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CNS Drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435985/elucidating-the-a%C3%AE-42-anti-aggregation-mechanism-of-action-of-tramiprosate-in-alzheimer-s-disease-integrating-molecular-analytical-methods-pharmacokinetic-and-clinical-data
#1
Petr Kocis, Martin Tolar, Jeremy Yu, William Sinko, Soumya Ray, Kaj Blennow, Howard Fillit, John A Hey
BACKGROUND: Amyloid beta (Aβ) oligomers play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and represent a promising target for drug development. Tramiprosate is a small-molecule Aβ anti-aggregation agent that was evaluated in phase III clinical trials for AD but did not meet the primary efficacy endpoints; however, a pre-specified subgroup analysis revealed robust, sustained, and clinically meaningful cognitive and functional effects in patients with AD homozygous for the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4/4 homozygotes), who carry an increased risk for the disease...
April 24, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434134/pregnancy-outcomes-following-in-utero-exposure-to-lamotrigine-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Gali Pariente, Tom Leibson, Talya Shulman, Thomasin Adams-Webber, Eran Barzilay, Irena Nulman
INTRODUCTION: Lamotrigine is used in pregnancy to control epilepsy and mood disorders. The reproductive safety of this widely used drug remains undefined and may represent a significant public health concern. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing knowledge related to malformation rates and maternal-neonatal outcomes after in utero exposure to monotherapy with lamotrigine. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified through systematic searches conducted in MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), CENTRAL (Ovid), and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) from database inception to July 2016; no language or date restrictions were applied...
April 22, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434133/stiripentol-in-the-management-of-epilepsy
#3
REVIEW
Katherine C Nickels, Elaine C Wirrell
Stiripentol is a structurally unique antiepileptic drug that has several possible mechanisms of action, including diverse effects on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor and novel inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase. Because of its inhibition of several cytochrome P450 enzymes, it has extensive pharmacokinetic interactions, which often necessitates reduction in doses of certain co-therapies, particularly clobazam. Stiripentol also has a neuroprotective action, by reducing calcium-mediated neurotoxicity...
April 22, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405886/pharmacokinetic-variability-of-drugs-used-for-prophylactic-treatment-of-migraine
#4
REVIEW
Peer Tfelt-Hansen, Frederik Nybye Ågesen, Agniezka Pavbro, Jacob Tfelt-Hansen
In this review, we evaluate the variability in the pharmacokinetics of 11 drugs with established prophylactic effects in migraine to facilitate 'personalized medicine' with these drugs. PubMed was searched for 'single-dose' and 'steady-state' pharmacokinetic studies of these 11 drugs. The maximum plasma concentration was reported in 248 single-dose and 115 steady-state pharmacokinetic studies, and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve was reported in 299 single-dose studies and 112 steady-state pharmacokinetic studies...
April 12, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397113/managing-negative-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-how-far-have-we-come
#5
REVIEW
Joshua T Kantrowitz
The specific efficacy of antipsychotics on negative symptoms is questionable, suggesting an urgent need for specific treatments for negative symptoms. This review includes studies published since 2014 with a primary or secondary focus on treating negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Special emphasis is given to recently published meta-analyses. Topics include novel pharmacological approaches, including glutamatergic-based and nicotinic-acetylcholinergic treatments, treatments approved for other indications by the US FDA (or other regulatory bodies) (antipsychotics, antidepressants, and mood stabilizers), brain stimulation, and behavioral- and activity-based approaches, including physical exercise...
April 10, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397112/cell-therapy-for-multiple-sclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Pamela Sarkar, Claire M Rice, Neil J Scolding
Cell therapy is considered a promising potential treatment for multiple sclerosis, perhaps particularly for the progressive form of the disease for which there are currently no useful treatments. Over the past two decades or more, much progress has been made in understanding the biology of MS and in the experimental development of cell therapy for this disease. Three quite distinct forms of cell therapy are currently being pursued. The first seeks to use stem cells to replace damaged myelin-forming oligodendrocytes within the CNS; the second aims, in effect, to replace the individual's misfunctioning immune system, making use of haematopoietic stem cells; and the third seeks to utilise endogenous stem cell populations by mobilisation with or without in vitro expansion, exploiting their various reparative and neuroprotective properties...
April 10, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378158/psychopharmacology-in-the-age-of-big-data-the-promises-and-limitations-of-electronic-prescription-records
#7
LETTER
Matthew V Rudorfer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378157/adherence-and-persistence-across-antidepressant-therapeutic-classes-a-retrospective-claims-analysis-among-insured-us-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-mdd
#8
Katelyn R Keyloun, Ryan N Hansen, Zsolt Hepp, Patrick Gillard, Michael E Thase, Emily Beth Devine
BACKGROUND: Adherence and persistence to therapy, or how well a patient follows provider directions on frequency and time to discontinuation of prescribed medications, is associated with positive health outcomes, including decreased healthcare costs and patient mortality. A clear literature gap exists assessing adherence and persistence to antidepressants (ADs) in the major depressive disorder (MDD) population at clinically relevant time points and at the therapeutic class level. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed adherence and persistence to specific ADs, therapeutic classes, and AD therapy overall at multiple time points among US individuals from commercial, Medicare supplemental, and Medicaid insurance plans...
April 4, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353141/a-focused-systematic-review-of-pharmacological-treatment-for-borderline-personality-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Ella Hancock-Johnson, Chris Griffiths, Marco Picchioni
BACKGROUND: Medicines are routinely prescribed to treat borderline personality disorder (BPD) despite a relative lack of high-quality evidence and in breach of some treatment guidelines. An earlier Cochrane review of pharmacotherapy in BPD underlined the lack of evidence, encouraged the replication of earlier studies, but also emphasised the pressing need for more randomised placebo-controlled trials, and for those studies to employ broadened inclusion criteria. METHOD: The authors searched bibliographic databases, reference lists of articles and trials registers...
March 28, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353140/antimicrobial-use-in-patients-with-dementia-current-concerns-and-future-recommendations
#10
Carole Parsons, Jenny T van der Steen
Infections are common in people with dementia, and antibiotic use is widespread, albeit highly variable, across healthcare settings and countries. The few studies conducted to date that consider the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing specifically for people with dementia focus on people with advanced dementia and suggest that much of the prescribing of antibiotics for these patients may be potentially inappropriate. We suggest that clinicians must consider a number of factors to determine appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing for people with dementia, including the risks and benefits of assessing and treating infections, the uncertainty regarding the effects of antibiotics on patient comfort, goals of care and treatment preferences, hydration status, dementia severity and patient prognosis...
March 28, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303466/do-statins-have-antidepressant-effects
#11
Ole Köhler-Forsberg, Christiane Gasse, Michael Berk, Søren Dinesen Østergaard
Statins are used widely in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease; a treatment effect that has long been thought to be due to their cholesterol-lowering properties. However, statins also have a wide range of anti-inflammatory effects independent of their lipid-lowering mechanisms. In depression, low-grade inflammation is a replicated finding, and several studies have shown antidepressant properties of diverse anti-inflammatory drugs. Large observational studies have suggested reduced risks of depression amongst those taking statins, an effect that is thought to be explained by the anti-inflammatory properties of this class of drugs...
March 16, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290082/statin-adherence-and-the-risk-of-stroke-a-dose-response-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Tao Xu, Xinyuan Yu, Shu Ou, Xi Liu, Jinxian Yuan, Yangmei Chen
BACKGROUND: Statins are one of the most common medications for stroke prevention. Increasing evidence indicates that the effect of statins against stroke may depend on the optimal adherence of the patients to the long-term therapies. However, the magnitude of the association between statin adherence and the risk of stroke has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to investigate the association between statin adherence and the risk of stroke...
March 13, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290081/potential-use-of-microrna-for-monitoring-therapeutic-response-to-antidepressants
#13
Raoul Belzeaux, Rixing Lin, Gustavo Turecki
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious and common psychiatric disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. The most common treatment methods for MDD are antidepressant drugs, many of which act by regulating monoamines by inhibiting pre-synaptic reuptake and/or by modulating monoamine receptors. Despite advances in antidepressants and other treatment options, therapy is often based on subjective decisions made by the physician. Moreover, it requires time to determine treatment outcome and to define whether the prescribed treatment is effective...
March 13, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290080/a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-acute-kidney-injury-risk-associated-with-antipsychotics
#14
Yawen Jiang, Jeffrey S McCombs, Susie H Park
BACKGROUND: A recent large database analysis raised concerns of potential acute kidney injury (AKI) risk associated with antipsychotics. However, whether individual atypical and typical antipsychotics are associated with differential AKI risks has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The current study compared the risks of AKI and known causes of AKI associated with a broad range of atypical and typical antipsychotics. METHOD: This retrospective cohort analysis used January 2007-June 2013 US nationwide Humana claims data to define episodes of antipsychotic drug therapy for patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder...
March 13, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285378/monoclonal-antibodies-for-relapsing-multiple-sclerosis-a-review-of-recently-marketed-and-late-stage-agents
#15
REVIEW
Morten Blinkenberg, Per Soelberg Sørensen
Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has improved considerably over the last decade because of new insights into MS pathology and biotechnological advances. This has led to the development of new potent pharmaceutical compounds targeting different processes in the complex autoimmune pathology leading to chronic central nervous system (CNS) demyelination, neural loss, and, finally, neurological disability. Although a number of disease-modifying treatments are available for the treatment of the inflammatory phase of MS, there is still a need for highly efficacious therapies with an acceptable safety profile in order to gain therapeutic control early in the disease course...
March 11, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258365/dosing-and-switching-strategies-for-paliperidone-palmitate-3-month-formulation-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-based-on-population-pharmacokinetic-modeling-and-simulation-and-clinical-trial-data
#16
REVIEW
Mats O Magnusson, Mahesh N Samtani, Elodie L Plan, E Niclas Jonsson, Stefaan Rossenu, An Vermeulen, Alberto Russu
Paliperidone palmitate 3-month formulation (PP3M), a long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic, was recently approved in the US and Europe for the treatment of schizophrenia in adult patients who have already been treated with paliperidone palmitate 1-month formulation (PP1M) for ≥4 months. This article reviews the pharmacokinetic rationale for the approved dosing regimens for PP3M, dosing windows, management of missed doses and treatment discontinuation, switching to other formulations, and dosing in special populations...
March 4, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337727/newer-antiepileptic-drugs-in-status-epilepticus-prescription-trends-and-outcomes-in-comparison-with-traditional-agents
#17
Isabelle Beuchat, Jan Novy, Andrea O Rossetti
INTRODUCTION: Newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are increasingly prescribed; however, relatively limited data are available regarding their use in status epilepticus (SE) and the impact on outcome. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the evolution in prescription patterns of newer and traditional AEDs in this clinical setting, and their association with prognosis. METHODS: We analyzed our prospective adult SE registry over a 10-year period (2007-2016) and assessed the yearly use of newer and traditional AEDs and their association with mortality, return to baseline conditions at discharge, and SE refractoriness, defined as treatment resistance to two AEDs, including benzodiazepines...
April 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303465/pharmacotherapy-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder-novel-experimental-medicine-models-and-emerging-drug-targets
#18
REVIEW
David S Baldwin, Ruihua Hou, Robert Gordon, Nathan T M Huneke, Matthew Garner
Many pharmacological and psychological approaches have been found efficacious in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but many treatment-seeking patients will not respond and others will relapse despite continuing with interventions that initially had beneficial effects. Other patients will respond but then stop treatment early because of untoward effects such as sexual dysfunction, drowsiness, and weight gain. There is much scope for the development of novel approaches that could have greater overall effectiveness or acceptability than currently available interventions or that have particular effectiveness in specific clinical subgroups...
April 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247239/effect-of-fingolimod-on-brain-volume-loss-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Nicola De Stefano, Diego G Silva, Michael H Barnett
Brain atrophy occurs at a faster rate in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) than in healthy individuals. In three randomized, controlled, phase III trials, fingolimod reduced the annual rate of brain volume loss (BVL) in patients with relapsing MS (RMS) by approximately one-third relative to that in individuals receiving placebo or intramuscular interferon beta-1a. Analysis of brain volume changes during study extensions has shown that this reduced rate of BVL is sustained in patients with RMS receiving fingolimod continuously...
April 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258419/clozapine-for-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-still-the-gold-standard
#20
EDITORIAL
David M Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: CNS Drugs
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