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Progress in Retinal and Eye Research

Michel Paques, Serge Meimon, Florence Rossant, David Rosenbaum, Sarah Mrejen, Florian Sennlaub, Kate Grieve
Adaptive optics (AO)-enhanced en face retinal imaging, termed here AO ophthalmoscopy (AOO) has reached a level of robustness which fuels its increasing use in research and clinical centers. Here we will review the contribution of clinical AOO to the understanding and monitoring of 1) age-related macular degeneration and 2) vascular diseases. The main contributions of AOO to the phenotyping of AMD are a better identification of drusen, a better delineation of the limits of atrophy, and the identification of novel features such as punctate hyperreflectivity and mobile melanin-containing clumps...
July 13, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Sophia Wienbar, GregoryW Schwartz
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were one of the first classes of sensory neurons to be described in terms of a receptive field (RF). Over the last six decades, our understanding of the diversity of RGC types and the nuances of their response properties has grown exponentially. We will review the current understanding of RGC receptive fields (RFs) mostly from studies in mammals, but including work from other vertebrates as well. We will argue for a new paradigm that embraces the fluidity of RGC RFs with an eye toward the neuroethology of vision...
June 23, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Jonathan B Lin, Rajendra S Apte
Retinal degenerative diseases are a major cause of morbidity in modern society because visual impairment significantly decreases the quality of life of patients. A significant challenge in treating retinal degenerative diseases is their genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. However, despite this diversity, many of these diseases share a common endpoint involving death of light-sensitive photoreceptors. Identifying common pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to photoreceptor death in these diverse diseases may lead to a unifying therapy for multiple retinal diseases that would be highly innovative and address a great clinical need...
June 12, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Frans Vinberg, Jeannie Chen, Vladimir J Kefalov
Calcium plays important roles in the function and survival of rod and cone photoreceptor cells. Rapid regulation of calcium in the outer segments of photoreceptors is required for the modulation of phototransduction that drives the termination of the flash response as well as light adaptation in rods and cones. On a slower time scale, maintaining proper calcium homeostasis is critical for the health and survival of photoreceptors. Decades of work have established that the level of calcium in the outer segments of rods and cones is regulated by a dynamic equilibrium between influx via the transduction cGMP-gated channels and extrusion via rod- and cone-specific Na+ /Ca2+ , K+ exchangers (NCKXs)...
June 6, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Rabab Sharif, Sashia Bak-Nielsen, Jesper Hjortdal, Dimitrios Karamichos
Keratoconus (KC) is the most common ectatic corneal disease, with clinical findings that include discomfort, visual disturbance and possible blindness if left untreated. KC affects approximately 1:400 to 1:2000 people worldwide, including both males and females. The aetiology and onset of KC remains a puzzle and as a result, the ability to treat or reverse the disease is hampered. Sex hormones are known to play a role in the maintenance of the structure and integrity of the human cornea. Hormone levels have been reported to alter corneal thickness, curvature, and sensitivity during different times of menstrual cycle...
May 11, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Ben Katz, Baruch Minke
The Drosophila light-activated Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channel is the founding member of a large and diverse family of channel proteins. It is now established that TRP channels are evolutionarily conserved and are found in many organisms and tissues. This review outlines the progress made in our understanding of Drosophila phototransduction with a focus on the light sensitive TRP channels. The visual system of Drosophila has remarkable capabilities, such as single photon sensitivity, low dark noise, wide dynamic range of responses to changing ambient light intensities and an unusually wide range of frequency responses to modulated lights...
May 5, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Elisabeth M van Leeuwen, Eszter Emri, Benedicte M J Merle, Johanna M Colijn, Eveline Kersten, Audrey Cougnard-Gregoire, Sascha Dammeier, Magda Meester-Smoor, Frances M Pool, Eiko K de Jong, Cécile Delcourt, Eduardo Rodrigez-Bocanegra, Marc Biarnés, Philip J Luthert, Marius Ueffing, Caroline C W Klaver, Everson Nogoceke, Anneke I den Hollander, Imre Lengyel
There is an urgency to find new treatment strategies that could prevent or delay the onset or progression of AMD. Different classes of lipids and lipoproteins metabolism genes have been associated with AMD in a multiple ways, but despite the ever-increasing knowledge base, we still do not understand fully how circulating lipids or local lipid metabolism contribute to AMD. It is essential to clarify whether dietary lipids, systemic or local lipoprotein metabolismtrafficking of lipids in the retina should be targeted in the disease...
May 4, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Ronald H Douglas
The timecourse and extent of changes in pupil area in response to light are reviewed in all classes of vertebrate and cephalopods. Although the speed and extent of these responses vary, most species, except the majority of teleost fish, show extensive changes in pupil area related to light exposure. The neuromuscular pathways underlying light-evoked pupil constriction are described and found to be relatively conserved, although the precise autonomic mechanisms differ somewhat between species. In mammals, illumination of only one eye is known to cause constriction in the unilluminated pupil...
May 1, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
João Rafael de Oliveira Dias, Camila V Ventura, Bruno de Paula Freitas, Juliana Prazeres, Liana O Ventura, Vasco Bravo-Filho, Tomas Aleman, Albert Icksang Ko, Andréa Zin, Rubens Belfort, Mauricio Maia
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus mainly transmitted to humans by mosquitoes from Aedes genus. Other ways of transmission include the perinatal and sexual routes, blood transfusion, and laboratory exposure. Although the first human cases were registered in 1952 in African countries, outbreaks were only reported since 2007, when entire Pacific islands were affected. In March 2015, the first cases of ZIKV acute infection were notified in Brazil and, to date, 48 countries and territories in the Americas have confirmed local mosquito-borne transmission of ZIKV...
April 24, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Harminder S Dua, Dalia G Said, Elisabeth M Messmer, Maurizio Rolando, Jose M Benitez-Del-Castillo, Parwez N Hossain, Alex J Shortt, Gerd Gerling, Mario Nubile, Francisco C Figueiredo, Saaeha Rauz, Leonardo Mastropasqua, Paolo Rama, Christophe Baudouin
Neurotrophic Keratopathy (NK) refers to a condition where corneal epitheliopathy leading to frank epithelial defect with or without stromal ulceration (melting) is associated with reduced or absent corneal sensations. Sensory nerves serve nociceptor and trophic functions, which can be affected independently or simultaneously. Loss of trophic function and consequent epithelial breakdown exposes the stroma making it susceptible to enzymatic degradation. Nerve pathology can range from attrition to aberrant re-generation with corresponding symptoms from anaesthesia to hyperaesthesia/allodynia...
April 23, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
C Willshire, A J Bron, E A Gaffney, E Ian Pearce
The osmolarities of various bodily fluids, including tears, saliva and urine, have been used as indices of plasma osmolality, a measure of body hydration, while tear osmolarity is used routinely in dry eye diagnosis, the degree of tear hyperosmolarity providing an index of disease severity. Systemic dehydration, due to inadequate water intake or excessive water loss is common in the elderly population, has a high morbidity and may cause loss of life. Its diagnosis is often overlooked and there is a need to develop a simple, bedside test to detect dehydration in this population...
May 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Elena Koudouna, Moritz Winkler, Eric Mikula, Tibor Juhasz, Donald J Brown, James V Jester
Although the cornea is the major refractive element of the eye, the mechanisms controlling corneal shape and hence visual acuity remain unknown. To begin to address this question we have used multiphoton, non-linear optical microscopy to image second harmonic generated signals (SHG) from collagen to characterize the evolutionary and structural changes that occur in the collagen architecture of the corneal stroma. Our studies show that there is a progression in complexity of the stromal collagen organization from lower (fish and amphibians) to higher (birds and mammals) vertebrates, leading to increasing tissue stiffness that may control shape...
May 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Marisse Masis Solano, Shan C Lin
Cataract extraction is a safe and effective surgery that has a lowering effect on the intraocular pressure. The specific mechanisms for this effect are still unclear. A direct inflammatory effect on the trabecular meshwork, alteration of the blood aqueous barrier, changes in the ciliary body and mechanical changes of the anterior segment anatomy are the key to understand cataract surgery and it's effects on aqueous humor dynamics. Additionally, with the advent of AS OCT, changes in the anterior segment of the eye have been studied and several parameters (such as lens vault, angle opening distance and anterior chamber depth) have been identified as predictors of intraocular pressure change...
May 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Xiaofeng Wen, Xiao Hu, Li Miao, Xiaofei Ge, Yuhua Deng, Paul W Bible, Lai Wei
Sight threatening immune responses that damage the eye characterize intraocular inflammatory diseases. These diseases including uveitis and age-related macular degeneration are worryingly common and quality of life shattering. Genetic studies in past decades significantly advanced our understanding of the etiology of these devastating diseases. Unfortunately, patient genetics alone failed to adequately explain disease origin, susceptibility, and progression. Non-genetic factors such as the epigenetic regulation of ocular diseases and the environmental factors triggering intraocular inflammation offer new insight into intraocular inflammatory disorders...
May 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Richard F Spaide, James G Fujimoto, Nadia K Waheed, Srinivas R Sadda, Giovanni Staurenghi
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was one of the biggest advances in ophthalmic imaging. Building on that platform, OCT angiography (OCTA) provides depth resolved images of blood flow in the retina and choroid with levels of detail far exceeding that obtained with older forms of imaging. This new modality is challenging because of the need for new equipment and processing techniques, current limitations of imaging capability, and rapid advancements in both imaging and in our understanding of the imaging and applicable pathophysiology of the retina and choroid...
May 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Anton Reiner, Malinda E C Fitzgerald, Nobel Del Mar, Chunyan Li
The choroid is richly innervated by parasympathetic, sympathetic and trigeminal sensory nerve fibers that regulate choroidal blood flow in birds and mammals, and presumably other vertebrate classes as well. The parasympathetic innervation has been shown to vasodilate and increase choroidal blood flow, the sympathetic input has been shown to vasoconstrict and decrease choroidal blood flow, and the sensory input has been shown to both convey pain and thermal information centrally and act locally to vasodilate and increase choroidal blood flow...
May 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Jean-Sébastien Joyal, Marin L Gantner, Lois E H Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Marcus Ang, Mani Baskaran, René M Werkmeister, Jacqueline Chua, Doreen Schmidl, Valentin Aranha Dos Santos, Gerhard Garhöfer, Jodhbir S Mehta, Leopold Schmetterer
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides non-contact, rapid in vivo imaging of ocular structures, and has become a key part of evaluating the anterior segment of the eye. Over the years, improvements to technology have increased the speed of capture and resolution of images, leading to the increasing impact of anterior segment OCT imaging on clinical practice. In this review, we summarize the historical development of anterior segment OCT, and provide an update on the research and clinical applications of imaging the ocular surface, cornea, anterior chamber structures, aqueous outflow system, and most recently anterior segment vessels...
April 7, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Lewis E Fry, Eamonn Fahy, Vicki Chrysostomou, Flora Hui, Jessica Tang, Peter van Wijngaarden, Steven Petrou, Jonathan G Crowston
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration causes vision loss in patients with glaucoma, and this has been generally considered to be irreversible due to RGC death. We question this assertion and summarise accumulating evidence that points to visual function improving in glaucoma patients with treatment, particularly in the early stages of disease. We propose that prior to death, RGCs enter periods of dysfunction but can recover with relief of RGC stress. We first summarise the clinical evidence for vision improvement in glaucoma and then detail our experimental work that points to the underlying processes that underpin clinical improvement...
April 6, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Andreas Bringmann, Steffen Syrbe, Katja Görner, Johannes Kacza, Mike Francke, Peter Wiedemann, Andreas Reichenbach
A fovea is a pitted invagination in the inner retinal tissue (fovea interna) that overlies an area of photoreceptors specialized for high acuity vision (fovea externa). Although the shape of the vertebrate fovea varies considerably among the species, there are two basic types. The retina of many predatory fish, reptilians, and birds possess one (or two) convexiclivate fovea(s), while the retina of higher primates contains a concaviclivate fovea. By refraction of the incoming light, the convexiclivate fovea may function as image enlarger, focus indicator, and movement detector...
March 30, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
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