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Progress in Retinal and Eye Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532687/the-role-of-systemic-and-topical-fatty-acids-for-dry-eye-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Stefano Barabino, Jutta Horwath-Winter, Elisabeth M Messmer, Maurizio Rolando, Pasquale Aragona, Shigeru Kinoshita
Dry eye is a prevalent condition and one of the main reasons for patients to seek ophthalmic medical care. A low systemic level of omega fatty acids is a risk factor for dry eye disease (DED). There are two groups of essential fatty acids (EFAs): the omega-6 (n-6) family and the omega-3 (n-3) family. Humans evolved on a diet in which the n-6:n-3 ratio was approximately 1:1, however the current Western diet tends to be deficient in n-3 EFAs and this ratio is typically much higher (approaching 17:1). The metabolism of EFAs generates four new families of local acting mediators: lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins...
May 19, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504202/corrigendum-to-the-rod-driven-a-wave-of-the-dark-adapted-mammalian-electroretinogram-progress-in-retinal-and-eye-research-volume-39-march-2014-pages-1-22
#2
REVIEW
John G Robson, Laura J Frishman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504201/cilia-the-sensory-antennae-in-the-eye
#3
REVIEW
Helen May-Simera, Kerstin Nagel-Wolfrum, Uwe Wolfrum
Cilia are hair-like projections found on almost all cells in the human body. Originally believed to function merely in motility, the function of solitary non-motile (primary) cilia was long overlooked. Recent research has demonstrated that primary cilia function as signalling hubs that sense environmental cues and are pivotal for organ development and function, tissue hoemoestasis, and maintenance of human health. Cilia share a common anatomy and their diverse functional features are achieved by evolutionarily conserved functional modules, organized into sub-compartments...
May 11, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465249/the-application-of-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-uveitis-and-inflammatory-eye-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Francesco Pichi, David Sarraf, Sruthi Arepalli, Careen Y Lowder, Emmett T Cunningham, Piergiorgio Neri, Thomas A Albini, Vishali Gupta, Kimberly Baynes, Sunil K Srivastava
Since its introduction in the early 1990s, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has evolved in resolution and technological advances, and in recent years its initial application of assessing the morphology of a tissue has been implemented by the study of its functional blood flow, through optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). This novel technique details capillary networks by comparing the amount of light returned from static and moving targets without the need for intravenous dye administration. While this imaging modality has been used for various ocular conditions, the application OCTA to uveitis conditions remains sparse...
April 29, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465248/roles-of-exosomes-in-the-normal-and-diseased-eye
#5
REVIEW
Mikael Klingeborn, W Michael Dismuke, Catherine Bowes Rickman, W Daniel Stamer
Exosomes are nanometer-sized vesicles that are released by cells in a controlled fashion and mediate a plethora of extra- and intercellular activities. Some key functions of exosomes include cell-cell communication, immune modulation, extracellular matrix turnover, stem cell division/differentiation, neovascularization and cellular waste removal. While much is known about their role in cancer, exosome function in the many specialized tissues of the eye is just beginning to undergo rigorous study. Here we review current knowledge of exosome function in the visual system in the context of larger bodies of data from other fields, in both health and disease...
April 29, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457789/lateral-thinking-interocular-symmetry-and-asymmetry-in-neurovascular-patterning-in-health-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
James R Cameron, Roly D Megaw, Andrew J Tatham, Sarah McGrory, Thomas J MacGillivray, Fergus N Doubal, Joanna M Wardlaw, Emanuele Trucco, Siddharthan Chandran, Baljean Dhillon
No biological system or structure is likely to be perfectly symmetrical, or have identical right and left forms. This review explores the evidence for eye and visual pathway asymmetry, in health and in disease, and attempts to provide guidance for those studying the structure and function of the visual system, where recognition of symmetry or asymmetry may be essential. The principal question with regards to asymmetry is not 'are the eyes the same?', for some degree of asymmetry is pervasive, but 'when are they importantly different?'...
April 28, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450146/alternatives-to-eye-bank-native-tissue-for-corneal-stromal-replacement
#7
REVIEW
Isabelle Brunette, Cynthia J Roberts, François Vidal, Mona Harissi-Dagher, Jean Lachaine, Heather Sheardown, Georges M Durr, Stéphanie Proulx, May Griffith
Corneal blindness is a major cause of blindness in the world and corneal transplantation is the only widely accepted treatment to restore sight in these eyes. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult for eye banks to meet the increasing demand for transplantable tissue, which is in part due to population aging. Donor tissue shortage is therefore a growing concern globally and there is a need for alternatives to human donor corneas. Biosynthetic corneal substitutes offer several significant advantages over native corneas: Large-scale production offers a powerful potential solution to the severe shortage of human donor corneas worldwide; Good manufacturing practices ensure sterility and quality control; Acellular corneal substitutes circumvent immune rejection induced by allogeneic cells; Optical and biomechanical properties of the implants can be adapted to the clinical need; and finally these corneal substitutes could benefit from new advances in biomaterials science, such as surface coating, functionalization and nanoparticles...
April 24, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411123/the-lens-growth-process
#8
REVIEW
Steven Bassnett, Hrvoje Šikić
The factors that regulate the size of organs to ensure that they fit within an organism are not well understood. A simple organ, the ocular lens serves as a useful model with which to tackle this problem. In many systems, considerable variance in the organ growth process is tolerable. This is almost certainly not the case in the lens, which in addition to fitting comfortably within the eyeball, must also be of the correct size and shape to focus light sharply onto the retina. Furthermore, the lens does not perform its optical function in isolation...
April 11, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363849/unravelling-the-genetics-of-inherited-retinal-dystrophies-past-present-and-future
#9
REVIEW
Suzanne Broadgate, Jing Yu, Susan M Downes, Stephanie Halford
The identification of the genes underlying monogenic diseases has been of interest to clinicians and scientists for many years. Using inherited retinal dystrophies as an example of monogenic disease we describe the history of molecular genetic techniques that have been pivotal in the discovery of disease causing genes. The methods that were developed in the 1970's and 80's are still in use today but have been refined and improved. These techniques enabled the concept of the Human Genome Project to be envisaged and ultimately realised...
March 29, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336424/the-impact-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-on-rpe-degeneration-in-non-neovascular-amd
#10
REVIEW
Sayantan Datta, Marisol Cano, Katayoon Ebrahimi, Lei Wang, James T Handa
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a highly specialized, unique epithelial cell that interacts with photoreceptors on its apical side and with Bruch's membrane and the choriocapillaris on its basal side. Due to vital functions that keep photoreceptors healthy, the RPE is essential for maintaining vision. With aging and the accumulated effects of environmental stresses, the RPE can become dysfunctional and die. This degeneration plays a central role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathobiology, the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in western societies...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300644/the-connective-tissue-phenotype-of-glaucomatous-cupping-in-the-monkey-eye-clinical-and-research-implications
#11
REVIEW
Hongli Yang, Juan Reynaud, Howard Lockwood, Galen Williams, Christy Hardin, Luke Reyes, Cheri Stowell, Stuart K Gardiner, Claude F Burgoyne
In a series of previous publications we have proposed a framework for conceptualizing the optic nerve head (ONH) as a biomechanical structure. That framework proposes important roles for intraocular pressure (IOP), IOP-related stress and strain, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp), systemic and ocular determinants of blood flow, inflammation, auto-immunity, genetics, and other non-IOP related risk factors in the physiology of ONH aging and the pathophysiology of glaucomatous damage to the ONH. The present report summarizes 20 years of technique development and study results pertinent to the characterization of ONH connective tissue deformation and remodeling in the unilateral monkey experimental glaucoma (EG) model...
March 12, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111324/bestrophinopathy-an-rpe-photoreceptor-interface-disease
#12
REVIEW
Karina E Guziewicz, Divya Sinha, Néstor M Gómez, Kathryn Zorych, Emily V Dutrow, Anuradha Dhingra, Robert F Mullins, Edwin M Stone, David M Gamm, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Gustavo D Aguirre
Bestrophinopathies, one of the most common forms of inherited macular degenerations, are caused by mutations in the BEST1 gene expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Both human and canine BEST1-linked maculopathies are characterized by abnormal accumulation of autofluorescent material within RPE cells and bilateral macular or multifocal lesions; however, the specific mechanism leading to the formation of these lesions remains unclear. We now provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on the molecular pathology of bestrophinopathies, and explore factors promoting formation of RPE-neuroretinal separations, using the first spontaneous animal model of BEST1-associated retinopathies, canine Best (cBest)...
May 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111323/cell-based-therapeutic-strategies-for-replacement-and-preservation-in-retinal-degenerative-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Melissa K Jones, Bin Lu, Sergey Girman, Shaomei Wang
Cell-based therapeutics offer diverse options for treating retinal degenerative diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). AMD is characterized by both genetic and environmental risks factors, whereas RP is mainly a monogenic disorder. Though treatments exist for some patients with neovascular AMD, a majority of retinal degenerative patients have no effective therapeutics, thus indicating a need for universal therapies to target diverse patient populations. Two main cell-based mechanistic approaches are being tested in clinical trials...
May 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109737/retinal-oxygen-from-animals-to-humans
#14
REVIEW
Robert A Linsenmeier, Hao F Zhang
This article discusses retinal oxygenation and retinal metabolism by focusing on measurements made with two of the principal methods used to study O2 in the retina: measurements of PO2 with oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes in vivo in animals with a retinal circulation similar to that of humans, and oximetry, which can be used non-invasively in both animals and humans to measure O2 concentration in retinal vessels. Microelectrodes uniquely have high spatial resolution, allowing the mapping of PO2 in detail, and when combined with mathematical models of diffusion and consumption, they provide information about retinal metabolism...
May 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064040/bax-to-basics-how-the-bcl2-gene-family-controls-the-death-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#15
REVIEW
Margaret E Maes, Cassandra L Schlamp, Robert W Nickells
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is the principal consequence of injury to the optic nerve. For several decades, we have understood that the RGC death process was executed by apoptosis, suggesting that there may be ways to therapeutically intervene in this cell death program and provide a more direct treatment to the cells and tissues affected in diseases like glaucoma. A major part of this endeavor has been to elucidate the molecular biological pathways active in RGCs from the point of axonal injury to the point of irreversible cell death...
March 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057562/imaging-retina-to-study-dementia-and-stroke
#16
REVIEW
Carol Yim-Lui Cheung, M Kamran Ikram, Christopher Chen, Tien Yin Wong
With increase in life expectancy, the number of persons suffering from common age-related brain diseases, including neurodegenerative (e.g., dementia) and cerebrovascular (e.g., stroke) disease is expected to rise substantially. As current neuro-imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging may not be able to detect subtle subclinical changes (resolution <100-500 μm) in dementia and stroke, there is an urgent need for other complementary techniques to probe the pathophysiology of these diseases...
March 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039061/primary-angle-closure-glaucoma-what-we-know-and-what-we-don-t-know
#17
REVIEW
Xinghuai Sun, Yi Dai, Yuhong Chen, Dao-Yi Yu, Stephen J Cringle, Junyi Chen, Xiangmei Kong, Xiaolei Wang, Chunhui Jiang
Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is a common cause of blindness. Angle closure is a fundamental pathologic process in PAGC. With the development of imaging devices for the anterior segment of the eye, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of angle closure has been reached. Aside from pupillary block and plateau iris, multiple-mechanisms are more common contributors for closure of the angle such as choroidal thickness and uveal expansion, which may be responsible for the presenting features of PACG...
March 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028002/aqueous-outflow-a-continuum-from-trabecular-meshwork-to-episcleral-veins
#18
REVIEW
Teresia Carreon, Elizabeth van der Merwe, Ronald L Fellman, Murray Johnstone, Sanjoy K Bhattacharya
In glaucoma, lowered intraocular pressure (IOP) confers neuroprotection. Elevated IOP characterizes glaucoma and arises from impaired aqueous humor (AH) outflow. Increased resistance in the trabecular meshwork (TM), a filter-like structure essential to regulate AH outflow, may result in the impaired outflow. Flow through the 360° circumference of TM structures may be non-uniform, divided into high and low flow regions, termed as segmental. After flowing through the TM, AH enters Schlemm's canal (SC), which expresses both blood and lymphatic markers; AH then passes into collector channel entrances (CCE) along the SC external well...
March 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028001/pharmacokinetic-aspects-of-retinal-drug-delivery
#19
REVIEW
Eva M Del Amo, Anna-Kaisa Rimpelä, Emma Heikkinen, Otto K Kari, Eva Ramsay, Tatu Lajunen, Mechthild Schmitt, Laura Pelkonen, Madhushree Bhattacharya, Dominique Richardson, Astrid Subrizi, Tiina Turunen, Mika Reinisalo, Jaakko Itkonen, Elisa Toropainen, Marco Casteleijn, Heidi Kidron, Maxim Antopolsky, Kati-Sisko Vellonen, Marika Ruponen, Arto Urtti
Drug delivery to the posterior eye segment is an important challenge in ophthalmology, because many diseases affect the retina and choroid leading to impaired vision or blindness. Currently, intravitreal injections are the method of choice to administer drugs to the retina, but this approach is applicable only in selected cases (e.g. anti-VEGF antibodies and soluble receptors). There are two basic approaches that can be adopted to improve retinal drug delivery: prolonged and/or retina targeted delivery of intravitreal drugs and use of other routes of drug administration, such as periocular, suprachoroidal, sub-retinal, systemic, or topical...
March 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012881/improving-our-understanding-and-detection-of-glaucomatous-damage-an-approach-based-upon-optical-coherence-tomography-oct
#20
REVIEW
Donald C Hood
Although ophthalmologists are becoming increasingly reliant upon optical coherence tomography (OCT), clinicians who care for glaucoma patients are not taking full advantage of the potential of this powerful technology. First, we ask, how would one describe the nature of glaucomatous damage if only OCT scans were available? In particular, a schematic model of glaucomatous damage is developed in section 2, and the nature of glaucomatous damage seen on OCT scans described in the context of this model in section 3...
March 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
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