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Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

Minji Kim, Won-Baek Kim, Kyoung Yoon Koo, Bo Ram Kim, Doohyun Kim, Seoyoun Lee, Hong Joo Son, Dae Youn Hwang, Dong Seob Kim, Chung Yeoul Lee, Heeseob Lee
This study was conducted to evaluate the hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibition activity of Asparagus cochinchinesis (AC) extracts following fermentation by Weissella cibaria through response surface methodology (RSM). To optimize the HAase inhibition activity, a central composite design (CCD) was introduced based on four variables, the concentration of AC extract (X₁: 1-5%), amount of starter culture (X₂: 1-5%), pH (X₃: 4-8) and fermentation time (X₄: 0-10 days). The experimental data were fitted to quadratic regression equations, the accuracy of the equations was analyzed by ANOVA, and the regression coefficients for the surface quadratic model of HAase inhibition activity in fermented AC extract were estimated by the F test and the corresponding p values...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Laura Amina Dahili, Endre Nagy, Tivadar Feczkó
Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzes the oxidation of aromatic compounds by hydrogen peroxide via insoluble polymer formation, which can be precipitated from the wastewater. For HRP immobilization poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) fine carrier supports were produced by Nano Spray Dryer B-90. Immobilized HRP was used to remove the persistent 2,4-dichlorophenol from model wastewater. Both extracted (9-16 U/g) and purified HRP (11-25 U/g) retained their activity to a high extent after crosslinking to the PLGA particles...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ji Hong, Peng Zhang, I Na Yoon, Jae Sam Hwang, Jin Ku Kang, Ho Kim
Clostridium difficile, which causes pseudomembranous colitis, releases toxin A and toxin B. These toxins are considered to be the main causative agents for the disease pathogenesis, and their expression is associated with a marked increase of apoptosis in mucosal epithelial cells. Colonic epithelial cells are believed to form a physical barrier between the lumen and the submucosa, and abnormally increased mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis is considered to be an initial step in gut inflammation responses. Therefore, one approach to treating pseudomembranous colitis would be to develop agents that block the mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis caused by toxin A, thus restoring barrier function and curing inflammatory responses in the gut...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Suhyun Kim, Ilnam Kang, Jang-Cheon Cho
Strain IMCC26207 was isolated from the surface layer of Lake Soyang in Korea by the dilution-to-extinction culturing method using a liquid medium prepared with filtered and autoclaved lake water. The strain could neither be maintained in a synthetic medium other than natural freshwater medium nor grow on solid agar plates. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain IMCC26207 formed a distinct lineage in the order Acidimicrobiales of the phylum Actinobacteria. The closest relative among the previously identified bacterial taxa was "Candidatus Microthrix parvicella" with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 91...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ji Young Lee, Do Youn Jun, Ju Eun Park, Gi Hyun Kwon, Jong-Sik Kim, Young Ho Kim
To examine the pro-apoptotic role of the human ortholog (YPEL5) of the Drosophila Yippee protein, the cell viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain with deleted MOH1, the yeast ortholog, were compared with that of the wild-type (WT)-MOH1 strain after exposure to different apoptogenic stimulants, including UV irradiation, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), camptothecin (CPT), heat shock, and hyperosmotic shock. The moh1Δ mutant exhibited an enhanced cell viability compared with the WT-MOH1 strain when treated with lethal UV irradiation, 1...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Shimin Chang, Xingtian Cui, Mingzhang Guo, Yiling Tian, Wentao Xu, Kunlun Huang, Yuxing Zhang
Supplement of dietary fibers (DF) was regarded as one of the most effective way to prevent and relieve chronic diseases caused by long term intake of high-fat diet in current society. The health benefits of soluble dietary fibers (SDF) have been widely researched and applied, while the insoluble dietary fibers (IDF), which represent more proportion in plant food, were mistakenly through to have effects only in fecal bulking. In this article, we proved the anti-obesity and glucose homeostasis improvement effects of IDF from pear pomace at first, and then the mechanisms responsible for these effects were analyzed...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hang Hu, Kaixiang Chen, Lulu Li, Liangkun Long, Shaojun Ding
A neutral xylanase (Ccxyn) was identified from Coprinus cinereus. It has a single GH10 catalytic domain with a basic amino acid-rich extension (PVRRK) at C-terminus. In this study, the wild-type (Ccxyn) and C-terminus truncated xylanase (CcXynΔ5C) were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris and their characteristics were comparatively analyzed with aims to examine the effect of this extension on the enzyme function. The circular dichorism (CD) analysis indicated that both enzymes in general had a similar structure, but CcXynΔ5C contained less α-helices (42...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ju Eun Yoo, Cheonghoon Lee, SungJun Park, GwangPyo Ko
Human noroviruses are widespread and contagious viruses causing nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (real-time RT-qPCR) is currently the gold standard for sensitive and accurate detection for these pathogens and serves as a critical tool in outbreak prevention and control. Different surveillance teams, however, may use different assays and variability in specimen conditions may lead to disagreement in results. Furthermore, the norovirus genome is highly variable and continuously evolving...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Chang Hoon Lee, George Hajishengallis, Terry D Connell
Mucosal tissues are the initial site through which most pathogens invade. As such, vaccines and adjuvants that modulate mucosal immune functions have emerged as important agents for disease prevention. Herein, we investigated the immunomodulatory mechanisms of the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin type IIa (LT-IIa-B₅), a potent non-toxic, mucosal adjuvant. Alternations in gene expression in response to LT-IIa-B₅ were identified using a genome-wide transcriptional microarray that focused on dendritic cells (DC), a type of cell that broadly orchestrates adaptive and innate immune responses...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Dongbin Park, Yoonsoo Hahn
A distinct double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) cryptic virus, named spinach cryptic virus 1 (SpCV1), was identified from spinach transcriptome datasets. The SpCV1 genome has two dsRNA genome segments. The larger dsRNA1 has an open reading frame (ORF) for a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The smaller dsRNA2 encodes a putative coat protein (CP). The sequence identity of SpCV1 RdRp and CP to the closest cryptic virus is 81% and 60%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that SpCV1 is a novel member of the genus Alphapartitivirus (family Partitiviridae)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Qingwei Zeng, Xiaoqin Wu, Jiangchuan Wang, Xiaolei Ding
Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the ability to dissolve insoluble phosphate and enhance soil fertility. However, the growth and mineral phosphate solubilization of PSB could be affected by exogenous soluble phosphate and the mechanism has not been fully understood. In the present study, the growth and mineral phosphate-solubilizing characteristics of PSB strain Burkholderia multivorans WS-FJ9 were investigated at six levels of exogenous soluble phosphate (0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 20 mM). The WS-FJ9 strain showed better growth at high levels of soluble phosphate...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jayant Shankar Raut, Bhagyashree Shridhar Bansode, Ashwini Khanderao Jadhav, Sankunny Mohan Karuppayil
Candidiasis involving the biofilms of Candida albicans is a threat to the immunocompromised patients. Candida biofilms are intrinsically resistant to the antifungal drugs hence novel treatment strategies are desired. The study intended to evaluate the anti-Candida activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) alone and with fluconazole (FLC), particularly against the biofilms. Results exhibit the concentration-dependent activity of AITC against the planktonic growth and virulence factors of C. albicans. Significant (p <0...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ana Cláudia Graziani, Maria Isabel Stets, Ana Luisa Kalb Lopes, Pedro Henrique Caires Schluga, Soledad Marton, Ieda Ferreira Mendes, Antero Silva Ribeiro de Andrade, Marco Aurélio Krieger, Josiane Cardoso
Sepsis is a major health problem worldwide, with an extremely high rate of morbidity and mortality, partly due to delayed diagnosis during early disease. Currently, sepsis diagnosis requires bacterial culturing of blood samples over several days, while PCR-based molecular diagnosis methods are faster, but lack sensitivity. The use of biosensors containing nucleic acid aptamers that bind targets with high affinity and specificity could accelerate sepsis diagnosis. Previously, we used Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) to develop the aptamers Antibac1 and Antibac2, targeting the ubiquitous bacterial peptidoglycan...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Houjuan Xu, Timothy P Denny
The type II secretion system (T2SS), which transports selected periplasmic proteins across the outer membrane, has rarely been studied in nonpathogens or in organisms classified as betaproteobacteria. Therefore, we studied Cupriavidus metallidurans (Cme), a facultative chemilithoautotroph. Gel analysis of extracellular proteins revealed no remarkable differences between wild type and T2SS mutants. However, enzyme assays revealed that native extracellular alkaline phosphatase is a T2SS substrate, because activity was 10-fold greater for wild-type than a T2SS mutant...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Eun-Hee Lee, Kyung-Suk Cho, Ahjeong Son
We demonstrated the quantitative detection of toxin-producing Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) strain with the laboratory protocol of the NanoGene assay. NanoGene assay was selected because its laboratory protocol is in the process of being transplanted into a portable system. The mcyD gene of M. aeruginosa was targeted and as expected, its corresponding fluorescence signal was linearly proportional to the mcyD gene copy number. The sensitivity of the NanoGene assay for this purpose was validated using both dsDNA mcyD gene amplicons and genomic DNAs (gDNA)...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Kelly Dumorné, David Camacho Córdova, Marcia Astorga-Eló, Prabhaharan Renganathan
Extremophilic microorganisms have established a diversity of molecular strategies in order to survive in extreme conditions. Biocatalysts isolated by these organisms are termed extremozymes, possess extraordinary properties are salt allowance thermostability and cold adaptivity. Extremozymes are very resistant in extreme conditions due to their great solidity and they propose new opportunities for biocatalysis and biotransformations, also for the development of the economy and new line of research through their application...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Frederico Nogueira, Isabel C Gouveia
Chronic wounds, pressure sores, lesions and infections of microbial origin in bedridden, paralyzed or malnutrition patients remain the object of study of many researchers. There are several intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved in the development of these disorders, which are related to the patient's immune system, making it unable to respond effectively to the treatment of the wound. These factors can be properly controlled, giving particular importance to the ethiology and stage of the wound, as well as the time periods corresponding to the replacement of the dressings...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ji-Sun Kim, Ji-Ho Joeng, Yongae Kim
Lactophoricin (LPcin) which is a part of proteose peptone isolated from bovine milk is a cationic amphipathic α-helical antimicrobial peptide. Its truncated variants and mutated analogs were designed and their antimicrobial activities were evaluated by using various assays like broth dilution methods and disk diffusion methods as well as hemolysis assay. Three analogs of LPcin-C8 (LPcin-YK1), LPcin-T2&6W (LPcin-YK2), and LPcin-T2&6W-C8 (LPcin-YK3) that showed better antibiotic activities than LPcin were selected...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Heung-Shick Lee, Younhee Kim
The fungal cell wall and cell membrane are main targets of antifungals. In this study, we report that antifungal activity of the ethanol extract from Paeonia lactiflora against Candida albicans is associated with synergistic action of preventing cell wall synthesis and changing membrane depolarization and permeability in C. albicans. First, the ethanol extract from P. lactiflora was involved in damaging the integrity of cell wall in C. albicans: In isotonic media, cell burst of C. albicans by the P. lactiflora ethanol extract could be restored, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the P...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hyemyoung Ahn, Gwang-Woong Go
PineXol, extracted from Korean red pine bark, has beneficial effects, such as antioxidant, anti3 inflammatory, and anti-lipogenic activities in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that PineXol supplementation could have anti-obesity effects on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed normal chow (18% kcal from fat) or HFD (60% kcal from fat). HFD-fed animals were also subjected to PineXol treatment at a dose of 10 or 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) (PX10 or PX50, respectively) body weight...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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