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Manuel Morales Ortiz, Aaron Fernández
Theoretical models of active ageing and cognitive reserve emphasize the importance of leading an active life to delay age-related cognitive deterioration and maintain good levels of well-being and personal satisfaction in the elderly. The objective of this research was to construct a scale to measure cognitively stimulating activities (CSA) in the Spanish language. The sample consisted of a total of 453 older persons. The scale was constructed from a list of 28 items and validated using structural equation models...
May 1, 2018: Assessment
Meike Müller-Engelmann, Ulrich Schnyder, Clara Dittmann, Kathlen Priebe, Martin Bohus, Janine Thome, Thomas Fydrich, Monique C Pfaltz, Regina Steil
The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) is a widely used diagnostic interview for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Following fundamental modifications in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition ( DSM-5), the CAPS had to be revised. This study examined the psychometric properties (internal consistency, interrater reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and structural validity) of the German version of the CAPS-5 in a trauma-exposed sample ( n = 223 with PTSD; n =51 without PTSD)...
May 1, 2018: Assessment
Peter J Castagna, Scott Roye, Matthew Calamia
Several measures are available that assess inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and executive functioning deficits. Treatments for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and skill-based academic interventions focus on improving compensatory strategies to ameliorate functional impairment; however, no measure exists that examines the compensatory behaviors adults utilize to compensate for the functional deficits associated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The current study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Compensatory ADHD Behaviors Scale (CABS)...
May 1, 2018: Assessment
Cheng-Hsien Li, Jing-Jyi Wu
Emotion regulation has been considered a vital mechanism for psychological and physical health. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) was originally developed by Gross and John to measure the emotion regulation strategies of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Given the practical importance of functional emotion regulation for psychological assessment in the Taiwanese cultural context, this study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the ERQ in a sample of 909 Taiwanese college students...
May 1, 2018: Assessment
Samuel B Green, Amy L Pennar, Robert H Bradley
The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory is designed to assess the quality and quantity of support, stimulation, and structure provided to children in the home environment. HOME has been widely used for research and applied purposes. We focused on an abbreviated version of the Early Adolescent HOME (EA-HOME-A) that was administered to 15-year-old adolescents and their parents ( N = 958) as part of the NICHD (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development...
May 1, 2018: Assessment
Sujith Ramachandran, Erin R Holmes, Meagen Rosenthal, Benjamin F Banahan, John Young, John P Bentley
The objective of this study was to develop a subtle self-report scale-the Subtle ADHD Malingering Screener (SAMS)-to screen for malingering among individuals reporting symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study employed a cross-sectional experimental design with an ADHD group, a control group-comprising individuals without ADHD-and a malingering group-comprising individuals without ADHD who were instructed to feign ADHD in their responses. Factor analysis and psychometric testing were conducted to develop a final scale that could distinguish the malingering from the other groups...
May 1, 2018: Assessment
Michael A Southam-Gerow, Wes Bonifay, Bryce D McLeod, Julia R Cox, Stephanie Violante, Philip C Kendall, John R Weisz
Observational measurement of treatment adherence has long been considered the gold standard. However, little is known about either the generalizability of the scores from extant observational instruments or the sampling needed. We conducted generalizability (G) and decision (D) studies on two samples of recordings from two randomized controlled trials testing cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety in two different contexts: research versus community. Two doctoral students independently coded 543 session recordings from 52 patients treated by 13 therapists...
April 1, 2018: Assessment
Jodi L Viljoen, Aisha K Bhanwer, Catherine S Shaffer, Kevin S Douglas
Although the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) and the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) are among the most widely used adolescent risk assessment tools, they conceptualize and measure strengths differently. As such, in this study, we compared the predictive validity of SAVRY Protective Total and YLS/CMI Strength Total, and tested conceptual models of how these measures operate (i.e., risk vs. protective effects, direct vs. buffering effects, causal models). Research assistants conducted 624 risk assessments with 156 youth on probation...
April 1, 2018: Assessment
Heather M Foran, Michael Lorber, Jill Malik, Richard E Heyman, Amy M Smith Slep
Dysfunctional conflict resolution behaviors in couples have been long recognized as markers of relationship maladjustment and are, consequently, frequent targets of couple therapy. The process of flooding may play a role. Flooding is the subjective sense of being overwhelmed by the partner's negative affect, which is perceived as unexpected and intense, and feeling as though one's information processing is impaired. It has been theorized that flooding is so aversive as to lead to maladaptive conflict behaviors (e...
April 1, 2018: Assessment
Farah Nadia M Faudzi, Christopher J Armitage, Christina Bryant, Laura J E Brown
The aims of this study were to culturally adapt the Reactions to Ageing Questionnaire (RAQ) for a non-Western (Malay) population, and explore attitudes to ageing in relation to age, gender, and education. Eight new culturally relevant items were generated by asking Malay-speaking participants about their reactions to ageing. A Malay version of the extended 35-item RAQ was then administered to 911 Malaysian participants aged 18 to 60 years. Exploratory factor analysis revealed four factors. Three of the factors were similar to those identified in the original RAQ, while "Family and Religion" emerged as a new factor...
April 1, 2018: Assessment
Emily W Paolillo, Benjamin S McKenna, Cindy J Nowinski, Michael L Thomas, Vanessa L Malcarne, Robert K Heaton
The recently released National Institutes of Health Toolbox (NIHTB) batteries for neurological and behavioral function were designed to serve as standardized, common measures in clinical and epidemiological research. The current study aimed to examine constructs assessed by the self-report and parental proxy-report scales in the NIHTB Emotion Battery (NIHTB-EB) for Children by using factor analyses on data from the U.S. national normative sample of 2,916 English-speaking children. This battery contains 31 scales designed to assess both positive and negative aspects of social and emotional functioning that are considered developmentally relevant at each of three age ranges (3-7, 8-12, and 13-17 years)...
April 1, 2018: Assessment
Elizabeth A Edershile, Leonard J Simms, Aidan G C Wright
The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) has enjoyed widespread use in the study of the narcissism. However, questions have been raised about whether the PNI's grandiosity scale adequately captures narcissistic grandiosity as well as other popular measures do. Specifically, some have noted that PNI grandiosity shows a pattern of external associations that diverges from patterns for narcissistic grandiosity predicted by experts, and is more similar to the predictions for the vulnerability scale than is desirable...
March 1, 2018: Assessment
Anne R Carlew, Keke L Schuler, Camilo J Ruggero, Jennifer L Callahan, Benjamin J Luft, Roman Kotov
The current study sought to investigate the factor structure of the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) Short Form in a trauma-exposed sample. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test four competing models proposed by Donders in a study investigating the CVLT-II Standard Form. Consistent with Donders, a four-factor model consisting of Attention Span, Learning Efficiency, Delayed Memory, and Inaccurate Memory was supported. These results confirm the latent structure of the CVLT-II holds for the CVLT-II in its Short Form as well as in a trauma-exposed sample...
March 1, 2018: Assessment
Rachelle Sass, Susanne Frick, Ulf-Dietrich Reips, Eunike Wetzel
The multidimensional forced-choice (MFC) format has been proposed as an alternative to the rating scale (RS) response format. However, it is unclear how changing the response format may affect the response process and test motivation of participants. In Study 1, we investigated the MFC response process using the think-aloud technique. In Study 2, we compared test motivation between the RS format and different versions of the MFC format (presenting 2, 3, 4, and 5 items simultaneously). The response process to MFC item blocks was similar to the RS response process but involved an additional step of weighing the items within a block against each other...
March 1, 2018: Assessment
Sarah J Brislin, Christopher J Patrick, Herta Flor, Frauke Nees, Angela Heinrich, Laura E Drislane, James R Yancey, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Erin Burke Quinlan, Sylvane Desrivières, Vincent Frouin, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Luise Poustka, Juliane H Fröhner, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Patricia Conrod, Argyris Stringaris, Maren Struve, Betteke van Noort, Yvonne Grimmer, Tahmine Fadai, Gunter Schumann, Jens Foell
Trait disinhibition, a clinical-liability construct, has well-established correlates in the diagnostic, self-rating, task-behavioral, and brain potential response domains. Recently, studies have begun to test for neuroimaging correlates of this liability factor, but more work of this type using larger data sets is needed to clarify its brain bases. The current study details the development and validation of a scale measure of trait disinhibition composed of questionnaire items available in the IMAGEN project, a large-scale longitudinal study of factors contributing to substance abuse that includes clinical interview, self-report personality, task-behavioral, neuroimaging, and genomic measures...
March 1, 2018: Assessment
Victor Molinari, Erlene Rosowsky
We provide commentary about the articles in this special section of "Assessment in Older Adults" by using van Alphen's framework of a systematic multidimensional approach for diagnosis and treatment in older adults.
April 2018: Assessment
Inge Debast, Gina Rossi, S P J van Alphen
The alternative model for personality disorders in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM-5) is considered an important step toward a possibly better conceptualization of personality pathology in older adulthood, by the introduction of levels of personality functioning (Criterion A) and trait dimensions (Criterion B). Our main aim was to examine age-neutrality of the Short Form of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-SF; Criterion A) and Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Brief Form (PID-5-BF; Criterion B)...
April 2018: Assessment
Steve Balsis, Tabina K Choudhury, Lisa Geraci, Jared F Benge, Christopher J Patrick
Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects neurological, cognitive, and behavioral processes. Thus, to accurately assess this disease, researchers and clinicians need to combine and incorporate data across these domains. This presents not only distinct methodological and statistical challenges but also unique opportunities for the development and advancement of psychometric techniques. In this article, we describe relatively recent research using item response theory (IRT) that has been used to make progress in assessing the disease across its various symptomatic and pathological manifestations...
April 2018: Assessment
David A Loewenstein, Rosie E Curiel, Ranjan Duara, Herman Buschke
In spite of advances in neuroimaging and other brain biomarkers to assess preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), cognitive assessment has relied on traditional memory paradigms developed well over six decades ago. This has led to a growing concern about their effectiveness in the early diagnosis of AD which is essential to develop preventive and early targeted interventions before the occurrence of multisystem brain degeneration. We describe the development of novel tests that are more cognitively challenging, minimize variability in learning strategies, enhance initial acquisition and retrieval using cues, and exploit vulnerabilities in persons with incipient AD such as the susceptibility to proactive semantic interference, and failure to recover from proactive semantic interference...
April 2018: Assessment
Antonio Terracciano, Yannick Stephan, Martina Luchetti, Angelina R Sutin
There is contrasting evidence on personality stability in advanced age, and limited knowledge on the impact of cognitive impairment and dementia on trait stability. Group- and individual-level longitudinal analyses of the five major dimensions of personality assessed twice over 4 years ( N = 9,935) suggest that rank-order stability was progressively lower with advancing age (from rtt = 0.68 for age 50 to 60 years to rtt = 0.58 for age >80 years). Stability was low in the dementia group ( rtt = 0.43), and this was not simply due to lower reliability given that internal consistency remained adequate in the dementia group...
April 2018: Assessment
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