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David C Cicero, Alexander Krieg, Elizabeth A Martin
The Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief is a scale that is used to screen individuals for risk for the development of psychosis. It has promising psychometric properties in clinical and nonclinical populations, including undergraduates. However, the measurement invariance of the scale has not been examined in Asian, White, Hispanic, and Multiracial samples. A total of 2,767 undergraduates at two large public U.S. universities completed the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief. The Total scores had configural and scalar invariance, while the Distress scores displayed configural, metric, and partial scalar invariance...
January 1, 2017: Assessment
Stephanie Y Wells, Leslie A Morland, Elisa M Torres, Karen Kloezeman, Margaret-Anne Mackintosh, Gregory A Aarons
Negative posttraumatic cognitions lead to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. There is a need for a brief measure to assess these cognitions. Participants were administered the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI) and measures of mental health symptomatology. These data were used to develop a brief version of the PTCI (PTCI-9) in 223 male and female veterans, which was then examined in a sample of 117 female civilians. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated an acceptable fit in both samples...
January 1, 2017: Assessment
Martijn Van Heel, Patricia Bijttebier, Stephan Claes, Hilde Colpin, Luc Goossens, Wim Van Den Noortgate, Karine Verschueren, Karla Van Leeuwen
This study examined the structural validity of the parenting concept throughout adolescence. First, we examined whether an established five-dimension parenting model including support, proactive control, punitive control, harsh punitive control, and psychological control, showed longitudinal invariance across time (i.e., early, middle, and late adolescence) and measurement invariance across informants (i.e., mothers, fathers, and adolescents). Second, patterns of continuity and discontinuity in these dimensions were examined from the perspective of the different informants...
January 1, 2017: Assessment
Michelle M Martel, Ulrich Schimmack, Joel T Nigg
Sibley, Coxe, and Molina provide a thoughtful discussion of the implications of our study and highlight important future directions in this line of work. They helpfully amplify several themes that space did not allow discussion of in our article. In particular, they correctly emphasize the importance of theoretical as well as statistical considerations in model selection. We also agree that clinical tests of sensitivity and specificity, taking into account different base rates and types of samples, are essential before a final algorithm would be ready for dissemination...
January 1, 2017: Assessment
Jonathan Preszler, G Leonard Burns, Kaylee Litson, Christian Geiser, Mateu Servera, Stephen P Becker
Research has yet to determine how much of the variance in sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptom ratings is consistent across occasions, sources, and settings versus specific to occasion, source, and setting. Our first objective was to determine the amount of variance in SCT ratings that was consistent ( trait consistency) across three occasions of measurement over 12 months versus specific to the occasion ( occasion-specificity) with ratings by mothers, fathers, primary teachers, and secondary teachers of 811 Spanish children...
January 1, 2017: Assessment
Colin E Vize, Katherine L Collison, Michael L Crowe, W Keith Campbell, Joshua D Miller, Donald R Lynam
Research on narcissism has shown it to be multidimensional construct. As such, the relations the larger construct bear with certain outcomes may mask heterogeneity apparent at the more basic trait level. This article used the Five Factor Narcissism Inventory, a Five-Factor Model-based measure of narcissism that allows for multiple levels of analysis, to examine the relative importance of narcissistic traits in relation to aggression, externalizing behavior, and self-esteem outcomes in two independent samples...
January 1, 2017: Assessment
Stefanie A Nelemans, Wim H J Meeus, Susan J T Branje, Karla Van Leeuwen, Hilde Colpin, Karine Verschueren, Luc Goossens
In this study, we examined the longitudinal measurement invariance of a 12-item short version of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) in two 4-year longitudinal community samples ( Nsample 1 = 815, Mage T1 = 13.38 years; Nsample 2 = 551, Mage T1 = 14.82 years). Using confirmatory factor analyses, we found strict longitudinal measurement invariance for the three-factor structure of the SAS-A across adolescence, across samples, and across gender. Some developmental changes in social anxiety were found from early to mid-adolescence, as well as gender differences across adolescence...
January 1, 2017: Assessment
Philip J Batterham, Matthew Sunderland, Natacha Carragher, Alison L Calear
This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the PROMIS depression, anxiety, and anger item banks in a large Australian population-based sample. The study tested for unidimensionality; evaluated invariance across age, gender, and education; assessed local independence; and tested item bank scores as an indicator for clinical criteria. In addition, equivalence of the 7-day time frame against an alternative 30-day time frame was assessed. A sample of 3,175 Australian adults were recruited into the study through online advertising...
January 1, 2017: Assessment
Thomas A Fergus, Joseph R Bardeen
The Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30) is a self-report measure that assesses metacognitive beliefs (i.e., beliefs about thinking). Prior research has supported a correlated five-factor model, but no known published study has examined the tenability of second-order or bifactor models of the MCQ-30. Results supported a bifactor model of the MCQ-30 in a sample of community adults from the United States ( N = 785), as well as separately among men ( n = 372) and women ( n = 413). Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analysis supported the configural and metric/scalar invariance of the bifactor model among men and women...
January 1, 2017: Assessment
Mathew J Summers, Megan E Thow, David D Ward, Nichole L Saunders, Shannon Z Klekociuk, Abbie-Rose Imlach, Jeffery J Summers, James C Vickers
Cognitive reserve (CR) is a theoretical construct describing the underlying cognitive capacity of an individual that confers differential levels of resistance to, and recovery from, brain injuries of various types. To date, estimates of an individual's level of CR have been based on single proxy measures that are retrospective and static in nature. To develop a measure of dynamic change in CR across a lifetime, we previously identified a latent factor, derived from an exploratory factor analysis of a large sample of healthy older adults, as current CR (cCR)...
January 1, 2017: Assessment
Gina Rossi, Arjan Videler, S P J van Alphen
Since older adults often show an atypical presentation of (mal)adaptive personality traits and pathological states, the articles in this special issue will concisely discuss some perennial issues in clinical assessment in older adults and thus outline the main challenges this domain faces. By bringing empirical work and meta-analytic studies from leading scholars in the field of geropsychology, the articles will also address these challenges by reporting the latest developments in the field. This way, we hope to reshape the way clinicians and researchers assess (mal)adaptive personality and pathological states in older adults into a more reliable and valid assessment method that integrates the specific biopsychosocial context of older age...
January 1, 2017: Assessment
Alex C Nyquist, Johnathan D Forbey
The current study investigated the utility and validity of a computerized "depression" module of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Second version (MMPI-2), with and without sequential testing rules, with a college student sample. Participants completed one of three MMPI-2 test-retest administrations (i.e., conventional-conventional, conventional-module, or conventional-sequential module) as well as 15 criterion measures across two testing sessions exactly 1 week apart. The findings pointed to statistically significant and clinically meaningful time-savings in administering selected MMPI-2 scales (for both full-length and variable-length versions)...
December 8, 2016: Assessment
Paweł Grygiel, Grzegorz Humenny, Sławomir Rębisz
The present investigation is the first examination of the factor structures, reliability, external validity, longitudinal invariance, and stability of the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (DJGLS), as used with early adolescents. It is based on a two-wave, large, representative sample of Polish primary school pupils. The results demonstrate that the model most reflective of the factor structure of the DJGLS is the bifactor model, which assumes the occurrence of one, highly reliable, general factor (overall sense of loneliness) and two, relatively irrelevant, subfactors...
December 8, 2016: Assessment
Ross W Knoll, David P Valentiner, Jacob B Holzman
The purpose of the current studies is to identify safety behavior dimensions relevant to test anxiety, to develop a questionnaire to assess those dimensions, and to examine the validity of that questionnaire. Items were generated from interviews with college students ( N = 24). Another sample ( N = 301) completed an initial 33-item measure. Another sample ( N = 151) completed the final 19-item version the Safety Behaviors in Test Anxiety Questionnaire and provided access to their academic records. Interviews and expert evaluations were used to select items for the initial pool...
December 1, 2016: Assessment
Winnie W S Mak, Ivy S W Ng, Celia C Y Wong, Rita W Law
The present research aims to develop and validate a measure of resilience that reflects the influence of Confucian philosophies and Chinese cultural lay beliefs. Based on a representative sample of 1,419 college students from universities and a clinical sample of 214 cardiac patients in Hong Kong, reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity of the Resilience Style Questionnaire (RSQ) were examined. A two-factor structure of the RSQ was explored and validated in both samples. Results showed that the two factors of the RSQ (i...
December 1, 2016: Assessment
Vaishali Mahalingam, Michael Palkovics, Michal Kosinski, Iva Cek, David Stillwell
Delay discounting has been linked to important behavioral, health, and social outcomes, including academic achievement, social functioning and substance use, but thoroughly measuring delay discounting is tedious and time consuming. We develop and consistently validate an efficient and psychometrically sound computer adaptive measure of discounting. First, we develop a binary search-type algorithm to measure discounting using a large international data set of 4,190 participants. Using six independent samples (N = 1,550), we then present evidence of concurrent validity with two standard measures of discounting and a measure of discounting real rewards, convergent validity with addictive behavior, impulsivity, personality, survival probability; and divergent validity with time perspective, life satisfaction, age and gender...
November 24, 2016: Assessment
Brittany N Penson, Jared R Ruchensky, Leslie C Morey, John F Edens
A substantial amount of research has examined the developmental trajectory of antisocial behavior and, in particular, the relationship between antisocial behavior and maladaptive personality traits. However, research typically has not controlled for previous behavior (e.g., past violence) when examining the utility of personality measures, such as self-report scales of antisocial and borderline traits, in predicting future behavior (e.g., subsequent violence). Examination of the potential interactive effects of measures of both antisocial and borderline traits also is relatively rare in longitudinal research predicting adverse outcomes...
November 24, 2016: Assessment
Víctor B Arias, Fernando P Ponce, Daniel E Núñez
BACKGROUND: In the past decade, the bifactor model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been extensively researched. This model consists of an ADHD general dimension and two specific factors: inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. All studies conclude that the bifactor is superior to the traditional two-correlated factors model, according to the fit obtained by factor analysis. However, the proper interpretation of a bifactor not only depends on the fit but also on the quality of the measurement model...
November 20, 2016: Assessment
Harsha N Perera, Zahra Izadikhah, Peter O'Connor, Peter McIlveen
The World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF) is predicated on a multidimensional perspective on quality of life (QOL); yet studies are unclear about the latent structure underlying responses. This article reports on a study conducted to investigate the structure of WHOQOL-BREF scores. Competing latent structures of the data were examined in a general population sample. In addition, the complete factorial invariance of the retained model was investigated across gender. We also investigated latent mean differences in the QOL dimensions over age as well as age by gender interactions effects...
November 20, 2016: Assessment
Thomas M Olino, Dana L McMakin, Erika E Forbes
Positive emotionality, anhedonia, and reward sensitivity share motivational and experiential elements of approach motivation and pleasure. Earlier work has examined the interrelationships among these constructs from measures of extraversion. More recently, the Research Domain Criteria introduced the Positive Valence Systems as a primary dimension to better understand psychopathology. However, the suggested measures tapping this construct have not yet been integrated within the structural framework of personality, even at the level of self-report...
November 20, 2016: Assessment
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