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CNS Drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651711/baclofen-to-prevent-relapse-in-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-ghb-dependent-patients-a-multicentre-open-label-non-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Harmen Beurmanjer, Rama M Kamal, Cor A J de Jong, Boukje A G Dijkstra, Arnt F A Schellekens
BACKGROUND: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) dependence is associated with a severe, potentially lethal, withdrawal syndrome and relapse rates as high as 60% within 3 months of detoxification. Baclofen has been shown to decrease self-administration of GHB in mice and reduce relapse in a case series of GHB-dependent patients. Controlled studies on the effectiveness of baclofen to prevent relapse in GHB-dependent patients are lacking. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess effectiveness of baclofen in preventing relapse in GHB-dependent patients...
April 12, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637530/the-safety-of-second-generation-antipsychotics-during-pregnancy-a-clinically-focused-review
#2
REVIEW
Per Damkier, Poul Videbech
The issue of antipsychotic treatment during pregnancy is subject to substantial uncertainty and some controversy among healthcare providers, specifically pertaining to second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) that are subject to a large gap in safety data during pregnancy compared with antidepressants. The amount of safety data for the use of SGAs during pregnancy is rapidly increasing, thus constantly changing the level of evidence. We performed a clinically focused review on the safety of SGA during pregnancy...
April 10, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637529/nd0701-a-novel-formulation-of-apomorphine-for-subcutaneous-infusion-in-comparison-to-a-commercial-apomorphine-formulation-28-day-pharmacokinetic-study-in-minipigs-and-a-phase-i-study-in-healthy-volunteers-to-assess-the-safety-tolerability-pharmacokinetics-and
#3
Yuval Ramot, Abraham Nyska, Liat Adar, Cecile Durlach, Danny Fishelovitch, Giuseppe Sacco, Rosa Anna Manno, Sheila Oren, Itay Perlstein, Oron Yacobi-Zeevi
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous apomorphine is used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, infusion site reactions are a common adverse event (AE), which can lead to treatment discontinuation. Apomorphine formulations that are more tolerable and convenient for use are needed. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the toxicity and bioavailability of ND0701, a new concentrated formulation of apomorphine free base, with one of the commercially available apomorphine HCl formulations (APO-go® , Britannia Pharmaceuticals Ltd)...
April 10, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637528/author-correction-to-pooled-analyses-of-phase-iii-studies-of-ads-5102-amantadine-extended-release-capsules-for-dyskinesia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Lawrence W Elmer, Jorge L Juncos, Carlos Singer, Daniel D Truong, Susan R Criswell, Sotirios Parashos, Larissa Felt, Reed Johnson, Rajiv Patni
An Online First version of this article was made available online at http://link.springer.com/journal/40263/onlineFirst/page/1 on 12 March 2018. An error was subsequently identified in the article, and the following correction should be noted.
April 10, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623639/pharmacogenetics-of-opioid-use-disorder-treatment
#5
Richard C Crist, Toni-Kim Clarke, Wade H Berrettini
Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a significant health problem in the United States and many other countries. A combination of issues, most notably increased prescription of opioid analgesics, has resulted in climbing rates of opioid abuse and overdose over the last decade. This ongoing epidemic has produced a growing population of patients requiring treatment for OUD. Medications such as methadone and buprenorphine have well documented success rates in treating the disorder compared with placebo. However, significant percentages of the population still fail to maintain abstinence or reduce illicit opioid use while using such medications...
April 5, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619760/effect-of-statin-intensity-on-the-risk-of-epilepsy-after-ischaemic-stroke-real-world-evidence-from-population-based-health-claims
#6
Fang-Ju Lin, Hung-Wei Lin, Yunn-Fang Ho
BACKGROUND: Statins possess neuroprotective effects. However, real-world evidence supporting their utility in post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) prevention is limited. OBJECTIVE: The association between statin use, including timing of prescribing (pre-stroke vs post-stroke), type (lipophilicity, intensity of therapy) and dose intensity, and risk of developing PSE were investigated by studying Taiwanese health claims (2003-2013). METHODS: Patients with new-onset ischaemic stroke were identified...
April 4, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600441/efficacy-and-safety-of-the-newer-multiple-sclerosis-drugs-approved-since-2010
#7
REVIEW
Simon Faissner, Ralf Gold
Multiple sclerosis treatment faces tremendous changes as a result of the approval of new medications. The new medications have differing safety considerations and risks after long-term treatment, which are important for treating physicians to optimize and individualize multiple sclerosis care. Since the approval of the first multiple sclerosis capsule, fingolimod, the armamentarium of multiple sclerosis therapy has grown with the orally available medications dimethyl fumarate and teriflunomide. Fingolimod is mainly associated with cardiac side effects, dimethyl fumarate with bowel symptoms...
March 29, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594870/treatment-strategies-for-dravet-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Kelly G Knupp, Elaine C Wirrell
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a medically refractory epilepsy that onsets in the first year of life with prolonged seizures, often triggered by fever. Over time, patients develop other seizure types (myoclonic, atypical absences, drops), intellectual disability, crouch gait and other co-morbidities (sleep problems, autonomic dysfunction). Complete seizure control is generally not achievable with current therapies, and the goals of treatment are to balance reduction of seizure burden with adverse effects of therapies...
March 28, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582404/newer-antiepileptic-drugs-for-status-epilepticus-in-adults-what-s-the-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Isabelle Beuchat, Jan Novy, Andrea O Rossetti
Status epilepticus (SE) is one of the most frequent neurological emergencies. Despite this, understanding of its pathophysiology and evidence regarding its management is limited. Rapid, effective, and well-tolerated treatment to achieve seizure cessation is advocated to prevent brain damage or potentially lethal outcomes. The last two decades have witnessed an exponential increase in the number of available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). These compounds, especially lacosamide and levetiracetam, in view of their intravenous formulation, have been increasingly prescribed in SE...
March 26, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569082/long-acting-injectable-second-generation-antipsychotics-an-update-and-comparison-between-agents
#10
REVIEW
Michael W Jann, Scott R Penzak
Schizophrenia is a chronic medical condition with periods of remission and relapses over a patient's lifetime. Antipsychotic medications represent the mainstay of treatment for this disease. Long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations of antipsychotics are an attractive alternative to their oral counterparts, as they enhance patient adherence. A number of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are available in LAI formulations. These include paliperidone, aripiprazole, olanzapine, and risperidone. This article reviews the most recently developed and approved of these formulations-aripiprazole monohydrate, aripiprazole lauroxil, and paliperidone palmitate...
March 22, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557079/perinatal-outcomes-of-women-diagnosed-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-an-australian-population-based-cohort-study
#11
Alison S Poulton, Bruce Armstrong, Ralph K Nanan
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common and may require treatment in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the treatment patterns and perinatal outcomes of women with any history of stimulant treatment for ADHD. METHODS: We used health records of the New South Wales (NSW, Australia) population to compare perinatal outcomes of women treated with stimulants (dexamphetamine or methylphenidate) for ADHD from 1982 to 2012 who gave birth between 1994 and 2012, with perinatal outcomes of women with no known ADHD or stimulant treatment (comparison cohort)...
March 19, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557078/a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-ii-study-to-determine-the-efficacy-safety-tolerability-and-pharmacokinetics-of-a-controlled-release-cr-formulation-of-mazindol-in-adults-with-dsm-5-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#12
Tim L Wigal, Jeffrey H Newcorn, Nelson Handal, Sharon B Wigal, Ioulietta Mulligan, Virginia Schmith, Eric Konofal
BACKGROUND: Mazindol is under investigation for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) because of its alertness-enhancing properties. A novel controlled-release (CR) formulation of mazindol was developed to allow once-daily dosing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mazindol CR in adults with ADHD. DESIGN: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 6-week trial. METHODS: Subjects diagnosed with ADHD using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Structured Interview (MINI) and with an ADHD Rating Scale, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition (ADHD-RS-DSM5) score ≥ 28 were randomized to receive placebo or 1-3 mg/day of mazindol for 6 weeks...
March 19, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549516/effect-of-the-glutamate-nmda-receptor-antagonist-memantine-as-adjunctive-treatment-in-borderline-personality-disorder-an-exploratory-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
Jayashri Kulkarni, Natalie Thomas, Abdul-Rahman Hudaib, Emorfia Gavrilidis, Jasmin Grigg, Raelene Tan, Jacinta Cheng, Amelia Arnold, Caroline Gurvich
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex, severe and highly stigmatised psychiatric illness. Several lines of evidence highlight the causal link between chronic stress, glucocorticoid response to stress and glutamatergic overactivity as a key event in the pathophysiology of BPD. Therefore, molecular mechanisms capable of regulating glutamate excitotoxicity represent novel and potentially promising treatment targets. Memantine-HCl is a voltage-dependent N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 'channel blocker' that selectively blocks pathological glutamate overactivity...
March 16, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536379/risk-of-intracranial-hemorrhage-associated-with-the-use-of-antidepressants-inhibiting-serotonin-reuptake-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Antonios Douros, Matthew Ades, Christel Renoux
BACKGROUND: Observational studies have suggested an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other antidepressants primarily inhibiting serotonin reuptake. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to systematically review the available epidemiologic evidence regarding the risk of ICH associated with SSRIs and antidepressants inhibiting serotonin reuptake. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE were searched for all relevant articles in English, French, or German published before April 2017...
March 13, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532440/pooled-analyses-of-phase-iii-studies-of-ads-5102-amantadine-extended-release-capsules-for-dyskinesia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Lawrence W Elmer, Jorge L Juncos, Carlos Singer, Daniel D Truong, Susan R Criswell, Sotirios Parashos, Larissa Felt, Reed Johnson, Rajiv Patni
BACKGROUND: Although levodopa is considered the most effective pharmacotherapy for motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), chronic use is associated with motor complications, including fluctuating response and unpredictable, involuntary movements called dyskinesia. ADS-5102 (amantadine) extended-release (ER) capsules (GOCOVRITM ) is a recent US FDA-approved treatment for dyskinesia in PD patients. ADS-5102 is a high-dose, ER formulation of amantadine, administered orally once daily at bedtime, that achieves high plasma drug concentrations throughout the day...
March 12, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516301/convergent-mechanisms-underlying-rapid-antidepressant-action
#16
REVIEW
Panos Zanos, Scott M Thompson, Ronald S Duman, Carlos A Zarate, Todd D Gould
Traditional pharmacological treatments for depression have a delayed therapeutic onset, ranging from several weeks to months, and there is a high percentage of individuals who never respond to treatment. In contrast, ketamine produces rapid-onset antidepressant, anti-suicidal, and anti-anhedonic actions following a single administration to patients with depression. Proposed mechanisms of the antidepressant action of ketamine include N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) modulation, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneuron disinhibition, and direct actions of its hydroxynorketamine (HNK) metabolites...
March 7, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508245/gadolinium-based-contrast-agent-related-toxicities
#17
REVIEW
Luca Pasquini, Antonio Napolitano, Emiliano Visconti, Daniela Longo, Andrea Romano, Paolo Tomà, Maria Camilla Rossi Espagnet
In recent years, gadolinium-based contrast agents have been associated with different types of toxicity. In particular, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a progressive sclerotic-myxedematous systemic disease of unknown etiology, is related to gadolinium-based contrast agent administration in patients with kidney dysfunction. More recently, evidence of magnetic resonance signal intensity changes on pre-contrast T1-weighted images after multiple gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations resulted in the hypothesis of gadolinium brain accumulation in patients with normal renal function, subsequently confirmed in pathological samples...
March 5, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508244/an-update-on-the-use-of-disease-modifying-therapy-in-pregnant-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#18
REVIEW
Caila Vaughn, Aisha Bushra, Channa Kolb, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman
The active management of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been made possible during the last two decades with the advent of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), leading to improved clinical outcomes for many patients. Furthermore, with the realization that MS does not adversely affect pregnancy outcome and that pregnancy does not have an overall negative impact on the long-term disease course of MS, the importance of appropriate counseling and discussion of future pregnancy plans with women of childbearing age is greater than ever...
March 5, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508243/adjunctive-eslicarbazepine-acetate-in-pediatric-patients-with-focal-epilepsy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Simona Lattanzi, Francesco Brigo, Elisabetta Grillo, Claudia Cagnetti, Alberto Verrotti, Gaetano Zaccara, Mauro Silvestrini
BACKGROUND: In the treatment of pediatric epilepsy, there is a critical demand for effective and safe therapeutic options to address patients' unmet clinical needs. Eslicarbazepine acetate is a novel once-daily antiepileptic drug and a third-generation single enantiomer member of the dibenzazepine family. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate as add-on treatment for focal-onset seizures in pediatric patients using meta-analytical techniques...
March 5, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498021/prescribed-dose-of-opioids-and-overdose-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-unintentional-prescription-opioid-overdose
#20
REVIEW
Adeleke D Adewumi, Samantha A Hollingworth, Joemer C Maravilla, Jason P Connor, Rosa Alati
BACKGROUND: The rate of an unintentional drug overdose involving prescription opioids continues to rise. An understanding of the threshold dose and dose(s) associated with unintentional prescription opioid overdose will help to mitigate this epidemic. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review is to systematically synthesise and meta-analyse studies on doses of prescription opioids and ascertain the doses of opioids that are associated with increased risk of severe opioid poisoning or mortality...
March 1, 2018: CNS Drugs
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