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Paweł Grygiel, Grzegorz Humenny, Sławomir Rębisz
The present investigation is the first examination of the factor structures, reliability, external validity, longitudinal invariance, and stability of the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (DJGLS), as used with early adolescents. It is based on a two-wave, large, representative sample of Polish primary school pupils. The results demonstrate that the model most reflective of the factor structure of the DJGLS is the bifactor model, which assumes the occurrence of one, highly reliable, general factor (overall sense of loneliness) and two, relatively irrelevant, subfactors...
December 8, 2016: Assessment
Vaishali Mahalingam, Michael Palkovics, Michal Kosinski, Iva Cek, David Stillwell
Delay discounting has been linked to important behavioral, health, and social outcomes, including academic achievement, social functioning and substance use, but thoroughly measuring delay discounting is tedious and time consuming. We develop and consistently validate an efficient and psychometrically sound computer adaptive measure of discounting. First, we develop a binary search-type algorithm to measure discounting using a large international data set of 4,190 participants. Using six independent samples (N = 1,550), we then present evidence of concurrent validity with two standard measures of discounting and a measure of discounting real rewards, convergent validity with addictive behavior, impulsivity, personality, survival probability; and divergent validity with time perspective, life satisfaction, age and gender...
November 24, 2016: Assessment
Brittany N Penson, Jared R Ruchensky, Leslie C Morey, John F Edens
A substantial amount of research has examined the developmental trajectory of antisocial behavior and, in particular, the relationship between antisocial behavior and maladaptive personality traits. However, research typically has not controlled for previous behavior (e.g., past violence) when examining the utility of personality measures, such as self-report scales of antisocial and borderline traits, in predicting future behavior (e.g., subsequent violence). Examination of the potential interactive effects of measures of both antisocial and borderline traits also is relatively rare in longitudinal research predicting adverse outcomes...
November 24, 2016: Assessment
Víctor B Arias, Fernando P Ponce, Daniel E Núñez
BACKGROUND: In the past decade, the bifactor model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been extensively researched. This model consists of an ADHD general dimension and two specific factors: inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. All studies conclude that the bifactor is superior to the traditional two-correlated factors model, according to the fit obtained by factor analysis. However, the proper interpretation of a bifactor not only depends on the fit but also on the quality of the measurement model...
November 20, 2016: Assessment
Harsha N Perera, Zahra Izadikhah, Peter O'Connor, Peter McIlveen
The World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF) is predicated on a multidimensional perspective on quality of life (QOL); yet studies are unclear about the latent structure underlying responses. This article reports on a study conducted to investigate the structure of WHOQOL-BREF scores. Competing latent structures of the data were examined in a general population sample. In addition, the complete factorial invariance of the retained model was investigated across gender. We also investigated latent mean differences in the QOL dimensions over age as well as age by gender interactions effects...
November 20, 2016: Assessment
Thomas M Olino, Dana L McMakin, Erika E Forbes
Positive emotionality, anhedonia, and reward sensitivity share motivational and experiential elements of approach motivation and pleasure. Earlier work has examined the interrelationships among these constructs from measures of extraversion. More recently, the Research Domain Criteria introduced the Positive Valence Systems as a primary dimension to better understand psychopathology. However, the suggested measures tapping this construct have not yet been integrated within the structural framework of personality, even at the level of self-report...
November 20, 2016: Assessment
Ryan J McGill, Stefan C Dombrowski
The present study examined the factor structure of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning-Second Edition (WRAML2) core battery with participants from the normative sample aged 9 to 90 years (n = 880) using higher order exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques that were not reported in the in the WRAML2 Administration and Technical Manual Exploratory factor analysis results suggested only one factor, whereas confirmatory factor analysis results favored the three factors posited by the test authors...
November 19, 2016: Assessment
Margaret H Sibley, Stefany Coxe, Brooke S G Molina
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic disorder that afflicts individuals into adulthood. The field continues to refine diagnostic standards for ADHD in adults, complicated by the disorder's heterogeneous presentation, subjective symptoms, and overlap with other disorders. Two key diagnostic questions are from whom to collect diagnostic information and which symptoms should be contained on an adult diagnostic checklist. Using a trifactor model, Martel et al. examine these questions in a sample of adults with and without self-identified ADHD symptoms...
November 19, 2016: Assessment
Sophie C Schneider, Andrew J Baillie, Jonathan Mond, Cynthia M Turner, Jennifer L Hudson
Measures of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms have received little psychometric evaluation in adolescent samples. This study aimed to examine cross-sex measurement invariance in the Body Image Questionnaire-Child and Adolescent version (BIQ-C) to establish whether observed sex differences in total scores may be meaningful or due to differences in measurement properties. A sample of 3,057 Australian high school students completed the initial screening item of the measure (63.2% male, Mage = 14.58 years, SD = 1...
November 19, 2016: Assessment
Jaime L Anderson, Martin Sellbom, Randall T Salekin
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth edition (DSM-5) Personality and Personality Disorders workgroup developed the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) for the assessment of the alternative trait model for DSM-5 Along with this measure, the American Psychiatric Association published an abbreviated version, the PID-5-Brief form (PID-5-BF). Although this measure is available on the DSM-5 website for use, only two studies have evaluated its psychometric properties and validity and no studies have examined the U...
November 7, 2016: Assessment
Bruno Chiurliza, Christopher R Hagan, Megan L Rogers, Matthew C Podlogar, Melanie A Hom, Ian H Stanley, Thomas E Joiner
Suicide has become an issue of great concern within the U.S. military in recent years, with recent reports indicating that suicide has surpassed combat related deaths as the leading cause of death. One concern regarding suicide risk in the military is that existing self-report measures allow service members to conceal or misrepresent current suicidal ideation or suicide plans and preparations. Implicit association tests (IATs) are computer-based, reaction time measures that have been shown to be resilient to such masking of symptoms...
November 7, 2016: Assessment
Adina Piovesana, Graeme Senior
Sample sizes of 50 have been cited as sufficient to obtain stable means and standard deviations in normative test data. The influence of skewness on this minimum number, however, has not been evaluated. Normative test data with varying levels of skewness were compiled for 12 measures from 7 tests collected as part of ongoing normative studies in Brisbane, Australia. Means and standard deviations were computed from sample sizes of 10 to 100 drawn with replacement from larger samples of 272 to 973 cases. The minimum sample size was determined by the number at which both mean and standard deviation estimates remained within the 90% confidence intervals surrounding the population estimates...
September 21, 2016: Assessment
Emily C Duggan, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera, Ulrich Müller
Ecologically valid indicators of executive functions are designed to capture dysfunction not easily measured in a lab setting. Here, we present two studies on the development and validity analyses of a behavioral screener for executive functions among young adults. In Study 1, we derived a four-factor (problem solving, attentional control, behavioral control, and emotional control) behavioral screener using a sample of 765 individuals. We used invariance analyses to evaluate the screener's measurement reliability across sex...
September 21, 2016: Assessment
Francisco J Abad, Miguel A Sorrel, Luis Francisco Garcia, Anton Aluja
Contemporary models of personality assume a hierarchical structure in which broader traits contain narrower traits. Individual differences in response styles also constitute a source of score variance. In this study, the bifactor model is applied to separate these sources of variance for personality subscores. The procedure is illustrated using data for two personality inventories-NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire. The inclusion of the acquiescence method factor generally improved the fit to acceptable levels for the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire, but not for the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised...
September 16, 2016: Assessment
Kyle P De Young, Drew A Anderson
There are few assessments that gather valid, highly detailed data on short-term (i.e., weekly) symptom frequency/severity retrospectively. In particular, methodologies that provide valid data for research investigating symptom changes are typically prospective, expensive, and burdensome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new interactive and graphical assessment tool for gathering detailed information about eating-related symptom frequency/severity retrospectively over a 3-month period. A mixed eating disorder sample (N = 113) recruited from the community provided symptom data once weekly for 12 weeks and completed the Interactive, Graphical Assessment Tool (IGAT) assessing eating disorder symptoms on three occasions to determine the test-retest and concurrent validity of the IGAT...
September 16, 2016: Assessment
Judith M Conijn, Wilco H M Emons, Bethan F Page, Klaas Sijtsma, Willem Van der Does, Ingrid V E Carlier, Erik J Giltay
The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which discrepancy between self-reported and clinician-rated severity of depression are due to inconsistent self-reports. Response inconsistency threatens the validity of the test score. We used data from a large sample of outpatients (N = 5,959) who completed the self-report Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the clinician-rated Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). We used item response theory based person-fit analysis to quantify the inconsistency of the self-report item scores...
September 14, 2016: Assessment
Cynthia A Austin, Stephen F Finn, Timothy Z Keith, Deborah J Tharinger, April D Fernando
This study outlines the development of the Parent Experience of Assessment Scale (PEAS), which is based on principles of Therapeutic Assessment. The study includes pilot testing of a 64-item questionnaire across 134 participants, with psychometric analyses utilizing confirmatory factor analysis. The revised version consists of 24 items across five subscales with appropriate internal consistency reliability (alphas from .76 to .88). The PEAS demonstrates statistically significant relations with general parent satisfaction, with two subscales indicating significant direct effects via structural equation modeling...
September 14, 2016: Assessment
Evangelia G Chrysikou, W Jake Thompson
Chrysikou, E. G., & Thompson, W. J. (2016). Assessing cognitive and affective empathy through the interpersonal reactivity index: An argument against a two-factor model. Assessment, 23(6), 769-777. doi:1073191115599055.
December 2016: Assessment
Giyeon Kim, Jamie DeCoster, Ami N Bryant, Katy L Ford
This study examined the measurement equivalence of the K6 across diverse racial/ethnic and linguistic groups in the U.S. differential item functioning analyses using item response theory were conducted among 44,846 U.S. adults drawn from the California Health Interview Survey. Results show that four items ("nervous," "restless," "depressed," and "everything an effort") varied significantly across races/ethnicities and four items ("nervous," "hopeless," "restless," and "depressed") varied significantly across languages...
December 2016: Assessment
Evangelia G Chrysikou, W Jake Thompson
One aspect of higher order social cognition is empathy, a psychological construct comprising a cognitive (recognizing emotions) and an affective (responding to emotions) component. The complex nature of empathy complicates the accurate measurement of these components. The most widely used measure of empathy is the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). However, the factor structure of the IRI as it is predominantly used in the psychological literature differs from Davis's original four-factor model in that it arbitrarily combines the subscales to form two factors: cognitive and affective empathy...
December 2016: Assessment
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