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Plant & Cell Physiology

Shuhei Hao, Tohru Ariizumi, Hiroshi Ezura
Gametogenesis is a key step in the production of ovules or pollen in higher plants. The molecular aspects of gametogenesis are well characterized in the model plant Arabidopsis; however, little information is known in tomato, which is a model plant for fleshy fruit development. In this study, we characterized a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) γ-ray mutant, sexual sterility (Slses), that exhibited both male and female sterility. Morphological analysis revealed that the Slses mutant forms incomplete ovules and wilted anthers devoid of pollen grains at the anthesis stage...
January 12, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yoon Kim, Ji-Hye Song, Seon-U Park, You-Seung Jeong, Soo-Hwan Kim
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant polyhydroxy-steroids that play important roles in plant growth and development via extensive signal integration through direct interactions between regulatory components of different signaling pathways. Recent studies have shown that diverse helix-loop-helix/basic helix-loop-helix (HLH/bHLH) family proteins are actively involved in control of BR signaling pathways and interact with other signaling pathways. In this study, we show that ATBS1-INTERACTING FACTOR 2 (AIF2), a nuclear-localized atypical bHLH transcription factor, specifically interacts with BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2) among other BR-signaling molecules...
January 9, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Anuradha Singh, Endang M Septiningsih, Harendra S Balyan, Nagendra K Singh, Vandna Rai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Atsushi Kurotani, Yutaka Yamada, Tetsuya Sakurai
Algae are smaller organisms than land plants and offer clear advantages in research over terrestrial species in terms of rapid production, short generation time, and varied commercial applications. Thus, studies investigating the practical development of effective algal production are important and will improve our understanding of both, aquatic and terrestrial plants. In this study, we estimated multiple physicochemical and secondary structural properties of protein sequences, the predicted presence of post-translational modification (PTM) sites, and subcellular localization using a total of 510,123 protein sequences from the proteomes of 31 algae and three plant species...
January 9, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Atsushi Seta, Midori Tabara, Yuki Nishibori, Akihiro Hiraguri, Naoko Ohkama-Ohtsu, Tadashi Yokoyama, Satoshi Hara, Keisuke Yoshida, Toru Hisabori, Akihito Fukudome, Hisashi Koiwa, Hiromitsu Moriyama, Nobuhiro Takahashi, Toshiyuki Fukuhara
In Arabidopsis thaliana, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) generated by two Dicer isoforms, DCL3 and DCL4, function in distinct epigenetic processes, i.e., RNA-directed DNA methylation and post-transcriptional gene silencing, respectively. Plants often respond to their environment by producing a distinct set of small RNAs; however, the mechanism for controlling the production of different siRNAs from the same dsRNA substrate remains unclear. We established a simple biochemical method to visualize the dsRNA-cleaving activities of DCL3 and DCL4 in cell-free extracts prepared from Arabidopsis seedlings...
January 9, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Xianli Yang, Aizi Tong, Bowen Yan, Xiaoxue Wang
Polycomb group proteins form multiple protein complexes such as polycomb repressive complex (PRC) 1 and PRC2, which repress the expression of thousands of genes. PRC1 and PRC2 are essential for normal development in Arabidopsis Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding the functions and regulatory mechanisms of PRC1. In this review, we focus on the discovery of the composition of PRC1, functions of its components, the recruitment of PRC1 to target genes, and the control of PRC1 function in Arabidopsis Perspectives on dissecting the roles of PRC1 in plant gene expression and development are also given...
January 9, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Lanzhen Wei, Jing Yi, Lianjun Wang, Tingting Huang, Fudan Gao, Quanxi Wang, Weimin Ma
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga that can use light energy to produce H2 from H2O in the background of NaHSO3 treatment. However, the role of light intensity in such H2 production remains elusive. Here, light intensity significantly affected the yield of H2 production in NaHSO3-treated C. reinhardtii, which was consistent with its effects on the content of O2 and the expression and activity of hydrogenase. Further, NaHSO3 was found to be able to remove O2 via a reaction of bisulfite with superoxide anion produced at the acceptor side of PSI, and light intensity affected the reaction rate significantly...
January 7, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Bin Bai, Hongwu Bian, Zhanghui Zeng, Ning Hou, Bo Shi, Junhui Wang, Muyuan Zhu, Ning Han
High-throughput small RNA sequencing has identified several potential aluminum (Al)-responsive microRNAs (miRNAs); however, their regulatory role remains unknown. Here, we identified two miR393 family members in barley, and confirmed two target genes-HvTIR1 and HvAFB-through a modified form of 5'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) as well as degradome data analysis. Furthermore, we investigated the biological function of the miR393/target module in root development and its Al stress response. The investigation showed that miR393 affected root growth and adventitious root number by altering auxin sensitivity...
January 7, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Mitsuko Kishi-Kaboshi, Ryutaro Aida, Katsutomo Sasaki
The most widely used gene editing technology-the CRISPR/Cas9 system-employs a bacterial monomeric DNA endonuclease known as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) and single-guide RNA (sgRNA) that directs Cas9 to a complementary target DNA. However, introducing mutations into higher polyploid plant species, especially for species without genome information, has been difficult. Chrysanthemum morifolium (chrysanthemum) is one of the most important ornamental plants, but it is a hexaploid with a large genome; moreover, it lacks whole genome information...
January 3, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Mi Zhang, Jian-Yan Zeng, Hui Long, Yue-Hua Xiao, Xing-Ying Yan, Yan Pei
Cotton fibers are seed trichomes that make cotton unique compared with other plants. At anthesis, IAA, a major auxin in plants, accumulates in the fiber cell to promote cell initiation. However, many important aspects of this process are not clear. Here, auxin distribution patterns indicated by auxin-dependent DR5::GUS (β-glucuronidase) expression in cotton ovules were studied during fiber cell differentiation and cell initiation [-2 to 2 DPA (days post-anthesis)]. The nucellus and fiber cell were two major sites where auxin accumulates...
December 29, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Chin-Jit Teo, Kenta Takahashi, Kanae Shimizu, Ko Shimamoto, Ken-Ichiro Taoka
Photoperiod-regulated flowering and potato tuber formation involve leaf-produced mobile signals, florigen and tuberigen, respectively. The major protein component of florigen has been identified as the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein. In rice, an FT-like protein, Heading date 3a (Hd3a), induces flowering by making the florigen activation complex (FAC) through interactions with 14-3-3 and OsFD1, a rice FD-like protein. In potato, StSP6A, an FT-like protein, was identified as a major component of tuberigen. However, the molecular mechanism of how StSP6A triggers tuber formation remains elusive...
December 27, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yuki Sugimoto, Hiroshi Nakamura, Shukun Ren, Koichi Hori, Shinji Masuda
The Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 can move on a solid surface in response to light, a phenomenon called phototaxis. Although many of the photoreceptors involved in phototaxis have been identified, the mechanisms that regulate directional motility of Synechocystis are not well understood. Previous studies showed that a mutant lacking the blue light-using flavin (BLUF) photoreceptor PixD exhibits negative phototaxis under conditions where wild type responds positively. PixD interacts with the pseudo-response regulator-like protein PixE in a light-dependent manner, suggesting that this intermolecular interaction is important for phototaxis regulation, although genetic evidence has been absent...
December 27, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Micael Wendell, Linda Ripel, YeonKyeong Lee, Odd Arne Rognli, Sissel Torre, Jorunn E Olsen
Thermoperiodism is defined as the ability to discriminate between day (DT) and night temperature (NT). Our aim was to shed light on the mechanistic basis of thermoperiodic floral induction with acceleration under lower DT than NT compared to other DT-NT-combinations at the same average daily temperature (ADT), a response exploited in temperate area greenhouses. Arabidopsis thaliana floral pathway mutants and a lhy circadian clock mutant as well as the expression of floral integrators and LHY were studied under different DT-NT-combinations, all at the same ADT...
December 27, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yukari Masuta, Kosuke Nozawa, Hiroki Takagi, Hiroki Yaegashi, Keisuke Tanaka, Tasuku Ito, Hideyuki Saito, Hisato Kobayashi, Wataru Matsunaga, Seiji Masuda, Atsushi Kato, Hidetaka Ito
A transposition of a heat-activated retrotransposon named ONSEN required compromise of a small RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation that includes RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) machinery after heat treatment. In the current study, we analyzed the transcriptional and transpositional activation of ONSEN to better understand the underlying molecular mechanism involved in the maintenance and/or induction of transposon activation in plant tissue culture. We found the transposition of heat-primed ONSEN during tissue culture independently of RdDM mutation...
December 23, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Vivek Krishnakumar, Sergio Contrino, Chia-Yi Cheng, Irina Belyaeva, Erik S Ferlanti, Jason R Miller, Matthew W Vaughn, Gos Micklem, Christopher D Town, Agnes P Chan
ThaleMine ( is a comprehensive data warehouse that integrates a wide array of genomic information of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana The data collection currently includes the latest structural and functional annotation from the Araport11 update, the Col-0 genome sequence, RNA-seq and array expression, co-expression, protein interactions, homologs, pathways, publications, alleles, germplasm and phenotypes. The data are collected from a wide variety of public resources...
December 23, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Nils Kleinboelting, Gunnar Huep, Bernd Weisshaar
SimpleSearch provides access to a database containing information about T-DNA insertion lines of the GABI-Kat collection of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. These mutants are an important tool for reverse genetics, and GABI-Kat is the 2(nd) largest collection of such T-DNA insertion mutants. Insertion sites were deduced from flanking sequence tags (FSTs), and the database contains information about mutant plant lines as well as insertion alleles. Here, we describe improvements within the interface (available at http://www...
December 23, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Silvia Fornalé, Jorge Rencoret, Laura García-Calvo, Antonio Encina, Joan Rigau, Ana Gutiérrez, José Carlos Del Río, David Caparros-Ruiz
Caffeoyl Coenzyme A 3-O-Methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) and Caffeic acid-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols, the precursors of guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) lignin subunits. The function of these enzymes was characterised in single and double mutant maize plants. In this work, we determined that the comt (brown-midrib 3) mutant plants display a reduction of the flavonolignin unit derived from tricin (a dimethylated flavone), demonstrating that COMT is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of this compound...
December 23, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Hiroki Ooeda, Ichiro Terashima, Haruhiko Taneda
Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanism preventing the refilling vessel water from being drained to the neighboring functional vessels under negative pressure. The pit-membrane-osmosis hypothesis proposes that the xylem parenchyma cells release polysaccharides that are impermeable to the intervessel pit membranes into the refilling vessel; this osmotically counter-acts the negative pressure, thereby allowing the vessel to refill. The pit-valve hypothesis proposes that gas trapped within intervessel bordered pits isolates the refilling vessel water from the surrounding functional vessels...
December 23, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Pichang Gong, Xiang Ao, Gaixiu Liu, Fangyun Cheng, Chaoying He
Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora) is a globally important ornamental plant. Spontaneous floral mutations occur frequently during cultivation, and are selected as a way to release new cultivars, but the underlying evolutionary developmental genetics remain largely elusive. Here, we investigated a collection of spontaneous corolla mutational plants (SCMP) whose other floral organs were virtually unaffected. Unlike the corolla in normal plants (NP) that withered soon after fertilization, the transformed corolla (petals) in SCMP was greenish and persistent similar to the calyx (sepals)...
December 23, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yukino Nakamura, Toru Kudo, Shin Terashima, Misa Saito, Eiji Nambara, Kentaro Yano
For proper control of biological activity, some key genes are highly expressed in a particular spatiotemporal domain. Mining of such spatiotemporally expressed genes using large-scale gene expression data derived from a broad range of experimental sources facilitates our understanding of genome-scale functional gene networks. However, comprehensive information on spatiotemporally expressed genes is lacking in plants. To collect such information, we devised a new index, δdmax, which is the maximum difference in relative gene expression levels between sample runs which are neighboring when sorted by the levels...
December 23, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
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