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Rachelle Sass, Susanne Frick, Ulf-Dietrich Reips, Eunike Wetzel
The multidimensional forced-choice (MFC) format has been proposed as an alternative to the rating scale (RS) response format. However, it is unclear how changing the response format may affect the response process and test motivation of participants. In Study 1, we investigated the MFC response process using the think-aloud technique. In Study 2, we compared test motivation between the RS format and different versions of the MFC format (presenting 2, 3, 4, and 5 items simultaneously). The response process to MFC item blocks was similar to the RS response process but involved an additional step of weighing the items within a block against each other...
March 1, 2018: Assessment
Sarah J Brislin, Christopher J Patrick, Herta Flor, Frauke Nees, Angela Heinrich, Laura E Drislane, James R Yancey, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Erin Burke Quinlan, Sylvane Desrivières, Vincent Frouin, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Luise Poustka, Juliane H Fröhner, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Patricia Conrod, Argyris Stringaris, Maren Struve, Betteke van Noort, Yvonne Grimmer, Tahmine Fadai, Gunter Schumann, Jens Foell
Trait disinhibition, a clinical-liability construct, has well-established correlates in the diagnostic, self-rating, task-behavioral, and brain potential response domains. Recently, studies have begun to test for neuroimaging correlates of this liability factor, but more work of this type using larger data sets is needed to clarify its brain bases. The current study details the development and validation of a scale measure of trait disinhibition composed of questionnaire items available in the IMAGEN project, a large-scale longitudinal study of factors contributing to substance abuse that includes clinical interview, self-report personality, task-behavioral, neuroimaging, and genomic measures...
March 1, 2018: Assessment
Morgan N McCredie, Leslie C Morey
As online data collection services such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) gain popularity, the quality and representativeness of such data sources have gained research attention. To date, the majority of existing studies have compared MTurk workers with undergraduate samples, localized community samples, or other Internet-based samples, and thus, there remains little known about the personality and mental health constructs of MTurk workers relative to a national representative sample. The present study addresses these limitations and broadens the scope of existing research through the use of the Personality Assessment Inventory, a multiscale, self-report questionnaire which provides information regarding data validity and personality and psychopathology features standardized against a national U...
February 1, 2018: Assessment
Oliver Lindhiem, Isaac T Petersen, Lucas K Mentch, Eric A Youngstrom
Accuracy has several elements, not all of which have received equal attention in the field of clinical psychology. Calibration, the degree to which a probabilistic estimate of an event reflects the true underlying probability of the event, has largely been neglected in the field of clinical psychology in favor of other components of accuracy such as discrimination (e.g., sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve). Although it is frequently overlooked, calibration is a critical component of accuracy with particular relevance for prognostic models and risk-assessment tools...
February 1, 2018: Assessment
Mike C Parent, Sheila Garos, Emily Branscome, Margaret Piper
Existing measures of experiences of sexualization and objectification of women focus on behaviors that men do toward women. However, women may also contribute to the objectification of other women. The aim of the present study was to develop the Women's Objectification of Women Scale (WOWS). Through a series of four studies using samples of college women and samples obtained through MTurk, we (a) established that existing measures of objectification focus on behaviors that men perform, (b) gathered qualitative data on women's experiences of objectification by women, (c) developed models of the WOWS using classical test theory methods and item response theory, and (d) subjected the WOWS to confirmatory factor analysis and validity testing...
February 1, 2018: Assessment
Hana-May Eadeh, Joshua M Langberg, Stephen J Molitor, Katie Behrhorst, Zoe R Smith, Steven W Evans
Parenting stress is common in families with an adolescent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents (SIPA) was developed to assess parenting stress but has not been validated outside of the original development work. This study examined the factor structure and sources of convergent validity of the SIPA in a sample of adolescents diagnosed with ADHD ( Mage = 12.3, N = 327) and their caregivers. Three first-order models, two bifactor models, and one higher order model were evaluated; none met overall model fit criteria but the first-order nine-factor model displayed the best fit...
February 1, 2018: Assessment
Inge Debast, Gina Rossi, S P J van Alphen
The alternative model for personality disorders in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM-5) is considered an important step toward a possibly better conceptualization of personality pathology in older adulthood, by the introduction of levels of personality functioning (Criterion A) and trait dimensions (Criterion B). Our main aim was to examine age-neutrality of the Short Form of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-SF; Criterion A) and Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Brief Form (PID-5-BF; Criterion B)...
February 1, 2018: Assessment
Sonja Etzler, Reinhard Eher, Martin Rettenberger
In this study, the predictive and incremental validity of the Stable-2007 beyond the Static-99 was evaluated in an updated sample of N = 638 adult male sexual offenders followed-up for an average of M = 8.2 years. Data were collected at the Federal Evaluation Center for Violent and Sexual Offenders (FECVSO) in Austria within a prospective-longitudinal research design. Scores and risk categories of the Static-99 (AUC = .721; p < .001) and of the Stable-2007 (AUC = .623, p = .005) were found to be significantly related to sexual recidivism...
February 1, 2018: Assessment
Natania A Crane, Alvaro Vergés, Masoud Kamali, Runa Bhaumik, Kelly A Ryan, David F Marshall, Erika F H Saunders, Michelle T Kassel, Anne L Weldon, Melvin G McInnis, Scott A Langenecker
Trait markers, or intermediate phenotypes linking different units of analysis (self-report, performance) from the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) matrix across populations is a necessary step in identifying at-risk individuals. In the current study, 150 healthy controls (HC) and 456 individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) Type I or II, NOS (not otherwise specified) or Schizoaffective BD completed self-report neuropsychological tests of inhibitory control (IC) and executive functioning. Bifactor analyses were used to examine the factor structure of these measures and to evaluate for invariance across groups...
February 1, 2018: Assessment
Florian Schmitz, Olga Kunina-Habenicht, Andrea Hildebrandt, Klaus Oberauer, Oliver Wilhelm
The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is one of the most prominent paradigms employed for the assessment of risk taking in the laboratory, and it was shown to distinguish between various patient groups and controls. The present study was conducted to test the psychometric characteristics of the original IGT and of a new gambling task variant for assessing individual differences. Two studies were conducted with adults of the general population ( n = 220) and with adolescents ( n = 389). Participants were also tested on multiple measures of working memory capacity, fluid intelligence, personality traits associated with risk-taking behavior, and self-reported risk taking in various domains...
January 1, 2018: Assessment
Victor Molinari, Erlene Rosowsky
We provide commentary about the articles in this special section of "Assessment in Older Adults" by using van Alphen's framework of a systematic multidimensional approach for diagnosis and treatment in older adults.
April 2018: Assessment
Martin J Sliwinski, Jacqueline A Mogle, Jinshil Hyun, Elizabeth Munoz, Joshua M Smyth, Richard B Lipton
Mobile technologies are increasingly used to measure cognitive function outside of traditional clinic and laboratory settings. Although ambulatory assessments of cognitive function conducted in people's natural environments offer potential advantages over traditional assessment approaches, the psychometrics of cognitive assessment procedures have been understudied. We evaluated the reliability and construct validity of ambulatory assessments of working memory and perceptual speed administered via smartphones as part of an ecological momentary assessment protocol in a diverse adult sample ( N = 219)...
January 2018: Assessment
Muirne C S Paap, Johan Braeken, Geir Pedersen, Øyvind Urnes, Sigmund Karterud, Theresa Wilberg, Benjamin Hummelen
This study aims at evaluating the psychometric properties of the antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) criteria in a large sample of patients, most of whom had one or more personality disorders (PD). PD diagnoses were assessed by experienced clinicians using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Axis II PDs. Analyses were performed within an item response theory framework. Results of the analyses indicated that ASPD is a unidimensional construct that can be measured reliably at the upper range of the latent trait scale...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Steve Balsis, Tabina K Choudhury, Lisa Geraci, Jared F Benge, Christopher J Patrick
Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects neurological, cognitive, and behavioral processes. Thus, to accurately assess this disease, researchers and clinicians need to combine and incorporate data across these domains. This presents not only distinct methodological and statistical challenges but also unique opportunities for the development and advancement of psychometric techniques. In this article, we describe relatively recent research using item response theory (IRT) that has been used to make progress in assessing the disease across its various symptomatic and pathological manifestations...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Adina M Piovesana, Jessica L Harrison, Jacob J Ducat
PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop a motor-free short-form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (WISC-V) that allows clinicians to estimate the Full Scale Intelligence Quotients of youths with motor impairments. METHOD: Using the reliabilities and intercorrelations of six WISC-V motor-free subtests, psychometric methodologies were applied to develop look-up tables for four Motor-free Short-form indices: Verbal Comprehension Short-form, Perceptual Reasoning Short-form, Working Memory Short-form, and a Motor-free Intelligence Quotient...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Ylenio Longo, Veljko Jovanović, Joana Sampaio de Carvalho, Dominika Karaś
The Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) is a widely used scale aimed at assessing three components of well-being: emotional, social, and psychological. The factor structure of the MHC-SF has been under debate over the past 10 years. The main goal of the present study was to examine the dimensionality of the MHC-SF. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), bifactor CFA, exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), and bifactor ESEM were used to evaluate competing models of the MHC-SF structure. The total sample consisted of 7,521 participants from four countries: The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and Serbia...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Jens C Thimm
The Computerized Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder-Static Form (CAT-PD-SF) is a self-report inventory developed to assess pathological personality traits. The current study explored the reliability and higher order factor structure of the Norwegian version of the CAT-PD-SF and the relationships between the CAT-PD traits and domains of personality functioning in an undergraduate student sample ( N = 375). In addition to the CAT-PD-SF, the short form of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems and the Brief Symptom Inventory were administered...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Nathan W Hudson, Ivana Anusic, Richard E Lucas, M Brent Donnellan
Self-report measures of global well-being are thought to reflect the overall quality of people's lives. However, several scholars have argued that people rely on heuristics, such as current mood, when reporting their global well-being. Experiential well-being measures, such as the day reconstruction method (DRM), have been proposed as an alternative technique to obtain a potentially more accurate assessment of well-being. Across two multimethod, short-term longitudinal studies, we compared the psychometric properties of global self-reports and short-form DRM-based assessments of well-being...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Gilles E Gignac, Matthew R Reynolds, Kristof Kovacs
The Digit Span subscale (Digit Span Forward, Backward, and Sequencing combined composite) internal inconsistency reliability has been reported at .93, based on a coefficient known as stratified coefficient alpha. With accessible examples, we demonstrate that stratified coefficient alpha can deviate substantially from a model-based internal consistency reliability that represents an underlying dimension, that is, omega hierarchical. Next, we simulated item-level Digit Span subscale data to correspond very closely to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition normative sample...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Timo Gnambs, Ulrich Schroeders
There is consensus that the 10 items of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) reflect wording effects resulting from positively and negatively keyed items. The present study examined the effects of cognitive abilities on the factor structure of the RSES with a novel, nonparametric latent variable technique called local structural equation models. In a nationally representative German large-scale assessment including 12,437 students competing measurement models for the RSES were compared: a bifactor model with a common factor and a specific factor for all negatively worded items had an optimal fit...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
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