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Progress in Retinal and Eye Research

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916682/adaptive-optics-optical-coherence-tomography-in-glaucoma
#1
REVIEW
Zachary M Dong, Gadi Wollstein, Bo Wang, Joel S Schuman
Since the introduction of commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, the ophthalmic imaging modality has rapidly expanded and it has since changed the paradigm of visualization of the retina and revolutionized the management and diagnosis of neuro-retinal diseases, including glaucoma. OCT remains a dynamic and evolving imaging modality, growing from time-domain OCT to the improved spectral-domain OCT, adapting novel image analysis and processing methods, and onto the newer swept-source OCT and the implementation of adaptive optics (AO) into OCT...
December 1, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784628/advances-in-bone-marrow-stem-cell-therapy-for-retinal-dysfunction
#2
REVIEW
Susanna S Park, Elad Moisseiev, Gerhard Bauer, Johnathon D Anderson, Maria B Grant, Azhar Zam, Robert J Zawadzki, John S Werner, Jan A Nolta
The most common cause of untreatable vision loss is dysfunction of the retina. Conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma remain leading causes of untreatable blindness worldwide. Various stem cell approaches are being explored for treatment of retinal regeneration. The rationale for using bone marrow stem cells to treat retinal dysfunction is based on preclinical evidence showing that bone marrow stem cells can rescue degenerating and ischemic retina. These stem cells have primarily paracrine trophic effects although some cells can directly incorporate into damaged tissue...
October 23, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773767/detection-and-measurement-of-clinically-meaningful-visual-field-progression-in-clinical-trials-for-glaucoma
#3
REVIEW
C Gustavo De Moraes, Jeffrey M Liebmann, Leonard A Levin
Glaucomatous visual field progression has both personal and societal costs and therefore has a serious impact on quality of life. At the present time, intraocular pressure (IOP) is considered to be the most important modifiable risk factor for glaucoma onset and progression. Reduction of IOP has been repeatedly demonstrated to be an effective intervention across the spectrum of glaucoma, regardless of subtype or disease stage. In the setting of approval of IOP-lowering therapies, it is expected that effects on IOP will translate into benefits in long-term patient-reported outcomes...
October 20, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671171/the-neural-retina-in-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#4
REVIEW
Ronald M Hansen, Anne Moskowitz, James D Akula, Anne B Fulton
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a neurovascular disease that affects prematurely born infants and is known to have significant long term effects on vision. We conducted the studies described herein not only to learn more about vision but also about the pathogenesis of ROP. The coincidence of ROP onset and rapid developmental elongation of the rod photoreceptor outer segments motivated us to consider the role of the rods in this disease. We used noninvasive electroretinographic (ERG), psychophysical, and retinal imaging procedures to study the function and structure of the neurosensory retina...
September 23, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666015/steroid-induced-ocular-hypertension-glaucoma-focus-on-pharmacogenomics-and-implications-for-precision-medicine
#5
M Elizabeth Fini, Stephen G Schwartz, Xiaoyi Gao, Shinwu Jeong, Nitin Patel, Tatsuo Itakura, Marianne O Price, Francis W Price, Rohit Varma, W Daniel Stamer
Elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) due to therapeutic use of glucocorticoids is called steroid-induced ocular hypertension (SIOH); this can lead to steroid-induced glaucoma (SIG). Glucocorticoids initiate signaling cascades ultimately affecting expression of hundreds of genes; this provides the potential for a highly personalized pharmacological response. Studies attempting to define genetic risk factors were undertaken early in the history of glucocorticoid use, however scientific tools available at that time were limited and progress stalled...
September 22, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664379/caveolins-and-caveolae-in-ocular-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#6
Xiaowu Gu, Alaina M Reagan, Mark E McClellan, Michael H Elliott
Caveolae are specialized, invaginated plasma membrane domains that are defined morphologically and by the expression of signature proteins called, caveolins. Caveolae and caveolins are abundant in a variety of cell types including vascular endothelium, glia, and fibroblasts where they play critical roles in transcellular transport, endocytosis, mechanotransduction, cell proliferation, membrane lipid homeostasis, and signal transduction. Given these critical cellular functions, it is surprising that ablation of the caveolae organelle does not result in lethality suggesting instead that caveolae and caveolins play modulatory roles in cellular homeostasis...
September 21, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639549/the-physiological-optics-of-the-lens
#7
Paul J Donaldson, Angus C Grey, Bianca Maceo Heilman, Julie C Lim, Ehsan Vaghefi
The optical properties of the ocular lens are important to overall vision quality. As a transparent biological tissue, the lens contributes to the overall and dynamic focussing power of the eye, and corrects for optical errors introduced by the cornea. The optical properties of the lens change throughout life. Alterations to the refractive properties and transparency of the lens result in presbyopia and cataract, respectively. However, it is not well understood how changes to lens cellular structure and function initiate these changes in refraction and transparency...
September 14, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693724/significance-of-optineurin-mutations-in-glaucoma-and-other-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Yuriko Minegishi, Mao Nakayama, Daisuke Iejima, Kazuhide Kawase, Takeshi Iwata
Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of bilateral blindness, affecting nearly 57 million people worldwide. Glaucoma is characterized by a progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and is often associated with intraocular pressure (IOP). Normal tension glaucoma (NTG), marked by normal IOP but progressive glaucoma, is incompletely understood. In 2002, Sarfarazi et al. identified FIP-2 gene mutations responsible for hereditary NTG, renaming this gene "optineurin" (OPTN). Further investigations by multiple groups worldwide showed that OPTN is involved in several critical cellular functions, such as NF-κB regulation, autophagy, and vesicle transport...
November 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566190/autophagy-in-the-eye-development-degeneration-and-aging
#9
REVIEW
Patricia Boya, Lorena Esteban-Martínez, Ana Serrano-Puebla, Raquel Gómez-Sintes, Beatriz Villarejo-Zori
Autophagy is a catabolic pathway that promotes the degradation and recycling of cellular components. Proteins, lipids, and even whole organelles are engulfed in autophagosomes and delivered to the lysosome for elimination. In response to stress, autophagy mediates the degradation of cell components, which are recycled to generate the nutrients and building blocks required to sustain cellular homeostasis. Moreover, it plays an important role in cellular quality control, particularly in neurons, in which the total burden of altered proteins and damaged organelles cannot be reduced by redistribution to daughter cells through cell division...
November 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492954/genomic-control-of-neuronal-demographics-in-the-retina
#10
REVIEW
Benjamin E Reese, Patrick W Keeley
The mature retinal architecture is composed of various types of neuron, each population differing in size and constrained to particular layers, wherein the cells achieve a characteristic patterning in their local organization. These demographic features of retinal nerve cell populations are each complex traits controlled by multiple genes affecting different processes during development, and their genetic determinants can be dissected by correlating variation in these traits with their genomic architecture across recombinant-inbred mouse strains...
November 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477112/24-h-monitoring-devices-and-nyctohemeral-rhythms-of-intraocular-pressure
#11
REVIEW
Florent Aptel, Robert N Weinreb, Christophe Chiquet, Kaweh Mansouri
Intraocular pressure (IOP) is not a fixed value and varies over both the short term and periods lasting several months or years. In particular, IOP is known to vary throughout the 24-h period of a day, defined as a nyctohemeral rhythm in humans. In clinical practice, it is crucial to evaluate the changes in IOP over 24 h in several situations, including the diagnosis of ocular hypertension and glaucoma (IOP is often higher at night) and to optimize the therapeutic management of glaucoma. Until recently, all evaluations of 24-h IOP rhythm were performed using repeated IOP measurements, requiring individuals to be awakened for nocturnal measurements...
November 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421962/the-role-of-dinucleoside-polyphosphates-on-the-ocular-surface-and-other-eye-structures
#12
REVIEW
Gonzalo Carracedo, Almudena Crooke, Ana Guzman-Aranguez, Maria J Pérez de Lara, Alba Martin-Gil, Jesús Pintor
Dinucleoside polyphosphates comprises a group of dinucleotides formed by two nucleosides linked by a variable number of phosphates, abbreviated NpnN (where n represents the number of phosphates). These compounds are naturally occurring substances present in tears, aqueous humour and in the retina. As the consequence of their presence, these dinucleotides contribute to many ocular physiological processes. On the ocular surface, dinucleoside polyphosphates can stimulate tear secretion, mucin release from goblet cells and they help epithelial wound healing by accelerating cell migration rate...
November 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417037/retinal-venous-pulsation-expanding-our-understanding-and-use-of-this-enigmatic-phenomenon
#13
REVIEW
William H Morgan, Martin L Hazelton, Dao-Yi Yu
Retinal vein pulsation was first noted soon after the invention of the ophthalmoscope 170 years ago and was seen to change with cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) variation in the 1920s. The classical explanation for vein pulsation was that the cardiac cycle induced systolic peak in intraocular pressure (IOP) tended to intermittently collapse the retinal vein close to its exit in the central optic disk, causing pulsation to be counter-phase to IOP. Recently, improved ophthalmodynamometry and video recording techniques have allowed us to explore the fundamentals of retinal vein pulsation...
November 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352937/structural-and-molecular-bases-of-rod-photoreceptor-morphogenesis-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Theodore G Wensel, Zhixian Zhang, Ivan A Anastassov, Jared C Gilliam, Feng He, Michael F Schmid, Michael A Robichaux
The rod cell has an extraordinarily specialized structure that allows it to carry out its unique function of detecting individual photons of light. Both the structural features of the rod and the metabolic processes required for highly amplified light detection seem to have rendered the rod especially sensitive to structural and metabolic defects, so that a large number of gene defects are primarily associated with rod cell death and give rise to blinding retinal dystrophies. The structures of the rod, especially those of the sensory cilium known as the outer segment, have been the subject of structural, biochemical, and genetic analysis for many years, but the molecular bases for rod morphogenesis and for cell death in rod dystrophies are still poorly understood...
November 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297499/next-generation-sequencing-technology-and-genomewide-data-analysis-perspectives-for-retinal-research
#15
REVIEW
Vijender Chaitankar, Gökhan Karakülah, Rinki Ratnapriya, Felipe O Giuste, Matthew J Brooks, Anand Swaroop
The advent of high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) has accelerated the pace of discovery of disease-associated genetic variants and genomewide profiling of expressed sequences and epigenetic marks, thereby permitting systems-based analyses of ocular development and disease. Rapid evolution of NGS and associated methodologies presents significant challenges in acquisition, management, and analysis of large data sets and for extracting biologically or clinically relevant information. Here we illustrate the basic design of commonly used NGS-based methods, specifically whole exome sequencing, transcriptome, and epigenome profiling, and provide recommendations for data analyses...
November 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260426/molecular-basis-for-photoreceptor-outer-segment-architecture
#16
REVIEW
Andrew F X Goldberg, Orson L Moritz, David S Williams
To serve vision, vertebrate rod and cone photoreceptors must detect photons, convert the light stimuli into cellular signals, and then convey the encoded information to downstream neurons. Rods and cones are sensory neurons that each rely on specialized ciliary organelles to detect light. These organelles, called outer segments, possess elaborate architectures that include many hundreds of light-sensitive membranous disks arrayed one atop another in precise register. These stacked disks capture light and initiate the chain of molecular and cellular events that underlie normal vision...
November 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623223/in%C3%A2-vivo-genome-editing-as-a-potential-treatment-strategy-for-inherited-retinal-dystrophies
#17
Mert Yanik, Brigitte Müller, Fei Song, Jacqueline Gall, Franziska Wagner, Wolfgang Wende, Birgit Lorenz, Knut Stieger
In vivo genome editing represents an emerging field in the treatment of monogenic disorders, as it may constitute a solution to the current hurdles in classic gene addition therapy, which are the low levels and limited duration of transgene expression. Following the introduction of a double strand break (DSB) at the mutational site by highly specific endonucleases, such as TALENs (transcription activator like effector nucleases) or RNA based nucleases (clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats - CRISPR-Cas), the cell's own DNA repair machinery restores integrity to the DNA strand and corrects the mutant sequence, thus allowing the cell to produce protein levels as needed...
September 10, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27156982/risk-factors-and-biomarkers-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#18
REVIEW
Nathan G Lambert, Hanan ElShelmani, Malkit K Singh, Fiona C Mansergh, Michael A Wride, Maximilian Padilla, David Keegan, Ruth E Hogg, Balamurali K Ambati
A biomarker can be a substance or structure measured in body parts, fluids or products that can affect or predict disease incidence. As age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, much research and effort has been invested in the identification of different biomarkers to predict disease incidence, identify at risk individuals, elucidate causative pathophysiological etiologies, guide screening, monitoring and treatment parameters, and predict disease outcomes...
September 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154427/modeling-intraocular-bacterial-infections
#19
REVIEW
Roger A Astley, Phillip S Coburn, Salai Madhumathi Parkunan, Michelle C Callegan
Bacterial endophthalmitis is an infection and inflammation of the posterior segment of the eye which can result in significant loss of visual acuity. Even with prompt antibiotic, anti-inflammatory and surgical intervention, vision and even the eye itself may be lost. For the past century, experimental animal models have been used to examine various aspects of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial endophthalmitis, to further the development of anti-inflammatory treatment strategies, and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and efficacies of antibiotics...
September 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102270/aldose-reductase-ocular-diabetic-complications-and-the-development-of-topical-kinostat-%C3%A2
#20
REVIEW
Peter F Kador, Milton Wyman, Peter J Oates
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem with devastating effects on ocular health in both industrialized and developing countries. The control of hyperglycemia is critical to minimizing the impact of DM on ocular tissues because inadequate glycemic control leads to ocular tissue changes that range from a temporary blurring of vision to permanent vision loss. The biochemical mechanisms that promote the development of diabetic complications have been extensively studied. As a result, a number of prominent biochemical pathways have been identified...
September 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
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