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Progress in Retinal and Eye Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758268/pathogenesis-of-keratoconus-the-intriguing-therapeutic-potential-of-prolactin-inducible-protein
#1
REVIEW
Rabab Sharif, Sashia Bak-Nielsen, Jesper Hjortdal, Dimitrios Karamichos
Keratoconus (KC) is the most common ectatic corneal disease, with clinical findings that include discomfort, visual disturbance and possible blindness if left untreated. KC affects approximately 1:400 to 1:2000 people worldwide, including both males and females. The aetiology and onset of KC remains a puzzle and as a result, the ability to treat or reverse the disease is hampered. Sex hormones are known to play a role in the maintenance of the structure and integrity of the human cornea. Hormone levels have been reported to alter corneal thickness, curvature, and sensitivity during different times of menstrual cycle...
May 11, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738822/the-drosophila-light-activated-trp-and-trpl-channels-targets-of-the-phosphoinositide-signaling-cascade
#2
REVIEW
Ben Katz, Baruch Minke
The Drosophila light-activated Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channel is the founding member of a large and diverse family of channel proteins. It is now established that TRP channels are evolutionarily conserved and are found in many organisms and tissues. This review outlines the progress made in our understanding of Drosophila phototransduction with a focus on the light sensitive TRP channels. The visual system of Drosophila has remarkable capabilities, such as single photon sensitivity, low dark noise, wide dynamic range of responses to changing ambient light intensities and an unusually wide range of frequency responses to modulated lights...
May 5, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729972/a-new-perspective-on-lipid-research-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#3
REVIEW
Elisabeth M van Leeuwen, Eszter Emri, Benedicte M J Merle, Johanna M Colijn, Eveline Kersten, Audrey Cougnard-Gregoire, Sascha Dammeier, Magda Meester-Smoor, Frances M Pool, Eiko K de Jong, Cécile Delcourt, Eduardo Rodrigez-Bocanegra, Marc Biarnés, Philip J Luthert, Marius Ueffing, Caroline C W Klaver, Everson Nogoceke, Anneke I den Hollander, Imre Lengyel
There is an urgency to find new treatment strategies that could prevent or delay the onset or progression of AMD. Different classes of lipids and lipoproteins metabolism genes have been associated with AMD in a multiple ways, but despite the ever-increasing knowledge base, we still do not understand fully how circulating lipids or local lipid metabolism contribute to AMD. It is essential to clarify whether dietary lipids, systemic or local lipoprotein metabolismtrafficking of lipids in the retina should be targeted in the disease...
May 3, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723580/the-pupillary-light-responses-of-animals-a-review-of-their-distribution-dynamics-mechanisms-and-functions
#4
REVIEW
Ronald H Douglas
The timecourse and extent of changes in pupil area in response to light are reviewed in all classes of vertebrate and cephalopods. Although the speed and extent of these responses vary, most species, except the majority of teleost fish, show extensive changes in pupil area related to light exposure. The neuromuscular pathways underlying light-evoked pupil constriction are described and found to be relatively conserved, although the precise autonomic mechanisms differ somewhat between species. In mammals, illumination of only one eye is known to cause constriction in the unilluminated pupil...
April 30, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698814/ocular-abnormalities-in-congenital-zika-syndrome-are-the-ophthalmoscopic-findings-the-top-of-the-iceberg
#5
REVIEW
João Rafael de Oliveira Dias, Camila V Ventura, Bruno de Paula Freitas, Juliana Prazeres, Liana O Ventura, Vasco Bravo-Filho, Tomas Aleman, Albert Icksang Ko, Andréa Zin, Rubens Belfort, Mauricio Maia
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus mainly transmitted to humans by mosquitoes from Aedes genus. Other ways of transmission include the perinatal and sexual routes, blood transfusion, and laboratory exposure. Although the first human cases were registered in 1952 in African countries, outbreaks were only reported since 2007, when entire Pacific islands were affected. In March 2015, the first cases of ZIKV acute infection were notified in Brazil and, to date, 48 countries and territories in the Americas have confirmed local mosquito-borne transmission of ZIKV...
April 23, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698813/neuropathic-keratopathy
#6
REVIEW
Harminder S Dua, Dalia G Said, Elisabeth M Messmer, Maurizio Rolando, Jose M Benitez-Del-Castillo, Parwez N Hossain, Alex J Shortt, Gerd Gerling, Mario Nubile, Francisco C Figueiredo, Saaeha Rauz, Leonardo Mastropasqua, Paolo Rama, Christophe Baudouin
Neurotrophic Keratopathy (NK) refers to a condition where corneal epitheliopathy leading to frank epithelial defect with or without stromal ulceration (melting) is associated with reduced or absent corneal sensations. Sensory nerves serve nociceptor and trophic functions, which can be affected independently or simultaneously. Loss of trophic function and consequent epithelial breakdown exposes the stroma making it susceptible to enzymatic degradation. Nerve pathology can range from attrition to aberrant re-generation with corresponding symptoms from anaesthesia to hyperaesthesia/allodynia...
April 23, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635068/anterior-segment-optical-coherence-tomography
#7
REVIEW
Marcus Ang, Mani Baskaran, René M Werkmeister, Jacqueline Chua, Doreen Schmidl, Valentin Aranha Dos Santos, Gerhard Garhöfer, Jodhbir S Mehta, Leopold Schmetterer
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides non-contact, rapid in vivo imaging of ocular structures, and has become a key part of evaluating the anterior segment of the eye. Over the years, improvements to technology have increased the speed of capture and resolution of images, leading to the increasing impact of anterior segment OCT imaging on clinical practice. In this review, we summarize the historical development of anterior segment OCT, and provide an update on the research and clinical applications of imaging the ocular surface, cornea, anterior chamber structures, aqueous outflow system, and most recently anterior segment vessels...
April 7, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631042/the-coma-in-glaucoma-retinal-ganglion-cell-dysfunction-and-recovery
#8
REVIEW
Lewis E Fry, Eamonn Fahy, Vicki Chrysostomou, Flora Hui, Jessica Tang, Peter van Wijngaarden, Steven Petrou, Jonathan G Crowston
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration causes vision loss in patients with glaucoma, and this has been generally considered to be irreversible due to RGC death. We question this assertion and summarise accumulating evidence that points to visual function improving in glaucoma patients with treatment, particularly in the early stages of disease. We propose that prior to death, RGCs enter periods of dysfunction but can recover with relief of RGC stress. We first summarise the clinical evidence for vision improvement in glaucoma and then detail our experimental work that points to the underlying processes that underpin clinical improvement...
April 6, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609042/the-primate-fovea-structure-function-and-development
#9
REVIEW
Andreas Bringmann, Steffen Syrbe, Katja Görner, Johannes Kacza, Mike Francke, Peter Wiedemann, Andreas Reichenbach
A fovea is a pitted invagination in the inner retinal tissue (fovea interna) that overlies an area of photoreceptors specialized for high acuity vision (fovea externa). Although the shape of the vertebrate fovea varies considerably among the species, there are two basic types. The retina of many predatory fish, reptilians, and birds possess one (or two) convexiclivate fovea(s), while the retina of higher primates contains a concaviclivate fovea. By refraction of the incoming light, the convexiclivate fovea may function as image enlarger, focus indicator, and movement detector...
March 30, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597005/non-syndromic-retinitis-pigmentosa
#10
REVIEW
Sanne K Verbakel, Ramon A C van Huet, Camiel J F Boon, Anneke I den Hollander, Rob W J Collin, Caroline C W Klaver, Carel B Hoyng, Ronald Roepman, B Jeroen Klevering
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) encompasses a group of inherited retinal dystrophies characterized by the primary degeneration of rod and cone photoreceptors. RP is a leading cause of visual disability, with a worldwide prevalence of 1:4000. Although the majority of RP cases are non-syndromic, 20-30% of patients with RP also have an associated non-ocular condition. RP typically manifests with night blindness in adolescence, followed by concentric visual field loss, reflecting the principal dysfunction of rod photoreceptors; central vision loss occurs later in life due to cone dysfunction...
March 26, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578069/crispr-cas9-genome-engineering-treating-inherited-retinal-degeneration
#11
REVIEW
Erin R Burnight, Joseph C Giacalone, Jessica A Cooke, Jessica R Thompson, Laura R Bohrer, Kathleen R Chirco, Arlene V Drack, John H Fingert, Kristan S Worthington, Luke A Wiley, Robert F Mullins, Edwin M Stone, Budd A Tucker
Gene correction is a valuable strategy for treating inherited retinal degenerative diseases, a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Single gene defects cause the majority of these retinal dystrophies. Gene augmentation holds great promise if delivered early in the course of the disease, however, many patients carry mutations in genes too large to be packaged into adeno-associated viral vectors and some, when overexpressed via heterologous promoters, induce retinal toxicity. In addition to the aforementioned challenges, some patients have sustained significant photoreceptor cell loss at the time of diagnosis, rendering gene replacement therapy insufficient to treat the disease...
March 22, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571968/ocular-treatment-of-choroidal-melanoma-in-relation-to-the-prevention-of-metastatic-death-a-personal-view
#12
REVIEW
Bertil Damato
About 50% of patients with choroidal melanoma develop metastatic disease, despite successful eradication of the primary tumor. Patient care is complicated by the fact that we do not know whether ocular treatment ever influences survival and if so in whom. Some authorities believe that metastatic spread is never preventable, because it has always occurred by the time the ocular tumor is detected. Others hold the view that metastatic spread can occur late, at least in some patients, in whom timely and successful treatment is life-saving...
March 20, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544768/epigenetic-control-of-gene-regulation-during-development-and-disease-a-view-from-the-retina
#13
REVIEW
Ximena Corso-Díaz, Catherine Jaeger, Vijender Chaitankar, Anand Swaroop
Complex biological processes, such as organogenesis and homeostasis, are stringently regulated by genetic programs that are fine-tuned by epigenetic factors to establish cell fates and/or to respond to the microenvironment. Gene regulatory networks that guide cell differentiation and function are modulated and stabilized by modifications to DNA, RNA and proteins. In this review, we focus on two key epigenetic changes - DNA methylation and histone modifications - and discuss their contribution to retinal development, aging and disease, especially in the context of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy...
March 12, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530739/re-programming-immunosurveillance-in-persistent-non-infectious-ocular-inflammation
#14
REVIEW
Simon J Epps, Joanne Boldison, Madeleine L Stimpson, Tarnjit K Khera, Philippa J P Lait, David A Copland, Andrew D Dick, Lindsay B Nicholson
Ocular function depends on a high level of anatomical integrity. This is threatened by inflammation, which alters the local tissue over short and long time-scales. Uveitis due to autoimmune disease, especially when it involves the retina, leads to persistent changes in how the eye interacts with the immune system. The normal pattern of immune surveillance, which for immune privileged tissues is limited, is re-programmed. Many cell types, that are not usually present in the eye, become detectable. There are changes in the tissue homeostasis and integrity...
March 9, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496590/the-immunopathogenesis-of-chronic-and-relapsing-autoimmune-uveitis-lessons-from-experimental-rat-models
#15
REVIEW
Maria Diedrichs-Möhring, Ulrike Kaufmann, Gerhild Wildner
Autoimmune diseases usually follow a relapsing-remitting or a chronic progressive course. To understand the underlying immunopathogenesis we investigated experimental Lewis rat models displaying both disease types, which were only dependent on the autoantigen peptide used for immunization. Retinal S-Antigen-peptide PDSAg induces chronic, monophasic disease, whilst interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP)-peptide R14 causes a spontaneously relapsing-remitting course. R14-mediated uveitis can be re-induced by immunization; PDSAg-induced disease is even preventable by prior CFA-injection...
February 27, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197628/towards-the-application-of-precision-medicine-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#16
REVIEW
Raffaella Cascella, Claudia Strafella, Valerio Caputo, Valeria Errichiello, Stefania Zampatti, Filippo Milano, Saverio Potenza, Silvestro Mauriello, Giuseppe Novelli, Federico Ricci, Andrea Cusumano, Emiliano Giardina
The review essentially describes genetic and non-genetic variables contributing to the onset and progression of exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in Italian population. In particular, AMD susceptibility within Italian population is contributed to by genetic variants, accounting for 23% of disease and non-genetic variants, accounting for 10% of AMD. Our data highlighted prominent differences concerning genetic and non-genetic contributors to AMD in our cohort with respect to worldwide populations...
March 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097191/molecular-genetics-and-emerging-therapies-for-retinitis-pigmentosa-basic-research-and-clinical-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Marina França Dias, Kwangsic Joo, Jessica A Kemp, Silvia Ligório Fialho, Armando da Silva Cunha, Se Joon Woo, Young Jik Kwon
Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a hereditary retinopathy that affects about 2.5 million people worldwide. It is characterized with progressive loss of rods and cones and causes severe visual dysfunction and eventual blindness in bilateral eyes. In addition to more than 3000 genetic mutations from about 70 genes, a wide genetic overlap with other types of retinal dystrophies has been reported with RP. This diversity of genetic pathophysiology makes treatment extremely challenging. Although therapeutic attempts have been made using various pharmacologic agents (neurotrophic factors, antioxidants, and anti-apoptotic agents), most are not targeted to the fundamental cause of RP, and their clinical efficacy has not been clearly proven...
March 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481975/neuroprotective-strategies-for-retinal-disease
#18
REVIEW
Machelle T Pardue, Rachael S Allen
Diseases that affect the eye, including photoreceptor degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, affect 11.8 million people in the US, resulting in vision loss and blindness. Loss of sight affects patient quality of life and puts an economic burden both on individuals and the greater healthcare system. Despite the urgent need for treatments, few effective options currently exist in the clinic. Here, we review research on promising neuroprotective strategies that promote neuronal survival with the potential to protect against vision loss and retinal cell death...
February 23, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476817/basal-tear-osmolarity-as-a-metric-to-estimate-body-hydration-and-dry-eye-severity
#19
REVIEW
C Willshire, A J Bron, E A Gaffney, E Ian Pearce
The osmolarities of various bodily fluids, including tears, saliva and urine, have been used as indices of plasma osmolality, a measure of body hydration, while tear osmolarity is used routinely in dry eye diagnosis, the degree of tear hyperosmolarity providing an index of disease severity. Systemic dehydration, due to inadequate water intake or excessive water loss is common in the elderly population, has a high morbidity and may cause loss of life. Its diagnosis is often overlooked and there is a need to develop a simple, bedside test to detect dehydration in this population...
February 21, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398348/evolution-of-the-vertebrate-corneal-stroma
#20
REVIEW
Elena Koudouna, Moritz Winkler, Eric Mikula, Tibor Juhasz, Donald J Brown, James V Jester
Although the cornea is the major refractive element of the eye, the mechanisms controlling corneal shape and hence visual acuity remain unknown. To begin to address this question we have used multiphoton, non-linear optical microscopy to image second harmonic generated signals (SHG) from collagen to characterize the evolutionary and structural changes that occur in the collagen architecture of the corneal stroma. Our studies show that there is a progression in complexity of the stromal collagen organization from lower (fish and amphibians) to higher (birds and mammals) vertebrates, leading to increasing tissue stiffness that may control shape...
February 1, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
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