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Rapson Gomez, Alasdair Vance, Vasileios Stavropoulos
This study used the correlated trait-correlated method minus one model to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of the scales of the Conners 3 Short [C 3 (S)]. The C 3 (S) scales in the analysis were inattention (IN), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HY), learning problems (LP; learning problems/executive functioning from the teacher version), aggression (AG), and peer relations (PR, only for parent and teacher versions). A total of 529 adolescents and children (75% males, mean age = 11.75 years, SD = 2...
October 8, 2018: Assessment
Tina H Schweizer, Hannah R Snyder, Benjamin L Hankin
Multiple cognitive risk products (dysfunctional attitudes [DA], negative inferential style [NIS], self-criticism, dependency, rumination) predict internalizing disorders; however, an optimal structure to assess these risks is unknown. We evaluated the fit, construct validity, and utility of a bifactor, single, and correlated factor model in a community sample of 382 adolescents (age 11-15 years; 59% female). The bifactor, hierarchical single, and correlated factor models all fit well. The bifactor model included a common factor ( c), capturing covariance across all cognitive risk measures, and specific latent factors for DA, NIS, dependency and rumination...
October 8, 2018: Assessment
Jorien Vugteveen, Annelies de Bildt, Marike Serra, Marianne S de Wolff, Marieke E Timmerman
This study assessed the factor structures of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) adolescent and parent versions and their measurement invariance across settings in clinical ( n = 4,053) and community ( n = 962) samples of Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Per SDQ version, confirmatory factor analyses were performed to assess its factor structure in clinical and community settings and to test for measurement invariance across these settings. The results suggest measurement invariance of the presumed five-factor structure for the parent version and a six-factor structure for the adolescent version...
October 8, 2018: Assessment
Troy A Webber, Edan A Critchfield, Jason R Soble
To supplement memory-based Performance Validity Tests (PVTs) in identifying noncredible performance, we examined the validity of the two most commonly used nonmemory-based PVTs-Dot Counting Test (DCT) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth edition (WAIS-IV) Reliable Digit Span (RDS)-as well as two alternative WAIS-IV Digit Span (DS) subtest PVTs. Examinees completed DCT, WAIS-IV DS, and the following criterion PVTs: Test of Memory Malingering, Word Memory Test, and Word Choice Test. Validity groups were determined by passing 3 (valid; n = 69) or failing ⩾2 (noncredible; n = 30) criterion PVTs...
October 6, 2018: Assessment
Manuel Heinrich, Pavle Zagorscak, Michael Eid, Christine Knaevelsrud
The Beck Depression Inventory-II is one of the most frequently used scales to assess depressive burden. Despite many psychometric evaluations, its factor structure is still a topic of debate. An increasing number of articles using fully symmetrical bifactor models have been published recently. However, they all produce anomalous results, which lead to psychometric and interpretational difficulties. To avoid anomalous results, the bifactor-(S-1) approach has recently been proposed as alternative for fitting bifactor structures...
October 6, 2018: Assessment
Sanne C Smid, Joop J Hox, Einar R Heiervang, Kjell Morten Stormark, Mari Hysing, Tormod Bøe
Emotional and behavioral problems among children and adolescents may be studied using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, containing five subscales, based on ratings by parents, teachers, or adolescents themselves. We investigate two measurement issues using data from a longitudinal sample of 8,806 participants aged 7 to 9 years and 11 to 13 years from the Bergen Child Study in Bergen, Norway. First, convergent validity of parent and teacher ratings is studied using a multitrait-multimethod approach...
October 5, 2018: Assessment
Sally Richmond, Orli Schwartz, Katherine A Johnson, Marc L Seal, Katherine Bray, Camille Deane, Lisa B Sheeber, Nicholas B Allen, Sarah Whittle
The majority of studies using observational coding systems for family interaction data derive scales describing family members' behaviors based on rational/theoretical approaches. This study explored an empirical approach to identifying the component structure of parent-child observational data that incorporated the affective context of the interaction. Dyads of 155 typically developing 8-year-olds and their mothers completed questionnaires and two interaction tasks, one each designed to illicit positive and negative interactions...
September 15, 2018: Assessment
Christopher J Hopwood, Alana L Harrison, Marlissa Amole, Jeffrey M Girard, Aidan G C Wright, Katherine M Thomas, Pamela Sadler, Emily B Ansell, Tara M Chaplin, Leslie C Morey, Michael J Crowley, C Emily Durbin, Deborah A Kashy
The Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics (CAID) is a method in which trained observers continuously code the dominance and warmth of individuals who interact with one another in dyads. This method has significant promise for assessing dynamic interpersonal processes. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of individual sex, dyadic familiarity, and situational conflict on patterns of interpersonal warmth, dominance, and complementarity as assessed via CAID. We used six samples with 603 dyads, including two samples of unacquainted mixed-sex undergraduates interacting in a collaborative task, two samples of couples interacting in both collaborative and conflict tasks, and two samples of mothers and children interacting in both collaborative and conflict tasks...
September 15, 2018: Assessment
Eszter Szemenyei, Melinda Reinhardt, Edina Szabó, Krisztina-Gabriella Szabó, Róbert Urbán, Shane T Harvey, Antony Morgan, Zsolt Demetrovics, Gyöngyi Kökönyei
The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y8) was developed to measure psychological inflexibility. Although the questionnaire is a well-known tool in clinical practice, its psychometric properties have not been widely investigated in the target population of children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure and validity of the AFQ-Y8 ( N = 1,572, mean age 15.39 years, girls 51%) on a Hungarian sample. We also tested the invariance of the measurement model across two age groups (11-14 and 15-20 years old)...
September 9, 2018: Assessment
Mario Lawes, Martin Schultze, Michael Eid
Planned missing data (PMD) designs are an elegant way to incorporate expensive gold standard methods (e.g., biomarker) and cheaper but systematically biased methods (e.g., questionnaires) in research designs while ensuring high statistical power and low research costs. This article outlines a PMD design with one expensive gold standard and two cheap but biased methods (three-method measurement [3-MM] design). The cost effectiveness of different 3-MM-PMD designs is investigated and compared with the cost effectiveness of corresponding same-price two-method measurement designs using a simulation study...
September 9, 2018: Assessment
Stacey B Scott, Martin J Sliwinski, Matthew Zawadzki, Robert S Stawski, Jinhyuk Kim, David Marcusson-Clavertz, Stephanie T Lanza, David E Conroy, Orfeu Buxton, David M Almeida, Joshua M Smyth
Despite widespread interest in variance in affect, basic questions remain pertaining to the relative proportions of between-person and within-person variance, the contribution of days and moments, and the reliability of these estimates. We addressed these questions by decomposing negative affect and positive affect variance across three levels (person, day, moment), and calculating reliability using a coordinated analysis of seven daily diary, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and diary-EMA hybrid studies (across studies age = 18-84 years, total Npersons = 2,103, total Nobservations = 45,065)...
September 9, 2018: Assessment
John P Louis, Alex M Wood, George Lockwood
The factor structure of an initial item pool of 207 positive parenting items was investigated (Manila; n = 520, 538) to develop the Positive Parenting Schema Inventory. Single group and multigroup confirmatory factor analyses of the Positive Parenting Schema Inventory showed invariance of the factor structure in six out of the seven levels on two other independent samples (Eastern, Indonesia; n = 366, 383; Western, the United States; n = 204, 214). Good values for reliability were obtained for its seven subscales (50 items) using coefficient omegas (...
September 7, 2018: Assessment
Stine Lehmann, Sebastien Monette, Helen Egger, Kyrre Breivik, David Young, Claire Davidson, Helen Minnis
The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ( DSM) categorizes reactive attachment disorder (RAD) and disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED) as two separate disorders, and their criteria are revised. For DSED, the core symptoms focus on abnormal social disinhibition, and symptoms regarding lack of selective attachment have been removed. The core symptoms of RAD are the absence of attachment behaviors and emotional dysregulation. In this study, an international team of researchers modified the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment for RAD to update it from DSM-IV to DSM-5 criteria for RAD and DSED...
September 2, 2018: Assessment
Richard B A Coupland, Mark E Olver
The present study featured an investigation of the predictive properties of risk and change scores of two violence risk assessment and treatment planning tools-the Violence Risk Scale (VRS) and the Historical, Clinical, Risk-20, Version 2 (HCR-20)-in sample of 178 treated adult male violent offenders who attended a high-intensity violence reduction program. The cases were rated on the VRS and HCR-20 using archival information sources and followed up nearly 10 years postrelease. Associations of HCR-20 and VRS risk and change scores with postprogram institutional and community recidivism were examined...
September 2, 2018: Assessment
Ashley McBrien, Marcus Wild, Jo-Anne Bachorowski
Social-emotional expertise (SEE) represents a synthesis of specific cognitive abilities related to social interactions, and emphasizes the timing and synchrony of behaviors that contribute to overall social-emotional ability. As a step toward SEE construct validation, we conducted three experiments to develop a self-report measure that captured key elements of our conceptualization of SEE. In Experiment 1, we generated and tested 76 items for a measure of SEE. The resultant 25-item scale is reliable, test-retest: r(80) = ...
August 22, 2018: Assessment
Nóra Bunford, Anne E Dawson, Steven W Evans, A Raisa Ray, Joshua M Langberg, Julie Sarno Owens, George J DuPaul, Darcey M Allan
Emotion dysregulation is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and confers risk for behavior problems and functional impairment; however, there is little guidance on best practices for measurement in adolescents. We developed a parent-report version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS-P). Evidence of reliability and validity was evaluated in a large community online sample (Study 1: n = 978; Mage = 13.52 years; SD = 1.93) and in two samples of adolescents with ADHD (Study 2, Sample 1: n = 78; Mage = 12...
August 16, 2018: Assessment
Andrew Iverson, Brian F French, Paul S Strand, Chad M Gotch, Carl McCurley
Washington state requires school districts to file court petitions on students with excessive unexcused absences resulting in thousands of youth becoming involved in the court system. Once in the system, decisions are made about the level of risk each youth has for maladaptive behaviors. The Washington Assessment of the Risks and Needs of Students was created to assist youth service providers, courts, and schools to identify an adolescent's needs for social, emotional, or educational intervention. However, the profile-based decisions advocated for by test developers lack empirical justification...
December 2018: Assessment
James H Amirkhan
The Stress Overload Scale (SOS) has demonstrated validity in predicting pathological stress reactions; however, at 30 items, it is lengthy for some clinical applications. Here, two studies tested a 10-item SOS-Short (SOS-S). First, the SOS-S was compared with the SOS in a longitudinal community study ( n = 391), using indices of pathology as criterion measures. Results showed the SOS-S to be equivalent to the SOS in reliability and concurrent and predictive validity, although not quite as sensitive to somatic symptoms...
December 2018: Assessment
Mingchun Guo, Alina Morawska, Ania Filus
This study aimed to validate a parent-report measure of child adjustment and parenting efficacy (Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale [CAPES]) in a Chinese cultural context. Six hundred and fifty Chinese parents in China participated in the study and completed a set of questionnaires including the CAPES, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC), and the Parenting and Family Adjustment Scales (PAFAS). The factorial, convergent, and concurrent validity as well as internal consistency were evaluated...
December 2018: Assessment
Kenneth D Locke, Liliane Sayegh, Charlotte Weber, Gustavo Turecki
Severely and persistently depressed outpatients ( n = 138) completed interpersonal circumplex measures of self-efficacy, problems, and values/goals. Compared with normative samples, patients showed deficits in agency: They reported less self-efficacy, especially for being assertive, tough, and influential; stronger goals, especially to avoid conflict or humiliation; and more problems, especially with being too timid, inhibited, and accommodating. Circular and structural summary indices suggested greater variability among patients in goal profiles than in efficacy or problem profiles; nonetheless, latent profile analyses identified coherent subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of efficacy (e...
December 2018: Assessment
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