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CNS Drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441455/author-correction-to-l-acetyl-carnitine-in-patients-with-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-effects-on-nerve-protection-hand-function-and-pain
#1
Giorgio Cruccu, G Di Stefano, F Fattapposta, S Jann, L Padua, A Schenone, A Truini
In the original publication the name of third author was incorrectly published.
February 13, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427000/tardive-dyskinesia-associated-with-atypical-antipsychotics-prevalence-mechanisms-and-management-strategies
#2
REVIEW
Katharina Stegmayer, Sebastian Walther, Peter van Harten
All antipsychotics, including the atypical antipsychotics (AAPs), may cause tardive dyskinesia (TD), a potentially irreversible movement disorder, the pathophysiology of which is currently unknown. The prevention and treatment of TD remain major challenges for clinicians. We conducted a PubMed search to review the prevalence and etiology of and management strategies for TD associated with AAPs. TD prevalence rates varied substantially between studies, with an estimated prevalence of around 20% in patients using AAPs...
February 9, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423659/venous-thromboembolism-during-treatment-with-antipsychotics-a-review-of-current-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Anna K Jönsson, Johan Schill, Hans Olsson, Olav Spigset, Staffan Hägg
This article summarises the current evidence on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) with the use of antipsychotics. An increasing number of observational studies indicate an elevated risk of VTE in antipsychotic drug users. Although the use of certain antipsychotics has been associated with VTE, current data can neither conclusively verify differences in occurrence rates of VTE between first- and second-generation antipsychotics or between individual compounds, nor identify which antipsychotic drugs have the lowest risk of VTE...
February 8, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417493/depression-in-multiple-sclerosis-epidemiology-aetiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Claudio Solaro, Giulia Gamberini, Fabio Giuseppe Masuccio
Depressive disorders are common in patients with multiple sclerosis, influencing their quality of life and adherence to treatments, as well as becoming more frequent with the progression of the disease and in the secondary progressive form of multiple sclerosis. Patients with multiple sclerosis often experience a typical cluster of symptoms in association with depression, such as fatigue, pain and cognitive impairment. However, the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis-related depression remains partially unclear, even though genetic, immune-inflammatory and psychosocial factors might be seen to play a role, in addition to the brain structural alterations documented by magnetic resonance imaging studies...
February 7, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383573/fatigue-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-prevalence-burden-and-pharmacological-approaches-to-management
#5
REVIEW
Helia Ghanean, Amanda K Ceniti, Sidney H Kennedy
Fatigue is a frequently reported symptom in major depressive disorder, occurring in over 90% of patients. Clinical presentations of fatigue within major depressive disorder encompass overlapping physical, cognitive and emotional aspects. While this review addresses the epidemiology, burden, functional impact and management of fatigue in major depressive disorder, the main focus is on available pharmacotherapy options and their comparative efficacies. Our review of the effects of pharmacological treatments on fatigue in major depressive disorder found that medications with dopaminergic and/or noradrenergic action such as modafinil, flupenthixol and atomoxetine were most effective in improving symptoms of fatigue and low energy...
January 30, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383572/cognitive-function-of-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-a-2-year-open-label-study-of-lisdexamfetamine-dimesylate
#6
David R Coghill, Tobias Banaschewski, Caleb Bliss, Brigitte Robertson, Alessandro Zuddas
BACKGROUND: SPD489-404 was the first 2-year safety study of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. In accordance with advice from the European Medicines Agency, assessment of cognitive function was a predefined safety outcome in SPD489-404. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess cognitive function over 2 years in study SPD489-404, using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)...
January 30, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335879/current-approaches-and-new-developments-in-the-pharmacological-management-of-tourette-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Julio Quezada, Keith A Coffman
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology characterized by spontaneous, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics. Once thought to be rare, TS affects 0.3-1% of the population. Tics can cause physical discomfort, emotional distress, social difficulties, and can interfere with education and desired activities. The pharmacologic treatment of TS is particularly challenging, as currently the genetics, neurophysiology, and neuropathology of this disorder are still largely unknown...
January 15, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273901/systematic-review-of-combined-pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-alcohol-use-disorder-in-patients-without-comorbid-conditions
#8
REVIEW
Andrew C Naglich, Austin Lin, Sidarth Wakhlu, Bryon H Adinoff
BACKGROUND: Previous reviews have examined the use of theoretically supported combinations of drugs for the treatment of alcohol use disorder. This review seeks to examine the strengths and limitations of current clinical evidence for the use of combined pharmacological interventions intended to treat alcohol use disorder. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to identify combinations of pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorder, and assess the strength of clinical evidence for these treatments...
December 22, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270772/assessing-no-evidence-of-disease-activity-status-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-receiving-fingolimod-in-routine-clinical-practice-a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-multiple-sclerosis-clinical-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-outcomes-in
#9
Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Jennie Medin, Nasreen Khan, Jonathan R Korn, Ellen Lathi, Jason Silversteen, Jonathan Calkwood, Diego Silva, Robert Zivadinov
BACKGROUND: 'No evidence of disease activity' (NEDA), a composite measure of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging outcomes, provides a comprehensive assessment of disease activity, but is not extensively reported in clinical practice. NEDA-3 is defined as patients with no new/enlarged T2 or gadolinium-enhancing lesions, no relapses, and no disability progression (according to Expanded Disability Status Scale scores). NEDA-4 comprises the components of NEDA-3 and a fourth criterion of ≤ 0...
December 21, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29264721/l-acetyl-carnitine-in-patients-with-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-effects-on-nerve-protection-hand-function-and-pain
#10
Giorgio Cruccu, G Di Stefano, F Fattaposta, S Jann, L Padua, A Schenone, A Truini
BACKGROUND AND AIM: L-Acetyl-carnitine (LAC) exerts an energetic effect on nerves and muscles. Recently, preclinical experiments have demonstrated a central anti-nociceptive action. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the effects of LAC on neuroprotection, pain, and function in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), a very frequent chronic compressive neuropathy. METHODS: In a multicentre, examiner-blinded, clinical and neurophysiological 4-month study, we enrolled 82 patients and examined 120 hands with CTS of mild to moderate severity...
December 20, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260466/targeting-neuroinflammation-to-treat-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
A Ardura-Fabregat, E W G M Boddeke, A Boza-Serrano, S Brioschi, S Castro-Gomez, K Ceyzériat, C Dansokho, T Dierkes, G Gelders, Michael T Heneka, L Hoeijmakers, A Hoffmann, L Iaccarino, S Jahnert, K Kuhbandner, G Landreth, N Lonnemann, P A Löschmann, R M McManus, A Paulus, K Reemst, J M Sanchez-Caro, A Tiberi, A Van der Perren, A Vautheny, C Venegas, A Webers, P Weydt, T S Wijasa, X Xiang, Y Yang
Over the past few decades, research on Alzheimer's disease (AD) has focused on pathomechanisms linked to two of the major pathological hallmarks of extracellular deposition of beta-amyloid peptides and intra-neuronal formation of neurofibrils. Recently, a third disease component, the neuroinflammatory reaction mediated by cerebral innate immune cells, has entered the spotlight, prompted by findings from genetic, pre-clinical, and clinical studies. Various proteins that arise during neurodegeneration, including beta-amyloid, tau, heat shock proteins, and chromogranin, among others, act as danger-associated molecular patterns, that-upon engagement of pattern recognition receptors-induce inflammatory signaling pathways and ultimately lead to the production and release of immune mediators...
December 19, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214384/dispensability-of-annual-laboratory-follow-up-after-more-than-2%C3%A2-years-of-valproic-acid-use-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Rosanne W Meijboom, Koen P Grootens
BACKGROUND: The necessity of annual laboratory follow-up in patients treated with valproic acid (VPA) is controversial. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the need for annual laboratory follow-up of liver enzymes, electrolytes, and full blood count (FBC) in patients treated with VPA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A systematic search in Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews (EBMR), MEDLINE, and EMBASE was undertaken in December 2016 to identify all published articles investigating or citing valproic acid, liver function disorders, electrolyte disorders, and FBC deviations...
December 6, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255995/effectiveness-of-pharmacological-treatment-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-on-physical-injuries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#13
REVIEW
Kenneth K C Man, Patrick Ip, Esther W Chan, Siew-Ling Law, Miriam T Y Leung, Evelyn X Y Ma, Wan-Ting Quek, Ian C K Wong
BACKGROUND: Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more prone to physical injuries, including motor vehicle accidents, fractures and brain injuries. Several observational studies have been published investigating the association between the use of pharmacological treatment for ADHD and the incidence of physical injuries among patients with ADHD; however, the findings are not concordant. OBJECTIVE: This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing literature and estimates the overall association between the use of ADHD medications and physical injury...
December 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230675/clozapine-and-gastrointestinal-hypomotility
#14
REVIEW
Dan Cohen
Gastrointestinal hypomotility (GIH) is an under-reported but highly prevalent and potentially dangerous side effect of clozapine. In a comprehensive meta-analysis of clozapine-treated patients, the prevalence of GIH was 32%. In general, GIH has consistently been reported to have a negative impact on quality of life, and there is no reason to believe this will be different in clozapine-treated patients with therapy-resistant schizophrenia. GIH is dangerous; in a comparative review of lethal side effects of clozapine, the mortality of agranulocytosis was 2...
December 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139041/drug-safety-analysis-in-a-real-life-cohort-of-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-polypharmacy
#15
Saskia Müller-Rebstein, Claudia Trenkwalder, Jens Ebentheuer, Wolfgang H Oertel, Carsten Culmsee, Günter U Höglinger
BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy is common in geriatric Parkinson's disease (PD) patients in advanced disease stages with multiple comorbidities, bearing multiple risks for drug safety in theory. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to empirically identify the most frequent and relevant contraindications and drug interactions actually occurring and compromising drug safety in PD in real life. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study in a multimorbid cohort of PD patients with polypharmacy admitted to a specialized hospital...
November 14, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098660/therapeutic-potential-of-ursolic-acid-to-manage-neurodegenerative-and-psychiatric-diseases
#16
Ana B Ramos-Hryb, Francis L Pazini, Manuella P Kaster, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Ursolic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid found in several plants. Despite its initial use as a pharmacologically inactive emulsifier in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries, several biological activities have been reported for this compound so far, including anti-tumoural, anti-diabetic, cardioprotective and hepatoprotective properties. The biological effects of ursolic acid have been evaluated in vitro, in different cell types and against several toxic insults (i.e. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, amyloid-β peptides, kainic acid and others); in animal models of brain-related disorders (Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, depression, traumatic brain injury) and ageing; and in clinical studies with cancer patients and for muscle atrophy...
November 2, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204953/comparing-safety-and-efficacy-of-third-generation-antiepileptic-drugs-long-term-extension-and-post-marketing-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Charlotte S Kwok, Emily L Johnson, Gregory L Krauss
Four "third-generation" antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were approved for adjunctive treatment of refractory focal onset seizures during the past 10 years. Long-term efficacy and safety of the drugs were demonstrated in large extension studies and in reports of subgroups of patients not studied in pivotal trials. Reviewing extension study and post-marketing outcome series for the four newer AEDs-lacosamide, perampanel, eslicarbazepine acetate and brivaracetam-can guide clinicians in treating and monitoring patients...
November 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134566/lisdexamfetamine-a-review-in-binge-eating-disorder
#18
Young-A Heo, Sean T Duggan
Oral lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (Vyvanse®; lisdexamfetamine), a prodrug of dextroamfetamine, is currently the only drug to be approved in the USA for the treatment of moderate to severe binge eating disorder (BED) in adult patients. Its approval was based on the results of two pivotal short-term (12 weeks) phase III studies, which showed a significantly greater reduction in binge eating days/week at the end of the study with lisdexamfetamine 50-70 mg/day than with placebo. The findings of these studies have been supported and extended by the results of longer-term (≤ 52 weeks) phase III studies, including one with a randomized 26-week withdrawal phase, which showed that lisdexamfetamine markedly reduced the risk of BED relapse relative to placebo...
November 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076058/pharmacotherapy-of-cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-disease
#19
REVIEW
Cyndya A Shibao, Horacio Kaufmann
Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunctions, including neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, supine hypertension and post-prandial hypotension, are relatively common in patients with Parkinson disease. Recent evidence suggests that early autonomic impairment such as cardiac autonomic denervation and even neurogenic orthostatic hypotension occur prior to the appearance of the typical motor deficits associated with the disease. When neurogenic orthostatic hypotension develops, patients with Parkinson disease have an increased risk of mortality, falls, and trauma-related to falls...
November 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980198/randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-acute-comparator-trials-of-lisdexamfetamine-and-extended-release-methylphenidate-in-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#20
Jeffrey H Newcorn, Peter Nagy, Ann C Childress, Glen Frick, Brian Yan, Steven Pliszka
BACKGROUND: Psychostimulants are considered first-line pharmacotherapy for youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but questions remain regarding the comparative efficacy of amphetamine- and methylphenidate-based agents. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to describe two acute randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, head-to-head studies of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) and osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in adolescents with ADHD...
November 2017: CNS Drugs
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