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Progress in Retinal and Eye Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305324/real-world-outcomes-in-patients-with-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration-treated-with-intravitreal-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-inhibitors
#1
REVIEW
Hemal Mehta, Adnan Tufail, Vincent Daien, Aaron Lee, Vuong Nguyen, Mehmet Ozturk, Daniel Barthelmes, Mark C Gillies
Clinical trials identified intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (anti-VEGF agents) have the potential to stabilise or even improve visual acuity outcomes in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a sight-threatening disease. Real-world evidence allows us to assess whether results from randomised controlled trials can be applied to the general population. We describe the development of global registries, in particular the Fight Retinal Blindness! registry that originated in Australia, the United Kingdom AMD Electronic Medical Records User Group and the IRIS registry in the USA...
January 2, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229445/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#2
REVIEW
Richard F Spaide, James G Fujimoto, Nadia K Waheed, Srinivas R Sadda, Giovanni Staurenghi
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was one of the biggest advances in ophthalmic imaging. Building on that platform, OCT angiography (OCTA) provides depth resolved images of blood flow in the retina and choroid with levels of detailed far exceeding that obtained with older forms of imaging. This new modality is challenging because of the need for new equipment and processing techniques, current limitations of imaging capability, and rapid advancements in both imaging and in our understanding of the imaging and applicable pathophysiology of the retina and choroid, and the requirement for understanding the origins of image artifacts...
December 8, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229444/neural-control-of-choroidal-blood-flow
#3
REVIEW
Anton Reiner, Malinda E C Fitzgerald, Nobel Del Mar, Chunyan Li
The choroid is richly innervated by parasympathetic, sympathetic and trigeminal sensory nerve fibers that regulate choroidal blood flow in birds and mammals, and presumably other vertebrate classes as well. The parasympathetic innervation has been shown to vasodilate and increase choroidal blood flow, the sympathetic input has been shown to vasoconstrict and decrease choroidal blood flow, and the sensory input has been shown to both convey pain and thermal information centrally and act locally to vasodilate and increase choroidal blood flow...
December 8, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197628/towards-the-application-of-precision-medicine-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#4
REVIEW
Raffaella Cascella, Claudia Strafella, Valerio Caputo, Valeria Errichiello, Stefania Zampatti, Filippo Milano, Saverio Potenza, Silvestro Mauriello, Giuseppe Novelli, Federico Ricci, Andrea Cusumano, Emiliano Giardina
The review essentially describes genetic and non-genetic variables contributing to the onset and progression of exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in Italian population. In particular, AMD susceptibility within Italian population is contributed to by genetic variants, accounting for 23% of disease and non-genetic variants, accounting for 10% of AMD. Our data highlighted prominent differences concerning genetic and non-genetic contributors to AMD in our cohort with respect to worldwide populations...
November 29, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175509/retinal-lipid-and-glucose-metabolism-and-angiogenesis-in-the-retina
#5
REVIEW
Jean-Sebastien Joyal, Mari Gantner, Lois E H Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129724/retinal-vasculature-development-in-health-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
Senthil Selvam, Tejas Kumar, Marcus Fruttiger
Development of the retinal vasculature is based on highly coordinated signalling between different cell types of the retina, integrating internal metabolic requirements with external influences such as the supply of oxygen and nutrients. The developing mouse retinal vasculature is a useful model system to study these interactions because it is experimentally accessible for intra ocular injections and genetic manipulations, can be easily imaged and develops in a similar fashion to that of humans. Research using this model has provided insights about general principles of angiogenesis as well as pathologies that affect the developing retinal vasculature...
November 10, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126927/mechanisms-of-macular-edema-beyond-the-surface
#7
REVIEW
Alejandra Daruich, Alexandre Matet, Alexandre Moulin, Laura Kowalczuk, Michaël Nicolas, Alexandre Sellam, Pierre-Raphaël Rothschild, Samy Omri, Emmanuelle Gélizé, Laurent Jonet, Kimberley Delaunay, Yvonne De Kozak, Marianne Berdugo, Min Zhao, Patricia Crisanti, Francine Behar-Cohen
Macular edema consists of intra- or subretinal fluid accumulation in the macular region. It occurs during the course of numerous retinal disorders and can cause severe impairment of central vision. Major causes of macular edema include diabetes, branch and central retinal vein occlusion, choroidal neovascularization, posterior uveitis, postoperative inflammation and central serous chorioretinopathy. The healthy retina is maintained in a relatively dehydrated, transparent state compatible with optimal light transmission by multiple active and passive systems...
November 7, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081352/development-of-the-hyaloid-choroidal-and-retinal-vasculatures-in-the-fetal-human-eye
#8
REVIEW
Gerard A Lutty, D Scott McLeod
The development of the ocular vasculatures is perfectly synchronized to provide the nutritional and oxygen requirements of the forming human eye. The fetal vasculature of vitreous, which includes the hyaloid vasculature, vasa hyaloidea propria, and tunica vasculosa lentis, initially develops around 4-6 weeks gestation (WG) by hemo-vasculogenesis (development of blood and blood vessels from a common progenitor, the hemangioblast). This transient fetal vasculature expands around 12 WG by angiogenesis (budding from primordial vessels) and remains until a retinal vasculature begins to form...
November 1, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097191/molecular-genetics-and-emerging-therapies-for-retinitis-pigmentosa-basic-research-and-clinical-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
Marina França Dias, Kwangsic Joo, Jessica A Kemp, Silvia Ligório Fialho, Armando da Silva Cunha, Se Joon Woo, Young Jik Kwon
Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a hereditary retinopathy that affects about 2.5 million people worldwide. It is characterized with progressive loss of rods and cones and causes severe visual dysfunction and eventual blindness in bilateral eyes. In addition to more than 3000 genetic mutations from about 70 genes, a wide genetic overlap with other types of retinal dystrophies has been reported with RP. This diversity of genetic pathophysiology makes treatment extremely challenging. Although therapeutic attempts have been made using various pharmacologic agents (neurotrophic factors, antioxidants, and anti-apoptotic agents), most are not targeted to the fundamental cause of RP, and their clinical efficacy has not been clearly proven...
October 31, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111299/diagnosis-and-treatment-guideline-for-myopic-choroidal-neovascularization-due-to-pathologic-myopia
#10
REVIEW
Kyoko Ohno-Matsui, Yasushi Ikuno, Timothy Y Y Lai, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung
Pathologic myopia is a leading cause of visual impairment. Development of myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is one of the most common complications that leads to central vision loss in patients with pathologic myopia. If left untreated, it can cause scarring with expanding macular atrophy leading to irreversible visual loss in a period as short as 5 years. Advancements in multimodal imaging technology have furthered our understanding of the condition; however, further studies are necessary to extend its utility in the diagnosis of myopic CNV...
October 27, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061346/genotype-functional-phenotype-correlations-in-photoreceptor-guanylate-cyclase-gc-e-encoded-by-gucy2d
#11
REVIEW
Dror Sharon, Hanna Wimberg, Yael Kinarty, Karl-Wilhelm Koch
The GUCY2D gene encodes for the photoreceptor guanylate cyclase GC-E that synthesizes the intracellular messenger of photoreceptor excitation cGMP and is regulated by intracellular Ca(2+)-sensor proteins named guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs). Over 140 disease-causing mutations have been described so far in GUCY2D, 88% of which cause autosomal recessive Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) while heterozygous missense mutations cause autosomal dominant cone-rod degeneration (adCRD). Mutations in GUCY2D are one of the major causes of all LCA cases and are the major cause of adCRD...
October 20, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668352/the-chick-eye-in-vision-research-an-excellent-model-for-the-study-of-ocular-disease
#12
REVIEW
C Ellis Wisely, Javed A Sayed, Heather Tamez, Chris Zelinka, Mohamed H Abdel-Rahman, Andy J Fischer, Colleen M Cebulla
The domestic chicken, Gallus gallus, serves as an excellent model for the study of a wide range of ocular diseases and conditions. The purpose of this manuscript is to outline some anatomic, physiologic, and genetic features of this organism as a robust animal model for vision research, particularly for modeling human retinal disease. Advantages include a sequenced genome, a large eye, relative ease of handling and maintenance, and ready availability. Relevant similarities and differences to humans are highlighted for ocular structures as well as for general physiologic processes...
November 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602950/on-phagocytes-and-macular-degeneration
#13
REVIEW
Xavier Guillonneau, Chiara M Eandi, Michel Paques, José-Alain Sahel, Przemyslaw Sapieha, Florian Sennlaub
Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex multifactorial disease caused by the interplay of age and genetic and environmental risk factors. A common feature observed in early and both forms of late AMD is the breakdown of the physiologically immunosuppressive subretinal environment and the protracted accumulation of mononuclear phagocytes (MP). We here discuss the origin and nature of subretinal MPs, the mechanisms that lead to their accumulation, the inflammatory mediators they produce as well as the consequences of their chronic presence on photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium and choroid...
November 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602949/connexin-channel-and-its-role-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#14
REVIEW
Sayon Roy, Jean X Jiang, An-Fei Li, Dongjoon Kim
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in the working age population. Unfortunately, there is no cure for this devastating ocular complication. The early stage of diabetic retinopathy is characterized by the loss of various cell types in the retina, namely endothelial cells and pericytes. As the disease progresses, vascular leakage, a clinical hallmark of diabetic retinopathy, becomes evident and may eventually lead to diabetic macular edema, the most common cause of vision loss in diabetic retinopathy...
November 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602573/dopamine-signaling-and-myopia-development-what-are-the-key-challenges
#15
REVIEW
Xiangtian Zhou, Machelle T Pardue, P Michael Iuvone, Jia Qu
In the face of an "epidemic" increase in myopia over the last decades and myopia prevalence predicted to reach 2.5 billion people by the end of this decade, there is an urgent need to develop effective and safe therapeutic interventions to slow down this "myopia booming" and prevent myopia-related complications and vision loss. Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the retina and mediates diverse functions including retina development, visual signaling, and refractive development. Inspired by the convergence of epidemiological and animal studies in support of the inverse relationship between outdoor activity and risk of developing myopia and by the close biological relationship between light exposure and dopamine release/signaling, we felt it is timely and important to critically review the role of DA in myopia development...
November 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587935/human-antimicrobial-peptides-in-ocular-surface-defense
#16
REVIEW
Imran Mohammed, Dalia G Said, Harminder S Dua
Sight depends on the passage of light through the transparent cornea and being focused on the fovea. Its exposed position renders it vulnerable to microbial infection. The cornea has developed a wide array of defense mechanisms against infection, of which endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are key. AMPs are essentially small molecular weight cationic peptides with a wide range of activity against virus, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Some proteins such as RNases and S100As are also included in this group...
November 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532687/the-role-of-systemic-and-topical-fatty-acids-for-dry-eye-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Stefano Barabino, Jutta Horwath-Winter, Elisabeth M Messmer, Maurizio Rolando, Pasquale Aragona, Shigeru Kinoshita
Dry eye is a prevalent condition and one of the main reasons for patients to seek ophthalmic medical care. A low systemic level of omega fatty acids is a risk factor for dry eye disease (DED). There are two groups of essential fatty acids (EFAs): the omega-6 (n-6) family and the omega-3 (n-3) family. Humans evolved on a diet in which the n-6:n-3 ratio was approximately 1:1, however the current Western diet tends to be deficient in n-3 EFAs and this ratio is typically much higher (approaching 17:1). The metabolism of EFAs generates four new families of local acting mediators: lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins...
November 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042326/the-molecular-and-cellular-basis-of-rhodopsin-retinitis-pigmentosa-reveals-potential-strategies-for-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Dimitra Athanasiou, Monica Aguila, James Bellingham, Wenwen Li, Caroline McCulley, Philip J Reeves, Michael E Cheetham
Inherited mutations in the rod visual pigment, rhodopsin, cause the degenerative blinding condition, retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Over 150 different mutations in rhodopsin have been identified and, collectively, they are the most common cause of autosomal dominant RP (adRP). Mutations in rhodopsin are also associated with dominant congenital stationary night blindness (adCSNB) and, less frequently, recessive RP (arRP). Recessive RP is usually associated with loss of rhodopsin function, whereas the dominant conditions are a consequence of gain of function and/or dominant negative activity...
October 16, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962928/the-mechanism-of-cone-cell-death-in-retinitis-pigmentosa
#19
REVIEW
Peter A Campochiaro, Tahreem A Mir
Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a group of diseases in which one of a large number of mutations causes death of rod photoreceptors. After rods die, cone photoreceptors slowly degenerate in a characteristic pattern. The mechanism of rod cell death varies depending upon the gene that is mutated and the rate that rods degenerate is an important prognostic feature, because cones do not begin to degenerate until almost all rods have been eliminated. Rod cell death causes night blindness, but visual disability and blindness result from cone degeneration and therefore it is critical to determine the mechanisms by which it occurs...
September 27, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958885/pathophysiology-screening-and-treatment-of-rop-a-multi-disciplinary-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Tailoi Chan-Ling, Glen A Gole, Graham E Quinn, Samuel J Adamson, Brian A Darlow
The population of infants at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) varies by world region; in countries with well developed neonatal intensive care services, the highest risk infants are those born at less than 28 weeks gestational age (GA) and less than 1 kg at birth, while, in regions where many aspects of neonatal intensive and ophthalmological care are not routinely available, more mature infants up to 2000 g at birth and 37 weeks GA are also at risk for severe ROP. Treatment options for both groups of patients include standard retinal laser photocoagulation or, more recently, intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs...
September 27, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
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