journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Progress in Retinal and Eye Research

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153808/bestrophin-1-and-retinal-disease
#1
REVIEW
Adiv A Johnson, Karina E Guziewicz, C Justin Lee, Ravi C Kalathur, Jose S Pulido, Lihua Y Marmorstein, Alan D Marmorstein
Mutations in the gene BEST1 are causally associated with as many as five clinically distinct retinal degenerative diseases, which are collectively referred to as the "bestrophinopathies". These five associated diseases are: Best vitelliform macular dystrophy, autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy, adult-onset vitelliform macular dystrophy, autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy, and retinitis pigmentosa. The most common of these is Best vitelliform macular dystrophy. Bestrophin 1 (Best1), the protein encoded by the gene BEST1, has been the subject of a great deal of research since it was first identified nearly two decades ago...
January 30, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111324/bestrophinopathy-an-rpe-photoreceptor-interface-disease
#2
REVIEW
Karina E Guziewicz, Divya Sinha, Néstor M Gómez, Kathryn Zorych, Emily V Dutrow, Anuradha Dhingra, Robert F Mullins, Edwin M Stone, David M Gamm, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Gustavo D Aguirre
Bestrophinopathies, one of the most common forms of inherited macular degenerations, are caused by mutations in the BEST1 gene expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Both human and canine BEST1-linked maculopathies are characterized by abnormal accumulation of autofluorescent material within RPE cells and bilateral macular or multifocal lesions; however, the specific mechanism leading to the formation of these lesions remains unclear. We now provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on the molecular pathology of bestrophinopathies, and explore factors promoting formation of RPE-neuroretinal separations, using the first spontaneous animal model of BEST1-associated retinopathies, canine Best (cBest)...
January 19, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111323/cell-based-therapeutic-strategies-for-replacement-and-preservation-in-retinal-degenerative-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Melissa K Jones, Bin Lu, Sergey Girman, Shaomei Wang
Cell-based therapeutics offer diverse options for treating retinal degenerative diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). AMD is characterized by both genetic and environmental risks factors, whereas RP is mainly a monogenic disorder. Though treatments exist for some patients with neovascular AMD, a majority of retinal degenerative patients have no effective therapeutics, thus indicating a need for universal therapies to target diverse patient populations. Two main cell-based mechanistic approaches are being tested in clinical trials...
January 19, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109737/retinal-oxygen-from-animals-to-humans
#4
REVIEW
Robert A Linsenmeier, Hao F Zhang
This article discusses retinal oxygenation and retinal metabolism by focusing on measurements made with two of the principal methods used to study O2 in the retina: measurements of PO2 with oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes in vivo in animals with a retinal circulation similar to that of humans, and oximetry, which can be used non-invasively in both animals and humans to measure O2 concentration in retinal vessels. Microelectrodes uniquely have high spatial resolution, allowing the mapping of PO2 in detail, and when combined with mathematical models of diffusion and consumption, they provide information about retinal metabolism...
January 18, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064040/bax-to-basics-how-the-bcl2-gene-family-controls-the-death-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#5
REVIEW
Margaret E Maes, Cassandra L Schlamp, Robert W Nickells
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is the principal consequence of injury to the optic nerve. For several decades, we have understood that the RGC death process was executed by apoptosis, suggesting that there may be ways to therapeutically intervene in this cell death program and provide a more direct treatment to the cells and tissues affected in diseases like glaucoma. A major part of this endeavor has been to elucidate the molecular biological pathways active in RGCs from the point of axonal injury to the point of irreversible cell death...
January 4, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057562/imaging-retina-to-study-dementia-and-stroke
#6
REVIEW
Carol Yim-Lui Cheung, M Kamran Ikram, Christopher Chen, Tien Yin Wong
With increase in life expectancy, the number of persons suffering from common age-related brain diseases, including neurodegenerative (e.g., dementia) and cerebrovascular (e.g., stroke) disease is expected to rise substantially. As current neuro-imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging may not be able to detect subtle subclinical changes (resolution <100-500 μm) in dementia and stroke, there is an urgent need for other complementary techniques to probe the pathophysiology of these diseases...
January 3, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039061/primary-angle-closure-glaucoma-what-we-know-and-what-we-don-t-know
#7
REVIEW
Xinghuai Sun, Yi Dai, Yuhong Chen, Dao-Yi Yu, Stephen J Cringle, Junyi Chen, Xiangmei Kong, Xiaolei Wang, Chunhui Jiang
Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is a common cause of blindness. Angle closure is a fundamental pathologic process in PAGC. With the development of imaging devices for the anterior segment of the eye, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of angle closure has been reached. Aside from pupillary block and plateau iris, multiple-mechanisms are more common contributors for closure of the angle such as choroidal thickness and uveal expansion, which may be responsible for the presenting features of PACG...
December 28, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028002/aqueous-outflow-a-continuum-from-trabecular-meshwork-to-episcleral-veins
#8
REVIEW
Teresia Carreon, Elizabeth van der Merwe, Ronald L Fellman, Murray Johnstone, Sanjoy K Bhattacharya
In glaucoma, lowered intraocular pressure (IOP) confers neuroprotection. Elevated IOP characterizes glaucoma and arises from impaired aqueous humor (AH) outflow. Increased resistance in the trabecular meshwork (TM), a filter-like structure essential to regulate AH outflow, may result in the impaired outflow. Flow through the 360° circumference of TM structures may be non-uniform, divided into high and low flow regions, termed as segmental. After flowing through the TM, AH enters Schlemm's canal (SC), which expresses both blood and lymphatic markers; AH then passes into collector channel entrances (CCE) along the SC external well...
December 24, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028001/pharmacokinetic-aspects-of-retinal-drug-delivery
#9
REVIEW
Eva M Del Amo, Anna-Kaisa Rimpelä, Emma Heikkinen, Otto K Kari, Eva Ramsay, Tatu Lajunen, Mechthild Schmitt, Laura Pelkonen, Madhushree Bhattacharya, Dominique Richardson, Astrid Subrizi, Tiina Turunen, Mika Reinisalo, Jaakko Itkonen, Elisa Toropainen, Marco Casteleijn, Heidi Kidron, Maxim Antopolsky, Kati-Sisko Vellonen, Marika Ruponen, Arto Urtti
Drug delivery to the posterior eye segment is an important challenge in ophthalmology, because many diseases affect the retina and choroid leading to impaired vision or blindness. Currently, intravitreal injections are the method of choice to administer drugs to the retina, but this approach is applicable only in selected cases (e.g. anti-VEGF antibodies and soluble receptors). There are two basic approaches that can be adopted to improve retinal drug delivery: prolonged and/or retina targeted delivery of intravitreal drugs and use of other routes of drug administration, such as periocular, suprachoroidal, sub-retinal, systemic, or topical...
December 24, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012881/improving-our-understanding-and-detection-of-glaucomatous-damage-an-approach-based-upon-optical-coherence-tomography-oct
#10
REVIEW
Donald C Hood
Although ophthalmologists are becoming increasingly reliant upon optical coherence tomography (OCT), clinicians who care for glaucoma patients are not taking full advantage of the potential of this powerful technology. First, we ask, how would one describe the nature of glaucomatous damage if only OCT scans were available? In particular, a schematic model of glaucomatous damage is developed in section 2, and the nature of glaucomatous damage seen on OCT scans described in the context of this model in section 3...
December 22, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916682/adaptive-optics-optical-coherence-tomography-in-glaucoma
#11
REVIEW
Zachary M Dong, Gadi Wollstein, Bo Wang, Joel S Schuman
Since the introduction of commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, the ophthalmic imaging modality has rapidly expanded and it has since changed the paradigm of visualization of the retina and revolutionized the management and diagnosis of neuro-retinal diseases, including glaucoma. OCT remains a dynamic and evolving imaging modality, growing from time-domain OCT to the improved spectral-domain OCT, adapting novel image analysis and processing methods, and onto the newer swept-source OCT and the implementation of adaptive optics (AO) into OCT...
December 1, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784628/advances-in-bone-marrow-stem-cell-therapy-for-retinal-dysfunction
#12
REVIEW
Susanna S Park, Elad Moisseiev, Gerhard Bauer, Johnathon D Anderson, Maria B Grant, Azhar Zam, Robert J Zawadzki, John S Werner, Jan A Nolta
The most common cause of untreatable vision loss is dysfunction of the retina. Conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma remain leading causes of untreatable blindness worldwide. Various stem cell approaches are being explored for treatment of retinal regeneration. The rationale for using bone marrow stem cells to treat retinal dysfunction is based on preclinical evidence showing that bone marrow stem cells can rescue degenerating and ischemic retina. These stem cells have primarily paracrine trophic effects although some cells can directly incorporate into damaged tissue...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773767/detection-and-measurement-of-clinically-meaningful-visual-field-progression-in-clinical-trials-for-glaucoma
#13
REVIEW
C Gustavo De Moraes, Jeffrey M Liebmann, Leonard A Levin
Glaucomatous visual field progression has both personal and societal costs and therefore has a serious impact on quality of life. At the present time, intraocular pressure (IOP) is considered to be the most important modifiable risk factor for glaucoma onset and progression. Reduction of IOP has been repeatedly demonstrated to be an effective intervention across the spectrum of glaucoma, regardless of subtype or disease stage. In the setting of approval of IOP-lowering therapies, it is expected that effects on IOP will translate into benefits in long-term patient-reported outcomes...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671171/the-neural-retina-in-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#14
REVIEW
Ronald M Hansen, Anne Moskowitz, James D Akula, Anne B Fulton
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a neurovascular disease that affects prematurely born infants and is known to have significant long term effects on vision. We conducted the studies described herein not only to learn more about vision but also about the pathogenesis of ROP. The coincidence of ROP onset and rapid developmental elongation of the rod photoreceptor outer segments motivated us to consider the role of the rods in this disease. We used noninvasive electroretinographic (ERG), psychophysical, and retinal imaging procedures to study the function and structure of the neurosensory retina...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666015/steroid-induced-ocular-hypertension-glaucoma-focus-on-pharmacogenomics-and-implications-for-precision-medicine
#15
REVIEW
M Elizabeth Fini, Stephen G Schwartz, Xiaoyi Gao, Shinwu Jeong, Nitin Patel, Tatsuo Itakura, Marianne O Price, Francis W Price, Rohit Varma, W Daniel Stamer
Elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) due to therapeutic use of glucocorticoids is called steroid-induced ocular hypertension (SIOH); this can lead to steroid-induced glaucoma (SIG). Glucocorticoids initiate signaling cascades ultimately affecting expression of hundreds of genes; this provides the potential for a highly personalized pharmacological response. Studies attempting to define genetic risk factors were undertaken early in the history of glucocorticoid use, however scientific tools available at that time were limited and progress stalled...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664379/caveolins-and-caveolae-in-ocular-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#16
REVIEW
Xiaowu Gu, Alaina M Reagan, Mark E McClellan, Michael H Elliott
Caveolae are specialized, invaginated plasma membrane domains that are defined morphologically and by the expression of signature proteins called, caveolins. Caveolae and caveolins are abundant in a variety of cell types including vascular endothelium, glia, and fibroblasts where they play critical roles in transcellular transport, endocytosis, mechanotransduction, cell proliferation, membrane lipid homeostasis, and signal transduction. Given these critical cellular functions, it is surprising that ablation of the caveolae organelle does not result in lethality suggesting instead that caveolae and caveolins play modulatory roles in cellular homeostasis...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639549/the-physiological-optics-of-the-lens
#17
REVIEW
Paul J Donaldson, Angus C Grey, Bianca Maceo Heilman, Julie C Lim, Ehsan Vaghefi
The optical properties of the ocular lens are important to overall vision quality. As a transparent biological tissue, the lens contributes to the overall and dynamic focussing power of the eye, and corrects for optical errors introduced by the cornea. The optical properties of the lens change throughout life. Alterations to the refractive properties and transparency of the lens result in presbyopia and cataract, respectively. However, it is not well understood how changes to lens cellular structure and function initiate these changes in refraction and transparency...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623223/in%C3%A2-vivo-genome-editing-as-a-potential-treatment-strategy-for-inherited-retinal-dystrophies
#18
REVIEW
Mert Yanik, Brigitte Müller, Fei Song, Jacqueline Gall, Franziska Wagner, Wolfgang Wende, Birgit Lorenz, Knut Stieger
In vivo genome editing represents an emerging field in the treatment of monogenic disorders, as it may constitute a solution to the current hurdles in classic gene addition therapy, which are the low levels and limited duration of transgene expression. Following the introduction of a double strand break (DSB) at the mutational site by highly specific endonucleases, such as TALENs (transcription activator like effector nucleases) or RNA based nucleases (clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats - CRISPR-Cas), the cell's own DNA repair machinery restores integrity to the DNA strand and corrects the mutant sequence, thus allowing the cell to produce protein levels as needed...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586058/retinal-regeneration-mechanisms-linked-to-multiple-cancer-molecules-a-therapeutic-conundrum
#19
REVIEW
Amanda Barber, Kyle Farmer, Keith R Martin, Patrice D Smith
Over the last decade, a large number of research articles have been published demonstrating regeneration and/or neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells following manipulation of specific genetic and molecular targets. Interestingly, of the targets that have been identified to promote repair following visual system damage, many are genes known to be mutated in different types of cancer. This review explores recent literature on the potential for modulating cancer genes as a therapeutic strategy for visual system repair and looks at the potential clinical challenges associated with implementing this type of therapy...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693724/significance-of-optineurin-mutations-in-glaucoma-and-other-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Yuriko Minegishi, Mao Nakayama, Daisuke Iejima, Kazuhide Kawase, Takeshi Iwata
Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of bilateral blindness, affecting nearly 57 million people worldwide. Glaucoma is characterized by a progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and is often associated with intraocular pressure (IOP). Normal tension glaucoma (NTG), marked by normal IOP but progressive glaucoma, is incompletely understood. In 2002, Sarfarazi et al. identified FIP-2 gene mutations responsible for hereditary NTG, renaming this gene "optineurin" (OPTN). Further investigations by multiple groups worldwide showed that OPTN is involved in several critical cellular functions, such as NF-κB regulation, autophagy, and vesicle transport...
November 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
journal
journal
31947
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"