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Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169224/epigenetic-control-of-oxidative-stresses-by-histone-acetyltransferases-in-candida-albicans
#1
REVIEW
Jueun Kim, Shinae Park, Jung-Shin Lee
Candida albicans is a major pathogenic fungus in human, and meets at first the innate immune cells, such as macrophage, in its host. One important strategy of the host cell to kill C. albicans is to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the macrophages. In response to ROS produced by the macrophage, C. albicans operates its defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species by expressing its oxidative stress response genes. Although there have been many researches explaining the specific transcription factors and the expression of the oxidative stress genes in C...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169223/comparison-of-pfge-is6110-rflp-and-24-locus-miru-vntr-for-molecular-epidemiologic-typing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-with-known-epidemic-connections
#2
Semi Jeon, Nara Lim, Sanghee Park, Misun Park, Seonghan Kim
Two molecular epidemiologic methods, IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP) and 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR), are used worldwide in studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Conversely, because of its poor resolution, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is not widely used for MTB. In this study, we improved 24-locus MIRU-VNTR and PFGE protocols and compared the effectiveness of these approaches for the molecular typing of MTB using 75 clinical isolates obtained from a cohort investigation of high-risk populations infected with MTB...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169222/metagenomic-approach-to-identifying-foodborne-pathogens-on-chinese-cabbage
#3
Daeho Kim, Sanghyun Hong, You-Tae Kim, Sangryeol Ryu, Hyeun Bum Kim, Ju-Hoon Lee
Foodborne illness represents a major threat to public health frequently attributed to pathogenic microorganisms on fresh produce. Recurrent outbreaks often come from vegetables that are grown close to or within the ground. Therefore, the first step to understanding the public health risk of microorganisms on fresh vegetables is to identify and describe microbial communities. We investigated phyllospheres on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis, n=54). 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing targeting the V5-V6 region of 16S rRNA genes was conducted by employing the Illumina MiSeq system...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169221/biochemical-characterization-of-a-novel-gh86-%C3%AE-agarase-producing-neoagarohexaose-from-gayadomonas-joobiniege-g7
#4
Yeong Rim Lee, Subin Jung, Won-Jae Chi, Chang-Hwan Bae, Byeong-Chul Jeong, Soon-Kwang Hong, Chang-Ro Lee
A novel β-agarase AgaJ5 was identified from an agar-degrading marine bacterium Gayadomonas joobiniege G7. It belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 86 and is composed of 805 amino acids with a 30-amino acid signal peptide. Zymogram analysis showed that purified AgaJ5 has agarase activity. The optimum temperature and pH for AgaJ5 activity were determined to be 30°C and 4.5, respectively. AgaJ5 was an acidic β-agarase that had strong activity at a narrow pH range of 4.5 to 5.5, and was a cold-adapted enzyme retaining 40% of enzymatic activity at 10°C...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169220/fermented-soymilk-alleviates-lipid-accumulation-by-inhibition-of-srebp-1-and-activation-of-nrf-2-in-the-hepatocellular-steatosis-model
#5
Sang Bong Ahn, Wen Hao Wu, Jong Hun Lee, Dae Won Jun, Jihyun Kim, Riji Kim, Tae-Bok Lee, Jin Hyun Jun
Ingredients of soy and fermented soy products have been widely utilized as food supplements for health-enhancing properties. The aim was to evaluate the effects of fermented soymilk (FSM) and soymilk (SM) on the free fatty acid-induced lipogenesis in the hepatocellular steatosis model. HepG2 cells were incubated with palmitic acid (PA) for 24 h to induce lipogenesis and accumulation of intracellular lipid contents. The PA treated cells were co-incubated with FSM, SM, genistein, and estrogen, respectively. Lipid accumulations in the PA-treated HpG2 cells were significantly decreased by co-incubation with FSM...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169219/genome-analysis-of-the-naphthalene-degrading-pseudomonas-sp-as1-harboring-the-megaplasmid-pas1
#6
Jisun Kim, Woojun Park
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including naphthalene, are widely distributed in nature. Naphthalene has been regarded as a model PAH compound for investigating the mechanisms of bacterial PAH biodegradation. Pseudomonas sp. AS1 isolated from an arsenic-contaminated site is capable of growing on various aromatic compounds such as naphthalene, salicylate, and catechol, but not on gentisate. The genome of strain AS1 consists of a 6,126,864 bp circular chromosome and the 81,841 bp circular plasmid pAS1...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169218/laccase-fermentation-of-clove-extract-increases-content-of-dehydrodieugenol-which-has-neuroprotective-activity-against-glutamate-toxicity-in-ht22-cells
#7
Han-Saem Lee, Eun-Ju Yang, Taeho Lee, Kyung-Sik Song
Enzyme fermentation is a type of food processing technique generally used to improve the biological activities of food and herbal medicines. In this study, the Syzygium aromaticum (clove) extract was fermented using laccase derived from Trametes versicolor (LTV). The fermented clove extract showed greater neuroprotective effects against glutamate toxicity on HT22 than the non-fermented extract did. HPLC analysis revealed that eugenol (1) and dehydrodieugenol (2) contents had decreased and increased, respectively, after fermentation...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169217/complete-biotransformation-of-protopanaxatriol-type-ginsenosides-in-panax-ginseng-leaf-extract-to-aglycon-protopanaxatriol-by-%C3%AE-glycosidases-from-dictyoglomus-turgidum-and-pyrococcus-furiosus
#8
Eun-Joo Yang, Kyung-Chul Shin, Dae Young Lee, Deok-Kun Oh
Aglycon protopanaxatriol (APPT) has valuable pharmacological effects such as memory enhancement and tumor inhibition. β-Glycosidase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Dictyoglomus turgidum (DT-bgl) hydrolyzes the glucose residues linked to APPT, but not other glycoside residues. β-Glycosidase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Pyrococcus furiosus (PF-bgl) hydrolyzes the outer sugar at C-6 but not the inner glucose at C-6 or the glucose at C-20. Thus, the combined use of DT-bgl and PF-bgl is expected to increase the biotransformation of PPT-type ginsenosides to APPT...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156513/production-and-characterization-of-keratinolytic-proteases-by-a-chicken-feather-degrading-thermophilic-strain-thermoactinomyces-sp-yt06
#9
Lin Wang, Yuting Qian, Yun Cao, Ying Huang, Zhizhou Chang, Hongying Huang
Thermoactinomyces sp. strain YT06 was isolated from poultry compost and observed to degrade integral chicken feathers at 60°C completely, resulting in the formation of 3.24 mg/mL of free amino acid from 50 mL of culture containing 10 g/L chicken feathers. Strain YT06 could grow and secret keratinase using feather as the only carbon and nitrogen sources without other supplement, but complementation of 10 g/L sucrose and 4 g/L NaNO₃ increased the production of the keratinolytic enzyme. The maximum protease activities obtained were 110 U/mL and keratinase were 42 U/mL...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156512/the-possible-mechanisms-involved-in-citrinin-elimination-by-cryptococcus-podzolicus-y3-and-the-effects-of-extrinsic-factors-on-the-degradation-of-citrinin
#10
Xiaoyun Zhang, Zhen Lin, Maurice Tibiru Apaliya, Xiangyu Gu, Xiangfeng Zheng, Lina Zhao, Mandour Haydar Abdelhai, Hongyin Zhang, Weicheng Hu
Citrinin (CIT) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by fungi belonging to the Penicillium, Aspergillus and Monascus spp. This toxin has been detected in many agricultural products. In this study, a strain Y3 with the ability to eliminate CIT was screened and identified as Cryptococcus podzolicus based on the sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Neither uptake of CIT by cells nor adsorption by cell wall was involved in CIT elimination by Cryptococcus podzolicus Y-3. The extracellular metabolites of Cryptococcus podzolicus Y-3 stimulated by CIT or not showed no degradation for CIT...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156511/molecular-epidemiology-and-prevalence-of-echovirus-30-in-zhejiang-province-china-from-2002-to-2015
#11
Yin Chen, Yi Sun, Juying Yan, Ziping Miao, Changping Xu, Yanjun Zhang, Haiyan Mao, Liming Gong
Echovirus 30 serotype (ECHO30) has been responsible for several, recent, worldwide outbreaks of viral meningitis. In Zhejiang Province, China, ECHO30 has been one of the main causes of viral meningitis for years. This study, using phylogenetic analysis on VP1 gene, was performed to investigate the general molecular epidemiology and genetic patterns of ECHO30 circulating in Zhejiang Province between the years 2002 and 2015. The nucleotide sequences of ECHO30 VP1 showed that they were 64.8% identical with the prototype strain, Bastianni, while the amino acids were 84...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156510/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-broad-host-range-bacteriophage-infecting-salmonella-enterica-subsp-enterica-for-biocontrol-and-rapid-detection
#12
In Young Choi, Ju-Hoon Lee, Hye-Jin Kim, Mi-Kyung Park
Bacteriophages have gained substantial attention as biocontrol and bio-recognition agents, substituting antibodies. In this study, a Salmonella Enteritidis-specific bacteriophage, KFS-SE1, was isolated, identified, and characterized. This Siphoviridae phage infects S. Enteritidis with high specificity. This phage is highly stable under various pH (5-11), temperature (4-60°C), and organic solvent conditions. The KFS-SE1 genome consists of 59,715-bp with 73 predicted open reading frames and 57.14% GC content; it has a complete set of genes required for phage reconstruction...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141132/intra-species-volatile-interactions-affects-growth-rates-and-exometabolomes-in-aspergillus-oryzae-kccm-60345
#13
Digar Singh, Choong Hwan Lee
The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are increasingly been recognized as the chemical mediators of mold interactions shaping their community dynamic, growth, and metabolism. Herein, we selectively examined the time-correlated (0 D - 11 D) effects of intra-species VOCs mediated interactions (VMI) on Aspergillus oryzae KCCM 60345 (S1), following co-cultivation with partner strain A. oryzae KACC 44967 (S2), in specially designed twin plate assembly. The comparative evaluation of S1VMI (S1 subjected to VMI with S2) and its control (S1con) showed a notable disparity in their radial growth (S1VMI<S1con) at 5 D, protease activity (S1VMI>S1con) at 3-5 D, amylase activity (S1VMI<S1con) at 3-5 D, and antioxidant levels (S1VMI>S1con) at 3 D...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141131/simultaneous-detection-of-four-foodborne-viruses-in-food-samples-using-a-one-step-multiplex-reverse-transcription-pcr
#14
Shin-Young Lee, Mi-Ju Kim, Hyun-Joong Kim, KwangCheol Casey Jeong, Hae-Yeong Kim
A one-step multiplex reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) method comprising six primer sets (for the detection of norovirus GI and GII, hepatitis A virus, rotavirus, and astrovirus) was developed to simultaneously detect four kinds of pathogenic viruses. The size of the PCR products for norovirus GI and GII, hepatitis A virus (VP3/VP1 and P2A regions), rotavirus, and astrovirus were 330, 164, 244, 198, 629, and 449 bp, respectively. The RT-PCR with the six primer sets showed specificity for the pathogenic viruses...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141130/enhancement-of-l-threonine-production-through-controlling-sequential-carbon-nitrogen-ratios-during-fermentation
#15
Hyeok-Won Lee, Hee-Suk Lee, Chun-Suk Kim, Jin-Gyeom Lee, Won-Kyo Kim, Eun-Gyo Lee, Hong-Weon Lee
Controlling residual glucose concentration is important for improving productivity in L-threonine fermentation. In this study, we developed a procedure to automatically control the feeding quantity of glucose solution as a function of ammonia-water consumption rate. The feeding ratio (Rc/n) of glucose and ammonia water was pre-determined via a stoichiometric approach, based on glucose-ammonia water consumption rates. In a 5-L fermenter, 102 g/L L-threonine was obtained using our glucose-ammonia water combined feeding strategy, which was then successfully applied in a 500-L fermenter (89g/L)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141129/recent-trends-in-salmonella-outbreaks-and-emerging-technology-for-biocontrol-of-salmonella-using-phages-in-foods-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Jun-Hyun Oh, Mi-Kyung Park
Salmonella is one of the principal causes of foodborne outbreaks. As traditional control methods have shown efficacy against emerging Salmonella serotypes or antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella, new approaches have been attempted. The use of lytic phages for the biocontrol of Salmonella in food industry has become an attractive method owing to the many advantages offered by the use of phages as biocontrol agents. Phages are natural alternatives to traditional antimicrobial agents; they have proven effective in the control of bacterial pathogens in food industry, which has led to the development of different phage products...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141128/immune-enhancing-effect-of-nanometric-lactobacillus-plantarum-nf1-nlp-nf1-in-a-mouse-model-of-cyclophosphamide-induced-immunosuppression
#17
Dae-Woon Choi, Sun Young Jung, Jisu Kang, Young-Do Nam, Seong-Il Lim, Ki Tae Kim, Hee Soon Shin
Nanometric Lactobacillus plantarum nF1 (nLp-nF1) is a biogenics consisting of dead L. plantarum pre-treated with heat and a nanodispersion process. In this study, we investigated the immune-enhancing effects of nLp-nF1 in vivo and in vitro. To evaluate the immunostimulatory effects of nLp-nF1, mice immunosuppressed by cyclophosphamide (CPP) treatment were administered with nLp-nF1. As expected, CPP restricted the immune response of mice, whereas oral administration of nLp-nF1 significantly increased total IgG in serum, and cytokine production [interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)] in bone marrow cells...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141127/in-vivo-disease-control-efficacy-of-isoquinoline-alkaloids-isolated-from-corydalis-ternata-against-wheat-leaf-rust-and-pepper-anthracnose
#18
Jae Woo Han, Sang Hee Shim, Kyoung Soo Jang, Yong Ho Choi, Hun Kim, Gyung Ja Choi
Phytochemicals have been considered as alternatives for synthetic fungicides because of their biodegradability and low toxicity. In this study, we found that the methanolic extract of Corydalis ternata suppressed the development of plant diseases caused by Puccinia triticina and Colletotrichum coccodes. As an antifungal substance, three isoquinoline alkaloids (dehydrocorydaline, stylopine, and corydaline) were isolated from C. ternata. These active compounds also exhibited an in vivo antifungal activity against P...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132197/humanized-mice-for-the-evaluation-of-francisella-tularensis-vaccine-candidates
#19
Hanseul Oh, C-Yoon Kim, Chang-Hwan Kim, Gyeung-Haeng Hur, Ji Min Lee, Seo-Na Chang, Jae-Hak Park
Francisella tularensis (FT), a highly infectious pathogen, is considered to be a potential biological weapon owing to the current lack of a human vaccine against it. Tul4 and FopA, both outer membrane proteins of FT, play an important role in the bacterium's immunogenicity. In the present study, we evaluated the immune response of mice-humanized with human CD34+ cells (hu-mice)-to a cocktail of recombinant Tul4 and FopA (rTul4 and rFopA), which were codon-optimized and expressed in Escherichia coli. Not only did the cocktail-immunized hu-mice produce a significant human immunoglobulin response, they also exhibited prolonged survival against an attenuated live vaccine strain as well as human T cell in the spleen...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121706/protective-effect-of-fucoidan-extract-from-ecklonia-cava-on-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-neurotoxicity
#20
Seon Kyeong Park, Jin Yong Kang, Jong Min Kim, Sang Hyun Park, Bong Seok Kwon, Gun-Hee Kim, Ho Jin Heo
We evaluated the antioxidant activity and neuronal cell-protective effect of fucoidan extract from Ecklonia cava (FEC) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cytotoxicity in PC-12 and MC-IXC cells to assess its protective effect against oxidative stress. Antioxidant activities were examined using the ABTS radical scavenging activity and malondialdehyde (MDA)-inhibitory effect, and the results showed that FEC had significant antioxidant activity. Intracellular ROS content and neuronal cell viability were investigated using DCF-DA assay and MTT reduction assay...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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