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Progress in Retinal and Eye Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064040/bax-to-basics-how-the-bcl2-gene-family-controls-the-death-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#1
REVIEW
Margaret E Maes, Cassandra L Schlamp, Robert W Nickells
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is the principal consequence of injury to the optic nerve. For several decades, we have understood that the RGC death process was executed by apoptosis, suggesting that there may be ways to therapeutically intervene in this cell death program and provide a more direct treatment to the cells and tissues affected in diseases like glaucoma. A major part of this endeavor has been to elucidate the molecular biological pathways active in RGCs from the point of axonal injury to the point of irreversible cell death...
January 4, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057562/imaging-retina-to-study-dementia-and-stroke
#2
REVIEW
Carol Yim-Lui Cheung, M Kamran Ikram, Christopher Chen, Tien Yin Wong
With increase in life expectancy, the number of persons suffering from common age-related brain diseases, including neurodegenerative (e.g., dementia) and cerebrovascular (e.g., stroke) disease is expected to rise substantially. As current neuro-imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging may not be able to detect subtle subclinical changes (resolution <100-500 μm) in dementia and stroke, there is an urgent need for other complementary techniques to probe the pathophysiology of these diseases...
January 2, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039061/primary-angle-closure-glaucoma-what-we-know-and-what-we-don-t-know
#3
REVIEW
Xinghuai Sun, Yi Dai, Yuhong Chen, Dao-Yi Yu, Stephen J Cringle, Junyi Chen, Xiangmei Kong, Xiaolei Wang, Chunhui Jiang
Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is a common cause of blindness. Angle closure is a fundamental pathologic process in PAGC. With the development of imaging devices for the anterior segment of the eye, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of angle closure has been reached. Aside from pupillary block and plateau iris, multiple-mechanisms are more common contributors for closure of the angle such as choroidal thickness and uveal expansion, which may be responsible for the presenting features of PACG...
December 28, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028002/aqueous-outflow-a-continuum-from-trabecular-meshwork-to-episcleral-veins
#4
REVIEW
Teresia Carreon, Elizabeth van der Merwe, Ronald L Fellman, Murray Johnstone, Sanjoy K Bhattacharya
In glaucoma, lowered intraocular pressure (IOP) confers neuroprotection. Elevated IOP characterizes glaucoma and arises from impaired aqueous humor (AH) outflow. Increased resistance in the trabecular meshwork (TM), a filter-like structure essential to regulate AH outflow, may result in the impaired outflow. Flow through the 360° circumference of TM structures may be non-uniform, divided into high and low flow regions, termed as segmental. After flowing through the TM, AH enters Schlemm's canal (SC), which expresses both blood and lymphatic markers; AH then passes into collector channel entrances (CCE) along the SC external well...
December 24, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028001/pharmacokinetic-aspects-of-retinal-drug-delivery
#5
REVIEW
Eva M Del Amo, Anna-Kaisa Rimpelä, Emma Heikkinen, Otto K Kari, Eva Ramsay, Tatu Lajunen, Mechthild Schmitt, Laura Pelkonen, Madhushree Bhattacharya, Dominique Richardson, Astrid Subrizi, Tiina Turunen, Mika Reinisalo, Jaakko Itkonen, Elisa Toropainen, Marco Casteleijn, Heidi Kidron, Maxim Antopolsky, Kati-Sisko Vellonen, Marika Ruponen, Arto Urtti
Drug delivery to the posterior eye segment is an important challenge in ophthalmology, because many diseases affect the retina and choroid leading to impaired vision or blindness. Currently, intravitreal injections are the method of choice to administer drugs to the retina, but this approach is applicable only in selected cases (e.g. anti-VEGF antibodies and soluble receptors). There are two basic approaches that can be adopted to improve retinal drug delivery: prolonged and/or retina targeted delivery of intravitreal drugs and use of other routes of drug administration, such as periocular, suprachoroidal, sub-retinal, systemic, or topical...
December 24, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012881/improving-our-understanding-and-detection-of-glaucomatous-damage-an-approach-based-upon-optical-coherence-tomography-oct
#6
REVIEW
Donald C Hood
Although ophthalmologists are becoming increasingly reliant upon optical coherence tomography (OCT), clinicians who care for glaucoma patients are not taking full advantage of the potential of this powerful technology. First, we ask, how would one describe the nature of glaucomatous damage if only OCT scans were available? In particular, a schematic model of glaucomatous damage is developed in section 2, and the nature of glaucomatous damage seen on OCT scans described in the context of this model in section 3...
December 22, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916682/adaptive-optics-optical-coherence-tomography-in-glaucoma
#7
REVIEW
Zachary M Dong, Gadi Wollstein, Bo Wang, Joel S Schuman
Since the introduction of commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, the ophthalmic imaging modality has rapidly expanded and it has since changed the paradigm of visualization of the retina and revolutionized the management and diagnosis of neuro-retinal diseases, including glaucoma. OCT remains a dynamic and evolving imaging modality, growing from time-domain OCT to the improved spectral-domain OCT, adapting novel image analysis and processing methods, and onto the newer swept-source OCT and the implementation of adaptive optics (AO) into OCT...
December 1, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784628/advances-in-bone-marrow-stem-cell-therapy-for-retinal-dysfunction
#8
REVIEW
Susanna S Park, Elad Moisseiev, Gerhard Bauer, Johnathon D Anderson, Maria B Grant, Azhar Zam, Robert J Zawadzki, John S Werner, Jan A Nolta
The most common cause of untreatable vision loss is dysfunction of the retina. Conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma remain leading causes of untreatable blindness worldwide. Various stem cell approaches are being explored for treatment of retinal regeneration. The rationale for using bone marrow stem cells to treat retinal dysfunction is based on preclinical evidence showing that bone marrow stem cells can rescue degenerating and ischemic retina. These stem cells have primarily paracrine trophic effects although some cells can directly incorporate into damaged tissue...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773767/detection-and-measurement-of-clinically-meaningful-visual-field-progression-in-clinical-trials-for-glaucoma
#9
REVIEW
C Gustavo De Moraes, Jeffrey M Liebmann, Leonard A Levin
Glaucomatous visual field progression has both personal and societal costs and therefore has a serious impact on quality of life. At the present time, intraocular pressure (IOP) is considered to be the most important modifiable risk factor for glaucoma onset and progression. Reduction of IOP has been repeatedly demonstrated to be an effective intervention across the spectrum of glaucoma, regardless of subtype or disease stage. In the setting of approval of IOP-lowering therapies, it is expected that effects on IOP will translate into benefits in long-term patient-reported outcomes...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671171/the-neural-retina-in-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#10
REVIEW
Ronald M Hansen, Anne Moskowitz, James D Akula, Anne B Fulton
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a neurovascular disease that affects prematurely born infants and is known to have significant long term effects on vision. We conducted the studies described herein not only to learn more about vision but also about the pathogenesis of ROP. The coincidence of ROP onset and rapid developmental elongation of the rod photoreceptor outer segments motivated us to consider the role of the rods in this disease. We used noninvasive electroretinographic (ERG), psychophysical, and retinal imaging procedures to study the function and structure of the neurosensory retina...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666015/steroid-induced-ocular-hypertension-glaucoma-focus-on-pharmacogenomics-and-implications-for-precision-medicine
#11
REVIEW
M Elizabeth Fini, Stephen G Schwartz, Xiaoyi Gao, Shinwu Jeong, Nitin Patel, Tatsuo Itakura, Marianne O Price, Francis W Price, Rohit Varma, W Daniel Stamer
Elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) due to therapeutic use of glucocorticoids is called steroid-induced ocular hypertension (SIOH); this can lead to steroid-induced glaucoma (SIG). Glucocorticoids initiate signaling cascades ultimately affecting expression of hundreds of genes; this provides the potential for a highly personalized pharmacological response. Studies attempting to define genetic risk factors were undertaken early in the history of glucocorticoid use, however scientific tools available at that time were limited and progress stalled...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664379/caveolins-and-caveolae-in-ocular-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#12
REVIEW
Xiaowu Gu, Alaina M Reagan, Mark E McClellan, Michael H Elliott
Caveolae are specialized, invaginated plasma membrane domains that are defined morphologically and by the expression of signature proteins called, caveolins. Caveolae and caveolins are abundant in a variety of cell types including vascular endothelium, glia, and fibroblasts where they play critical roles in transcellular transport, endocytosis, mechanotransduction, cell proliferation, membrane lipid homeostasis, and signal transduction. Given these critical cellular functions, it is surprising that ablation of the caveolae organelle does not result in lethality suggesting instead that caveolae and caveolins play modulatory roles in cellular homeostasis...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639549/the-physiological-optics-of-the-lens
#13
REVIEW
Paul J Donaldson, Angus C Grey, Bianca Maceo Heilman, Julie C Lim, Ehsan Vaghefi
The optical properties of the ocular lens are important to overall vision quality. As a transparent biological tissue, the lens contributes to the overall and dynamic focussing power of the eye, and corrects for optical errors introduced by the cornea. The optical properties of the lens change throughout life. Alterations to the refractive properties and transparency of the lens result in presbyopia and cataract, respectively. However, it is not well understood how changes to lens cellular structure and function initiate these changes in refraction and transparency...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623223/in%C3%A2-vivo-genome-editing-as-a-potential-treatment-strategy-for-inherited-retinal-dystrophies
#14
REVIEW
Mert Yanik, Brigitte Müller, Fei Song, Jacqueline Gall, Franziska Wagner, Wolfgang Wende, Birgit Lorenz, Knut Stieger
In vivo genome editing represents an emerging field in the treatment of monogenic disorders, as it may constitute a solution to the current hurdles in classic gene addition therapy, which are the low levels and limited duration of transgene expression. Following the introduction of a double strand break (DSB) at the mutational site by highly specific endonucleases, such as TALENs (transcription activator like effector nucleases) or RNA based nucleases (clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats - CRISPR-Cas), the cell's own DNA repair machinery restores integrity to the DNA strand and corrects the mutant sequence, thus allowing the cell to produce protein levels as needed...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586058/retinal-regeneration-mechanisms-linked-to-multiple-cancer-molecules-a-therapeutic-conundrum
#15
REVIEW
Amanda Barber, Kyle Farmer, Keith R Martin, Patrice D Smith
Over the last decade, a large number of research articles have been published demonstrating regeneration and/or neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells following manipulation of specific genetic and molecular targets. Interestingly, of the targets that have been identified to promote repair following visual system damage, many are genes known to be mutated in different types of cancer. This review explores recent literature on the potential for modulating cancer genes as a therapeutic strategy for visual system repair and looks at the potential clinical challenges associated with implementing this type of therapy...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693724/significance-of-optineurin-mutations-in-glaucoma-and-other-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Yuriko Minegishi, Mao Nakayama, Daisuke Iejima, Kazuhide Kawase, Takeshi Iwata
Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of bilateral blindness, affecting nearly 57 million people worldwide. Glaucoma is characterized by a progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and is often associated with intraocular pressure (IOP). Normal tension glaucoma (NTG), marked by normal IOP but progressive glaucoma, is incompletely understood. In 2002, Sarfarazi et al. identified FIP-2 gene mutations responsible for hereditary NTG, renaming this gene "optineurin" (OPTN). Further investigations by multiple groups worldwide showed that OPTN is involved in several critical cellular functions, such as NF-κB regulation, autophagy, and vesicle transport...
November 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566190/autophagy-in-the-eye-development-degeneration-and-aging
#17
REVIEW
Patricia Boya, Lorena Esteban-Martínez, Ana Serrano-Puebla, Raquel Gómez-Sintes, Beatriz Villarejo-Zori
Autophagy is a catabolic pathway that promotes the degradation and recycling of cellular components. Proteins, lipids, and even whole organelles are engulfed in autophagosomes and delivered to the lysosome for elimination. In response to stress, autophagy mediates the degradation of cell components, which are recycled to generate the nutrients and building blocks required to sustain cellular homeostasis. Moreover, it plays an important role in cellular quality control, particularly in neurons, in which the total burden of altered proteins and damaged organelles cannot be reduced by redistribution to daughter cells through cell division...
November 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492954/genomic-control-of-neuronal-demographics-in-the-retina
#18
REVIEW
Benjamin E Reese, Patrick W Keeley
The mature retinal architecture is composed of various types of neuron, each population differing in size and constrained to particular layers, wherein the cells achieve a characteristic patterning in their local organization. These demographic features of retinal nerve cell populations are each complex traits controlled by multiple genes affecting different processes during development, and their genetic determinants can be dissected by correlating variation in these traits with their genomic architecture across recombinant-inbred mouse strains...
November 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477112/24-h-monitoring-devices-and-nyctohemeral-rhythms-of-intraocular-pressure
#19
REVIEW
Florent Aptel, Robert N Weinreb, Christophe Chiquet, Kaweh Mansouri
Intraocular pressure (IOP) is not a fixed value and varies over both the short term and periods lasting several months or years. In particular, IOP is known to vary throughout the 24-h period of a day, defined as a nyctohemeral rhythm in humans. In clinical practice, it is crucial to evaluate the changes in IOP over 24 h in several situations, including the diagnosis of ocular hypertension and glaucoma (IOP is often higher at night) and to optimize the therapeutic management of glaucoma. Until recently, all evaluations of 24-h IOP rhythm were performed using repeated IOP measurements, requiring individuals to be awakened for nocturnal measurements...
November 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421962/the-role-of-dinucleoside-polyphosphates-on-the-ocular-surface-and-other-eye-structures
#20
REVIEW
Gonzalo Carracedo, Almudena Crooke, Ana Guzman-Aranguez, Maria J Pérez de Lara, Alba Martin-Gil, Jesús Pintor
Dinucleoside polyphosphates comprises a group of dinucleotides formed by two nucleosides linked by a variable number of phosphates, abbreviated NpnN (where n represents the number of phosphates). These compounds are naturally occurring substances present in tears, aqueous humour and in the retina. As the consequence of their presence, these dinucleotides contribute to many ocular physiological processes. On the ocular surface, dinucleoside polyphosphates can stimulate tear secretion, mucin release from goblet cells and they help epithelial wound healing by accelerating cell migration rate...
November 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
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