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Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

Michael R Holt, Shannon Kasperbauer
Extrapulmonary disease occurs in a minority of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections. The pattern of disease tends to be multifocal in immunocompromised individuals and localized in the immunocompetent. There is increasing recognition of disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera infection, as a complication of cardiac surgery, and focal infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria. Microbiologic diagnosis requires detection of NTM in blood or tissue samples by microscopy, culture, or molecular methods. Management of extrapulmonary NTM infection requires prolonged, targeted multiple-drug therapy and, in some cases, aggressive surgical intervention...
June 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
John D Mitchell
There is renewed interest in the use of adjuvant surgical resection in the treatment of pulmonary mycobacterial disease. For pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the emergence of significant drug resistance has led clinicians to reconsider surgery in select cases, where a clear benefit in bacterial conversion and cure has been noted. Less data exist for the use of anatomic resection in the setting of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, although multiple reports have supported the use of surgery in select cases...
June 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Brian S Furukawa, Patrick A Flume
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can cause chronic pulmonary infection in susceptible hosts. Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), a multisystem disease predominated by progressive structural lung disease, are particularly vulnerable. Only recently have NTM been recognized for their potential to cause lung deterioration in CF patients. The reported prevalence varies widely from 4 to 40%, significantly more common than in the general population, but this varies because of multiple factors including inconsistent screening practices...
June 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Damien Basille, Vincent Jounieaux, Claire Andréjak
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are numerous, and for the vast majority of them, randomized studies are lacking and data regarding optimal treatment are limited. When Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and M. abscessus are excluded, the main NTM are M. xenopi, M. kansasii, M. malmoense, M. szulgai , and M. simiae . Treatment is long (at least 12 months after culture conversion according to recommendations by scientific societies) and difficult (at least three drugs are required, each of which have potential adverse events)...
June 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Luke Strnad, Kevin L Winthrop
Of the nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) causing lung disease, members of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABc) present a formidable obstacle to successful management. This challenge starts from a poorly understood pathogenesis, continues with complicated subspecies variation in treatment response, and extends to the multidrug-resistant nature of these organisms. The disease often necessitates the use of intravenous therapy, toxic drug combinations, and, in some cases, lung resection. Like many NTMs, MABc treatment requires prolonged therapy with multiple medications, and pulmonary disease in some subspecies can be impossible to eradicate or cure...
June 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
David E Griffith
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the most commonly isolated nontuberculous mycobacterial respiratory pathogen worldwide. MAC lung disease is manifested either by fibrocavitary radiographic changes similar to pulmonary tuberculosis or by bronchiectasis with nodular and reticulonodular radiographic changes. This latter form of MAC lung disease, termed "nodular bronchiectatic (NB) MAC lung disease" is the most common form of MAC lung disease in the United States. Treatment at the time of diagnosis is always indicated for fibrocavitary MAC lung disease because it is always progressive and associated with increased morbidity and mortality compared with NB MAC lung disease...
June 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Steven A Cowman, Michael R Loebinger
The diagnosis of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease may be challenging, as their presence alone does not necessarily indicate disease and diagnosis requires the integration of clinical, radiological, and microbiological findings. The first step is to suspect NTM disease; however, clinical manifestations of NTM are nonspecific and it may not be possible to separate them from those caused by underlying respiratory disease. The radiological appearance generally falls into two patterns, fibrocavitary disease and nodular-bronchiectatic disease; consolidation, infiltrates, and solitary nodules are also described...
June 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Sanne M H Zweijpfenning, Jakko van Ingen, Wouter Hoefsloot
Isolation frequency of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) differs per region. Differences in isolation frequency as well as frequencies in clinical relevance are relevant for daily clinical practice. We conducted a systematic review, searching PubMed to assess these differences. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the most frequently isolated species and the majority of MAC isolates are causative agents of clinically relevant disease, that is, the patient ultimately meets American Thoracic Society/Infectious Disease Society of America diagnostic criteria for NTM pulmonary disease...
June 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Jennifer Adjemian, Shelby Daniel-Wayman, Emily Ricotta, D Rebecca Prevots
Annual prevalence estimates for pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease in the contiguous United States range from 1.4 to 13.9 per 100,000 persons, while one study found an annual prevalence of up to 44 per 100,000 persons in Hawaii. PNTM prevalence varies by region, sex, and race/ethnicity, with higher prevalence among women and persons of Asian ancestry, as well as in the Southern United States and Hawaii. Studies consistently indicate that PNTM prevalence is increasing, with estimates ranging from 2...
June 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Charles L Daley, Jose A Caminero
Drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pose a major threat to global tuberculosis control. Despite the availability of curative antituberculosis therapy for nearly half a century, inappropriate and inadequate treatment of tuberculosis, as well as unchecked transmission of M. tuberculosis , has resulted in alarming levels of drug-resistant tuberculosis. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there were 600,000 cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)/rifampin-resistant (RR) tuberculosis in 2016, defined as strains that are resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin...
June 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Michelle K Haas, Robert W Belknap
First-line therapy for active tuberculosis (TB) has remained unchanged for nearly 40 years. Isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for the initial two-month phase followed by isoniazid and rifampin for 4 to 7 months is standard treatment for people at low risk for drug-resistant disease. Directly-observed therapy (DOT) remains the standard of care for pulmonary TB. Virtual treatment monitoring using digital technologies is becoming more common as a way to provide a more patient-centered approach to care...
June 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Elisa Nemes, Erin W Meermeier, Thomas J Scriba, Gerhard Walzl, Stephanus T Malherbe, David M Lewinsohn
For the ICU physician, the failure to consider, diagnose, and treat tuberculosis (TB) results in increased morbidity and mortality, and poses risks to both patients and health care providers. At present, the diagnosis of TB depends on the detection of either mycobacteria or mycobacterial products from clinical specimens. Given the risks posed to both the patient and health care providers by undiagnosed and/or untreated TB, the ability to diagnose TB rapidly in the ICU cannot be understated. In this regard, nucleic acid amplification tests provide relatively quick information about the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) DNA...
June 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Philippe Glaziou, Katherine Floyd, Mario C Raviglione
Tuberculosis (TB) was the underlying cause of 1.3 million deaths among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative people in 2016, exceeding the global number of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) deaths. In addition, TB was a contributing cause of 374,000 HIV deaths. Despite the success of chemotherapy over the past seven decades, TB is the top infectious killer globally. In 2016, 10.4 million new cases arose, a number that has remained stable since the beginning of the 21th century, frustrating public health experts tasked to design and implement interventions to reduce the burden of TB disease worldwide...
June 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Patrick A Flume, Kevin L Winthrop
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Rupal J Shah, Joshua M Diamond
Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is a form of acute lung injury that results from ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and is the major cause of early posttransplant morbidity and mortality. Patients who survive PGD have decreased quality of life, an increased risk of chronic lung allograft dysfunction, specifically bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, and a significantly increased risk of death. In 2017, the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation released updated consensus statements on the PGD definition, most up-to-date PGD risk factors, mechanisms of PGD development, and the state-of-the-art for PGD therapeutics...
April 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Nicholas A Kolaitis, Jonathan P Singer
Lung transplantation (LT) has the potential to extend survival and improve quality of life (QOL) for patients suffering from end-stage lung disease. This review describes the many ways in which success can be defined in LT. It evaluates the improvements in survival outcomes after LT over time, and describes ways to measure the success of LT other than survival after transplantation. It also addresses the importance of patient-centered outcomes and how improvements in health-related quality of life (HRQL) are pivotal to defining success within LT...
April 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Nina M Clark, S Samuel Weigt, Michael C Fishbein, Bernard Kubak, John A Belperio, Joseph P Lynch
Lung transplantation is an increasingly utilized modality for treating advanced lung disease. However, lung transplant recipients (LTRs) experience high rates of infection-related mortality and, compared with other solid organ transplant recipients, are at increased risk of infectious complications given the intensity of immunosuppression employed, the presence of airway abnormalities after surgery and exposure of the allograft to the environment. Fungal infections, particularly mold infections, are problematic after transplantation as they are often associated with limited treatment options and poor outcomes...
April 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Mark Benzimra
The performance of bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy is an essential tool and skill required by any clinician caring for patients postlung transplantation. Making a confident diagnosis is crucial in initiating different treatment strategies which may be in turn hazardous to the patient in light of an inaccurate diagnosis. Having more information available for evaluation optimizes the chances of tailoring appropriate therapeutic options in this complex patient population. Performing a bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy indeed provides a wealth of information via microbiological, cytological, and histological samples that assist us to differentiate infection from rejection, or to confirm the presence of both...
April 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Jens Gottlieb
The incidence of community-acquired respiratory viruses (CARVs) is ∼15 cases per 100 patient-years after lung transplantation (LTx). Paramyxoviruses account for almost 50% of the cases of CARV infection in LTx. Most patients will be symptomatic with a mean decline of 15 to 20% in forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The attributable death rate is low in recent years 15 to 25% CARV infected LTx patients will develop chronic lung allograft dysfunction within a year after CARV infection. This risk seems to be increased in comparison to the noninfected LTx recipient...
April 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Alicia B Mitchell, Allan R Glanville
Once considered a sterile site below the larynx, the tracheobronchial tree and parenchyma of the lungs are now known to harbor a rich diversity of microbial species including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and archaea. Many of these organisms, particularly the viruses which comprise the human respiratory virome, have not been identified, so their true role is unknown. It seems logical to conclude that a "healthy" respiratory microbiome exists which may be modified in disease states and perhaps by therapies such as antibiotics, antifungals, and antiviral treatments...
April 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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