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CNS Drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808933/cardiovascular-disease-in-clozapine-treated-patients-evidence-mechanisms-and-management
#1
REVIEW
Kathlyn J Ronaldson
Myocarditis occurs in about 3% of those initiated on clozapine but monitoring reduces the risk of serious outcome. Cardiomyopathy may develop after myocarditis, or from prolonged tachycardia. Monitoring using echocardiography is not deemed cost effective. Tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension and reduced heart rate variability are a group of clozapine-related adverse effects associated with autonomic dysfunction and may have serious consequences in the long term. Elevated heart rate and poor heart rate variability can be treated with a β-blocker or a non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, while orthostatic hypotension can be alleviated by increased fluid intake and abdominal binding, but may require pharmacological intervention...
August 14, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808918/idarucizumab-in-dabigatran-treated-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke-receiving-alteplase-a-systematic-review-of-the-available-evidence
#2
REVIEW
Slaven Pikija, Laszlo K Sztriha, J Sebastian Mutzenbach, Stefan M Golaszewski, Johann Sellner
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Current guidelines do not recommend the use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in patients with acute ischemic stroke who receive direct oral anticoagulants. While the humanized monoclonal antibody idarucizumab can quickly reverse the anticoagulant effects of the thrombin inhibitor dabigatran, safety data for subsequent tissue plasminogen activator treatment are sparse. Here, we review current knowledge about dabigatran reversal prior to systemic reperfusion treatment in acute ischemic stroke...
August 14, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791656/egfr-as-a-target-for-glioblastoma-treatment-an-unfulfilled-promise
#3
Manfred Westphal, Cecile L Maire, Katrin Lamszus
The receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGFR) is a prime target for cancer therapy across a broad variety of tumor types. As it is a tyrosine kinase, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting signal transduction, as well as monoclonal antibodies against the EGFR, have been investigated as anti-tumor agents. However, despite the long-known enigmatic EGFR gene amplification and protein overexpression in glioblastoma, the most aggressive intrinsic human brain tumor, the potential of EGFR as a target for this tumor type has been unfulfilled...
August 8, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786085/pharmacotherapy-for-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#4
REVIEW
Muhammad U Farooq, Jiangyong Min, Christopher Goshgarian, Philip B Gorelick
Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). Stroke and cardiovascular risk factors have been linked to both AD and VCI and potentially can affect cognitive function in mid and later life. Various pharmacological agents, including donepezil, galantamine, and memantine, approved for the treatment of AD have shown modest cognitive benefits in patients with vascular dementia (VaD). However, their functional and global benefits have been inconsistent...
August 7, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786084/pharmacological-management-of-bipolar-disorder-in-pregnancy
#5
Sarah C Jones, Ian Jones
Bipolar disorder is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The management of bipolar disorder includes a broad approach involving psychoeducation, psychological therapies and psychotropic medication. The management of bipolar disorder in pregnancy is challenging; there is an increase in the rate of relapse of bipolar disorder in the perinatal period and treatment decisions are complex as clinicians are required to weigh up the risks of untreated illness versus unwanted treatment effects on both the mother and the developing fetus...
August 7, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741044/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-asenapine-compared-with-olanzapine-in-borderline-personality-disorder-an-open-label-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Paola Bozzatello, Paola Rocca, Maria Uscinska, Silvio Bellino
BACKGROUND: Asenapine is a new second-generation antipsychotic that is understudied in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Only one study investigating the use of the drug in this indication (an open-label pilot study) has been conducted to date. OBJECTIVE: The present open-label, randomized, controlled trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of asenapine in comparison with olanzapine, the most broadly studied antipsychotic in BPD. METHODS: A total of 51 outpatients aged between 18 and 50 years with a diagnosis of BPD based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria were assigned for 12 weeks to asenapine (5-10 mg/day) or olanzapine (5-10 mg/day)...
July 24, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660406/evaluation-of-potentially-prolactin-related-adverse-events-and-sexual-maturation-in-adolescents-with-schizophrenia-treated-with-paliperidone-extended-release-er-for-2-years-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-an-open-label-multicenter-study
#7
Srihari Gopal, Rosanne Lane, Isaac Nuamah, Margaret Copenhaver, Jaskaran Singh, David Hough, Mark Bach, Adam Savitz
BACKGROUND: Elevated prolactin levels (hyperprolactinemia) are a frequent adverse effect of antipsychotic medications, especially in young populations. Prolonged hyperprolactinemia may affect sexual functioning and the onset and progression of puberty. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed potentially prolactin-related treatment-emergent adverse events (PPRL-TEAEs) and sexual maturation during long-term treatment of adolescents with paliperidone extended-release (ER). METHODS: This post hoc analysis of a 2-year open-label multicenter study (NCT00488319) included patients of either sex aged 12-17 years at study enrollment, diagnosed with schizophrenia (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition [DSM-IV]) for ≥1 year, who had received one or more adequate antipsychotic treatment prior to enrollment but had not responded sufficiently...
June 28, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712074/efficacy-and-safety-of-shp465-mixed-amphetamine-salts-in-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-adults-results-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-forced-dose-clinical-study
#8
Richard H Weisler, Michael Greenbaum, Valerie Arnold, Ming Yu, Brian Yan, Margo Jaffee, Brigitte Robertson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SHP465 mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Eligible adults [aged 18-55 years; meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition ADHD criteria; baseline ADHD Rating Scale with Adult Prompts (ADHD-RS-AP) total scores ≥28] were randomized 1:1:1 to placebo or forced-dose SHP465 MAS (12...
August 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702747/management-of-supine-hypertension-complicating-neurogenic-orthostatic-hypotension
#9
Jacquie Baker, Kurt Kimpinski
Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH) can be present in a number of disorders, including synucleinopathies, autoimmune disorders, and various genetic disorders. All are characterized by defective norepinephrine release from sympathetic terminals upon standing, resulting in impaired vasoconstriction. NOH is defined as a drop in systolic blood pressure ≥20 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥10 mmHg, or both, within 3 minutes of standing or head up-tilt at a minimum of 60°. However, approximately 50% of patients have associated supine hypertension, which greatly complicates treatment...
August 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681349/pharmacotherapy-of-glioblastoma-established-treatments-and-emerging-concepts
#10
REVIEW
Enrico Franceschi, Santino Minichillo, Alba A Brandes
Glioblastoma is the most frequent malignant brain tumor and is characterized by poor prognosis, increased invasiveness, and high recurrence rates. Standard treatment for glioblastoma includes maximal safe surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy with temozolomide. Despite treatment advances, only 15-20% of glioblastoma patients survive to 5 years, and no therapies have demonstrated a durable survival benefit in recurrent disease. In the last 10 years, significant advances in knowledge of the biology and molecular pathology of the malignancy have opened the way to new treatment options...
August 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669022/pharmacological-treatment-of-bipolar-disorder-with-comorbid-alcohol-use-disorder
#11
Andrew Naglich, Bryon Adinoff, E Sherwood Brown
Bipolar disorder (BD) spectrum and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) commonly occur together. Comorbidity between the two conditions predisposes patients to elevated risks of adverse outcomes, including hospitalization and suicide, compared with either condition alone. Despite the consistent relationship observed between BD and AUD, the underlying cause remains incompletely characterized. Few trials conducted have been able to identify promising interventions for patients with these disease states. The antipsychotic quetiapine has been evaluated most commonly as a therapeutic agent for patients with BD and AUD followed by naltrexone and acamprosate...
August 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669021/new-occasional-and-frequent-use-of-zolpidem-or-zopiclone-alone-and-in-combination-and-the-risk-of-injurious-road-traffic-crashes-in-older-adult-drivers-a-population-based-case-control-and-case-crossover-study
#12
Alicia Nevriana, Jette Möller, Lucie Laflamme, Joel Monárrez-Espino
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the effect of zolpidem or zopiclone use on the risk of road traffic crashes (RTCs) have shown mixed results. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the association between zolpidem or zopiclone use (as separate drugs or combined) and the occurrence of injurious RTCs among older adult drivers. METHODS: This was a population-based matched case-control and case-crossover study based on secondary data linked together from Swedish national registers...
August 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634902/therapeutic-potential-of-baicalein-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Yanwei Li, Jinying Zhao, Christian Hölscher
Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease are the two most common, progressive central neurodegenerative diseases affecting the population over the age of 60 years. Apart from treatments that temporarily improve symptoms, there is no medicine currently available to inhibit or reverse the progression of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In traditional Chinese medicine, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is a classic compatible component in the decoction of herbal medicine used for treating central nervous system diseases...
August 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623627/clozapine-induced-gastrointestinal-hypomotility-a-22-year-bi-national-pharmacovigilance-study-of-serious-or-fatal-slow-gut-reactions-and-comparison-with-international-drug-safety-advice
#14
Susanna Every-Palmer, Pete M Ellis
INTRODUCTION: Clozapine is the preferred antipsychotic for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but has significant adverse effects, including gastrointestinal hypomotility or 'slow gut', which may result in severe constipation, ileus, bowel obstruction, and even death. These gastrointestinal effects remain inadequately recognized. METHODS: We reviewed all reports of serious clozapine-induced gastrointestinal hypomotility (CIGH) submitted to the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration and New Zealand Pharmacovigilance Centre between 1992 and 2013...
August 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688015/erratum-to-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-impact-of-disease-modifying-drugs
#15
Peter Joseph Jongen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667569/long-term-safety-and-efficacy-of-lisdexamfetamine-dimesylate-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd-a-phase-iv-2-year-open-label-study-in-europe
#16
David R Coghill, Tobias Banaschewski, Peter Nagy, Isabel Hernández Otero, César Soutullo, Brian Yan, Beatriz Caballero, Alessandro Zuddas
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly recognized as a persistent disorder requiring long-term management. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to evaluate the 2-year safety and efficacy of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in children and adolescents with ADHD. METHODS: Participants (aged 6-17 years) with ADHD received open-label, dose-optimized LDX 30, 50, or 70 mg/day for 104 weeks. Safety monitoring included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), vital signs, electrocardiography, and growth...
July 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643183/dopaminergic-therapies-for-non-motor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Eva Schaeffer, Daniela Berg
Apart from the typical motor symptoms, Parkinson's disease is characterized by a wide range of different non-motor symptoms, which are highly prevalent in all stages of the disease and have an incisive influence on quality of life. Moreover, their treatment continues to be challenging. In this review, we critically summarize the evidence for the impact of dopaminergic therapies on non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. We performed a PubMed search to identify relevant clinical studies that investigated the response of non-motor symptoms to dopaminergic therapy...
July 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608280/health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-impact-of-disease-modifying-drugs
#18
REVIEW
Peter Joseph Jongen
Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a profound impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), a comprehensive subjective measure of the patient's health status. Assessment of HRQoL informs on the potential advantages and disadvantages of disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) beyond their effects on observer-based disability and magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities. This article reviews published data from randomized controlled trials and observational studies regarding the effects of currently available DMDs on HRQoL...
July 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600627/ascorbic-acid-to-manage-psychiatric-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Morgana Moretti, Daiane Bittencourt Fraga, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Ascorbate has critical roles in the central nervous system (CNS); it is a neuromodulator of glutamatergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurotransmission, provides support and structure to neurons, and participates in processes such as differentiation, maturation, and survival of neurons. Over the past decade, antioxidant properties of ascorbate have been extensively characterized and now it is known that this compound is highly concentrated in the brain and neuroendocrine tissues...
July 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597226/pharmacokinetic-profile-of-a-2-month-dose-regimen-of-aripiprazole-lauroxil-a-phase-i-study-and-a-population-pharmacokinetic-model
#20
Marjie L Hard, Richard J Mills, Brian M Sadler, Angela Y Wehr, Peter J Weiden, Lisa von Moltke
BACKGROUND: Aripiprazole lauroxil (AL) is a long-acting injectable medication approved for the treatment of schizophrenia. Current AL regimens are 441 mg, 662 mg, and 882 mg administered monthly (every 4 weeks [q4wk]), or 882 mg administered every 6 weeks (q6wk). OBJECTIVE: We examined the feasibility of a 2-month (every 8 weeks [q8wk]) dosing interval of AL in a phase I open-label pharmacokinetic study investigating AL 1064 mg administered q8wk for 24 weeks, followed by 20 weeks of safety and pharmacokinetic measurements (ClinicalTrials...
July 2017: CNS Drugs
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