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Cancer Gene Therapy

Y D Seo, V G Pillarisetty
Despite recent advancements in multimodal therapy, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) continues to have a dismal prognosis. In the era of burgeoning immune therapies against previously difficult-to-treat malignancies, there has been growing interest in activating the immune system against PDA; however, unlike in other cancers such as melanoma and lymphoma, immunotherapy has not yielded many clinically significant results. To harness these mechanisms for therapeutic use, an in-depth understanding of T-cell programming in the immune microenvironment of PDA must be achieved...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
P Guha, J Reha, S C Katz
We have recently witnessed substantial progress with immunotherapy for selected diseases. Checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells are among the most promising agents. Whereas much of the early success with CAR-T cells has been demonstrated with hematological malignancies, important barriers remain for the application of CAR-T cell therapies for the management of metastatic solid tumors. The challenges are particularly apparent when considering primary and metastatic tumors in the liver...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
M Pergamo, G Miller
Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease and ranks as the third most common cause of cancer-related death. Like many cancers, there has been increased interest in the role of the immune system in the progression and development of pancreatic cancer. In particular, immunosuppression within the tumor microenvironment (TME) is thought to impair the host's antitumor response. In this article, we review myeloid-derived suppressor cells and their contribution to this immunosuppression within the pancreatic TME...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
R Mezencev, L V Matyunina, G T Wagner, J F McDonald
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal of malignancies, in large measure, due to the propensity of PDAC cells to acquire resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. A better understanding of the molecular basis of acquired resistance is a major focus of contemporary PDAC research. We report here the results of a study to independently develop cisplatin resistance in two distinct parental PDAC cell lines, AsPC1 and BxPC3, and to subsequently examine the molecular mechanisms associated with the acquired resistance...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
L Yang, S Feng, Y Yang
The present study was designed to investigate the upstream transcription factors (TFs) and the signature genes in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), providing better clues on the regulatory mechanisms and therapeutic applications. Gene expression data sets of CCA were searched in the Gene Expression Omnibus database for integrated analysis. Functional annotation of differently expressed genes (DEGs) was then conducted and the TFs were identified. Moreover, a global transcriptional regulatory network of TFs-targets was constructed...
November 18, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
N-Y Kim, M-C Kim, Y Kim
Epigenetic modifications have been implicated in the development of therapeutic resistance responsible for the poor prognosis of human malignant mesothelioma (HMM). To find a potential way to overcome this therapeutic resistance, this study investigated the anticancer effects of a DNA demethylating agent, 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), on HMM cells. The 5-aza-dC exhibited minimal detrimental effects on cell survival. However, treatment with 5-aza-dC significantly altered the biological characteristics associated with malignancy, such as cell migration and cell interaction, colony-forming capacity, and invasiveness...
November 18, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
Z Saadatpour, G Bjorklund, S Chirumbolo, M Alimohammadi, H Ehsani, H Ebrahiminejad, H Pourghadamyari, B Baghaei, H R Mirzaei, A Sahebkar, H Mirzaei, M Keshavarzi
Gene therapy is known as one of the most advanced approaches for therapeutic prospects ranging from tackling genetic diseases to combating cancer. In this approach, different viral and nonviral vector systems such as retrovirus, lentivirus, plasmid and transposon have been designed and employed. These vector systems are designed to target different therapeutic genes in various tissues and cells such as tumor cells. Therefore, detection of the vectors containing therapeutic genes and monitoring of response to the treatment are the main issues that are commonly faced by researchers...
November 18, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
S Denies, F Combes, C Ghekiere, S Mc Cafferty, L Cicchelero, N N Sanders
Recent research indicates that cell-mediated gene therapy can be an interesting method to obtain intratumoral expression of therapeutic proteins. This paper explores the possibility of using transfected myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), derived from a murine cell line, as cellular vehicles for transporting plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoding interleukin-12 (IL-12) to tumors. Transfecting these cells via electroporation caused massive cell death. This was not due to electroporation-induced cell damage, but was mainly the result of the intracellular presence of plasmids...
November 18, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
L Saadatpour, E Fadaee, S Fadaei, R Nassiri Mansour, M Mohammadi, S M Mousavi, M Goodarzi, J Verdi, H Mirzaei
Glioblastoma (GBM) is known as a tumor type, which arises from astrocytes. Several studies indicated that GBM tumor cells are malignant. This is because of the fact that they consist of different cell types, which are reproducing very quickly and are also supported by a large network of blood vessels. The correct identification of various stages of GBM could help to better treat the patients with this disease. Therefore, new biomarkers such as exosomes and microRNAs (miRNAs) may help us to learn more about GBM and they may also lead to a more effective treatment for patients with GBM...
November 11, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
Z Yuan, D Chen, X Chen, H Yang, Y Wei
The upregulation of homeobox-B7 (HOXB7) in cancers has been reported. However, its role in oral cancer progression remains to be investigated. In current study, our data revealed that reconstitution of HOXB7 expression by transient transfection resulted in increased cell growth, migration and invasion in vitro. In addition, apoptosis and clonogenic assay data showed that overexpression of HOXB7 decreased the sensitivity of oral cancer cells to vincristine-induced apoptosis of HSC-4 and KB/VCR cells. Furthermore, overexpression of HOXB7 promoted oral cancer cells' migration and invasion through activation of TGFβ2/SMAD3 signaling pathway...
November 11, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
Z Saadatpour, A Rezaei, H Ebrahimnejad, B Baghaei, G Bjorklund, M Chartrand, A Sahebkar, H Morovati, H R Mirzaei, H Mirzaei
Cancer is one of the world's most concerning health problems and poses many challenges in the range of approaches associated with the treatment of cancer. Current understanding of this disease brings to the fore a number of novel therapies that can be useful in the treatment of cancer. Among them, gene and cell therapies have emerged as novel and effective approaches. One of the most important challenges for cancer gene and cell therapies is correct monitoring of the modified genes and cells. In fact, visual tracking of therapeutic cells, immune cells, stem cells and genetic vectors that contain therapeutic genes and the various drugs is important in cancer therapy...
November 11, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
E Faghihloo, M Sadeghizadeh, S Shahmahmoodi, T Mokhtari-Azad
Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide, and its development is related to two viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 from high-risk human papillomaviruses. Aberrant expression of E-cadherin is associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and it is frequently seen in cervical cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in E-cadherin suppression in cervical cancer are not clear. We studied the effects of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 and E7 on E-cadherin and Cdc6 (cell division cycle 6) expression in the HCT-116 cell line...
November 11, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
Q-W Zheng, Y-L Zhou, Q-J You, F Shou, Q-F Pang, J-L Chen
The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is a tumor suppressor that is lost or decreased in most human tumors. The role of WWOX in human lung carcinoma invasion is still not clear. This study aimed to elucidate the potential role of WWOX in lung cancer cell invasion. WWOX mRNA levels in human lung cancers and lung cancer cell lines were assayed by quantitative real-time PCR. WWOX in lung cancer cell lines was manipulated by transfection of expression vector or small interfering RNA. Cell migration and invasion were assessed by wound healing and/or transwell migration and invasion assays...
November 11, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
N B Jamieson, A V Maker
Recent clinical successes with immunotherapy have resulted in expanding indications for cancer therapy. To enhance antitumor immune responses, and to better choose specific strategies matched to patient and tumor characteristics, genomic-driven precision immunotherapy will be necessary. Herein, we explore the role that tumor gene-expression profiling (GEP) may have in the prediction of an immunotherapeutic response. Genetic markers associated with response to immunotherapy are addressed as they pertain to the tumor genomic landscape, the extent of DNA damage, tumor mutational load and tumor-specific neoantigens...
November 11, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
D D George, V A Armenio, S C Katz
Melanoma has been a long-standing focal point for immunotherapy development. In this review, we explore the evolution of melanoma treatments with particular attention to the history and recent advances in melanoma immunotherapy. We also discuss novel combinations of these modalities and their potential to offer novel therapeutic options for patients with advanced melanoma.Cancer Gene Therapy advance online publication, 11 November 2016; doi:10.1038/cgt.2016.56.
November 11, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
S Sengupta, G Mao, Z S Gokaslan, P Sampath
Glioblastoma (GBM) is by far the most common and the most aggressive of all the primary brain malignancies. No curative therapy exists, and median life expectancy hovers at around 1 year after diagnosis, with a minute fraction surviving beyond 5 years. The difficulty in treating GBM lies in the cancer's protected niche within the blood-brain barrier and the heterogeneity of the cancer cells, which possess varying degrees of susceptibility to various common modalities of treatment. Over time, it is the tumor heterogeneity of GBM and the ability of the cancer stem cells to evolve in response treatment that renders the cancer refractory to conventional treatment...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
L A Rojas, R Moreno, H Calderón, R Alemany
There is great skepticism in the capability of adenovirus vectors and oncolytic adenoviruses to reach specific organs or tumors upon systemic administration. Besides antibodies, the presence of CAR (coxsackie and adenovirus receptor) in human erythrocytes has been postulated to sequester CAR-binding adenoviruses, commonly used in gene therapy and oncolytic applications. The use of non-CAR-binding fibers or serotypes has been postulated to solve this limitation. Given the lack of integrins in erythrocytes and therefore of internalization of the CAR-bound virus, we hypothesized that the interaction of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) with CAR in human erythrocytes could be reversible...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
M H Jazayeri, H Amani, A A Pourfatollah, A Avan, G A Ferns, H Pazoki-Toroudi
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is used to screen for prostate disease, although it has several limitations in its application as an organ-specific or cancer-specific marker. Furthermore, a highly specific/sensitive and/or label-free identification of PSA still remains a challenge in the diagnosis of prostate anomalies. We aimed to develop a gold nanoparticle (GNP)-conjugated anti-PSA antibody-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) as a novel approach to detect prostatic disease. A total of 25 nm colloidal gold particles were prepared followed by conjugation with anti-PSA pAb (GNPs-PSA pAb)...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
S Fathullahzadeh, H Mirzaei, M A Honardoost, A Sahebkar, M Salehi
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is known as the most common lymphoid malignancy in the Western world. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs with pivotal roles in cellular and molecular processes related to different malignancies including CLL. Recently, some studies have shown that miR-192 plays a key role in CLL pathogenesis through increasing CDKN1A/p21 levels, suppression of Bcl-2 and enhancement of wild-type P53 and cell cycle arrest. Forty samples, including 20 patients with CLL, diagnosed in Omid hospital (Isfahan, Iran) and 20 healthy controls were sampled during a period of 4 months...
September 23, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
W Xia, D Li, G Wang, J Ni, J Zhuang, M Ha, J Wang, Y Ye
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Currently, the clinical strategies available for the treatment of HCC remain insufficient for the poor prognosis. Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS)-based radioiodine therapy is proposed as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HCC. However, it is difficult for HCC cells to trap iodine for the lower expression of NIS. Small activating RNA (saRNA) is a newly identified small double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that can induce endogenous gene expression by targeting promoter sequences...
September 9, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
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