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Progress in Retinal and Eye Research

Sylvia J Gasparini, Sílvia Llonch, Oliver Borsch, Marius Ader
The mammalian retina displays no intrinsic regenerative capacities, therefore retinal degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or retinitis pigmentosa (RP) result in a permanent loss of the light-sensing photoreceptor cells. The degeneration of photoreceptors leads to vision impairment and, in later stages, complete blindness. Several therapeutic strategies have been developed to slow down or prevent further retinal degeneration, however a definitive cure i.e. replacement of the lost photoreceptors, has not yet been established...
November 13, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Kehao Wang, Barbara K Pierscionek
The ability of the human lens to accommodate is mediated by the ciliary muscle and zonule; the manifest optical power changes depend on the shape and material properties of the lens. The latter are difficult to measure with accuracy and, given the dynamic aspects of accommodation and the ageing of cells and tissues, the biomechanics of the lens is neither fixed nor constant. A range of techniques have been developed to measure both ageing trends and spatial variations in the mechanical properties and these have yielded a diverse array of findings and respective conclusions...
November 12, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Inês Laíns, Mari Gantner, Salome Murinello, Jessica A Lasky-Su, Joan W Miller, Martin Friedlander, Deeba Husain
Metabolomics is the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the metabolites (small molecules < 1.5 kDa) in body fluids. The metabolites are the downstream of the genetic transcription and translation processes and also downstream of the interactions with environmental exposures; thus, they are thought to closely relate to the phenotype, especially for multifactorial diseases. In the last decade, metabolomics has been increasingly used to identify biomarkers in disease, and it is currently recognized as a very powerful tool with great potential for clinical translation...
November 10, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Zi-Bing Jin, Mei-Ling Gao, Wen-Li Deng, Kun-Chao Wu, Sunao Sugita, Michiko Mandai, Masayo Takahashi
Cell replacement therapy is a promising treatment for irreversible retinal cell death in diverse diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), Stargardt's disease, retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and glaucoma. These diseases are all characterized by the degeneration of one or two retinal cell types that cannot regenerate spontaneously in humans. Aberrant retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can be observed through optical coherence tomography (OCT) in AMD patients. In RP patients, the morphological and functional abnormalities of RPE and photoreceptor layers are caused by a genetic abnormality...
November 9, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Jorge Ruiz-Medrano, Javier A Montero, Ignacio Flores-Moreno, Luis Arias, Alfredo García-Layana, José M Ruiz-Moreno
Myopia is a highly frequent ocular disorder worldwide and pathologic myopia is the 4th most common cause of irreversible blindness in developed countries. Pathologic myopia is especially common in East Asian countries. Ocular alterations associated with pathologic myopia, especially those involving the macular area-defined as myopic maculopathy-are the leading causes of vision loss in patients with pathologic myopia. High myopia is defined as the presence of a highly negative refractive error (>-6 to -8 diopters) in the context of eye elongation (26-26...
November 1, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Tine Van Bergen, Isabelle Etienne, Fiona Cunningham, Lieve Moons, Reinier O Schlingemann, Jean H M Feyen, Alan W Stitt
Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. Upon binding to VEGF- and neuropilin-receptor sub-types, PlGF modulates a range of neural, glial and vascular cell responses that are distinct from VEGF-A. As PlGF expression is selectively associated with pathological angiogenesis and inflammation, its blockade does not affect the healthy vasculature. PlGF actions have been extensively described in tumor biology but more recently there has been accumulating preclinical evidence that indicates that this growth factor could have an important role in retinal diseases...
October 30, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Mei Chen, Chang Luo, Jiawu Zhao, Gayathri Devarajan, Heping Xu
The retina is an immune privileged tissue, which is protected from external and internal insults by its blood-retinal barriers and immune suppressive microenvironment. Apart from the avoidance and tolerance strategies, the retina is also protected by its own defense system, i.e., microglia and the complement system. The immune privilege and defense mechanisms work together to maintain retinal homeostasis. During aging, the retina is at an increased risk of developing various degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucomatous retinopathy...
October 20, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Gorka Orive, Edorta Santos-Vizcaino, Jose Luis Pedraz, Rosa Maria Hernandez, Julia E Vela Ramirez, Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Ali Khademhosseini, Nicholas A Peppas, Dwaine F Emerich
Millions of people worldwide suffer from debilitating, progressive, and often permanent loss of vision without any viable treatment options. The complex physiological barriers of the eye contribute to the difficulty in developing novel therapies by limiting our ability to deliver therapeutics in a sustained and controlled manner; especially when attempting to deliver drugs to the posterior eye or trying to regenerate the diseased retina. Cell-based therapies offer a significant potential advancement in these situations...
October 17, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Nicola Quinn, Lajos Csincsik, Erin Flynn, Christine A Curcio, Szilard Kiss, SriniVas R Sadda, Ruth Hogg, Tunde Peto, Imre Lengyel
Recent developments in imaging technologies now allow the documentation, qualitative and quantitative evaluation of peripheral retinal lesions. As wide field retinal imaging, capturing both the central and peripheral retina up to 200° eccentricity, is becoming readily available the question is: what is it that we gain by imaging the periphery? Based on accumulating evidence it is clear that findings in the periphery do not always associate to those observed in the posterior pole. However, the newly acquired information may provide useful clues to previously unrecognised disease features and may facilitate more accurate disease prognostication...
October 10, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
James S Wolffsohn, Leon N Davies
Presbyopia is a global problem affecting over a billion people worldwide. The prevalence of unmanaged presbyopia is as high as 50% of those over 50 years of age in developing world populations, due to a lack of awareness and accessibility to affordable treatment, and is even as high as 34% in developed countries. Definitions of presbyopia are inconsistent and varied, so we propose a redefinition that states "presbyopia occurs when the physiologically normal age-related reduction in the eye's focusing range reaches a point, when optimally corrected for distance vision, that the clarity of vision at near is insufficient to satisfy an individual's requirements"...
September 19, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Thibaud Mathis, Pauline Jardel, Olivier Loria, Benoit Delaunay, Anh-Minh Nguyen, Francesco Lanza, Carlo Mosci, Jean-Pierre Caujolle, Laurent Kodjikian, Juliette Thariat
The most frequent site of ocular metastasis is the choroid. The occurrence of choroidal metastases has increased steadily due to the longer survival of metastatic patients and the improvement of diagnostic tools. Fundoscopy, ultrasonography, and fluorescein angiography are now complemented by indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography. Choroidal tumor biopsy may also confirm the metastatic nature of the tumor and help to determine the site of the primary malignancy. There is currently no consensus on the treatment strategy...
September 19, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Leah P Foltz, Dennis O Clegg
The human retina is a highly complex tissue that makes up an integral part of our central nervous system. It is astonishing that our retina works seamlessly to provide one of our most critical senses, and it is equally devastating when a disease destroys a portion of the retina and robs people of their vision. After decades of research, scientists are beginning to understand retinal cells in a way that can benefit the millions of individuals suffering from inherited blindness. This understanding has come about in part with the ability to culture human embryonic stem cells and the innovation of induced pluripotent stem cells, which can be cultured from patients and used to model their disease...
September 11, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Marta Fernández-Nogales, Verónica Murcia-Belmonte, Holly Yu Chen, Eloísa Herrera
Numerous degenerative diseases affecting visual function, including glaucoma and retinitis pigmentosa, are produced by the loss of different types of retinal cells. Cell replacement therapy has emerged as a promising strategy for treating these and other retinal diseases. The retinal margin or ciliary body (CB) of mammals has been proposed as a potential source of cells to be used in degenerative conditions affecting the retina because it has been reported it might hold neurogenic potential beyond embryonic development...
September 8, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Jia Hui Lee, Jiang-Hui Wang, Jinying Chen, Fan Li, Thomas L Edwards, Alex W Hewitt, Guei-Sheung Liu
Many clinical trials using gene therapy have shown significant therapeutic benefits and exceptional safety records. Increasing evidence is verifying the long sought-after promise that gene therapy will genetically 'cure' some severely disabling diseases. In particular, the first gene therapy bioproduct for RPE65-associated Leber's congenital amaurosis, which was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2017, has provided tremendous encouragement to the field of gene therapy. Recent developments in genome editing technologies have significantly advanced our capability to precisely engineer genomes in eukaryotic cells...
August 29, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Stephen A Burns, Ann E Elsner, Kaitlyn A Sapoznik, Raymond L Warner, Thomas J Gast
Adaptive Optics (AO) retinal imaging has provided revolutionary tools to scientists and clinicians for studying retinal structure and function in the living eye. From animal models to clinical patients, AO imaging is changing the way scientists are approaching the study of the retina. By providing cellular and subcellular details without the need for histology, it is now possible to perform large scale studies as well as to understand how an individual retina changes over time. Because AO retinal imaging is non-invasive and when performed with near-IR wavelengths both safe and easily tolerated by patients, it holds promise for being incorporated into clinical trials providing cell specific approaches to monitoring diseases and therapeutic interventions...
August 27, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Sophia Wienbar, Gregory W Schwartz
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were one of the first classes of sensory neurons to be described in terms of a receptive field (RF). Over the last six decades, our understanding of the diversity of RGC types and the nuances of their response properties has grown exponentially. We will review the current understanding of RGC RFs mostly from studies in mammals, but including work from other vertebrates as well. We will argue for a new paradigm that embraces the fluidity of RGC RFs with an eye toward the neuroethology of vision...
November 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Jonathan B Lin, Rajendra S Apte
Retinal degenerative diseases are a major cause of morbidity in modern society because visual impairment significantly decreases the quality of life of patients. A significant challenge in treating retinal degenerative diseases is their genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. However, despite this diversity, many of these diseases share a common endpoint involving death of light-sensitive photoreceptors. Identifying common pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to photoreceptor death in these diverse diseases may lead to a unifying therapy for multiple retinal diseases that would be highly innovative and address a great clinical need...
November 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Frans Vinberg, Jeannie Chen, Vladimir J Kefalov
Calcium plays important roles in the function and survival of rod and cone photoreceptor cells. Rapid regulation of calcium in the outer segments of photoreceptors is required for the modulation of phototransduction that drives the termination of the flash response as well as light adaptation in rods and cones. On a slower time scale, maintaining proper calcium homeostasis is critical for the health and survival of photoreceptors. Decades of work have established that the level of calcium in the outer segments of rods and cones is regulated by a dynamic equilibrium between influx via the transduction cGMP-gated channels and extrusion via rod- and cone-specific Na+ /Ca2+ , K+ exchangers (NCKXs)...
November 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Rabab Sharif, Sashia Bak-Nielsen, Jesper Hjortdal, Dimitrios Karamichos
Keratoconus (KC) is the most common ectatic corneal disease, with clinical findings that include discomfort, visual disturbance and possible blindness if left untreated. KC affects approximately 1:400 to 1:2000 people worldwide, including both males and females. The aetiology and onset of KC remains a puzzle and as a result, the ability to treat or reverse the disease is hampered. Sex hormones are known to play a role in the maintenance of the structure and integrity of the human cornea. Hormone levels have been reported to alter corneal thickness, curvature, and sensitivity during different times of menstrual cycle...
November 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Marina França Dias, Kwangsic Joo, Jessica A Kemp, Silvia Ligório Fialho, Armando da Silva Cunha, Se Joon Woo, Young Jik Kwon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
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