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Progress in Retinal and Eye Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729002/phosphenes-retinal-discrete-dark-noise-negative-afterimages-and-retinogeniculate-projection-a-review-of-a-new-explanatory-framework-based-on-endogenous-ocular-luminescence
#1
REVIEW
Vahid Salari, Felix Scholkmann, Ram Lakhan Pandey Vimal, Noémi Császár, Mehdi Aslani, István Bókkon
Cellular luminescence is the emission of photons by living cells due to various biophysical and biochemical processes, mostly associated with cellular metabolism. In this review paper we summarize today's understanding of four luminescence-dependent phenomena in the eye, i.e., phosphenes, retinal discrete dark noise, negative afterimages and the development of retinogeniculate projections in the brain. We review the phenomena above in the context of knowledge gained from experimental and theoretical works. Finally we discuss this knowledge in terms of its physiological significance...
July 17, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673870/fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-ophthalmoscopy
#2
REVIEW
Chantal Dysli, Sebastian Wolf, Mikhail Y Berezin, Lydia Sauer, Martin Hammer, Martin S Zinkernagel
Imaging techniques based on retinal autofluorescence have found broad applications in ophthalmology because they are extremely sensitive and noninvasive. Conventional fundus autofluorescence measures fluorescence intensity of retinal fluorophores. It mainly derives its signal from lipofuscin at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium. Fundus autofluorescence, however, can not only be characterized by the spatial distribution of the fluorescence intensity or emission spectrum, but also by a characteristic fluorescence lifetime function...
June 30, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668352/the-chick-eye-in-vision-research-an-excellent-model-for-the-study-of-ocular-disease
#3
REVIEW
C Ellis Wisely, Javed A Sayed, Heather Tamez, Chris Zelinka, Mohamed H Abdel-Rahman, Andy J Fischer, Colleen M Cebulla
The domestic chicken, Gallus gallus, serves as an excellent model for the study of a wide range of ocular diseases and conditions. The purpose of this manuscript is to outline some anatomic, physiologic, and genetic features of this organism as a robust animal model for vision research, particularly for modeling human retinal disease. Advantages include a sequenced genome, a large eye, relative ease of handling and maintenance, and ready availability. Relevant similarities and differences to humans are highlighted for ocular structures as well as for general physiologic processes...
June 28, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602949/connexin-channel-and-its-role-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#4
REVIEW
Sayon Roy, Jean X Jiang, An-Fei Li, Dongjoon Kim
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in the working age population. Unfortunately, there is no cure for this devastating ocular complication. The early stage of diabetic retinopathy is characterized by the loss of various cell types in the retina, namely endothelial cells and pericytes. As the disease progresses, vascular leakage, a clinical hallmark of diabetic retinopathy, becomes evident and may eventually lead to diabetic macular edema, the most common cause of vision loss in diabetic retinopathy...
June 8, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602950/on-phagocytes-and-macular-degeneration
#5
REVIEW
Xavier Guillonneau, Chiara M Eandi, Michel Paques, José-Alain Sahel, Przemyslaw Sapieha, Florian Sennlaub
Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex multifactorial disease caused by the interplay of age and genetic and environmental risk factors. A common feature observed in early and both forms of late AMD is the breakdown of the physiologically immunosuppressive subretinal environment and the protracted accumulation of mononuclear phagocytes (MP). We here discuss the origin and nature of subretinal MPs, the mechanisms that lead to their accumulation, the inflammatory mediators they produce as well as the consequences of their chronic presence on photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium and choroid...
June 7, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602573/dopamine-signaling-and-myopia-development-what-are-the-key-challenges
#6
REVIEW
Xiangtian Zhou, Machelle T Pardue, P Michael Iuvone, Jia Qu
In the face of an "epidemic" increase in myopia over the last decades and myopia prevalence predicted to reach 2.5 billion people by the end of this decade, there is an urgent need to develop effective and safe therapeutic interventions to slow down this "myopia booming" and prevent myopia-related complications and vision loss. Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the retina and mediates diverse functions including retina development, visual signaling, and refractive development. Inspired by the convergence of epidemiological and animal studies in support of the inverse relationship between outdoor activity and risk of developing myopia and by the close biological relationship between light exposure and dopamine release/signaling, we felt it is timely and important to critically review the role of DA in myopia development...
June 7, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587935/human-antimicrobial-peptides-in-ocular-surface-defense
#7
REVIEW
Imran Mohammed, Dalia G Said, Harminder S Dua
Sight depends on the passage of light through the transparent cornea and being focused on the fovea. Its exposed position renders it vulnerable to microbial infection. The cornea has developed a wide array of defense mechanisms against infection, of which endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are key. AMPs are essentially small molecular weight cationic peptides with a wide range of activity against virus, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Some proteins such as RNases and S100As are also included in this group...
June 3, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532687/the-role-of-systemic-and-topical-fatty-acids-for-dry-eye-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Stefano Barabino, Jutta Horwath-Winter, Elisabeth M Messmer, Maurizio Rolando, Pasquale Aragona, Shigeru Kinoshita
Dry eye is a prevalent condition and one of the main reasons for patients to seek ophthalmic medical care. A low systemic level of omega fatty acids is a risk factor for dry eye disease (DED). There are two groups of essential fatty acids (EFAs): the omega-6 (n-6) family and the omega-3 (n-3) family. Humans evolved on a diet in which the n-6:n-3 ratio was approximately 1:1, however the current Western diet tends to be deficient in n-3 EFAs and this ratio is typically much higher (approaching 17:1). The metabolism of EFAs generates four new families of local acting mediators: lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins...
May 19, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504202/corrigendum-to-the-rod-driven-a-wave-of-the-dark-adapted-mammalian-electroretinogram-progress-in-retinal-and-eye-research-volume-39-march-2014-pages-1-22
#9
John G Robson, Laura J Frishman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504201/cilia-the-sensory-antennae-in-the-eye
#10
REVIEW
Helen May-Simera, Kerstin Nagel-Wolfrum, Uwe Wolfrum
Cilia are hair-like projections found on almost all cells in the human body. Originally believed to function merely in motility, the function of solitary non-motile (primary) cilia was long overlooked. Recent research has demonstrated that primary cilia function as signalling hubs that sense environmental cues and are pivotal for organ development and function, tissue hoemoestasis, and maintenance of human health. Cilia share a common anatomy and their diverse functional features are achieved by evolutionarily conserved functional modules, organized into sub-compartments...
May 11, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465249/the-application-of-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-uveitis-and-inflammatory-eye-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Francesco Pichi, David Sarraf, Sruthi Arepalli, Careen Y Lowder, Emmett T Cunningham, Piergiorgio Neri, Thomas A Albini, Vishali Gupta, Kimberly Baynes, Sunil K Srivastava
Since its introduction in the early 1990s, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has evolved in resolution and technological advances, and in recent years its initial application of assessing the morphology of a tissue has been implemented by the study of its functional blood flow, through optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). This novel technique details capillary networks by comparing the amount of light returned from static and moving targets without the need for intravenous dye administration. While this imaging modality has been used for various ocular conditions, the application OCTA to uveitis conditions remains sparse...
April 29, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465248/roles-of-exosomes-in-the-normal-and-diseased-eye
#12
REVIEW
Mikael Klingeborn, W Michael Dismuke, Catherine Bowes Rickman, W Daniel Stamer
Exosomes are nanometer-sized vesicles that are released by cells in a controlled fashion and mediate a plethora of extra- and intercellular activities. Some key functions of exosomes include cell-cell communication, immune modulation, extracellular matrix turnover, stem cell division/differentiation, neovascularization and cellular waste removal. While much is known about their role in cancer, exosome function in the many specialized tissues of the eye is just beginning to undergo rigorous study. Here we review current knowledge of exosome function in the visual system in the context of larger bodies of data from other fields, in both health and disease...
April 29, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457789/lateral-thinking-interocular-symmetry-and-asymmetry-in-neurovascular-patterning-in-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
James R Cameron, Roly D Megaw, Andrew J Tatham, Sarah McGrory, Thomas J MacGillivray, Fergus N Doubal, Joanna M Wardlaw, Emanuele Trucco, Siddharthan Chandran, Baljean Dhillon
No biological system or structure is likely to be perfectly symmetrical, or have identical right and left forms. This review explores the evidence for eye and visual pathway asymmetry, in health and in disease, and attempts to provide guidance for those studying the structure and function of the visual system, where recognition of symmetry or asymmetry may be essential. The principal question with regards to asymmetry is not 'are the eyes the same?', for some degree of asymmetry is pervasive, but 'when are they importantly different?'...
April 28, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223208/characterizing-the-poagome-a-bioinformatics-driven-approach-to-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#14
REVIEW
Ian D Danford, Lana D Verkuil, Daniel J Choi, David W Collins, Harini V Gudiseva, Katherine E Uyhazi, Marisa K Lau, Levi N Kanu, Gregory R Grant, Venkata R M Chavali, Joan M O'Brien
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a genetically, physiologically, and phenotypically complex neurodegenerative disorder. This study addressed the expanding collection of genes associated with POAG, referred to as the "POAGome." We used bioinformatics tools to perform an extensive, systematic literature search and compiled 542 genes with confirmed associations with POAG and its related phenotypes (normal tension glaucoma, ocular hypertension, juvenile open-angle glaucoma, and primary congenital glaucoma)...
May 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153808/bestrophin-1-and-retinal-disease
#15
REVIEW
Adiv A Johnson, Karina E Guziewicz, C Justin Lee, Ravi C Kalathur, Jose S Pulido, Lihua Y Marmorstein, Alan D Marmorstein
Mutations in the gene BEST1 are causally associated with as many as five clinically distinct retinal degenerative diseases, which are collectively referred to as the "bestrophinopathies". These five associated diseases are: Best vitelliform macular dystrophy, autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy, adult-onset vitelliform macular dystrophy, autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy, and retinitis pigmentosa. The most common of these is Best vitelliform macular dystrophy. Bestrophin 1 (Best1), the protein encoded by the gene BEST1, has been the subject of a great deal of research since it was first identified nearly two decades ago...
May 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111324/bestrophinopathy-an-rpe-photoreceptor-interface-disease
#16
REVIEW
Karina E Guziewicz, Divya Sinha, Néstor M Gómez, Kathryn Zorych, Emily V Dutrow, Anuradha Dhingra, Robert F Mullins, Edwin M Stone, David M Gamm, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Gustavo D Aguirre
Bestrophinopathies, one of the most common forms of inherited macular degenerations, are caused by mutations in the BEST1 gene expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Both human and canine BEST1-linked maculopathies are characterized by abnormal accumulation of autofluorescent material within RPE cells and bilateral macular or multifocal lesions; however, the specific mechanism leading to the formation of these lesions remains unclear. We now provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on the molecular pathology of bestrophinopathies, and explore factors promoting formation of RPE-neuroretinal separations, using the first spontaneous animal model of BEST1-associated retinopathies, canine Best (cBest)...
May 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111323/cell-based-therapeutic-strategies-for-replacement-and-preservation-in-retinal-degenerative-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Melissa K Jones, Bin Lu, Sergey Girman, Shaomei Wang
Cell-based therapeutics offer diverse options for treating retinal degenerative diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). AMD is characterized by both genetic and environmental risks factors, whereas RP is mainly a monogenic disorder. Though treatments exist for some patients with neovascular AMD, a majority of retinal degenerative patients have no effective therapeutics, thus indicating a need for universal therapies to target diverse patient populations. Two main cell-based mechanistic approaches are being tested in clinical trials...
May 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109737/retinal-oxygen-from-animals-to-humans
#18
REVIEW
Robert A Linsenmeier, Hao F Zhang
This article discusses retinal oxygenation and retinal metabolism by focusing on measurements made with two of the principal methods used to study O2 in the retina: measurements of PO2 with oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes in vivo in animals with a retinal circulation similar to that of humans, and oximetry, which can be used non-invasively in both animals and humans to measure O2 concentration in retinal vessels. Microelectrodes uniquely have high spatial resolution, allowing the mapping of PO2 in detail, and when combined with mathematical models of diffusion and consumption, they provide information about retinal metabolism...
May 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450146/alternatives-to-eye-bank-native-tissue-for-corneal-stromal-replacement
#19
REVIEW
Isabelle Brunette, Cynthia J Roberts, François Vidal, Mona Harissi-Dagher, Jean Lachaine, Heather Sheardown, Georges M Durr, Stéphanie Proulx, May Griffith
Corneal blindness is a major cause of blindness in the world and corneal transplantation is the only widely accepted treatment to restore sight in these eyes. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult for eye banks to meet the increasing demand for transplantable tissue, which is in part due to population aging. Donor tissue shortage is therefore a growing concern globally and there is a need for alternatives to human donor corneas. Biosynthetic corneal substitutes offer several significant advantages over native corneas: Large-scale production offers a powerful potential solution to the severe shortage of human donor corneas worldwide; Good manufacturing practices ensure sterility and quality control; Acellular corneal substitutes circumvent immune rejection induced by allogeneic cells; Optical and biomechanical properties of the implants can be adapted to the clinical need; and finally these corneal substitutes could benefit from new advances in biomaterials science, such as surface coating, functionalization and nanoparticles...
April 24, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411123/the-lens-growth-process
#20
REVIEW
Steven Bassnett, Hrvoje Šikić
The factors that regulate the size of organs to ensure that they fit within an organism are not well understood. A simple organ, the ocular lens serves as a useful model with which to tackle this problem. In many systems, considerable variance in the organ growth process is tolerable. This is almost certainly not the case in the lens, which in addition to fitting comfortably within the eyeball, must also be of the correct size and shape to focus light sharply onto the retina. Furthermore, the lens does not perform its optical function in isolation...
April 11, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
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