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Progress in Retinal and Eye Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411123/the-lens-growth-process
#1
REVIEW
Steven Bassnett, Hrvoje Šikić
The factors that regulate the size of organs to ensure that they fit within an organism are not well understood. A simple organ, the ocular lens serves as a useful model with which to tackle this problem. In many systems, considerable variance in the organ growth process is tolerable. This is almost certainly not the case in the lens, which in addition to fitting comfortably within the eyeball, must also be of the correct size and shape to focus light sharply onto the retina. Furthermore, the lens does not perform its optical function in isolation...
April 11, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363849/unravelling-the-genetics-of-inherited-retinal-dystrophies-past-present-and-future
#2
REVIEW
Suzanne Broadgate, Jing Yu, Susan M Downes, Stephanie Halford
The identification of the genes underlying monogenic diseases has been of interest to clinicians and scientists for many years. Using inherited retinal dystrophies as an example of monogenic disease we describe the history of molecular genetic techniques that have been pivotal in the discovery of disease causing genes. The methods that were developed in the 1970's and 80's are still in use today but have been refined and improved. These techniques enabled the concept of the Human Genome Project to be envisaged and ultimately realised...
March 29, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336424/the-impact-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-on-rpe-degeneration-in-non-neovascular-amd
#3
REVIEW
Sayantan Datta, Marisol Cano, Katayoon Ebrahimi, Lei Wang, James T Handa
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a highly specialized, unique epithelial cell that interacts with photoreceptors on its apical side and with Bruch's membrane and the choriocapillaris on its basal side. Due to vital functions that keep photoreceptors healthy, the RPE is essential for maintaining vision. With aging and the accumulated effects of environmental stresses, the RPE can become dysfunctional and die. This degeneration plays a central role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathobiology, the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in western societies...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300644/the-connective-tissue-phenotype-of-glaucomatous-cupping-in-the-monkey-eye-clinical-and-research-implications
#4
REVIEW
Hongli Yang, Juan Reynaud, Howard Lockwood, Galen Williams, Christy Hardin, Luke Reyes, Cheri Stowell, Stuart K Gardiner, Claude F Burgoyne
In a series of previous publications we have proposed a framework for conceptualizing the optic nerve head (ONH) as a biomechanical structure. That framework proposes important roles for intraocular pressure (IOP), IOP-related stress and strain, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp), systemic and ocular determinants of blood flow, inflammation, auto-immunity, genetics, and other non-IOP related risk factors in the physiology of ONH aging and the pathophysiology of glaucomatous damage to the ONH. The present report summarizes 20 years of technique development and study results pertinent to the characterization of ONH connective tissue deformation and remodeling in the unilateral monkey experimental glaucoma (EG) model...
March 12, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254520/advances-in-thickness-measurements-and-dynamic-visualization-of-the-tear-film-using-non-invasive-optical-approaches
#5
REVIEW
Yuqiang Bai, Jason J Nichols
The thickness of tear film has been investigated under both invasive and non-invasive methods. While invasive methods are largely historical, more recent noninvasive methods are generally based on optical approaches that provide accurate, precise, and rapid measures. Optical microscopy, interferometry, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been developed to characterize the thickness of tear film or certain aspects of the tear film (e.g., the lipid layer). This review provides an in-depth overview on contemporary optical techniques used in studying the tear film, including both advantages and limitations of these approaches...
February 23, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223208/characterizing-the-poagome-a-bioinformatics-driven-approach-to-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#6
REVIEW
Ian D Danford, Lana D Verkuil, Daniel J Choi, David W Collins, Harini V Gudiseva, Katherine E Uyhazi, Marisa K Lau, Levi N Kanu, Gregory R Grant, Venkata R M Chavali, Joan M O'Brien
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a genetically, physiologically, and phenotypically complex neurodegenerative disorder. This study addressed the expanding collection of genes associated with POAG, referred to as the "POAGome." We used bioinformatics tools to perform an extensive, systematic literature search and compiled 542 genes with confirmed associations with POAG and its related phenotypes (normal tension glaucoma, ocular hypertension, juvenile open-angle glaucoma, and primary congenital glaucoma)...
February 20, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153808/bestrophin-1-and-retinal-disease
#7
REVIEW
Adiv A Johnson, Karina E Guziewicz, C Justin Lee, Ravi C Kalathur, Jose S Pulido, Lihua Y Marmorstein, Alan D Marmorstein
Mutations in the gene BEST1 are causally associated with as many as five clinically distinct retinal degenerative diseases, which are collectively referred to as the "bestrophinopathies". These five associated diseases are: Best vitelliform macular dystrophy, autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy, adult-onset vitelliform macular dystrophy, autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy, and retinitis pigmentosa. The most common of these is Best vitelliform macular dystrophy. Bestrophin 1 (Best1), the protein encoded by the gene BEST1, has been the subject of a great deal of research since it was first identified nearly two decades ago...
January 30, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064040/bax-to-basics-how-the-bcl2-gene-family-controls-the-death-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#8
REVIEW
Margaret E Maes, Cassandra L Schlamp, Robert W Nickells
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is the principal consequence of injury to the optic nerve. For several decades, we have understood that the RGC death process was executed by apoptosis, suggesting that there may be ways to therapeutically intervene in this cell death program and provide a more direct treatment to the cells and tissues affected in diseases like glaucoma. A major part of this endeavor has been to elucidate the molecular biological pathways active in RGCs from the point of axonal injury to the point of irreversible cell death...
March 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057562/imaging-retina-to-study-dementia-and-stroke
#9
REVIEW
Carol Yim-Lui Cheung, M Kamran Ikram, Christopher Chen, Tien Yin Wong
With increase in life expectancy, the number of persons suffering from common age-related brain diseases, including neurodegenerative (e.g., dementia) and cerebrovascular (e.g., stroke) disease is expected to rise substantially. As current neuro-imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging may not be able to detect subtle subclinical changes (resolution <100-500 μm) in dementia and stroke, there is an urgent need for other complementary techniques to probe the pathophysiology of these diseases...
March 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039061/primary-angle-closure-glaucoma-what-we-know-and-what-we-don-t-know
#10
REVIEW
Xinghuai Sun, Yi Dai, Yuhong Chen, Dao-Yi Yu, Stephen J Cringle, Junyi Chen, Xiangmei Kong, Xiaolei Wang, Chunhui Jiang
Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is a common cause of blindness. Angle closure is a fundamental pathologic process in PAGC. With the development of imaging devices for the anterior segment of the eye, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of angle closure has been reached. Aside from pupillary block and plateau iris, multiple-mechanisms are more common contributors for closure of the angle such as choroidal thickness and uveal expansion, which may be responsible for the presenting features of PACG...
March 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028002/aqueous-outflow-a-continuum-from-trabecular-meshwork-to-episcleral-veins
#11
REVIEW
Teresia Carreon, Elizabeth van der Merwe, Ronald L Fellman, Murray Johnstone, Sanjoy K Bhattacharya
In glaucoma, lowered intraocular pressure (IOP) confers neuroprotection. Elevated IOP characterizes glaucoma and arises from impaired aqueous humor (AH) outflow. Increased resistance in the trabecular meshwork (TM), a filter-like structure essential to regulate AH outflow, may result in the impaired outflow. Flow through the 360° circumference of TM structures may be non-uniform, divided into high and low flow regions, termed as segmental. After flowing through the TM, AH enters Schlemm's canal (SC), which expresses both blood and lymphatic markers; AH then passes into collector channel entrances (CCE) along the SC external well...
March 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028001/pharmacokinetic-aspects-of-retinal-drug-delivery
#12
REVIEW
Eva M Del Amo, Anna-Kaisa Rimpelä, Emma Heikkinen, Otto K Kari, Eva Ramsay, Tatu Lajunen, Mechthild Schmitt, Laura Pelkonen, Madhushree Bhattacharya, Dominique Richardson, Astrid Subrizi, Tiina Turunen, Mika Reinisalo, Jaakko Itkonen, Elisa Toropainen, Marco Casteleijn, Heidi Kidron, Maxim Antopolsky, Kati-Sisko Vellonen, Marika Ruponen, Arto Urtti
Drug delivery to the posterior eye segment is an important challenge in ophthalmology, because many diseases affect the retina and choroid leading to impaired vision or blindness. Currently, intravitreal injections are the method of choice to administer drugs to the retina, but this approach is applicable only in selected cases (e.g. anti-VEGF antibodies and soluble receptors). There are two basic approaches that can be adopted to improve retinal drug delivery: prolonged and/or retina targeted delivery of intravitreal drugs and use of other routes of drug administration, such as periocular, suprachoroidal, sub-retinal, systemic, or topical...
March 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012881/improving-our-understanding-and-detection-of-glaucomatous-damage-an-approach-based-upon-optical-coherence-tomography-oct
#13
REVIEW
Donald C Hood
Although ophthalmologists are becoming increasingly reliant upon optical coherence tomography (OCT), clinicians who care for glaucoma patients are not taking full advantage of the potential of this powerful technology. First, we ask, how would one describe the nature of glaucomatous damage if only OCT scans were available? In particular, a schematic model of glaucomatous damage is developed in section 2, and the nature of glaucomatous damage seen on OCT scans described in the context of this model in section 3...
March 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916682/adaptive-optics-optical-coherence-tomography-in-glaucoma
#14
REVIEW
Zachary M Dong, Gadi Wollstein, Bo Wang, Joel S Schuman
Since the introduction of commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, the ophthalmic imaging modality has rapidly expanded and it has since changed the paradigm of visualization of the retina and revolutionized the management and diagnosis of neuro-retinal diseases, including glaucoma. OCT remains a dynamic and evolving imaging modality, growing from time-domain OCT to the improved spectral-domain OCT, adapting novel image analysis and processing methods, and onto the newer swept-source OCT and the implementation of adaptive optics (AO) into OCT...
March 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111324/bestrophinopathy-an-rpe-photoreceptor-interface-disease
#15
REVIEW
Karina E Guziewicz, Divya Sinha, Néstor M Gómez, Kathryn Zorych, Emily V Dutrow, Anuradha Dhingra, Robert F Mullins, Edwin M Stone, David M Gamm, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Gustavo D Aguirre
Bestrophinopathies, one of the most common forms of inherited macular degenerations, are caused by mutations in the BEST1 gene expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Both human and canine BEST1-linked maculopathies are characterized by abnormal accumulation of autofluorescent material within RPE cells and bilateral macular or multifocal lesions; however, the specific mechanism leading to the formation of these lesions remains unclear. We now provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on the molecular pathology of bestrophinopathies, and explore factors promoting formation of RPE-neuroretinal separations, using the first spontaneous animal model of BEST1-associated retinopathies, canine Best (cBest)...
January 19, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111323/cell-based-therapeutic-strategies-for-replacement-and-preservation-in-retinal-degenerative-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Melissa K Jones, Bin Lu, Sergey Girman, Shaomei Wang
Cell-based therapeutics offer diverse options for treating retinal degenerative diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). AMD is characterized by both genetic and environmental risks factors, whereas RP is mainly a monogenic disorder. Though treatments exist for some patients with neovascular AMD, a majority of retinal degenerative patients have no effective therapeutics, thus indicating a need for universal therapies to target diverse patient populations. Two main cell-based mechanistic approaches are being tested in clinical trials...
January 19, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109737/retinal-oxygen-from-animals-to-humans
#17
REVIEW
Robert A Linsenmeier, Hao F Zhang
This article discusses retinal oxygenation and retinal metabolism by focusing on measurements made with two of the principal methods used to study O2 in the retina: measurements of PO2 with oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes in vivo in animals with a retinal circulation similar to that of humans, and oximetry, which can be used non-invasively in both animals and humans to measure O2 concentration in retinal vessels. Microelectrodes uniquely have high spatial resolution, allowing the mapping of PO2 in detail, and when combined with mathematical models of diffusion and consumption, they provide information about retinal metabolism...
January 18, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784628/advances-in-bone-marrow-stem-cell-therapy-for-retinal-dysfunction
#18
REVIEW
Susanna S Park, Elad Moisseiev, Gerhard Bauer, Johnathon D Anderson, Maria B Grant, Azhar Zam, Robert J Zawadzki, John S Werner, Jan A Nolta
The most common cause of untreatable vision loss is dysfunction of the retina. Conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma remain leading causes of untreatable blindness worldwide. Various stem cell approaches are being explored for treatment of retinal regeneration. The rationale for using bone marrow stem cells to treat retinal dysfunction is based on preclinical evidence showing that bone marrow stem cells can rescue degenerating and ischemic retina. These stem cells have primarily paracrine trophic effects although some cells can directly incorporate into damaged tissue...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773767/detection-and-measurement-of-clinically-meaningful-visual-field-progression-in-clinical-trials-for-glaucoma
#19
REVIEW
C Gustavo De Moraes, Jeffrey M Liebmann, Leonard A Levin
Glaucomatous visual field progression has both personal and societal costs and therefore has a serious impact on quality of life. At the present time, intraocular pressure (IOP) is considered to be the most important modifiable risk factor for glaucoma onset and progression. Reduction of IOP has been repeatedly demonstrated to be an effective intervention across the spectrum of glaucoma, regardless of subtype or disease stage. In the setting of approval of IOP-lowering therapies, it is expected that effects on IOP will translate into benefits in long-term patient-reported outcomes...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671171/the-neural-retina-in-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#20
REVIEW
Ronald M Hansen, Anne Moskowitz, James D Akula, Anne B Fulton
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a neurovascular disease that affects prematurely born infants and is known to have significant long term effects on vision. We conducted the studies described herein not only to learn more about vision but also about the pathogenesis of ROP. The coincidence of ROP onset and rapid developmental elongation of the rod photoreceptor outer segments motivated us to consider the role of the rods in this disease. We used noninvasive electroretinographic (ERG), psychophysical, and retinal imaging procedures to study the function and structure of the neurosensory retina...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
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