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CNS Drugs

Patrícia Schonhofen, Ivi Juliana Bristot, José Alexandre Crippa, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio Hallak, Antônio Waldo Zuardi, Richard B Parsons, Fábio Klamt
The endocannabinoid retrograde signaling pathway is widely expressed in the central nervous system, where it plays major roles in regulating synaptic plasticity (excitatory and inhibitory) through long-term potentiation and long-term depression. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) components-cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids and synthesis/degradation enzymes-are expressed and are functional from early developmental stages and throughout adolescent cortical development, regulating progenitor cell fate, neural differentiation, migration and survival...
August 14, 2018: CNS Drugs
Richard E Frye
Autism spectrum disorder is defined by two core symptoms: a deficit in social communication and the presence of repetitive behaviors and/or restricted interests. Currently, there is no US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for these core symptoms. This article reviews the biological origins of the social function deficit associated with autism spectrum disorder and the drug therapies with the potential to treat this deficit. A review of the history of autism demonstrates that a deficit in social interaction has been the defining feature of the concept of autism from its conception...
August 14, 2018: CNS Drugs
Emma D Deeks
Cladribine is a deoxyadenosine analogue prodrug that preferentially depletes lymphocytes, key cells underlying multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Cladribine tablets (Mavenclad® ) represent the first short-course oral disease-modifying drug (DMD) for use in MS. The tablets, administered in two short courses 1 year apart, are indicated for the treatment of adults with highly active relapsing MS on the basis of data from pivotal clinical trials, including the phase 3 study CLARITY and its extension. A cumulative cladribine tablets dose of 3...
August 14, 2018: CNS Drugs
Vidya Chidambaran, Andrew Costandi, Ajay D'Mello
The original article can be found online.
August 13, 2018: CNS Drugs
Julia Paik, Susan J Keam
Amantadine extended-release (ER) capsules (GOCOVRI™ ) are approved in the USA for the treatment of dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) receiving levodopa-based therapy, with or without concomitant dopaminergic medications. With a recommended dosage of 274 mg once daily at bedtime, this new formulation of amantadine allows a more gradual time to peak plasma amantadine concentration and higher drug concentrations in the morning and throughout the day, the time period when levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is the most problematic...
August 7, 2018: CNS Drugs
John A Hey, Petr Kocis, Jakub Hort, Susan Abushakra, Aidan Power, Martin Vyhnálek, Jeremy Y Yu, Martin Tolar
BACKGROUND: ALZ-801 is an oral, small-molecule inhibitor of beta amyloid (Aβ) oligomer formation in clinical development for Alzheimer's disease (AD). ALZ-801 is a prodrug of tramiprosate with improved pharmacokinetic properties and gastrointestinal tolerability. During clinical studies, we discovered that the primary metabolite of tramiprosate and its prodrug ALZ-801, 3-sulfopropanoic acid (3-SPA), is an endogenous molecule in the human brain and present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with AD and other neurodegenerative brain diseases...
August 3, 2018: CNS Drugs
Michael J Marmura, Aliza S Kumpinsky
Anti-epileptic drugs are among the most effective drugs for migraine prophylaxis, and will likely continue to have a role even as new therapies emerge. Topiramate and valproate are effective for the preventive treatment of migraine, and other medications such as gabapentin or lamotrigine may have a role in the treatment of those with allodynia or frequent aura, respectively. Oxcarbazepine, carbamazepine, phenytoin, gabapentin, and others may alleviate pain in trigeminal neuralgia. While many anti-epileptic drugs can be effective in those with migraine or other headaches, most of these agents can potentially cause serious side effects...
August 2, 2018: CNS Drugs
Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Dimos-Dimitrios D Mitsikostas
BACKGROUND: The likelihood to help or harm (LHH) is an absolute measure of the benefit versus risk profile of a medication, which can be used to assess the potential for benefit versus harm of different disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) for relapsing multiple sclerosis (R-MS) and facilitate clinical decision-making. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess absolute differences in benefit:risk ratios of oral DMTs for R-MS, using LHH analysis with no evidence of disease activity (NEDA) as beneficial outcome...
August 1, 2018: CNS Drugs
Dilan Athauda, Thomas Foltynie
The development of an intervention to slow or halt disease progression remains the greatest unmet therapeutic need in Parkinson's disease. Given the number of failures of various novel interventions in disease-modifying clinical trials in combination with the ever-increasing costs and lengthy processes for drug development, attention is being turned to utilizing existing compounds approved for other indications as novel treatments in Parkinson's disease. Advances in rational and systemic drug repurposing have identified a number of drugs with potential benefits for Parkinson's disease pathology and offer a potentially quicker route to drug discovery...
July 31, 2018: CNS Drugs
Nikolaos Giagkou, Maria Stamelou
Progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration and multiple system atrophy account for approximately 10% of neurodegenerative parkinsonism. Considerable clinical overlap exists between these disorders that extends to features considered characteristic of each disease. Clinical diagnostic criteria have attempted to increase the accuracy of clinical diagnosis as accurate diagnosis is necessary to inform prognosis and to facilitate the recognition of disease-modifying treatments. Currently no such treatment exists...
July 27, 2018: CNS Drugs
Kelly G Knupp, Elaine C Wirrell
Page 335, Abstract: The sentence that read.
July 20, 2018: CNS Drugs
Seok Jong Chung, Han Soo Yoo, Hye Sun Lee, Hyo Eun Jeong, Soo-Jong Kim, Jungsu S Oh, Jae Seung Kim, Young H Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee
BACKGROUND: It remains controversial whether late levodopa administration is a reasonable approach to reducing the risk of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of levodopa sparing on the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records for patients with de novo Parkinson's disease who visited the Yonsei Parkinson Center between April 2009 and June 2015 and received at least 2 years of treatment...
July 19, 2018: CNS Drugs
Massimiliano Mirabella, Luca Prosperini, Matteo Lucchini, Laura Boffa, Giovanna Borriello, Maria Chiara Buscarinu, Diego Centonze, Antonio Cortese, Chiara De Fino, Laura De Giglio, Giorgia Elia, Roberta Fantozzi, Elisabetta Ferraro, Ada Francia, Simona Galgani, Claudio Gasperini, Shalom Haggiag, Doriana Landi, Girolama Alessandra Marfia, Enrico Millefiorini, Fabrizia Monteleone, Viviana Nociti, Marco Salvetti, Eleonora Sgarlata, Carlo Pozzilli
BACKGROUND: Two phase III trials have demonstrated the clinical and radiological efficacy of delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). However, data on its safety and effectiveness in real-world practice are still limited. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to explore the safety and tolerability profile of DMF in RRMS. We also tried to identify individual variables associated with better clinical and radiological outcomes...
July 18, 2018: CNS Drugs
Jeannette Kadel, Sebastian Bauer, Anke M Hermsen, Ilka Immisch, Lara Kay, Karl Martin Klein, Susanne Knake, Katja Menzler, Philipp S Reif, Felix Rosenow, Adam Strzelczyk
BACKGROUND: Emergency treatment with benzodiazepines is indicated in prolonged seizures, seizure clusters and status epilepticus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of emergency medication in adult patients with epilepsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All adult epilepsy patients attending the epilepsy outpatient clinics of the university hospitals in Frankfurt and Marburg in 2015 were asked to participate in this questionnaire-based, retrospective survey...
July 17, 2018: CNS Drugs
Natalie Bareis, Trisha A Sando, Briana Mezuk, Steven A Cohen
OBJECTIVE: Psychotropic medications (e.g., antidepressants, anxiolytics, and neuroleptics) are increasingly prescribed with two or more taken concurrently (polypharmacy), and have been associated with an increased risk of falling. The aim of this study was to examine the association between psychotropic medication use and balance impairment using an objective balance measure. METHODS: We derived data from participants aged 40 years and older in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999/00-2003/04) who completed the Modified Clinical Trial of Sensory Interaction and Balance and indicated current medications (n = 3090)...
July 16, 2018: CNS Drugs
Rosa C Lucchetta, Fernanda S Tonin, Helena H L Borba, Letícia P Leonart, Vinicius L Ferreira, Aline F Bonetti, Bruno S Riveros, Jefferson Becker, Roberto Pontarolo, Fernando Fernandez-Llimós, Astrid Wiens
BACKGROUND: A broad range of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is available. However, the efficacy and safety of traditional DMTs compared with the recently developed DMTs remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, we have synthesised available evidence of clinical outcomes for DMTs in adults with RRMS. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus and a manual search were performed. Bayesian network meta-analyses of randomised clinical trials assessing DMTs as monotherapies were conducted...
July 16, 2018: CNS Drugs
Verena Isabell Leussink, Xavier Montalban, Hans-Peter Hartung
The oral potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine has been used in various neurological conditions for decades. Numerous case reports and studies have supported its clinical efficacy in ameliorating the clinical presentation of certain neurological disorders. However, its short half-life, erratic drug levels, and safety-related dose restrictions limited its use as a self-compounded drug in clinical practice. This changed with the introduction of a prolonged-release formulation, which was successfully tested in patients with multiple sclerosis...
July 10, 2018: CNS Drugs
Ross Penninkilampi, Guy D Eslick
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepine use is highly prevalent in elderly and late middle-aged populations and may be associated with an increased risk of dementia. Observational studies have suggested that benzodiazepine use may increase the risk of dementia, however there have been significant concerns regarding protopathic bias in these studies, precluding conclusive findings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate the risk of dementia associated with the use of benzodiazepines in elderly patients, after controlling for protopathic bias...
June 20, 2018: CNS Drugs
Bernard M J Uitdehaag
Accumulating neurological disability has a substantial impact on the lives of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). As well as the established Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), several other outcome measures are now available for assessing disability progression in MS. This review extends the findings of a previous analysis of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) trials published up to 2012, to determine whether there has been a shift in outcome measures used to assess disability in phase III clinical trials in RRMS and progressive MS...
June 20, 2018: CNS Drugs
Leda Marina Pomes, Giovanna Gentile, Maurizio Simmaco, Marina Borro, Paolo Martelletti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2018: CNS Drugs
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