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Paul S Strand, Chad M Gotch, Brian F French, Jessica L Beaver
The Washington Assessment of Risks and Needs of Students is a youth self-report screening instrument developed for use by high school and juvenile court personnel faced with the legal and practical challenges of high truancy and dropout rates. It purports to measure six facets of risks and needs of youth relevant to improving school outcomes. In this study, a bifactor model measuring a general factor and six specific factors was examined for fit and invariance across different groups defined by sex and race/ethnicity, with a sample of court-petitioned high school students ( N = 937; ages 13-17 years)...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Patrick J Cruitt, Thomas F Oltmanns
Research shows moderate agreement between different sources of information when assessing personality disorders (PDs) in older adults. The differences between measurement methods appear to be not only the result of measurement error, but also an indication that each source holds nonredundant information relevant to PD diagnosis. The current article examines three sources of diagnostic information (self-report, informant report, and clinical interview) and the utility of these instruments in predicting important outcomes in older adulthood...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Evan M Lowder, Sarah L Desmarais, Candalyn B Rade, Kiersten L Johnson, Richard A Van Dorn
Risk assessment instruments are increasingly used in mental health jail diversion programs. This study examined the reliability and validity of Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) and Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) assessments overall and by client race. Research assistants completed START and LSI-R assessments for 95 diversion clients. Arrests and jail days were collected via official records and self-report 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after baseline. Assessments demonstrated good interrater reliability and convergent validity...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Byron L Zamboanga, Shannon Audley, Janine V Olthuis, Heidemarie Blumenthal, Cara C Tomaso, Ngoc Bui, Brian Borsari
Playing drinking games can be characterized as a high-risk drinking activity because games are typically designed to promote heavy alcohol consumption. While research suggests that young adults are motivated to play drinking games for a variety of reasons (e.g., for thrills/fun, for the competition), the Motives for Playing Drinking Games measure has received limited empirical attention. We examined the psychometric properties of this measure with a confirmation sample of young adults recruited from Amazon's MTurk ( N = 1,809, ages 18-25 years, 47% men; 41% not currently enrolled in college) and a validation sample of college students ( N = 671; ages 18-23 years; 26% men)...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Christopher T A Gillen, Emily A M MacDougall, Adelle E Forth, Christopher T Barry, Randall T Salekin
The current study examined the reliability and validity of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version (YPI-S) in two different samples of at-risk adolescents enrolled in a residential program ( n = 160) and at a detention facility ( n = 60) in the United States. YPI-S scores displayed adequate internal consistency and were moderately associated with concurrent scales on other self-report psychopathy measures and externalizing behaviors. YPI-S scores were moderately related to interviewer-ratings of the construct using the four-factor model of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Kenneth G Rice, Philip B Gnilka, Don E Davis, Jeffrey S Ashby
We examine the conceptual and empirical merits of concerns Flett et al. recently raised about the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R), specifically that items on the APS-R Discrepancy should be separated into a "Pure" Discrepancy factor and a Dissatisfaction factor. Limitations in the logic and findings of that critique are summarized. We replicate and extend Flett et al.'s study with results from two samples: (a) college freshmen STEM students ( N = 279) and (b) doctoral students in a national sample ( N = 529)...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Björn N Persson, Petri J Kajonius, Danilo Garcia
In the past decade, extensive interest has been directed toward the Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy), popularly assessed by the Short Dark Triad (SD3). Nevertheless, relatively little research has been conducted on the SD3's factor structure. We investigated the SD3's psychometric properties in three studies with three independent samples, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses ( N1 = 1,487; N2 = 17,740; N3 = 496). In all three studies, Machiavellianism and psychopathy items displayed large general factor loadings, and narcissism larger specific factor loadings...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Kelsie T Forbush, Lindsay A Hilderbrand, Brittany K Bohrer, Danielle A N Chapa
Approximately 10% to 30% of individuals with eating disorders (EDs) are male, yet because measures often have not been tested among male participants, it is unclear whether the psychometric properties of ED measures are equivalent between sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare the test-retest reliability of common ED measures in men versus women. Participants ( N = 227; 58.1% female) completed self-report measures of body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, disinhibited eating, bulimic symptoms, and desire-for-muscularity at baseline and 2-to-4 weeks later...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Andreas M Krafft, Charles Martin-Krumm, Fabien Fenouillet
Against the background of different psychological conceptualizations of hope, this article elaborates and validates a measure to assess hope as perceived by the general public adapting it from the hope and optimism subscale of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Spirituality, Religion and Personal Beliefs Questionnaire. The results presented here are part of a yearly Internet-based cross-sectional survey in Germany and Switzerland called Hope-Barometer, from which 4 samples of 3 different years with about 17,500 participants have been used...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
Doreen Bensch, Delroy L Paulhus, Lazar Stankov, Matthias Ziegler
Contamination with positivity bias is a potential problem in virtually all areas of psychological assessment. To determine the impact of positivity bias, one common approach is to embed special indicators within one's assessment battery. Such tools range from social desirability scales to overconfidence measures to the so-called overclaiming technique. Despite the large literature on these different approaches and underlying theoretical notions, little is known about the overall nomological network-in particular, the degree to which these constructs overlap...
March 1, 2017: Assessment
Donald Sharpe, Jesse McElheran, William J Whelton
While some researchers contend that hope is unidimensional, other researchers regard hope to be multidimensional. Schrank, Woppmann, Sibitz, and Lauber's exploratory factor analysis of their Integrative Hope Scale (IHS) found subscales of Trust, Future Orientation, Social Relations, and Lack of Perspective. However, subsequent articles have utilized only the total IHS score. To resolve this issue, a community sample of 288 participants completed the IHS as well as two measures of hedonic well-being (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; Temporal Satisfaction With Life Scale), a measure of eudemonic well-being (Measure of Actualization of Potential), and a measure of time orientation (the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory)...
March 1, 2017: Assessment
Lauren E Szkodny, Michelle G Newman
Worry, rumination, and obsessive thinking are theorized to differ on temporal orientation, positive perceived function, degree of intrusiveness, and discordance with one's self-concept. However, prior findings with respect to such differences may be due to method variance of the measures used and/or inclusion of items confounded by diagnostic symptoms. Accurately capturing differences between types of perseverative thought linked to psychopathology and understanding whether such aspects are common across disorders or specific to some may be important to designing effective treatments for them...
March 1, 2017: Assessment
Kateryna V Keefer, Graeme J Taylor, James D A Parker, R Michael Bagby
Alexithymia is a clinically relevant personality construct characterized by difficulties identifying and describing feelings, externally oriented thinking, and impoverished imaginal processes. Previous taxometric investigations provided evidence that alexithymia is best conceptualized as a continuous dimension rather than a discrete type, at least when assessed with the self-report 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The aim of the current study was to test the categorical versus dimensional structure of alexithymia using the recently developed Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia...
March 1, 2017: Assessment
Margaret H Sibley, Mileini Campez, Joseph S Raiker
Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) underreport symptoms compared with informants and objective measures. This study applied enhanced statistical methodology (polynomial regression) to the study of ADHD self-reporting to clarify what contributes to symptom underreporting by adolescents with ADHD ( N = 107; ages = 11-15 years). Polynomial regression models were conducted to test competing hypotheses about the nature of self-reporting problems. Traditional difference score models were nested within polynomial regression models to examine how modeling strategy influences results...
February 1, 2017: Assessment
Johannes Baltasar Hessler, David Brieber, Johanna Egle, Georg Mandler, Thomas Jahn
The construction of the German Auditory Wordlist Learning Test (AWLT) for the assessment of verbal memory in late-life cognitive decline was guided by psycholinguistic evidence, which indicates that a word's linguistic characteristics influence its probability of being learned and recalled. The AWLT includes four trials of learning, short and long delayed free recall, and a recognition task. Its words were selected with taking into account their semantic content, orthographic length, frequency in the language, and orthographic neighborhood size (the number of words derived by adding, subtracting, or replacing a single letter at a time)...
February 1, 2017: Assessment
Ineke Demeyer, Nuria Romero, Rudi De Raedt
The interplay between actual and ideal self-esteem may be a key component in emotional disorders. Since automatic self-evaluations are not always consciously accessible, assessment through implicit measures is necessary. Given the lack of implicit self-esteem measures in late life, we aimed to identify a reliable measure and to clarify the role of actual and ideal self-esteem in mood and depressive symptoms in older adults. Forty-nine older adults completed two adapted Go/No go Association tasks measuring implicit actual and ideal self-esteem and measures of mood and depressive symptoms...
February 1, 2017: Assessment
Michelle M Martel, Joel T Nigg, Ulrich Schimmack
Although Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth edition requires that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are apparent across settings, assessed by multiple informants, there remains no standardized approach to integration of multiple sources in adult ADHD diagnosis. The goal of the study was to evaluate informant effects on adult ADHD symptom ratings. Participants were 406 adults, ages 18 to 37, and identified second reporters, recruited from the community, and completing a comprehensive diagnostic and cognitive assessment, including a clinician-administered diagnostic interview and self- and other-report questionnaires of ADHD symptoms...
April 2017: Assessment
Jason M Lavender, Matthew T Tull, David DiLillo, Terri Messman-Moore, Kim L Gratz
Existing measures of emotion dysregulation typically assess dispositional tendencies and are therefore not well suited for study designs that require repeated assessments over brief intervals. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a state-based multidimensional measure of emotion dysregulation. Psychometric properties of the State Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (S-DERS) were examined in a large representative community sample of young adult women drawn from four sites ( N = 484). Exploratory factor analysis suggested a four-factor solution, with results supporting the internal consistency, construct validity, and predictive validity of the total scale and the four subscales: Nonacceptance (i...
March 2017: Assessment
Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, Michael L Thomas, Gregory G Brown, Matthew K Nock, Adam P Savitt, John G Keilp, Steven Heeringa, Robert J Ursano, Murray B Stein
The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) is a research project aimed at identifying risk and protective factors for suicide and related mental health outcomes among Army Soldiers. The New Soldier Study component of Army STARRS included the assessment of a range of cognitive- and emotion-processing domains linked to brain systems related to suicidal behavior including posttraumatic stress disorder, mood disorders, substance use disorders, and impulsivity. We describe the design and application of the Army STARRS neurocognitive test battery to a sample of 56,824 soldiers...
January 1, 2017: Assessment
Jennifer C Veilleux, Garrett A Pollert, Melissa J Zielinski, Jennifer A Shaver, Morgan A Hill
The current behavioral tasks assessing distress tolerance measure tolerance to frustration and tolerance to physical discomfort, but do not explicitly assess tolerance to negative emotion. We closely evaluated the conceptual distinctions between current behavioral tasks and self-report tasks assessing distress tolerance, and then developed a new behavioral distress tolerance task called the Emotional Image Tolerance (EIT) task. The EIT task retains elements of existing behavioral tasks (e.g., indices of persistence) while augmenting the reliability and content sufficiency of existing measures by including multiple trials, including a variety of negative affect stimuli, and separating overall task persistence from task persistence after onset of distress...
January 1, 2017: Assessment
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