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Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732999/small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
Gregory P Kalemkerian
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a high-grade neuroendocrine tumor characterized by rapid growth, early metastatic spread, and initial responsiveness to therapy. Although the incidence of SCLC is declining, it remains one of the common causes of cancer-related mortality. Initial evaluation of patients with SCLC should focus on determining the extent of disease and the ability of the patient to tolerate specific therapy. Positron emission tomography (PET) can improve the accuracy of staging and treatment planning in many patients...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732998/immunotherapy-for-lung-cancer-no-longer-an-abstract-concept
#2
Kristen A Marrone, Jarushka Naidoo, Julie R Brahmer
The treatment paradigm for lung cancer has been transformed in recent years by the use of immunotherapy, specifically, immune checkpoint antibodies (mAb), which are agents designed to reinvigorate an immune-mediated anticancer response by releasing the effects of tumor-mediated immunosuppression. Late-phase clinical trials of these agents in patients with advanced lung cancers have translated into improved clinical outcomes compared with standard-of-care chemotherapy for the treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, and have resulted in FDA approvals for two immune checkpoint mAbs in the second-line setting...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732997/predictive-and-prognostic-biomarkers-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#3
Manish K Thakur, Shirish M Gadgeel
Therapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients has evolved over the past few years with the incorporation of targeted therapy and immune therapy. These changes have increased the importance of prognostic and predictive biomarkers to enable practicing physicians in making the most appropriate treatment decisions for NSCLC patients. A variety of prognostic factors based on clinical and pathologic features determine the overall outcome of the patient and these factors do influence decisions regarding initiation of therapy...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732996/palliative-care-in-lung-cancer-a-review
#4
Brett C Bade, Gerard A Silvestri
Lung cancer patients are at high risk of suffering due to severe and refractory symptoms, concomitant respiratory comorbidity, frequent disease progression, and treatment that can worsen and compromise quality of life. Palliative care (PC) has shown multiple benefits to cancer patients such as better quality of life, higher patient and family satisfaction, improved disease understanding, less symptom burden, fewer depressive symptoms, less aggressive end of life care, and even improved survival with early implementation...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732995/metastatic-lung-cancer-emerging-therapeutic-strategies
#5
Sana Saif Ur Rehman, Suresh S Ramalingam
Advanced stage nonsmall cell lung cancer had been treated mainly with platinum-based doublet chemotherapy, and other cytotoxic agents that offered significant survival advantage over best supportive care, until recently. Modest improvements were achieved with the addition of antibodies targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor, and the introduction of maintenance chemotherapy. Improvements in our knowledge of lung cancer biology have shifted the current treatment paradigm from being based on histology to one based on molecular biomarkers...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732994/stage-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
Valerie W Rusch
More than 20% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) are classified as stage III disease at diagnosis because they are locoregionally advanced tumors. Local therapy alone (surgery or radiation) leads to poor overall survival in stage III NSCLC because most of the patients with NSCLC die of distant metastases. Therefore, during the past 20 years, studies have focused on developing effective chemotherapy regimens that can be combined with local therapies (surgery and/or radiation). The role of surgery has been extensively evaluated and the selection criteria for resection defined...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732993/radiation-therapy-for-stage-i-nonoperable-or-medically-inoperable-lung-cancer
#7
Amar U Kishan, Percy Lee
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the second most common solid malignancy in the United States of America, and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Nearly 15% of patients present with early-stage disease, for which the standard of care is lobectomy. However, the median age at diagnosis ranges from 65 to 74 years, and many patients have significant comorbidities that preclude surgical treatment. Previously, the standard of care for these patients was definitive radiotherapy (RT) with conventional fractionation (i...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732992/surgical-treatment-of-early-l-stage-lung-cancer-what-has-changed-and-what-will-change-in-the-future
#8
Huan H Sun, Joanna Sesti, Jessica S Donington
Recent advances in the surgical treatment of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have focused heavily on making procedures less invasive, less radical, and better tolerated. Advances in accuracy and increased utilization of cross-sectional imaging allows for diagnosis of smaller and more indolent tumors and preinvasive lesions. Similar to advanced disease, early-stage treatment is now being tailored to individual patients and their tumors. Sublobar resections are gaining acceptance as an oncologically equivalent approach to lobectomy in well-selected stage I patients...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732991/indeterminate-pulmonary-nodules-how-to-minimize-harm
#9
Igor Barjaktarevic, Doug Arenberg, Brandon S Grimes, Kathleen Ruchalski, Denise R Aberle
Each year, more than 1 million persons worldwide are found to have a lung nodule that carries a risk of being malignant. In reality, the vast majority of lung nodules are benign, whether identified by screening or incidentally. The consequences of delaying or missing the diagnosis of lung cancer can be substantial, as can be the consequences of invasive procedures on patients with benign lung nodules. The challenge for the clinician caring for these patients is to differentiate between benign and malignant nodules with the least harm possible...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732990/diagnostic-pathology-of-lung-cancer
#10
Kristine E Konopka
In the past 5 years, there has arguably been a shift in the pathologic diagnosis of lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, moving toward a more patient-centered approach to reporting that works to incorporate information that may be clinically meaningful to prognosis and impactful to clinical management strategy. As the demand for specialty team care surges, the need for effective communication between specialties continues to increase, particularly to ensure that we are all speaking the same language with regard to diagnostic certainty and the implementation of new terminology...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732989/the-pursuit-of-noninvasive-diagnosis-of-lung-cancer
#11
Thomas Atwater, Christine M Cook, Pierre P Massion
The noninvasive diagnosis of lung cancer remains a formidable challenge. Although tissue diagnosis will remain the gold standard for the foreseeable future, questions pertaining to the risks and costs associated with invasive diagnostic procedures are of prime relevance. This review addresses new modalities for improving the noninvasive evaluation of suspicious lung nodules. Ultimately, the goal is to translate early diagnosis into early treatment. We discuss how biomarkers could assist in distinguishing benign from malignant nodules and aggressive from indolent tumors...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732988/obstacles-to-and-solutions-for-a-successful-lung-cancer-screening-program
#12
Peter J Mazzone
Lung cancer screening with a low radiation dose chest CT scan has been shown to reduce the number of people, in a well-defined very high-risk cohort, who die from lung cancer. Many potential screening-related harms have been identified, including anxiety and morbidity related to the evaluation of screen-detected findings. A favorable balance of the benefit and harms of lung cancer screening requires careful implementation of a screening program, with a focus on several obstacles to the success of the program...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732987/tobacco-control-and-tobacco-cessation-in-lung-cancer-too-little-too-late
#13
Emily Stone, Anil Vachani
The lung cancer epidemic of the twentieth century grew out of increasing tobacco consumption in the first half of that century. Tobacco control policies have been instituted in many high-income countries since the mid-1960s. Since then smoking rates have declined in these countries, particularly in men where lung cancer rates have stabilized. Tobacco control measures are not strong enough in many countries around the world, particularly low and middle income countries in Eastern Europe and Asia. In these countries, smoking rates and lung cancer rates remain high...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732986/lung-cancer-evolving-concepts-in-management
#14
Douglas Arenberg, Steven M Dubinett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486742/antivirals-for-respiratory-viral-infections-problems-and-prospects
#15
Qiang Liu, Yuan-Hong Zhou, Feng Ye, Zhan-Qiu Yang
In the past two decades, several newly emerging and reemerging viral respiratory pathogens including several influenza viruses (avian influenza and pandemic influenza), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), have continued to challenge medical and public health systems. Thereafter, the development of cost-effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the urgent mission of both virologists and pharmacologists. Current antiviral developments have focused targets on viral entry, replication, release, and intercellular pathways essential for viral life cycle...
August 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486741/control-measures-for-human-respiratory-viral-infection
#16
Lesley Bennett, Grant Waterer
New viral respiratory pathogens are emerging with increasing frequency and have potentially devastating impacts on the population worldwide. Recent examples of newly emerged threats include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Experiences with these pathogens have shown up major deficiencies in how we deal globally with emerging pathogens and taught us salient lessons in what needs to be addressed for future pandemics...
August 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486740/herpesvirus-respiratory-infections-in-immunocompromised-patients-epidemiology-management-and-outcomes
#17
Gail E Reid, Joseph P Lynch, Samuel Weigt, David Sayah, John A Belperio, Shellee A Grim, Nina M Clark
Among immunocompromised individuals, members of the human Herpesviridae family are frequently encountered pathogens. Cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpesvirus-6, -7, and -8 all establish latency after infection and can reactivate during periods of immunosuppression, leading to both direct and indirect adverse effects on the host including severe organ dysfunction as well as allograft rejection and loss after transplantation. While not all herpesviruses are primary respiratory pathogens, many of their manifestations include involvement of the respiratory tract...
August 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486739/adenovirus-epidemiology-global-spread-of-novel-serotypes-and-advances-in-treatment-and-prevention
#18
Joseph P Lynch, Adriana E Kajon
Adenoviruses (AdVs) are DNA viruses that typically cause mild infections involving the upper or lower respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, or conjunctiva. Rare manifestations of AdV infections include hemorrhagic cystitis, hepatitis, hemorrhagic colitis, pancreatitis, nephritis, or meningoencephalitis. AdV infections are more common in young children, due to lack of humoral immunity. Epidemics of AdV infection may occur in healthy children or adults in closed or crowded settings (particularly military recruits)...
August 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486738/enterovirus-d68-and-human-respiratory-infections
#19
Zichun Xiang, Jianwei Wang
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a member of the species Enterovirus D in the genus Enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family. EV-D68 was first isolated in the United States in 1962 and is primarily an agent of respiratory disease. Infections with EV-D68 have been rarely reported until recently, when reports of EV-D68 associated with respiratory disease increased notably worldwide. An outbreak in 2014 in the United States, for example, involved more than 1,000 cases of severe respiratory disease that occurred across almost all states...
August 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486737/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-virus-pathogenesis
#20
Sunit K Singh
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped RNA viruses that infect birds, mammals, and humans. Infections caused by human coronaviruses (hCoVs) are mostly associated with the respiratory, enteric, and nervous systems. The hCoVs only occasionally induce lower respiratory tract disease, including bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. In 2002 to 2003, a global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was the seminal detection of a novel CoV (SARS-CoV). A decade later (June 2012), another novel CoV was implicated as the cause of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in Saudi Arabia...
August 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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