion-and-motility-via-cholinergic-signaling-in-rat-colonic-mucosal-preparations
#15
John P Russell, Ehsan Mohammadi, Casey Ligon, Rocco Latorre, Anthony C Johnson, Bao Hoang, David Krull, Melisa W-Y Ho, Hilary S Eidam, Michael P DeMartino, Mui Cheung, Allen I Oliff, Sanjay Kumar, Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld
BACKGROUND: The expression of RET in the developing enteric nervous system (ENS) suggests that RET may contribute to adult intestinal function. ENS cholinergic nerves play a critical role in the control of colonic function through the release of acetylcholine (ACh). In the current study, we hypothesized that a RET-mediated mechanism may regulate colonic ion transport and motility through modulation of cholinergic nerves. METHODS: The effect of RET inhibition on active ion transport was assessed electrophysiologically in rat colonic tissue mounted in Ussing chambers via measurements of short circuit current (Isc) upon electrical field stimulation (EFS) or pharmacologically with cholinergic agonists utilizing a gastrointestinal (GI)-restricted RET inhibitor...
October 12, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303298/effects-of-exendin-4-on-colonic-motility-in-rats-and-its-underlying-mechanism
#16
Lin Yan, Qincai Tang, Xiaojing Quan, Haixia Ren, Wei Chen, Hong Xia, Hesheng Luo
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonists modulate gastrointestinal motility; however, the effects of GLP-1R agonists on colonic motility are still controversial, and the molecular mechanism is unclear. Exendin-4 shares 53% homology with GLP-1 and is a full agonist of GLP-1R. In this study, our aims were to explore the role and mechanism of exendin-4 in isolated rat colonic tissues and cells. METHODS: An organ bath system was used to examine the spontaneous contractions of smooth muscle strips...
October 10, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298965/brain-corticotropin-releasing-factor-signaling-involvement-in-acute-stress-induced-visceral-pain-in-male-rats
#17
Muriel Larauche, Nabila Moussaoui, Mandy Biraud, Won Ki Bae, Henri Duboc, Mulugeta Million, Yvette Taché
BACKGROUND: Water avoidance stress (WAS) induces a naloxone-independent visceral analgesia in male rats under non-invasive conditions of monitoring. The objective of the study was to examine the role of brain CRF signaling in acute stress-induced visceral analgesia (SIVA). METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically implanted with an intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula. The visceromotor response (VMR) to graded phasic colorectal distension (CRD: 10, 20, 40, 60 mm Hg, 20 seconds, 4 minutes intervals) was monitored using manometry...
October 9, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298964/transcutaneous-electrical-acustimulation-synchronized-with-inspiration-improves-gastric-accommodation-impaired-by-cold-stress-in-healthy-subjects
#18
Gang Ma, Pingping Hu, Bo Zhang, Feng Xu, Jieyun Yin, Xiaozhong Yang, Lin Lin, Jiande D Z Chen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether transcutaneous electrical acustimulation (TEA) synchronized with inspiration (STEA), a method known to enhance vagal activity, was more effective than TEA in improving cold stress-induced impairment in gastric accommodation (GA) and dyspeptic symptoms in healthy subjects. METHODS: Each of fifteen healthy subjects was studied in five randomized sessions: control (warm nutrient liquid), cold nutrient liquid (CNL), CNL+sham-TEA, CNL+TEA, and CNL+STEA...
October 9, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298961/evidence-of-increased-fecal-granins-in-children-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-correlates-with-symptoms
#19
Robert J Shulman, Lena Öhman, Mats Stridsberg, Kevin Cain, Magnus Simrén, Margaret Heitkemper
BACKGROUND: Granins have been implicated in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults. We sought to determine whether fecal granins are altered in children with IBS and associated with symptoms. METHODS: Children (7-12 years of age) with IBS and healthy controls (HC) kept daily pain and stool diaries for 2 weeks. Stool samples were analyzed for chromogranins A and B (CgA, CgB) and secretogranins II and III (SgII, SgIII). Children also completed psychological measures to assess anxiety, depression, somatization, and internalizing symptoms...
October 9, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298607/necrotizing-enterocolitis-attenuates-developmental-heart-rate-variability-increases-in-newborn-rats
#20
Alissa L Meister, Kim K Doheny, R Alberto Travagli
BACKGROUND: We have shown previously that a decreased high-frequency spectrum of heart rate variability (HF-HRV), indicative of reduced vagal tone, shows promise in predicting neonates likely to develop necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) before its clinical onset. We hypothesized that NEC induction in rat pups decreases HF-HRV power; subdiaphragmatic vagotomy worsens the severity of the NEC phenotype, increases levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and alters the myenteric phenotype. METHODS: Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats, representative of preterm human neonates, were subjected to 7-8 days of brief periods of cold stress and hypoxia to induce NEC with or without unilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy...
October 8, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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