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Bo Bach, Martin Sellbom, Erik Simonsen
The Personality Inventory for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (PID-5) was developed for the assessment of pathological traits in clinical settings. However, most research on the PID-5 is derived from nonclinical samples. To date, the comparability and generalizability of PID-5 constructs across nonclinical and clinical samples have not been adequately investigated. Therefore, we investigated the measurement invariance, five-factor structure, and factor correlations across clinical and nonclinical samples...
May 1, 2017: Assessment
Ashley C Helle, Stephanie N Mullins-Sweatt
Eight measures have been developed to assess maladaptive variants of the five-factor model (FFM) facets specific to personality disorders (e.g., Five-Factor Borderline Inventory [FFBI]). These measures can be used in their entirety or as facet-based scales (e.g., FFBI Affective Dysregulation) to improve the comprehensiveness of assessment of pathological personality. There are a limited number of studies examining these scales with other measures of similar traits (e.g., DSM-5 alternative model). The current study examined the FFM maladaptive scales in relation to the respective general personality traits of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the pathological personality traits of the DSM-5 alternative model using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5...
May 1, 2017: Assessment
Silje S Hukkelberg
The Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) is a widely used instrument that assesses disruptive problem behaviors via parent report. The present study compares three different conceptualizations of problem behaviors using traditional confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), a bifactor-CFA, and a bifactor exploratory structural equation model, whereof the latter two represent novel conceptualizations of disruptive problem behaviors. Data were derived from 353 Norwegian parents assigned to parent management training-the Oregon model (PMTO; N = 137) or brief parent training (BPT; N = 216), who rated their child's problem behavior (age 3-12 years)...
May 1, 2017: Assessment
Matthew Sunderland, Philip Batterham, Natacha Carragher, Alison Calear, Tim Slade
Highly efficient assessments that better account for comorbidity between mood and anxiety disorders (internalizing) are required to identify individuals who are most at risk of psychopathology in the community. The current study examined the efficiency and validity associated with a multidimensional computerized adaptive test (CAT) to measure broad and specific levels of internalizing psychopathology. The sample comprised 3,175 respondents to an online survey. Items from five banks (generalized anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder) were jointly calibrated using a bifactor item response theory model...
May 1, 2017: Assessment
Natália Kocsel, Kata Mónok, Edina Szabó, Antony Morgan, Melinda Reinhardt, Róbert Urbán, Zsolt Demetrovics, Gyöngyi Kökönyei
Perseverative cognitions-rumination and worry-can contribute to mental and somatic health problems in adolescence. Girls usually report stronger rumination or worry than boys even in earlier years across the development age spectrum. Our aim was to test the gender invariance and psychometric properties of the Nonproductive Thoughts Questionnaire for Children (NPTQ-C). Study 1 involved 1,572 students (mean age = 15.39 years, SD = 2.26; 49% boy) recruited representatively from local schools. We applied confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the measurement model of perseverative cognitions...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Ian V McPhail, Chantal A Hermann, Stephanie Fernane, Yolanda M Fernandez, Kevin L Nunes, James M Cantor
Valid assessment of pedohebephilic interests (i.e., sexual interest in children) is fundamental to forensic clinical practice. Phallometric testing-which measures changes in penile circumference or volume, while stimuli depicting different ages and sexual activities are presented-is widely used in clinical and research settings to detect such interests. This meta-analysis summarizes studies comparing sexual offenders against children and various types of controls on phallometric tests for pedohebephilic interests (37 samples; N = 6,785) and studies examining the relationship between phallometric test scores and sexual reoffending (16 samples; N = 2,709)...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Paul S Strand, Chad M Gotch, Brian F French, Jessica L Beaver
The Washington Assessment of Risks and Needs of Students is a youth self-report screening instrument developed for use by high school and juvenile court personnel faced with the legal and practical challenges of high truancy and dropout rates. It purports to measure six facets of risks and needs of youth relevant to improving school outcomes. In this study, a bifactor model measuring a general factor and six specific factors was examined for fit and invariance across different groups defined by sex and race/ethnicity, with a sample of court-petitioned high school students ( N = 937; ages 13-17 years)...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Patrick J Cruitt, Thomas F Oltmanns
Research shows moderate agreement between different sources of information when assessing personality disorders (PDs) in older adults. The differences between measurement methods appear to be not only the result of measurement error, but also an indication that each source holds nonredundant information relevant to PD diagnosis. The current article examines three sources of diagnostic information (self-report, informant report, and clinical interview) and the utility of these instruments in predicting important outcomes in older adulthood...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Evan M Lowder, Sarah L Desmarais, Candalyn B Rade, Kiersten L Johnson, Richard A Van Dorn
Risk assessment instruments are increasingly used in mental health jail diversion programs. This study examined the reliability and validity of Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) and Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) assessments overall and by client race. Research assistants completed START and LSI-R assessments for 95 diversion clients. Arrests and jail days were collected via official records and self-report 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after baseline. Assessments demonstrated good interrater reliability and convergent validity...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Byron L Zamboanga, Shannon Audley, Janine V Olthuis, Heidemarie Blumenthal, Cara C Tomaso, Ngoc Bui, Brian Borsari
Playing drinking games can be characterized as a high-risk drinking activity because games are typically designed to promote heavy alcohol consumption. While research suggests that young adults are motivated to play drinking games for a variety of reasons (e.g., for thrills/fun, for the competition), the Motives for Playing Drinking Games measure has received limited empirical attention. We examined the psychometric properties of this measure with a confirmation sample of young adults recruited from Amazon's MTurk ( N = 1,809, ages 18-25 years, 47% men; 41% not currently enrolled in college) and a validation sample of college students ( N = 671; ages 18-23 years; 26% men)...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Christopher T A Gillen, Emily A M MacDougall, Adelle E Forth, Christopher T Barry, Randall T Salekin
The current study examined the reliability and validity of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version (YPI-S) in two different samples of at-risk adolescents enrolled in a residential program ( n = 160) and at a detention facility ( n = 60) in the United States. YPI-S scores displayed adequate internal consistency and were moderately associated with concurrent scales on other self-report psychopathy measures and externalizing behaviors. YPI-S scores were moderately related to interviewer-ratings of the construct using the four-factor model of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Kenneth G Rice, Philip B Gnilka, Don E Davis, Jeffrey S Ashby
We examine the conceptual and empirical merits of concerns Flett et al. recently raised about the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R), specifically that items on the APS-R Discrepancy should be separated into a "Pure" Discrepancy factor and a Dissatisfaction factor. Limitations in the logic and findings of that critique are summarized. We replicate and extend Flett et al.'s study with results from two samples: (a) college freshmen STEM students ( N = 279) and (b) doctoral students in a national sample ( N = 529)...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Björn N Persson, Petri J Kajonius, Danilo Garcia
In the past decade, extensive interest has been directed toward the Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy), popularly assessed by the Short Dark Triad (SD3). Nevertheless, relatively little research has been conducted on the SD3's factor structure. We investigated the SD3's psychometric properties in three studies with three independent samples, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses ( N1 = 1,487; N2 = 17,740; N3 = 496). In all three studies, Machiavellianism and psychopathy items displayed large general factor loadings, and narcissism larger specific factor loadings...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Kelsie T Forbush, Lindsay A Hilderbrand, Brittany K Bohrer, Danielle A N Chapa
Approximately 10% to 30% of individuals with eating disorders (EDs) are male, yet because measures often have not been tested among male participants, it is unclear whether the psychometric properties of ED measures are equivalent between sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare the test-retest reliability of common ED measures in men versus women. Participants ( N = 227; 58.1% female) completed self-report measures of body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, disinhibited eating, bulimic symptoms, and desire-for-muscularity at baseline and 2-to-4 weeks later...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Andreas M Krafft, Charles Martin-Krumm, Fabien Fenouillet
Against the background of different psychological conceptualizations of hope, this article elaborates and validates a measure to assess hope as perceived by the general public adapting it from the hope and optimism subscale of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Spirituality, Religion and Personal Beliefs Questionnaire. The results presented here are part of a yearly Internet-based cross-sectional survey in Germany and Switzerland called Hope-Barometer, from which 4 samples of 3 different years with about 17,500 participants have been used...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Doreen Bensch, Delroy L Paulhus, Lazar Stankov, Matthias Ziegler
Contamination with positivity bias is a potential problem in virtually all areas of psychological assessment. To determine the impact of positivity bias, one common approach is to embed special indicators within one's assessment battery. Such tools range from social desirability scales to overconfidence measures to the so-called overclaiming technique. Despite the large literature on these different approaches and underlying theoretical notions, little is known about the overall nomological network-in particular, the degree to which these constructs overlap...
March 1, 2017: Assessment
Donald Sharpe, Jesse McElheran, William J Whelton
While some researchers contend that hope is unidimensional, other researchers regard hope to be multidimensional. Schrank, Woppmann, Sibitz, and Lauber's exploratory factor analysis of their Integrative Hope Scale (IHS) found subscales of Trust, Future Orientation, Social Relations, and Lack of Perspective. However, subsequent articles have utilized only the total IHS score. To resolve this issue, a community sample of 288 participants completed the IHS as well as two measures of hedonic well-being (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; Temporal Satisfaction With Life Scale), a measure of eudemonic well-being (Measure of Actualization of Potential), and a measure of time orientation (the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory)...
March 1, 2017: Assessment
Lauren E Szkodny, Michelle G Newman
Worry, rumination, and obsessive thinking are theorized to differ on temporal orientation, positive perceived function, degree of intrusiveness, and discordance with one's self-concept. However, prior findings with respect to such differences may be due to method variance of the measures used and/or inclusion of items confounded by diagnostic symptoms. Accurately capturing differences between types of perseverative thought linked to psychopathology and understanding whether such aspects are common across disorders or specific to some may be important to designing effective treatments for them...
March 1, 2017: Assessment
Kateryna V Keefer, Graeme J Taylor, James D A Parker, R Michael Bagby
Alexithymia is a clinically relevant personality construct characterized by difficulties identifying and describing feelings, externally oriented thinking, and impoverished imaginal processes. Previous taxometric investigations provided evidence that alexithymia is best conceptualized as a continuous dimension rather than a discrete type, at least when assessed with the self-report 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The aim of the current study was to test the categorical versus dimensional structure of alexithymia using the recently developed Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia...
March 1, 2017: Assessment
Carolyn C Morf, Eva Schürch, Albrecht Küfner, Philip Siegrist, Aline Vater, Mitja Back, Robert Mestel, Michela Schröder-Abé
The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a multidimensional measure for assessing grandiose and vulnerable features in narcissistic pathology. The aim of the present research was to construct and validate a German translation of the PNI and to provide further information on the PNI's nomological net. Findings from a first study confirm the psychometric soundness of the PNI and replicate its seven-factor first-order structure. A second-order structure was also supported but with several equivalent models...
June 2017: Assessment
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