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Cancer Gene Therapy

Xiao Han, Jing-Jing Zhang, Zheng-Quan Han, Hai-Bin Zhang, Zi-An Wang
Platinum-based chemotherapy is currently a standard treatment strategy for patients with gastric cancer. Eventhough it has been widely shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in tumor development, whether miRNAs have a role in chemosensitivity of gastric cancer cells to platinum-based treatment remain largely undefined. In this study, a cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cell line (SGC7901/DDP) with stable enhanced expression or knockdown of let-7b was generated. MTT and TUNEL assays were carried out to assess whether miR-let-7 is crucial for cell viability and apoptosis, respectively...
September 20, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Síle A Johnson, Michael J Ormsby, Anne McIntosh, Stephen W G Tait, Karen Blyth, Daniel M Wall
This Article was originally published with one of the panels in Figure 5A inserted twice (SL-pEGFP). In Figure 5B there was also a typo. SL-LacZ should have read SL-pEGFP(-f1). Both 5A and 5B are corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
September 19, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Ziqiang Yuan, Juliet C Gardiner, Elaine C Maggi, Asha Adem, George Zhang, Sylvia Lee, Peter Romanienko, Yi-Chieh Nancy Du, Steven K Libutti
We reported that inactivation of menin (the protein product of MEN1) increases activity of Dnmt1 and mediates DNA hypermethylation in the development of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome. We have developed a RCAS-TVA-based somatic gene transfer system that enables tissue-specific delivery of Dnmt1 to individual β-cells of the pancreas in a RIP-TVA mouse model. In the present study, we mediated Dnmt1 expression in islet β-cells in RIP-TVA mice by utilizing the RCAS-TVA system to test if the upregulation of Dnmt1 can promote β-cell proliferation...
September 7, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Jian Meng, Jing-Guang Zhang, Song-Tao Du, Ning Li
To observe the curative effect of surgery combined with gene therapy on small hepatocellular carcinoma. Seventy-seven patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma (diameter < 5 cm) underwent surgical resection. The tumor located at the edge of the liver was treated by local excision or irregular hepatectomy. The tumor in the center of the liver was resected by hepatic lobectomy in order to ensure at least a 2-cm safety margin. Fifty-four patients underwent gene therapy (gene group) one or two times before operation, whereas 23 patients underwent surgery alone (control group) selected by themselves...
September 7, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Ying Ye, Ya-Nan Song, Sai-Fei He, Ju-Hua Zhuang, Guo-Yu Wang, Wei Xia
To explore the mechanisms of GINS2 on cell proliferation and apoptosis in thyroid cancer (TC) cells. Expressions of GINS2 were inhibited in K1 and SW579 cells using gene interference technology. The abilities of proliferation and apoptosis, and cell cycle were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometric assay. The downstream molecules of GINS2 were searched by microarray and bioinformatics and validated by qRT-PCR and western blotting. In the in vivo study, the tumor growth was compared and the whole-body fluorescent imaging was analyzed...
September 4, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Arthur Dyer, Richard Baugh, Suet Lin Chia, Sally Frost, Iris, Egon J Jacobus, Hena Khalique, Tzveta D Pokrovska, Eleanor M Scott, William K Taverner, Len W Seymour, Janet Lei
The 11th International Oncolytic Virus Conference (IOVC) was held from April 9-12, 2018 in Oxford, UK. This is part of the high-profile academic-led series of meetings that was started back in 2002 by Steve Russell and John Bell, with most of the previous meetings being held in North America (often in Banff). The conference brought together many of the major players in oncolytic virotherapy from all over the world, addressing all stages of research and development-from aspects of basic science and cellular immunology all the way through to early- and late-phase clinical trials...
September 4, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Jilei Zhang, Lingxiu Zhang, Haoran Cui, Xinpei Zhang, Gaoqi Zhang, Xinrui Yang, Siyuan Yang, Zhihui Zhang, Jing Wang, Kai Hu, Jinlong Shi, Xiaoyan Ke, Lin Fu
The SMAD family (SMAD1-9) was critically important for regulating cellular process through transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway, and contributed to carcinogenesis; however, their prognostic roles in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remained unclear. This study collected 84 de novo AML patients treated with chemotherapy and 71 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Kaplan-Meier survival estimate indicated that among SMAD1-9, high SMAD3 and SMAD7 expression were both associated with poor event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS; all P < 0...
September 4, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Changbao Chen, Aixian Tian, Meng Zhao, Xinlong Ma
The VHL tumor suppressor gene is frequently inactivated in several human tumors, including bone sarcomas. We previously identified that reduced expression of VHL protein is implicated in sarcomagenesis. However, the underlying biological functions of restored VHL protein expression have not been clearly elucidated in bone sarcomas. Here we initially constructed a recombinant adenovirus 5-VHL vector (Ad5-VHL) and evaluated its expression in bone sarcomas, and antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. We found that the adenovirus-mediated increase of VHL significantly suppresses bone sarcoma cell growth, attributed to induction of apoptosis mediated by increased caspase-3 activity and modulated Bcl-2 protein family...
August 24, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Biao Yang, Yan-Bin Ma, Sheng-Hua Chu
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant tumor of the central nervous system and has a very poor prognosis. Currently, patients were treated by resection followed by radiotherapy plus concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. However, many patients are resistant to TMZ-induced DNA damage because of upregulated expression of the DNA repair enzyme O6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). In this study, upregulation of SATB1 and MGMT, and downregulation of SLC22A18 resulted in acquisition of TMZ resistance in GBM U87 cells...
August 24, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Síle A Johnson, Michael J Ormsby, Anne McIntosh, Stephen W G Tait, Karen Blyth, Daniel M Wall
Bacterial-mediated cancer therapy has shown great promise in in vivo tumour models with increased survival rates post-bacterial treatment. Improving efficiency of bacterial-mediated tumour regression has focused on controlling and exacerbating bacterial cytotoxicity towards tumours. One mechanism that has been used to carry this out is the process of bactofection where post-invasion, bacteria deliver plasmid-borne mammalian genes into target cells for expression. Here we utilised the cancer-targeting Salmonella Typhimurium strain, SL7207, to carry out bactofection into triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells...
August 13, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Weikai Zhang, Peng Cheng, Weihua Hu, Weifeng Yin, Fengjing Guo, Anmin Chen, Hui Huang
Osteoarthritis (OA), a major cause of pain and disability, is a serious public issue worldwide. Some microRNAs (miRNAs) and SOX9 have been found to be expressed in OA. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate effects of microRNA-384-5p (miR-384-5p) on cartilage cell proliferation and apoptosis in mice with OA by targeting SOX9 through the NF-κB signaling pathway. First, bioinformatics was used to predict the SOX9-mediated miRNA (miR-384-5p), and dual luciferase reporter gene assay was conducted to further verify the relationship between miR-384-5p and SOX9...
July 30, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Lukasz Kuryk, Anne-Sophie W Møller, Magnus Jaderberg
Adaptive immunity involves activation of T cells via antigen presentation by antigen presenting cells (APCs) along with the action of co-stimulatory molecules and pattern recognition receptors. Cluster of differentiation 40 (CD40) is one such costimulatory molecule that is expressed on APCs that binds to CD40 ligand (CD40L) on T helper cells and activates a signaling cascade, subsequently resulting in a wide range of immune and inflammatory responses. Considering its important role in regulation of immune response, CD40/40 L has been used for developing antitumor vaccines...
July 30, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Shuji Kubo, Misato Takagi-Kimura, Noriyuki Kasahara
Retroviral replicating vectors (RRVs) have achieved efficient tumor transduction and enhanced therapeutic benefit in a wide variety of cancer models. Here, we evaluated two different RRVs derived from amphotropic murine leukemia virus (AMLV) and gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV), which utilize different cellular receptors (PiT-2 and PiT-1, respectively) for viral entry, in human osteosarcoma cells. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that low levels of expression of both receptors were observed in normal and non-malignant cells...
July 25, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Zinaida A Dubeykovskaya, Phaneendra Kumar Duddempudi, Huan Deng, Giovanni Valenti, Krystle L Cuti, Karan Nagar, Yagnesh Tailor, Chandan Guha, Jan Kitajewski, Timothy C Wang
TFF2 is a small, secreted protein with anti-inflammatory properties. We previously have shown that TFF2 gene delivery via adenovirus (Ad-Tff2) suppresses colon tumor growth in colitis associated cancer. Therefore, systemic administration of TFF2 peptide could potentially provide a similar benefit. Because TFF2 shows a poor pharmacokinetic, we sought to modify the TFF2 peptide in a manner that would lower its clearance rate but retain bioactivity. Given the absence of a sequence-based prediction of TFF2 functionality, we chose to genetically fuse the C-terminus of TFF2 with the carboxyl-terminal peptide of human chorionic gonadotropin β subunit, and inserted into adenoviral vector that expresses Flag...
July 25, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Dawei Wu, Jun Zhang, Ying Lu, Song Bo, Lianhong Li, Lu Wang, Qingqing Zhang, Jun Mao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-coding single-stranded RNAs molecules, the dysregulation of which plays a critical role in the initiation and biological progression of malignancies. The current study demonstrated that miR-140-5p was frequently downregulated in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), and miR-140-5p mimics could inhibit the proliferation of BCSCs. Moreover, Wnt1 was a direct target of miR-140-5p, as was proved by luciferase reporter assays. miR-140-5p mimics could downregulate the wnt1 mRNA and protein levels in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells...
July 22, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Liang Mao, Xue Li, Shu Gong, Haiyang Yuan, Yu Jiang, Wenjun Huang, Xingwang Sun, Xitong Dang
Esophageal cancer related gene-4 (Ecrg4) has been shown to be a tumor suppressor in many organs. Exosomes are naturally secreted nanosized particles that carry signal molecules including microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) among others. Upon internalization, exosomes unload their cargos that in turn modulate the biology of the recipient cells. Mounting evidence has shown that exosomal miRNAs are functional. However, reports that exosomes carry functional mRNAs remain scarce...
July 9, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Nobuaki Fujiwara, Hiroto Izumi, Yasuo Morimoto, Kazuo Sakurai, Shinichi Mochizuki
Antisense oligonucleotides (AS-ODNs) hybridize with specific mRNAs, resulting in interference with the splicing mechanism or the regulation of protein translation. We previously demonstrated that the β-glucan schizophyllan (SPG) can form a complex with AS-ODNs with attached dA40 (AS-ODNs/SPG), and this complex can be incorporated into cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, expressing the β-glucan receptor Dectin-1. We have achieved efficient gene silencing in animal models, but the uptake mechanism and intracellular distribution are unclear...
July 4, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Filippo Rossignoli, Giulia Grisendi, Carlotta Spano, Giulia Golinelli, Alessandra Recchia, Giulia Rovesti, Giulia Orsi, Elena Veronesi, Edwin M Horwitz, Massimo Dominici
Cellular therapies based on mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) are promising strategies in regenerative medicine and oncology. Despite encouraging results, there is still some level of concerns on inoculating MSC in cancer patients. To face this issue, one possibility resides in engineering MSC by incorporating a suicide gene in order to control their fate once infused. Strategies based on Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase (HSV-TK) and the Cytosine Deaminase genes have been developed and more recently a novel suicide gene, namely, iCasp9, has been proposed...
June 29, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Mani Panagal, Senthil Kumar S R, Sivakurunathan P, Biruntha M, Karthigeyan M, Vincent Gopinathe, Pethanen Sivakumare, Durairaj Sekar
Myeloid leukemia (ML) is heterogeneous cancer classified by abnormal growth of myeloid cells due to genetic aberrations and mutations. It is generally categorized by clonal disorders of hematopoietic stem cells and differentiation. The molecular mechanism behind the myeloid malignancies is not yet known, but recent sequencing analysis reveals all the mutated factors. As we know that there is currently no compromise on therapy for such types of malignancies and at the present painful process like chemotherapy and radiation therapy are not effective for the treatment of ML, so there is an urgent need to develop a non-invasive biomarker for different types of ML...
August 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Oliver K Appelbe, Bieong-Kil Kim, Nick Rymut, Jianping Wang, Stephen J Kron, Yoon Yeo
The excitement surrounding the potential of gene therapy has been tempered due to the challenges that have thus far limited its successful implementation in the clinic such as issues regarding stability, transfection efficiency, and toxicity. In this study, low molecular weight linear polyethyleneimine (2.5 kDa) was modified by conjugation to a lipid, lithocholic acid, and complexed with a natural polysaccharide, dermatan sulfate (DS), to mask extra cationic charges of the modified polymer. In vitro examination revealed that these modifications improved complex stability with plasmid DNA (pDNA) and transfection efficiency...
August 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
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