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Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

Zixing Dong, Xiaoling Chen, Ke Cai, Zhixin Chen, Hongbin Wang, Peng Jin, Xiaoguang Liu, Kugenthiren Permaul, Suren Singh, Zhengxiang Wang
Due to its high protein secretion capacity, simple nutritional requirements and the GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status, Bacillus licheniformis is widely used as a host for the industrial production of enzymes, antibiotics and peptides. However, as compared with its close relative B. subtilis , little is known about physiology and stress responses of B. licheniformis . To explore its temperature-stress metabolome, strains B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 and B186, with respective optimal growth temperatures of 42°C and 50°C, were cultured at 42°C, 50°C and 60°C and their corresponding metabolic profiles determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and multivariate statistical analyses...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Shun Tamaki, Mitsuhiko Yagi, Yuki Nishihata, Hideki Yamaji, Yasushi Shigeri, Tomohide Uno, Hiromasa Imaishi
The aromatic compound p -hydroxybenzoate (PHBA) is an important material with multiple applications, including as a building block of liquid crystal polymers in chemical industries. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are beneficial monooxygenases for the synthesis of chemicals and CYP53A15 from fungus Cochliobolus lunatus is capable of the hydroxylation from benzoate to PHBA. Here we constructed a system for the bioconversion of benzoate to PHBA in Escherichia coli cells co-expressing CYP53A15 and human NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase ( CPR ) genes as a redox partner...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Daeho Kim, Sanghyun Hong, Hongjun Na, Jihwan Chun, Robin B Guevarra, You-Tae Kim, Sangryeol Ryu, Hyeun Bum Kim, Ju-Hoon Lee
Bellflower root ( Platycodon grandiflorum ), which belongs to the Campanulaceae family, is a perennial grass that grows naturally in Korea, northeastern China, and Japan. Bellflower is widely consumed as both food and medicine due to its high nutritional value and potential therapeutic effects. Since foodborne disease outbreaks often come from vegetables, understanding the public health risk of microorganisms on fresh vegetables is pivotal to predict and prevent foodborne disease outbreaks.We investigated the microbial communities on the bellflower root (n=10)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ji-Won Kim, Sungbin Im, Ha-Ram Jeong, Young-Seung Jung, Inil Lee, Kwan Joong Kim, Seung Kook Park, Dae-Ok Kim
Korean red pine ( Pinus densiflora ) is one of the major Pinus species in Korea. Red pine barkis removed prior to the chipping process in the wood industry and discarded aswaste. However, red pine bark contains a considerable amount of naturally occurring phenolics including flavonoids and therefore may have a variety of biological effects. In this study, we investigated if Korean red pine bark extract (KRPBE) could protect neuronal PC-12 cells from oxidative stress and inhibit cholinesterase activity.Analysis of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography results revealed four phenolics in KRPBE:vanillin, protocatechuic acid, catechin and taxifolin...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Yesol Bak, Hui-Joo Jang, Jong-Woon Shin, Soo-Jin Kim, Hyun Woo Chun, Ji-Hye Seo, Su-Hyun No, Jung-Il Chae, Dong Hee Son, Seung Yeoun Lee, Jintae Hong, Do-Young Yoon
The carcinogenicity of chemicalsin the environment is a major concern. Recently, numerous studies have attempted to develop methods for predicting carcinogenicity including rodent and cell-based approaches. However, rodent carcinogenicity tests for evaluating the carcinogenic potential of a chemical to humans are time-consuming and costly. This study focused on the development of an alternative method for predicting carcinogenicity using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and colon cancer stem cells.A toxicogenomic method,mRNA profiling, is useful for predicting carcinogenicity...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ho-Jung Choi, Yeon-Hee Kim
The Cre/loxP-δ-integration system was developed to allow sequential and simultaneous integration of a multiple gene expression cassette in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . To allow repeated integrations, the reusable CgMARKER carrying loxP sequences was used, and the integrated CgMARKER was efficiently removed by inducing Cre recombinase. The XYLP and XYLB genes encoding endoxylanase and β-xylosidase, respectively, were used as model genes for xylan metabolism in this system, and the copy number of these genes was increased to 15...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Tae Gwan Kim, Guy R Knudsen
Trophic interactions of introduced biocontrol fungi with soil animals can bea key determinant in the fungal proliferation and activity.This study investigated trophic interaction of an introduced biocontrol fungus with soil nematodes. The biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum ThzID1-M3 and the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchoides sp. (10 per gram of soil) were added to nonsterile soil, and microbial populations were monitored for 40 days. Similar results were obtained when the experiment was duplicated. ThzID1-M3 stimulated the population growth of indigenous nematodes ( p <0...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hwa Young Kim, Sang-Mi Yu, Sang Chul Jeong, Sang Sun Yoon, Young Taek Oh
The stringent response (SR), which is activated by accumulation of (p)ppGpp under conditions of growth-inhibiting stresses, plays an important role ongrowth and virulence in Vibrio cholerae . Herein, we carried out a genome-wide screen using transposon random mutagenesis to identify genes controlled by SR in (p)ppGpp-overproducing mutant strain. One of the identified SR target genes was the flaC encoding flagellin. Genetic studies using flaC and SR mutants demonstrated that FlaC involved in bacterial growth, toxin production, and normal flagellum function under conditions of high (p)ppGpp levels, suggesting FlaC plays an important role in SR-induced pathogenicityin V...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Nam Keun Lee, Chun Jin Cheon, Jin-Kyu Rhee
Rhodosporidium toruloides , an oleaginous yeast, can be used as a fast and reliable evaluation tool to screen new natural lipid-lowering agents. Red radish coral sprout extract (RRSE) showed that triglyceride (TG) accumulation was inhibited by 42.6% in 0.1% RRSE-treated R. toruloides .We evaluated the anti-obesity effect of the RRSE in a mouse model. The body weight gain in mice fed high fat diet (HFD) with 0.1 % RRSE (HFD-RRSE) significantly decreased by 60% compared to that of the HFD after the 8-week experimental period...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Byung-Hyuk Kim, Jong-Eun Choi, Kichul Cho, Zion Kang, Rishiram Ramanan, Doo-Gyung Moon, Hee-Sik Kim
The high rate algal ponds (HRAP) powered and mixed by a paddlewheel have been widely used for over 50 years to culture microalgae for the production of various products. Since light incidence is limited to the surface, water depth can affect microalgal growth in HRAP. To investigate the effect of water depth on microalgal growth, mixed microalgal culture constituting three major strains of microalgae including Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp. and Stigeoclonium sp. (CSS) were grown as different water depths (20, 30 and 40 cm) in the HRAP, respectively...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sangwoo Kim, Kyung-Jin Kim
Acyl-CoA oxidases (ACOXs) play important roles in lipid metabolism, including peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation by the conversion of acyl-CoAs to 2-trans-enoyl-CoAs. The yeast Yarrowia lipolyticacan utilize fatty acidsas a carbon source and thus has extensive biotechnological applications. The crystal structure of ACOX3from Y. lipolytica(YlACOX3) was determinedat a resolution of2.5 Å. It contained two molecules per asymmetric unit, and the monomeric structure was folded into four domains, Nα, Nβ, Cα1 and Cα2domains...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Kang Wook Lee, Jae Min Shim, Zhuang Yao, Jeong A Kim, Jeong Hwan Kim
Kimchi was prepared with a starter, Lactobacillus zymae GU240 producing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and one precursor of GABA (glutamic acid, glutamic acid mono sodium salt (MSG), or kelp extract). L. zymae GU240, an isolate from kimchi, can grow at 7% NaCl and low temperature. Five different kimchi samples were fermented for 20 weeks at -1°C. Kimchi with starter alone could not produce GABA. GABA content was highest in kimchi with co-inoculation of starter and MSG (1%, w/w). Kimchi co-inoculated with a starter and kelp extract powder (3%, w/w) had the second highest GABA content...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Prasannavenkatesh Durai, Yeongjoon Lee, Jieun Kim, Dasom Jeon, Yangmee Kim
Papiliocin, isolated from the swallowtail butterfly (Papilio xuthus), is an antimicrobial peptide with high selectivity against Gram-negative bacteria.We previously showed that the N-terminal helix of papiliocin (PapN) plays a key role in the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activityof papiliocin. In this study, we measured the selectivity of PapN against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria,as well as its anti-inflammatory activity. Interactions between Trp2 of PapN and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which is a major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria were studied using the Trp fluorescence blue shift and quenching in LPS micelles...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Yeong-Jun Park, Byung Kwon Jung, Sung-Jun Hong, Gun-Seok Park, Jerald Conrad Ibal, HuyQuang Pham, Jae-Ho Shin
The enzyme xylose isomerase (EC, XI) is responsible for theconversion of an aldose to ketose, especially xylose to xylulose. Owing to the ability of XI to isomerize glucose to fructose, this enzyme is used in the food industry to prepare high-fructose corn syrup. Therefore, we studiedthe characteristics of XI from Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis G10, a thermophilic bacterium. First, a gene coding for XI (xylA) was insertedinto the pET-21a (+) expression vector and the construct was transformed into an Escherichia coli competent cell BL21 (DE3)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Dongdong Zhang, Yi Wang, Chunfang Zhang, Dan Zheng, Peng Guo, Zongjun Cui
A microbial consortium, TMC7, was enriched for the degradation of natural lignocellulosic materials under high temperature. TMC7 degraded 79.7% of rice straw during 15 days of incubation at 65°C. Extracellular xylanase was effectively secreted and hemicellulose was mainly degraded in the early stage (first 3 days), whereas primary decomposition of cellulose was observed as of day 3. The optimal temperature and initial pH for extracellular xylanase activity and lignocellulose degradation was 65°C and between 7...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Zhoufeng He, Rong Sun, Zizhong Tang, Tongliang Bu, Qi Wu, Chenlei Li, Hui Chen
Bacillus subtilis 8 is highly efficient at degrading feather keratin. We observed integrated feather degradation over the course of 48 h in basic culture medium while studying the entire process with scanning electron microscopy. Large amounts of ammonia, sulfite, and L-cysteic acid were detected in fermented liquid. In addition, four enzymes (Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, Peptidase T, Serine protease and Cystathionine gamma-synthase) were identified that play an important role in this degradation pathway, all of which were verified with molecular cloning and prokaryotic expression...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ashok Kumar, Sanjay K S Patel, Bharat Mardan, Raviteja Pagolu, Rowina Lestari, Seong-Hoon Jeong, Taedoo Kim, Jung Rim Haw, Sang-Yong Kim, In-Won Kim, Jung-Kul Lee
In this study, the immobilization of xylanase using a protein-inorganic hybrid nanoflower system, was assessed to improve the enzyme properties. The synthesis of hybrid xylanase nanoflowers was very effective at 4°C for 72 h, using 0.25 mg/mL protein, and efficient immobilization of xylanase was observed with a maximum encapsulation yield and relative activity of 78.5% and 148%, respectively. Immobilized xylanase showed high residual activity at broad pH and temperature ranges. Using birchwood xylan as a substrate, the Vmax and Km values of xylanase nanoflowers were 1...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hyeoncheol Francis Son, Sun-Mi Lee, Kyung-Jin Kim
Biofuel production using lignocellulosic biomass is gaining attention because it can be substituted for fossil fuels without competing with edible resources. However, because Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not have a D-xylose metabolic pathway, oxidoreductase or isomerase pathways must be introduced to utilize D-xylose from lignocellulosic biomass in S. cerevisiae. To elucidate the biochemical properties of xylose isomerase from Piromyces sp. E2 (PsXI), we determine its crystal structure in complex with substrate mimic glycerol...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sujittra Sujittra, Kanit Vichitphan, Jaehong Han, Sukanda Vichitphan, Jutaporn Swangkaew
For biotechnological production of high valued β-D-hexyl glucoside, catalytic properties of Hanseniaspora thailandica BC9 β-glucosidase purified from the periplasmic fraction was studied, and the transglycosylation activity for the production of β-D-hexyl glucoside was optimized. The constitutive BC9 β-glucosidase exhibited maximum specific activity at pH 6.0 and 40°C, and the activity of BC9 β-glucosidase was not significantly inhibited by various metal ions. BC9 β-glucosidase didn't show a significant activity of cellobiose hydrolysis, but the activity was rather enhanced in the presence of sucrose and medium chain alcohols...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jae Pil Lee, Yoon A Kim, Sung Kyum Kim, Hoon Kim
An endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene, cel9K, was cloned using the shot-gun method from Paenibacillus sp. X4, which was isolated from alpine soil. The gene was 2,994 bp in length, encoding a protein of 997 amino acid residues with a predicted signal peptide composed of 32 amino acid residues. Cel9K was a multimodular enzyme, and the molecular mass and theoretical pI of the mature Cel9K were 103.5 kDa and 4.81, respectively. Cel9K contains the GGxxDAGD, PHHR, GAxxGG, YxDDI, and EVxxDYN motifs found in most glycoside hydrolase family 9 (GH9)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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