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Plant & Cell Physiology

Guoxiang Jiang, Huiling Yan, Fuwang Wu, Dandan Zhang, Wei Zeng, Hongxia Qu, Feng Chen, Li Tan, Xuewu Duan, Yueming Jiang
Senescence is a key factor resulting in deterioration of non-climacteric fruit. NAC transcription factors are important regulators in plant development and abiotic stress responses, yet little information regarding the role of NACs in regulating non-climacteric fruit senescence is available. In this study, we cloned 13 NAC genes from litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit, and analyzed subcellular localization and expression profiles of these genes during postharvest natural and low-temperature-delayed senescence...
April 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Jonathon Roepke, Harley O W Gordon, Kevin J A Neil, Satinder Gidda, Robert T Mullen, José A Freixas Coutin, Delaney Bray-Stone, Gale G Bozzo
Flavonol bisglycosides accumulate in plant vegetative tissues in response to abiotic stress, including simultaneous environmental perturbations (i.e., nitrogen deficiency and low temperature, NDLT), but disappear with recovery from NDLT. Previously, we determined that a recombinant Arabidopsis β-glucosidase (BGLU), BGLU15, hydrolyzes flavonol 3-O-β-glucoside-7-O-α-rhamnosides and flavonol 3-O-β-glucosides, forming flavonol 7-O-α-rhamnosides and flavonol aglycones, respectively. In this study, the transient expression of a BGLU15-Cherry fusion protein in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that BGLU15 was localized to the apoplast...
April 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Cornelia Fischer, Thomas A DeFalco, Purva Karia, Wayne A Snedden, Wolfgang Moeder, Keiko Yoshioka, Petra Dietrich
Ca2+ serves as a universal second messenger in eukaryotic signaling pathways, and the spatial and temporal patterns of Ca2+ concentration changes are determined by feedback and feed-forward regulation of the involved transport proteins. Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) are Ca2+-permeable channels that interact with the ubiquitous Ca2+ sensor calmodulin (CaM). CNGCs interact with CaMs via diverse CaM-binding sites, including an IQ-motif, which has been identified in the C-termini of CNGC20 and CNGC12...
April 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Lucas Busta, Reinhard Jetter
The cuticle is a waxy composite that protects the aerial organs of land plans from non-stomatal water loss. The chemical makeup of the cuticular wax mixture plays a central role in defining the water barrier, but structure-function relationships have not been established so far, in part due to gaps in our understanding of wax structures and biosynthesis. While wax compounds with saturated, linear hydrocarbon tails have been investigated in detail, very little is known about compounds with modified aliphatic tails, which comprise substantial portions of some plant wax mixtures...
April 12, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Shin-Ichiro Inoue, Nozomi Iwashita, Yohei Takahashi, Eiji Gotoh, Eiji Okuma, Maki Hayashi, Ryohei Tabata, Atsushi Takemiya, Yoshiyuki Murata, Michio Doi, Toshinori Kinoshita, Ken-Ichiro Shimazaki
Stomata within the plant epidermis regulate CO2 uptake for photosynthesis and water loss through transpiration. Stomatal opening in Arabidopsis thaliana is determined by various factors, including blue light as a signal and multiple phytohormones. Plasma membrane transporters, including H+-ATPase, K+ channels, and anion channels in guard cells mediate these processes, and the activities and expression levels of these components determine stomatal aperture. However, the regulatory mechanisms involved in these processes are not fully understood...
April 12, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Xiaoqin Wang, Lu Chen, Aizhen Yang, Chunya Bu, Yikun He
The moss Physcomitrella patens is a model system for studying developmental plant processes. To better understand the biochemical and physiological changes involved in developmental reprogramming, we conducted a quantitative proteomics analysis for protonemata, protoplasts made therefrom and protoplasts regenerated for two days. Using an iTRAQ peptide labelling strategy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), more than 3000 peptides and 1000 proteins were quantified. Of these, 162 proteins were identified as having differential abundances during developmental reprogramming...
April 8, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Silvia Calabrese, Annegret Kohler, Annette Niehl, Claire Veneault-Fourrey, Thomas Boller, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty
Nutrient transfer is a key feature of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. Valuable mineral nutrients are transferred from the AM fungus to the plant, increasing its fitness and productivity, and, in exchange, the AM fungus receives carbohydrates as an energy source from the plant. Here, we analyzed the transcriptome of the Populus trichocarpa-Rhizophagus irregularis symbiosis using RNA-sequencing of non-mycorrhizal or mycorrhizal fine roots, with a focus on the effect of nitrogen (N) starvation. In R...
April 6, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Guobao Liu, Ke Liu, Yang Gao, Yizhi Zheng
Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are widely distributed among plant species, where they contribute to abiotic stress tolerance. LEA proteins can be classified into seven groups according to conserved sequence motifs. The PM1 protein from soybean, which belongs to the Pfam LEA_1 group, has been shown previously to be at least partially natively unfolded, to bind metal ions and potentially to stabilize proteins and membranes. Here, we investigated the role of the PM1 C-terminal domain and in particular the multiple histidine residues in this half of the protein...
April 6, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Tsubasa Nakajima, Katsunori Yoshikawa, Yoshihiro Toya, Fumio Matsuda, Hiroshi Shimizu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Alessia Candeo, Fabrizio G Doccula, Gianluca Valentini, Andrea Bassi, Alex Costa
Calcium oscillations play a role in the regulation of the development of tip-growing plant cells. Using optical microscopy, calcium oscillations have been observed in a few systems (e.g. pollen tubes, fungal hyphae, algal rhizoids). High resolution, non-phototoxic and rapid imaging methods are required to study the calcium oscillation in root hairs. We show that Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy is optimal to image growing root hairs of Arabidopsis thaliana and to follow their oscillatory tip-focused calcium gradient...
March 31, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Kenta Yamada, Koji Yamaguchi, Satomi Yoshimura, Akira Terauchi, Tsutomu Kawasaki
Perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) including chitin by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) rapidly induces activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) cascades. However, how PRRs transmit immune signals to the MAPK cascade is largely unknown. Recently, Arabidopsis receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase PBL27 has been reported to activate MAPKs through phosphorylation of AtMAPKKK5 in the chitin-signaling pathway. In this study, we found that OsRLCK185, a rice ortholog of PBL27, regulates chitin-induced MAPK activation in a similar fashion to PBL27 in rice...
March 23, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Keita Tamura, Yuga Teranishi, Shinya Ueda, Hideyuki Suzuki, Noriaki Kawano, Kayo Yoshimatsu, Kazuki Saito, Nobuo Kawahara, Toshiya Muranaka, Hikaru Seki
The roots of Platycodon grandiflorus are widely used as a crude drug. The active components include a variety of triterpenoid saponins. Recent studies have revealed that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) function as triterpene oxidases in triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis in many plant species. However, there have been no reports regarding triterpene oxidases in P. grandiflorus. In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis of three different P. grandiflorus tissues (roots, leaves, and petals) using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology...
March 23, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Lai Ma, Dechun Zhang, Qisong Miao, Jing Yang, Yuanhu Xuan, Yibing Hu
This study investigated the role of sugar transporter OsSWEET11 during the early stage of rice caryopsis development using the β-glucoronidase (GUS)-represented expression, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockout, cross-fertilization, and RNA-seq analyses. Results showed that OsSWEET11 was expressed strongly in developing caryopsis, particularly in the ovular vascular trace, nucellar epidermis, and cross cells. The knockout of OsSWEET11 significantly decreased sucrose concentration in the mutant embryo-sacs and led to defective grain filling compared with that of the wild-type (WT) plant...
March 23, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yukiko Yasui, Wakana Tanaka, Tomoaki Sakamoto, Tetsuya Kurata, Hiro-Yuki Hirano
Meristems such as the shoot apical meristem and flower meristem (FM) act as a reservoir of stem cells, which reproduce themselves and supply daughter cells for the differentiation of lateral organs. In Oryza sativa (rice), FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 (FON2) gene, which is similar to Arabidopsis CLAVATA3, is involved in meristem maintenance. In fon2 mutants, the numbers of floral organs are increased due to an enlargement of the FM. To identify new factors regulating meristem maintenance in rice, we performed a genetic screening of mutants that enhanced the fon2 mutation, and found a mutant line (2B-424) in which pistil number was dramatically increased...
March 22, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Wenwen Gao, Linghong Lu, Wenmin Qiu, Chuang Wang, Huixia Shou
During phosphate (Pi) starvation or leaf senescence, the accumulation of intracellular and extracellular purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) increases in plants in order to scavenge organic phosphorus (P). In this study, we demonstrated that a PAP encoding gene in rice, OsPAP26, is constitutively expressed in all tissues. While the abundance of OsPAP26 transcript is not affected by Pi supply, it is upregulated during leaf senescence. Furthermore, Pi deprivation and leaf senescence greatly increased the abundance of OsPAP26 protein...
March 22, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Ayla Oenel, Agnes Fekete, Markus Krischke, Sophie C Faul, Gabriele Gresser, Michel Havaux, Martin J Mueller, Susanne Berger
Storage of seeds is accompanied by loss of germination and oxidation of storage and membrane lipids. A lipidomic analysis revealed that during natural and artificial aging of Arabidopsis seeds levels of several diacylglycerols and free fatty acids such as linoleic acid and linolenic acid as well as free oxidized fatty acids and oxygenated triacylglycerols increased. Lipids can be oxidized by enzymatic or non-enzymatic processes. In the enzymatic pathway, lipoxygenases catalyze the first oxygenation step of polyunsaturated fatty acids...
March 20, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Joke Baute, Stefanie Polyn, Jolien De Block, Jonas Blomme, Mieke Van Lijsebettens, Dirk Inzé
F-box proteins are part of one of the largest families of regulatory proteins that play important roles in protein degradation. In plants, F-box proteins are functionally very diverse, and only a small subset has been characterized in detail. Here, we identified a novel F-box protein FBX92 as a repressor of leaf growth in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of AtFBX92 resulted in plants with smaller leaves than wild type, whereas plants with reduced levels of AtFBX92 showed in contrast increased leaf growth by stimulating cell proliferation...
March 14, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Jan de Vries, Sophie de Vries, Claudio H Slamovits, Laura E Rose, John M Archibald
The origin of land plants from algae is a long-standing question in evolutionary biology. It is becoming increasingly clear that many characters that were once assumed to be "embryophyte-specific" can in fact be found in their closest algal relatives, the streptophyte algae. One such case is the phenylpropanoid pathway. While biochemical data indicate that streptophyte algae harbor lignin-like components, the phenylpropanoid core pathway, which serves as the backbone of lignin biosynthesis, has been proposed to have arisen at the base of the land plants...
March 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Zhong Tang, Yi Chen, Fei Chen, Yuchen Ji, Fang-Jie Zhao
Rice (Oryza sativa) is a major dietary source of arsenic (As) for the population consuming rice as their staple food. Rice grain contains both inorganic As and methylated As species, especially dimethyarsinate (DMA). DMA is highly mobile in long-distance translocation in plants, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In the present study, we showed that OsPTR7 (OsNPF8.1), a putative peptide transporter in rice, was permeable to DMA in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Transient expression of the OsPTR7-green fluorescent protein (GFP) in tobacco protoplasts showed that OsPTR7 was localized in the cell plasma membrane...
March 2, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Shoko Saji, Srinivas Bathula, Akihiro Kubo, Masanori Tamaoki, Mitsuko Aono, Tomoharu Sano, Kazuo Tobe, Stefan Timm, Hermann Bauwe, Nobuyoshi Nakajima, Hikaru Saji
An ozone-sensitive mutant was isolated from T-DNA-tagged lines of Arabidopsis thaliana. The T-DNA was inserted at a locus on chromosome 3, where two genes encoding glycolate oxidases, GOX1 and GOX2, peroxisomal enzymes involved in photorespiration, reside contiguously. The amounts of the mutant's foliar transcripts for these genes were reduced, and glycolate oxidase activity was approximately 60% of that of the wild-type plants. No difference in growth and appearance was observed between the mutant and the wild-type plants under normal conditions with ambient air under a light intensity of 100 µmol photons m-2 s-1...
February 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
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