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Sally Richmond, Orli Schwartz, Katherine A Johnson, Marc L Seal, Katherine Bray, Camille Deane, Lisa B Sheeber, Nicholas B Allen, Sarah Whittle
The majority of studies using observational coding systems for family interaction data derive scales describing family members' behaviors based on rational/theoretical approaches. This study explored an empirical approach to identifying the component structure of parent-child observational data that incorporated the affective context of the interaction. Dyads of 155 typically developing 8-year-olds and their mothers completed questionnaires and two interaction tasks, one each designed to illicit positive and negative interactions...
September 15, 2018: Assessment
Christopher J Hopwood, Alana L Harrison, Marlissa Amole, Jeffrey M Girard, Aidan G C Wright, Katherine M Thomas, Pamela Sadler, Emily B Ansell, Tara M Chaplin, Leslie C Morey, Michael J Crowley, C Emily Durbin, Deborah A Kashy
The Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics (CAID) is a method in which trained observers continuously code the dominance and warmth of individuals who interact with one another in dyads. This method has significant promise for assessing dynamic interpersonal processes. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of individual sex, dyadic familiarity, and situational conflict on patterns of interpersonal warmth, dominance, and complementarity as assessed via CAID. We used six samples with 603 dyads, including two samples of unacquainted mixed-sex undergraduates interacting in a collaborative task, two samples of couples interacting in both collaborative and conflict tasks, and two samples of mothers and children interacting in both collaborative and conflict tasks...
September 15, 2018: Assessment
Eszter Szemenyei, Melinda Reinhardt, Edina Szabó, Krisztina-Gabriella Szabó, Róbert Urbán, Shane T Harvey, Antony Morgan, Zsolt Demetrovics, Gyöngyi Kökönyei
The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y8) was developed to measure psychological inflexibility. Although the questionnaire is a well-known tool in clinical practice, its psychometric properties have not been widely investigated in the target population of children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure and validity of the AFQ-Y8 ( N = 1,572, mean age 15.39 years, girls 51%) on a Hungarian sample. We also tested the invariance of the measurement model across two age groups (11-14 and 15-20 years old)...
September 9, 2018: Assessment
Mario Lawes, Martin Schultze, Michael Eid
Planned missing data (PMD) designs are an elegant way to incorporate expensive gold standard methods (e.g., biomarker) and cheaper but systematically biased methods (e.g., questionnaires) in research designs while ensuring high statistical power and low research costs. This article outlines a PMD design with one expensive gold standard and two cheap but biased methods (three-method measurement [3-MM] design). The cost effectiveness of different 3-MM-PMD designs is investigated and compared with the cost effectiveness of corresponding same-price two-method measurement designs using a simulation study...
September 9, 2018: Assessment
Stacey B Scott, Martin J Sliwinski, Matthew Zawadzki, Robert S Stawski, Jinhyuk Kim, David Marcusson-Clavertz, Stephanie T Lanza, David E Conroy, Orfeu Buxton, David M Almeida, Joshua M Smyth
Despite widespread interest in variance in affect, basic questions remain pertaining to the relative proportions of between-person and within-person variance, the contribution of days and moments, and the reliability of these estimates. We addressed these questions by decomposing negative affect and positive affect variance across three levels (person, day, moment), and calculating reliability using a coordinated analysis of seven daily diary, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and diary-EMA hybrid studies (across studies age = 18-84 years, total Npersons = 2,103, total Nobservations = 45,065)...
September 9, 2018: Assessment
John P Louis, Alex M Wood, George Lockwood
The factor structure of an initial item pool of 207 positive parenting items was investigated (Manila; n = 520, 538) to develop the Positive Parenting Schema Inventory. Single group and multigroup confirmatory factor analyses of the Positive Parenting Schema Inventory showed invariance of the factor structure in six out of the seven levels on two other independent samples (Eastern, Indonesia; n = 366, 383; Western, the United States; n = 204, 214). Good values for reliability were obtained for its seven subscales (50 items) using coefficient omegas (...
September 7, 2018: Assessment
Stine Lehmann, Sebastien Monette, Helen Egger, Kyrre Breivik, David Young, Claire Davidson, Helen Minnis
The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ( DSM) categorizes reactive attachment disorder (RAD) and disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED) as two separate disorders, and their criteria are revised. For DSED, the core symptoms focus on abnormal social disinhibition, and symptoms regarding lack of selective attachment have been removed. The core symptoms of RAD are the absence of attachment behaviors and emotional dysregulation. In this study, an international team of researchers modified the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment for RAD to update it from DSM-IV to DSM-5 criteria for RAD and DSED...
September 2, 2018: Assessment
Richard B A Coupland, Mark E Olver
The present study featured an investigation of the predictive properties of risk and change scores of two violence risk assessment and treatment planning tools-the Violence Risk Scale (VRS) and the Historical, Clinical, Risk-20, Version 2 (HCR-20)-in sample of 178 treated adult male violent offenders who attended a high-intensity violence reduction program. The cases were rated on the VRS and HCR-20 using archival information sources and followed up nearly 10 years postrelease. Associations of HCR-20 and VRS risk and change scores with postprogram institutional and community recidivism were examined...
September 2, 2018: Assessment
Ashley McBrien, Marcus Wild, Jo-Anne Bachorowski
Social-emotional expertise (SEE) represents a synthesis of specific cognitive abilities related to social interactions, and emphasizes the timing and synchrony of behaviors that contribute to overall social-emotional ability. As a step toward SEE construct validation, we conducted three experiments to develop a self-report measure that captured key elements of our conceptualization of SEE. In Experiment 1, we generated and tested 76 items for a measure of SEE. The resultant 25-item scale is reliable, test-retest: r(80) = ...
August 22, 2018: Assessment
Nóra Bunford, Anne E Dawson, Steven W Evans, A Raisa Ray, Joshua M Langberg, Julie Sarno Owens, George J DuPaul, Darcey M Allan
Emotion dysregulation is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and confers risk for behavior problems and functional impairment; however, there is little guidance on best practices for measurement in adolescents. We developed a parent-report version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS-P). Evidence of reliability and validity was evaluated in a large community online sample (Study 1: n = 978; Mage = 13.52 years; SD = 1.93) and in two samples of adolescents with ADHD (Study 2, Sample 1: n = 78; Mage = 12...
August 16, 2018: Assessment
Daniel B Charek, Gregory J Meyer, Joni L Mihura, Emily T O'Gorman
We examined associations among cognitive processing measures that varied on a continuum from maximum to typical performance tasks in the context of an ego depletion study. Our intent was to replicate and extend the findings of Charek, Meyer, and Mihura, which showed that ego depletion had an expected effect on selected scores from the Rorschach inkblot task. We hypothesized that Rorschach variables indicative of cognitive sophistication would correlate with neuropsychological measures of cognitive ability and that Rorschach variables theoretically unassociated with cognitive processing would not correlate with those criterion measures...
August 12, 2018: Assessment
Gabriel Lins de Holanda Coelho, Paul H P Hanel, Lukas J Wolf
The need for cognition refers to people's tendency to engage in and enjoy thinking and has become influential across social and medical sciences. Using three samples from the United States and the United Kingdom ( N = 1,596), we introduce a six-item short version of the Need for Cognition Scale (NCS-18). First, we reduced the number of items from 18 to 6 based on the items' discrimination values, threshold levels, measurement precision (item information curve), item-total correlations, and factor loadings. Second, we confirmed the one-factor structure and established measurement invariance across countries and gender...
August 10, 2018: Assessment
Albert D Farrell, Erin L Thompson, Krista R Mehari, Terri N Sullivan, Elizabeth A Goncy
This study evaluated the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Adolescent Report (PBFS-AR), a measure designed to assess adolescents' frequency of victimization, aggression, substance use, and delinquent behavior. Participants were 1,263 students (50% female; 78% African American, 18% Latino) from three urban middle schools in the United States. Confirmatory factor analyses of competing models of the structure of the PBFS-AR supported a model that differentiated among three forms of aggression (in-person physical, in-person relational, and cyber), two forms of victimization (in-person and cyber), substance use, and delinquent behavior...
August 3, 2018: Assessment
Michael B Madson, Joshua W Schutts, Hallie R Jordan, Margo C Villarosa-Hurlocker, Robert B Whitley, Richard S Mohn
The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is the gold standard screening measure. Recently, there has been increasing call to update the measure to reflect harmful drinking standards in the United States. The purpose of this study was to use receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to evaluate the AUDIT and the United States version (AUDIT-US). Participants were 382 traditional age ( M = 20.2, SD = 1.5) college students (68.7% female, 64.9% White) who had consumed alcohol at least once in the 30 days prior to participating...
August 1, 2018: Assessment
Daniel J Lee, Johanna Thompson-Hollands, Michele F Strage, Brian P Marx, William Unger, J Gayle Beck, Denise M Sloan
The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire-Short form (CERQ-Short; Garnefski & Kraaij, 2006) was developed to assess nine theoretically derived factors of emotion regulation. However, the psychometric properties of this measure have never been studied in a clinical sample. The present study examined the latent factor structure and construct validity of the CERQ-Short in two samples presenting for posttraumatic stress disorder treatment ( N = 480). Results indicated that a six-factor solution, rather than the proposed nine factors, was the best-fitting measurement model...
July 25, 2018: Assessment
Sara M Stasik-O'Brien, Rebecca L Brock, Michael Chmielewski, Kristin Naragon-Gainey, Erin Koffel, Elizabeth McDade-Montez, Michael W O'Hara, David Watson
Depressive and anxiety disorders are severe and disabling conditions that result in substantial cost and global societal burden. Accurate and efficient identification is thus vital to proper diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. The Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS) is a reliable and well-validated measure that provides dimensional assessment of both mood and anxiety disorder symptoms. The current study examined the clinical utility of the IDAS by establishing diagnostic cutoff scores and severity ranges using a large mixed sample ( N = 5,750)...
July 25, 2018: Assessment
Mian-Li Ong, Lillian Reuman, Eric A Youngstrom, Jonathan S Abramowitz
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the diagnostic efficiency and clinical utility of the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS) and subscales for distinguishing obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from anxiety disorders (ADs). METHOD: A total of 369 participants (167 male, Mage = 29.61 years) diagnosed with DSM-IV OCD or AD, recruited from specialty clinics across the United States, completed clinical interviews and self-report questionnaires, including the DOCS...
July 25, 2018: Assessment
Jala Rizeq, David B Flora, Doug McCann
The Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40) is commonly used in clinical research to index history of childhood maltreatment and assess complex trauma symptomatology in adults. Yet the dimensional structure of this measure has not been examined. We examined the factor structure of the TSC-40 in a sample of 706 undergraduate students, measurement invariance of the TSC-40 across groups with or without a history of abuse-related and multiple trauma, and the association between the TSC-40 and other trauma indices...
July 25, 2018: Assessment
Travis A Rogers, Joseph R Bardeen, Thomas A Fergus, Natasha Benfer
The Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS) is a self-report measure of perceived capacity to withstand aversive emotions. Initial factor analysis of this measure suggested a structure comprising one higher-order factor and four lower-order domain-specific factors. However, there is limited evidence in support of the DTS's purported multidimensionality, and despite use of the DTS subscales, research has yet to assess their incremental utility. The current investigation sought to rectify the paucity of evidence in support of the DTS's factor structure and independent use of DTS subscales via bifactor analysis...
July 1, 2018: Assessment
Gilles E Gignac, Ka Ki Wong
The purpose of this investigation was to examine a single-anagram, a double-anagram, and multi-anagram versions of the Anagram Persistence Task (APT) for factorial validity, reliability, and convergent validity. Additionally, a battery of intelligence tests was administered to examine convergent validity. Based on an unrestricted factor analysis, two factors were uncovered from the 14 anagram (seven very difficult and seven very easy) response times: test-taking persistence and verbal processing speed. The internal consistency reliabilities for the single-anagram, double-anagram, and multi-anagram (seven difficult anagrams) measures were ...
July 1, 2018: Assessment
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