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Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232834/exercise-therapy-of-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#1
Changli Zhou, Enfa Zhao, Yuewei Li, Yong Jia, Feng Li
BACKGROUND: As drug use has limitations in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), increasing attention is being paid to nondrug therapies and complementary treatments, especially exercise. It is known that bowel movements are more frequent and colon transit is more rapid in physically active individuals than in sedentary individuals. However, the effects of exercise on IBS are unclear. PURPOSE: We conducted a systematic review to assess the effects of exercise on IBS...
September 19, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30230133/hydrogen-sulfide-downregulates-colonic-afferent-sensitivity-by-a-nitric-oxide-synthase-dependent-mechanism-in-mice
#2
Xiaomeng Xu, Shuang Li, Yao Shi, Yan Tang, Wen Lu, Ting Han, Bing Xue, Jingxin Li, Chuanyong Liu
BACKGROUND: The effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) on visceral nociception is elusive. The conflicting evidence of its pro- and antinociceptive effects raises a series of questions with respect to the effect of H2 S on colonic afferent activity and the underlying mechanism, which was further elucidated in this study. METHODS: Colonic mesenteric afferent nerve spikes of normal male C57BL/6J mice, Cbs+/- mice, and Wistar rats were recorded in vitro. The abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) induced by colorectal distension (CRD) was evaluated in Cbs+/- mice and WT littermates...
September 19, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30230124/intestinal-involvement-in-amyloidosis-is-a-sequential-process
#3
Marjanne den Braber-Ymker, Sanneke Heijker, Martin Lammens, Sandra Croockewit, Iris D Nagtegaal
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal amyloidosis causes dysmotility. A comprehensive histological analysis to explain these symptoms is lacking. Therefore, we systematically examined histological features of intestinal dysmotility in patients with AL and AA amyloidosis, compared to controls. METHODS: Autopsy tissue material from small bowel and colon was used for histological (semiquantitative) evaluation of the mucosa, blood vessels, muscular layers, enteric nervous system (ENS) and the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), using hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid Schiff, Elastic von Gieson and Congo red staining, and immunohistochemistry with α-smooth muscle actin, HuC/D, S100 and CD117 antibodies, according to guidelines of the Gastro 2009 International Working Group...
September 19, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30230099/cine-mri-assessment-of-motility-in-the-unprepared-small-bowel-in-the-fasting-and-fed-state-beyond-the-breath-hold
#4
Asseel Khalaf, Adam Nowak, Alex Menys, Luca Marciani, Stuart A Taylor, Robin C Spiller, Penny A Gowland, Gordon W Moran, Caroline L Hoad
BACKGROUND: The symptoms of functional bowel disorders are common in postprandial but investigations are generally undertaken in the fasted state using invasive procedures. MRI provides a noninvasive tool to study the gastrointestinal tract in an unperturbed, fed state. The aim of this study was to develop a technique to assess small bowel motility from cine MRI data in the unprepared bowel in fasting and fed states. METHODS: Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent a baseline MRI scan after which they consumed a 400 g soup...
September 19, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30230140/sera-with-anti-enteric-neuronal-antibodies-from-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-promote-apoptosis-in-myenteric-neurons-of-guinea-pigs-and-human-sh-sy5y-cells
#5
Wenjuan Fan, Guijun Fei, Xiaoqing Li, Xiyu Wang, Chaojun Hu, Haiwei Xin, Xiaohong Sun, Yongzhe Li, Jackie D Wood, Xiucai Fang
BACKGROUND: Sera anti-enteric neuronal antibodies (AENA), neuronal inflammation, and degeneration in myenteric plexus in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were reported. Effects of sera AENA in patients with IBS are unclear. METHODS: Patients with IBS met Rome III criteria were enrolled. Controls included healthy subjects (HS) and patients with slow transit functional constipation, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and autoimmune diseases...
September 17, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30230134/altered-intestinal-antibacterial-gene-expression-response-profile-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-is-linked-to-bacterial-composition-and-immune-activation
#6
Sean M P Bennet, Johanna Sundin, Maria K Magnusson, Hans Strid, Julien Tap, Muriel Derrien, Boris Le Nevé, Joël Doré, Hans Törnblom, Magnus Simrén, Lena Öhman
BACKGROUND: Immune activity and gut microbiota may impact the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to determine whether antibacterial gene expression of immune activity-defined IBS patients differed compared to healthy subjects (HS) and ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and whether antibacterial profiles reflected gut microbiota composition and IBS symptoms. METHODS: Expression of 84 antibacterial genes in biopsies from HS, IBS patients (clustered according to immune activity (systemic and intestinal cytokines): immunonormal or immunoactive), and UC patients was assessed by Human Antibacterial Response RT2 Profiler PCR Array...
September 17, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216661/endoflip-vs-high-definition-manometry-in-the-assessment-of-fecal-incontinence-a-data-driven-unsupervised-comparison
#7
Ali Zifan, Catherine Sun, Guillaume Gourcerol, Anne M Leroi, Ravinder K Mittal
BACKGROUND: How much anal sphincter dysfunction contributes to fecal incontinence (FI) is not clear. High-definition anorectal manometry (HDAM) and functional luminal imaging probe (Endoflip) are two new techniques to study anal sphincter function. AIMS: The goal was to compare the diagnostic utility of HDAM and Endoflip using optimal feature(s) in each modality for FI diagnosis. METHODS: Blinded classification was carried out on 70 female subjects (32 FI & 38 controls), using 3 prominent machine-learning clustering techniques, with 3 distance metrics...
September 14, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216596/gastric-motor-and-sensory-function-in-health-assessed-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-establishment-of-reference-intervals-for-the-nottingham-test-meal-in-healthy-subjects
#8
Helen Parker, Caroline L Hoad, Emily Tucker, Carolyn Costigan, Luca Marciani, Penny Gowland, Mark Fox
BACKGROUND: Current investigations of gastric emptying rarely identify the cause of symptoms or provide a definitive diagnosis in patients with dyspepsia. This study assessed gastric function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using the modular "Nottingham test meal" (NTM) in healthy volunteers (HVs). METHODS: The NTM comprises (a) 400 mL liquid nutrient (0.75 kcal/mL) labeled with Gadolinium-DOTA and (b) an optional solid component (12 agar-beads [0 kcal])...
September 14, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216585/the-influence-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channels-on-human-gastrointestinal-nociception
#9
REVIEW
Matthew D Coates, Kent E Vrana, Victor Ruiz-Velasco
BACKGROUND: Abdominal pain is a frequent and persistent problem in the most common gastrointestinal disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Pain adversely impacts quality of life, incurs significant healthcare expenditures, and remains a challenging issue to manage with few safe therapeutic options currently available. It is imperative that new methods are developed for identifying and treating this symptom. A variety of peripherally active neuroendocrine signaling elements have the capability to influence gastrointestinal pain perception...
September 14, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178519/functional-neuromuscular-impairment-in-severe-intestinal-dysmotility
#10
Diana Gallego, Carolina Malagelada, Anna Accarino, Alessandra Gori, Juan Ramón Malagelada, Fernando Azpiroz, Roberto De Giorgio, Marcel Jimenez
BACKGROUND: Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) and enteric dysmotility (ED) are severe intestinal motility disorders usually associated with underlying neuromuscular abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vitro neuromuscular function of patients with severe intestinal motility disorders. METHODS: Full-thickness intestinal biopsies (16 jejunum and 3 ileum) obtained from patients with CIPO (n = 10) and ED (n = 9) were studied using muscle bath and microelectrode techniques...
September 3, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30136343/signaling-of-free-fatty-acid-receptors-2-and-3-differs-in-colonic-mucosa-following-selective-agonism-or-coagonism-by-luminal-propionate
#11
Iain R Tough, Sarah Forbes, Helen M Cox
BACKGROUND: Propionate exhibits affinity for free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2, formerly GPR43) and FFA3 (GPR41). These two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are expressed by enteroendocrine L cells that contain anorectic peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), while FFA3 is also expressed by enteric neurons. Few studies have investigated the individual roles of FFA2 and FFA3 in propionate's gastrointestinal (GI) effects. Here, we compared FFA2, FFA3, and propionate mucosal responses utilizing selective ligands including an FFA3 antagonist, in mouse and human colonic mucosa...
August 23, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30136337/the-effect-of-a-multispecies-probiotic-on-microbiota-composition-in-a-clinical-trial-of-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#12
Keren Hod, Roy Dekel, Nathaniel Aviv Cohen, Ami Sperber, Yishai Ron, Mona Boaz, Shlomo Berliner, Nitsan Maharshak
BACKGROUND: Although probiotics are increasingly used in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), their mechanism of action has not been elucidated sufficiently. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a multispecies probiotic on enteric microbiota composition in women with diarrhea-predominant-IBS (IBS-D) and to determine whether these effects are associated with changes in IBS symptoms or inflammatory markers. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, Rome III IBS-D women completed a two-week run-in period and eligible women were assigned at random to a probiotic capsule (BIO-25) or an indistinguishable placebo, twice daily for 8 weeks...
August 23, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30136334/a-comparison-of-various-intragastric-balloons-for-the-assessment-of-gastric-motility
#13
Pieter Janssen, Nick Goelen, Jan Tack
BACKGROUND: There is a clear need for a novel method to readily assess gastric motility in daily clinical practice. METHODS: In a crossover design, 10 noncompliant balloons of different shape and volume (25-350 mL), attached to a classic feeding tube, were introduced in the stomach of eight healthy volunteers. In the same experiment, a High-Resolution Manometry (HRM) catheter was positioned throughout the stomach. Gastric motility was recorded during fasting (2 hours) and liquid nutrient administration (30 minutes)...
August 23, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30136447/a-randomized-controlled-and-long-term-linaclotide-study-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-constipation-patients-in-japan
#14
Shin Fukudo, Hiroto Miwa, Atsushi Nakajima, Ken Haruma, Masanori Kosako, Ayako Nakagawa, Hiraku Akiho, Yusuke Yamaguchi, Jeffrey M Johnston, Mark Currie, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
BACKGROUND: Clinical testing was required to verify the effect of linaclotide 0.5 mg/d in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) in Japan. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled (Part 1) and long-term, open-label extension (Part 2) study of linaclotide at 60 hospitals and clinics in Japan. Patients with IBS-C diagnosed using Rome III criteria (n = 500) were randomly assigned to linaclotide 0.5 mg (n = 249) or placebo (n = 251) for a 12-week treatment period followed by open-label treatment with linaclotide (n = 324) for an additional 40 weeks...
August 22, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129138/elobixibat-an-ileal-bile-acid-transporter-inhibitor-induces-giant-migrating-contractions-during-natural-defecation-in-conscious-dogs
#15
Shinya Taniguchi, Tetsuo Yano, Masakazu Imaizumi, Noriaki Manabe
BACKGROUND: Chronic constipation affects 14%-17% of the population. Elobixibat, a novel, ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT) inhibitor, has been approved as a new chronic constipation drug in Japan in January 2018. The present study aimed to examine the pharmacological effects of elobixibat on colonic motility in conscious dogs using a telemetry system. METHODS: Six male beagle dogs were surgically implanted with strain gauge force transducers for gastrointestinal (GI) motility recording...
August 21, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129164/reduced-pharyngeal-constriction-is-associated-with-impaired-swallowing-efficiency-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als
#16
Ashley A Waito, Lauren C Tabor-Gray, Catriona M Steele, Emily K Plowman
BACKGROUND: Swallowing inefficiency is a prevalent but understudied problem in individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Although reduced pharyngeal constriction has been identified as a mechanism contributing to swallowing inefficiency following stroke, this relationship has not been empirically tested in the ALS population. This study sought to characterize profiles of swallowing efficiency in a sample of ALS patients and investigate relationships between pharyngeal constriction and swallowing efficiency...
August 20, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129117/ambulatory-assessment-of-colonic-motility-using-the-electromagnetic-capsule-tracking-system
#17
Esben Bolvig Mark, Jakob Lykke Poulsen, Anne-Mette Haase, Marie Espersen, Tine Gregersen, Vincent Schlageter, S Mark Scott, Klaus Krogh, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
BACKGROUND: The Motilis 3D-Transit system tracks electromagnetic capsules as they traverse the gastrointestinal tract. The method is minimally invasive and ambulatory. Analysis has previously been limited to regional gut transit times, but new methods may allow detailed analysis of colonic motility. METHODS: Parameters of colonic motility were analyzed from 34 3D-Transit recordings performed in healthy volunteers (median age 28 years; 8 F). Characteristic propulsive velocities and lengths of movement were determined to quantify common movement patterns...
August 20, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129082/high-resolution-optical-mapping-of-gastric-slow-wave-propagation
#18
Hanyu Zhang, Han Yu, Gregory P Walcott, Niranchan Paskaranandavadivel, Leo K Cheng, Gregory O'Grady, Jack M Rogers
BACKGROUND: Improved understanding of the details of gastric slow wave propagation could potentially inform new diagnosis and treatment options for stomach motility disorders. Optical mapping has been used extensively in cardiac electrophysiology. Although optical mapping has a number of advantages relative to electrical mapping, optical signals are highly sensitive to motion artifact. We recently introduced a novel cardiac optical mapping method that corrects motion artifact and enables optical mapping to be performed in beating hearts...
August 20, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30125427/nonpharmacological-conservative-treatments-for-chronic-functional-constipation-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#19
Hui Zheng, Qin Chen, Min Chen, Xi Wu, Tian-Wei She, Juan Li, De-Quan Huang, Ling Yue, Jian-Qiao Fang
BACKGROUND: Patients with functional chronic constipation (CFC) often select nonpharmacological treatments. We aimed to examine the comparative effectiveness of nonpharmacological conservative treatments in treating CFC. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane library, CINAHL, AMED, ISI web of knowledge, and conference proceedings from January 2000 to June 2016. Randomized controlled trials comparing nonpharmacological conservative treatments with placebo, sham interventions, or conventional treatments were included...
August 20, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109908/effect-of-a-prebiotic-galactooligosaccharide-mixture-b-gos%C3%A2-on-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-adults-selected-from-a-general-population-who-suffer-with-bloating-abdominal-pain-or-flatulence
#20
Jelena Vulevic, George Tzortzis, Aleksandra Juric, Glenn R Gibson
BACKGROUND: Prebiotics exert beneficial effects upon gastrointestinal (GI) environment, but this is not always accompanied with a positive effect on GI symptoms. B-GOS® is a prebiotic with high selectivity toward bifidobacteria and a variety of other beneficial effects in humans. Here, we investigated its effect on GI symptoms in adults who suffer with bloating, abdominal pain, and flatulence. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 83 subjects from the general population who presented with GI symptoms during screening period and had a predicted probability of functional bowel disorder of more than 75% were randomized to receive either a placebo or the B-GOS® treatment (2...
August 15, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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