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Florian Schmitz, Olga Kunina-Habenicht, Andrea Hildebrandt, Klaus Oberauer, Oliver Wilhelm
The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is one of the most prominent paradigms employed for the assessment of risk taking in the laboratory, and it was shown to distinguish between various patient groups and controls. The present study was conducted to test the psychometric characteristics of the original IGT and of a new gambling task variant for assessing individual differences. Two studies were conducted with adults of the general population ( n = 220) and with adolescents ( n = 389). Participants were also tested on multiple measures of working memory capacity, fluid intelligence, personality traits associated with risk-taking behavior, and self-reported risk taking in various domains...
January 1, 2018: Assessment
Muirne C S Paap, Johan Braeken, Geir Pedersen, Øyvind Urnes, Sigmund Karterud, Theresa Wilberg, Benjamin Hummelen
This study aims at evaluating the psychometric properties of the antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) criteria in a large sample of patients, most of whom had one or more personality disorders (PD). PD diagnoses were assessed by experienced clinicians using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Axis II PDs. Analyses were performed within an item response theory framework. Results of the analyses indicated that ASPD is a unidimensional construct that can be measured reliably at the upper range of the latent trait scale...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Steve Balsis, Tabina K Choudhury, Lisa Geraci, Jared F Benge, Christopher J Patrick
Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects neurological, cognitive, and behavioral processes. Thus, to accurately assess this disease, researchers and clinicians need to combine and incorporate data across these domains. This presents not only distinct methodological and statistical challenges but also unique opportunities for the development and advancement of psychometric techniques. In this article, we describe relatively recent research using item response theory (IRT) that has been used to make progress in assessing the disease across its various symptomatic and pathological manifestations...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Adina M Piovesana, Jessica L Harrison, Jacob J Ducat
PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop a motor-free short-form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (WISC-V) that allows clinicians to estimate the Full Scale Intelligence Quotients of youths with motor impairments. METHOD: Using the reliabilities and intercorrelations of six WISC-V motor-free subtests, psychometric methodologies were applied to develop look-up tables for four Motor-free Short-form indices: Verbal Comprehension Short-form, Perceptual Reasoning Short-form, Working Memory Short-form, and a Motor-free Intelligence Quotient...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Ylenio Longo, Veljko Jovanović, Joana Sampaio de Carvalho, Dominika Karaś
The Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) is a widely used scale aimed at assessing three components of well-being: emotional, social, and psychological. The factor structure of the MHC-SF has been under debate over the past 10 years. The main goal of the present study was to examine the dimensionality of the MHC-SF. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), bifactor CFA, exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), and bifactor ESEM were used to evaluate competing models of the MHC-SF structure. The total sample consisted of 7,521 participants from four countries: The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and Serbia...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Jens C Thimm
The Computerized Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder-Static Form (CAT-PD-SF) is a self-report inventory developed to assess pathological personality traits. The current study explored the reliability and higher order factor structure of the Norwegian version of the CAT-PD-SF and the relationships between the CAT-PD traits and domains of personality functioning in an undergraduate student sample ( N = 375). In addition to the CAT-PD-SF, the short form of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems and the Brief Symptom Inventory were administered...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Nathan W Hudson, Ivana Anusic, Richard E Lucas, M Brent Donnellan
Self-report measures of global well-being are thought to reflect the overall quality of people's lives. However, several scholars have argued that people rely on heuristics, such as current mood, when reporting their global well-being. Experiential well-being measures, such as the day reconstruction method (DRM), have been proposed as an alternative technique to obtain a potentially more accurate assessment of well-being. Across two multimethod, short-term longitudinal studies, we compared the psychometric properties of global self-reports and short-form DRM-based assessments of well-being...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Gilles E Gignac, Matthew R Reynolds, Kristof Kovacs
The Digit Span subscale (Digit Span Forward, Backward, and Sequencing combined composite) internal inconsistency reliability has been reported at .93, based on a coefficient known as stratified coefficient alpha. With accessible examples, we demonstrate that stratified coefficient alpha can deviate substantially from a model-based internal consistency reliability that represents an underlying dimension, that is, omega hierarchical. Next, we simulated item-level Digit Span subscale data to correspond very closely to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition normative sample...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Timo Gnambs, Ulrich Schroeders
There is consensus that the 10 items of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) reflect wording effects resulting from positively and negatively keyed items. The present study examined the effects of cognitive abilities on the factor structure of the RSES with a novel, nonparametric latent variable technique called local structural equation models. In a nationally representative German large-scale assessment including 12,437 students competing measurement models for the RSES were compared: a bifactor model with a common factor and a specific factor for all negatively worded items had an optimal fit...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Yo-Ping Huang, Avichandra Singh, Sheng Chen, Fang-Ju Sun, Chiu-Ron Huang, Shen-Ing Liu
This study aimed to develop a psychometrically valid touch screen tablet-based cognitive test battery to identify early cognitive impairment due to dementia in older adults. The battery includes eight tests with 13 subscores, evaluating visual attention, auditory attention, information processing speed, visual memory, motor control, and visuospatial perception. Among the participants, 43 had been diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 36 with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD); 41 had no cognitive impairment...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Bao Sheng Loe, John Rust
The Elithorn perceptual maze test is widely used in clinical research and practice. However, there is little evidence of its psychometric properties, and its application is limited by the technical difficulty of developing more mazes. The current research aims to adopt a rigorous approach to evaluate 18 mazes that were automatically generated by a novel R software package. Various item response theory models were employed to examine the difficulty parameters. The findings suggested that the data best fitted the Rasch model...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Anne E Dawson, Theresa E Egan, Brian T Wymbs
Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impaired in numerous domains. However, psychometrically sound measures assessing broad-ranging impairment, particularly brief scales for diagnostic purposes, are scarce. The Impairment Rating Scale (IRS), originally developed to assess ADHD-related impairment in children, has been adapted to a 12-item self-report measure of impairment in adults. In this study, the psychometric properties of the adult IRS were examined in three samples. In Studies 1 and 2, the adult IRS demonstrated good convergent, divergent, and incremental validity among college students and an online sample of adults, respectively...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Elise M Cardinale, Abigail A Marsh
In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a Limited Prosocial Emotions specifier was added to the conduct disorder diagnostic criteria to designate a subgroup of children who exhibit callous unemotional (CU) traits. The Inventory of Callous Unemotional Traits (ICU) is the only dedicated measure of CU traits and was influential in the development of the Limited Prosocial Emotions specifier. Despite its role in the research and diagnosis of CU traits, some questions have persisted regarding the internal consistency and validity of the ICU and its three subscales: callous, uncaring, and unemotional...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Gerard Flens, Niels Smits, Caroline B Terwee, Joost Dekker, Irma Huijbrechts, Philip Spinhoven, Edwin de Beurs
We used the Dutch-Flemish version of the USA PROMIS adult V1.0 item bank for Anxiety as input for developing a computerized adaptive test (CAT) to measure the entire latent anxiety continuum. First, psychometric analysis of a combined clinical and general population sample ( N = 2,010) showed that the 29-item bank has psychometric properties that are required for a CAT administration. Second, a post hoc CAT simulation showed efficient and highly precise measurement, with an average number of 8.64 items for the clinical sample, and 9...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
Thomas A Fergus, Shawn J Latendresse, Kevin D Wu
A 44-item version of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-44) put forward by the Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group remains the most widely used version of the OBQ, despite research casting doubt on its factorial validity and the existence of a short form (i.e., OBQ-20). In a large sample of undergraduate students ( n = 1,210), a bifactor model of the OBQ-20, consisting of a general factor and four specific factors (threat, responsibility, importance/control of thoughts, perfectionism/certainty), was supported as the best-fitting model...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
David Garcia Nuñez, Soenke Boettger, Rafael Meyer, André Richter, Maria Schubert, David Meagher, Josef Jenewein
OBJECTIVE: Delirium has been characterized into its subtypes-hypoactive, hyperactive, mixed, or no motor subtype-along with the use of the Delirium Motor Symptom Scale (DMSS). The German version of this scale (DMSS-G), however, has not yet been validated. METHOD: We determined internal consistency, reliability, and validity of the DMSS-G in the surgical intensive care unit, using DSM-IV-TR criteria and the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98. RESULTS: In total, 289 patients were included, and out of these, 122 were delirious...
November 1, 2017: Assessment
MengZhen Liu, Gianna Rea-Sandin, Johanna Foerster, Lars Fritsche, Katharine Brieger, Christopher Clark, Kevin Li, Anita Pandit, Gregory Zajac, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Scott Vrieze
Genetic association studies routinely require many thousands of participants to achieve sufficient power, yet accumulation of large well-assessed samples is costly. We describe here an effort to efficiently measure cognitive ability and personality in an online genetic study, Genes for Good. We report on the first 21,550 participants with relevant phenotypic data, 7,458 of whom have been genotyped genome-wide. Measures of crystallized and fluid intelligence reflected a two-dimensional latent ability space, with items demonstrating adequate item-level characteristics...
November 1, 2017: Assessment
Stephanie N Miller, Melanie L Bozzay, Yossef S Ben-Porath, Paul A Arbisi
Suicide occurs at high rates among veterans, underscoring a need for improved identification of veterans at risk of engaging in suicidal behavior. Considering dimensions of psychopathology in the context of an ideation-to-action framework, the present study examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form in distinguishing depressed, psychiatrically hospitalized male veterans ( N = 430) at varying levels of suicide risk. Analysis of variance and hierarchical logistic regression analyses indicated that internalizing scales differentiated depressed ideators ( n = 147) and depressed controls ( n = 143); and in line with expectations, both broad and narrowly focused externalizing scales provided incremental validity in distinguishing depressed attempters ( n = 140) from depressed ideators...
November 1, 2017: Assessment
Zhiyong Huang, Jürgen Maurer
Memory self-ratings are often used in primary care practice and social surveys due to its relative ease of administration. Yet their usefulness to accurately measure individuals' memory-related cognitive function is largely unknown. This article assesses the construct validity of self-rated memory for measuring memory-related cognitive function among middle-aged and older adults (45+ years) in China using a national sample ( N = 13,690) from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. We first compare self-rated memory with a number of well-established memory tests and then investigate the role of sociodemographic factors in determining self-reports conditional on memory test performance...
November 1, 2017: Assessment
Brooke E Magnus, Michael T Willoughby, Clancy B Blair, Laura J Kuhn
Efforts to improve children's executive function are often hampered by the lack of measures that are optimized for use during the transition from preschool to elementary school. Whereas preschool-based measures often emphasize response accuracy, elementary school-based measures emphasize reaction time (RT)-especially for measures inhibitory control (IC) tasks that typically have a speeded component. The primary objective of this study was to test in a preschool-aged sample whether the joint use of item-level accuracy and RT data resulted in improved scoring for three IC tasks relative to scores derived from accuracy data alone...
November 1, 2017: Assessment
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