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Plant & Cell Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655170/metabolic-balance-and-its-outcome-deficiency-of-vitamin-b9-and-sucrose-supply-ectopically-induces-starch-synthesis-in-etioplasts
#1
Eiji Nambara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 26, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838128/hypoxia-sensing-in-plants-on-a-quest-for-ion-channels-as-putative-oxygen-sensors
#2
Feifei Wang, Zhong-Hua Chen, Sergey Shabala
Over 17 million km2 of land is affected by soil flooding every year, resulting in substantial yield losses and jeopardizing food security across the globe. A key step in resolving this problem and creating stress-tolerant cultivars is an understanding of the mechanisms by which plants sense low-oxygen stress. In this work, we review the current knowledge about the oxygen-sensing and signaling pathway in mammalian and plant systems and postulate the potential role of ion channels as putative oxygen sensors in plant roots...
July 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838127/sensors-make-sense-of-signaling
#3
Alex A R Webb, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu, June Kwak, Zhen-Ming Pei, Hidetoshi Iida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838126/the-miel1-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-negatively-regulates-cuticular-wax-biosynthesis-in-arabidopsis-stems
#4
Hong Lee Gil, Juyoung Kim, Mi Suh Chung, Pil Seo Joon
Cuticular wax is an important hydrophobic layer that covers the plant aerial surface. Cuticular wax biosynthesis is shaped by multiple layers of regulation. In particular, a pair of R2R3-type MYB transcription factors, MYB96 and MYB30, are known to be the main participants in cuticular wax accumulation. Here, we report that the MYB30-INTERACTING E3 LIGASE 1 (MIEL1) E3 ubiquitin ligase controls the protein stability of the two MYB transcription factors and thereby wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. MIEL1-deficient miel1 mutants exhibit increased wax accumulation in stems, with up-regulation of wax biosynthetic genes targeted by MYB96 and MYB30...
July 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838125/hothead-like-hth1-is-involved-in-anther-cutin-biosynthesis-and-is-required-for-pollen-fertility-in-rice
#5
Ya Xu, Shasha Liu, Yaqin Liu, Sheng Ling, Caisheng Chen, Jialing Yao
The cuticle covering the outer surface of anthers is essential for male reproductive development in plants. However, the mechanism underlying the synthesis of these lipidic polymers remains unclear. HOTHEAD (HTH) in Arabidopsis thaliana is a presumptive glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductase involved in the biosynthesis of long-chain α-,ω-dicarboxylic fatty acids. In this study, we characterized the function of an anther-specific gene HTH1 in rice. HTH1 contains a conserved GMC oxidoreductase-like domain, and the sequence of HTH1 was highly similar to that of HTH in A...
July 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482045/using-gcamp3-to-study-ca2-signaling-in-nicotiana-species
#6
Thomas A DeFalco, Masatsugu Toyota, Van Phan, Purva Karia, Wolfgang Moeder, Simon Gilroy, Keiko Yoshioka
Ca2+ signaling is a central component of plant biology; however, direct analysis of in vivo Ca2+ levels is experimentally challenging. In recent years, the use of genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators has revolutionized the study of plant Ca2+ signaling, although such studies have been largely restricted to the model plant Arabidopsis. We have developed stable transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana tabacum lines expressing the single-wavelength fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, GCaMP3. Ca2+ levels in these plants can be imaged in situ using fluorescence microscopy, and these plants can be used qualitatively and semi-quantitatively to evaluate Ca2+ signals in response to a broad array of abiotic or biotic stimuli, such as cold shock or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)...
July 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449056/plant-hexokinases-are-multifaceted-proteins
#7
G Paulina Aguilera-Alvarado, Sobeida Sánchez-Nieto
Sugars are the main carbon and energy source in cells, but they can also act as signaling molecules that affect the whole plant life cycle. Certain tissues can produce sugars and supply them to others, and this plant tissue heterogeneity makes sugar signaling a highly complex process that requires elements capable of perceiving changes in sugar concentrations among different tissues, cell compartments and developmental stages. In plants, the regulatory effects of glucose (Glc) have been the most studied to date...
July 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444368/simultaneous-targeting-of-multiple-gene-homeologs-to-alter-seed-oil-production-in-camelina-sativa
#8
J A Aznar-Moreno, T P Durrett
The ability to transform Camelina sativa easily with biosynthetic enzymes derived from other plants has made this oil seed crop an ideal platform for the production of unusual lipids valuable for different applications. However, in addition to expressing transgenic enzymes, the suppression of endogenous enzyme activity to reduce competition for common substrates or cofactors is also required to enhance the production of target compounds. As camelina possesses a relatively undifferentiated hexaploid genome, up to three gene homeologs can code for any particular enzymatic activity, complicating efforts to alter endogenous biosynthetic pathways...
July 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444301/soybean-nima-related-kinase1-promotes-plant-growth-and-improves-salt-and-cold-tolerance
#9
Wen-Jia Pan, Jian-Jun Tao, Tong Cheng, Ming Shen, Jin-Biao Ma, Wan-Ke Zhang, Qin Lin, Biao Ma, Shou-Yi Chen, Jin-Song Zhang
NEK (NIMA-related kinase) is known as a family of serine/threonine kinases which mainly participate in microtubule-related mitotic events in fungi, mammals and other eukaryotes. Our previous studies found that Arabidopsis NEK6 plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stress. We further investigated roles of the NEK family in soybean and found that at least eight members can respond to abiotic stresses. Among them, only GmNEK1, a novel NEK member which is distantly related to Arabidopsis NEK6, enhanced plant growth and promoted salt and cold tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants...
July 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444222/feronia-receptor-kinase-at-the-crossroads-of-hormone-signaling-and-stress-responses
#10
Hongdong Liao, Renjie Tang, Xin Zhang, Sheng Luan, Feng Yu
Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are involved in nearly all aspects of plant life including growth, development and stress response. Recent studies show that FERONIA (FER), a CrRLK1L subfamily member, is a versatile regulator of cell expansion and serves as a signaling node mediating cross-talk among multiple phytohormones. As a receptor for the RALF (Rapid Alkalinization Factor) peptide ligand, FER triggers a downstream signaling cascade that leads to a rapid cytoplasmic calcium increase and inhibition of cell elongation in plants...
July 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419310/calmodulin-as-a-ca2-sensing-subunit-of-arabidopsis-cyclic-nucleotide-gated-channel-complexes
#11
Cornelia Fischer, Thomas A DeFalco, Purva Karia, Wayne A Snedden, Wolfgang Moeder, Keiko Yoshioka, Petra Dietrich
Ca2+ serves as a universal second messenger in eukaryotic signaling pathways, and the spatial and temporal patterns of Ca2+ concentration changes are determined by feedback and feed-forward regulation of the involved transport proteins. Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) are Ca2+-permeable channels that interact with the ubiquitous Ca2+ sensor calmodulin (CaM). CNGCs interact with CaMs via diverse CaM-binding sites, including an IQ-motif, which has been identified in the C-termini of CNGC20 and CNGC12...
July 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379562/light-sheet-fluorescence-microscopy-quantifies-calcium-oscillations-in-root-hairs-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#12
Alessia Candeo, Fabrizio G Doccula, Gianluca Valentini, Andrea Bassi, Alex Costa
Calcium oscillations play a role in the regulation of the development of tip-growing plant cells. Using optical microscopy, calcium oscillations have been observed in a few systems (e.g. pollen tubes, fungal hyphae and algal rhizoids). High-resolution, non-phototoxic and rapid imaging methods are required to study the calcium oscillation in root hairs. We show that light sheet fluorescence microscopy is optimal to image growing root hairs of Arabidopsis thaliana and to follow their oscillatory tip-focused calcium gradient...
July 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339550/the-tension-sensitive-ion-transport-activity-of-msl8-is-critical-for-its-function-in-pollen-hydration-and-germination
#13
Eric S Hamilton, Elizabeth S Haswell
All cells respond to osmotic challenges, including those imposed during normal growth and development. Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels provide a conserved mechanism for regulating osmotic forces by conducting ions in response to increased membrane tension. We previously demonstrated that the MS ion channel MscS-Like 8 (MSL8) is required for pollen to survive multiple osmotic challenges that occur during the normal process of fertilization, and that it can inhibit pollen germination. However, it remained unclear whether these physiological functions required ion flux through a mechanically gated channel provided by MSL8...
July 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158855/in-vivo-imaging-of-diacylglycerol-at-the-cytoplasmic-leaflet-of-plant-membranes
#14
Joop E M Vermeer, Ringo van Wijk, Joachim Goedhart, Niko Geldner, Joanne Chory, Theodorus W J Gadella, Teun Munnik
Diacylglycerol (DAG) is an important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and plays key roles in cell signaling, either as a second messenger itself or as a precursor of phosphatidic acid. Methods to identify distinct DAG pools have proven difficult because biochemical fractionation affects the pools, and concentrations are limiting. Here, we validate the use of a genetically encoded DAG biosensor in living plant cells. The sensor is composed of a fusion between yellow fluorescent protein and the C1a domain of protein kinase C (YFP-C1aPKC) that specifically binds DAG, and was stably expressed in suspension-cultured tobacco BY-2 cells and whole Arabidopsis thaliana plants...
July 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158631/visualization-of-phosphatidylinositol-3-5-bisphosphate-dynamics-by-a-tandem-ml1n-based-fluorescent-protein-probe-in-arabidopsis
#15
Tomoko Hirano, Kelly Stecker, Teun Munnik, Haoxing Xu, Masa H Sato
Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is a low-abundance phospholipid known to be associated with a wide variety of physiological functions in plants. However, the localization and dynamics of PI(3,5)P2 in plant cells remain largely unknown, partially due to the lack of an effective fluorescent probe. Using Arabidopsis transgenic plant expressing the PI(3,5)P2-labeling fluorescent probe (tagRFP-ML1N*2) developed based on a tandem repeat of the cytosolic phosphoinositide-interacting domain (ML1N) of the mammalian lysosomal transient receptor potential cation channel, Mucolipin 1 (TRPML1), here we show that PI(3,5)P2 is predominantly localized on the limited membranes of the FAB1- and SNX1-positive late endosomes, but rarely localized on the membranes of plant vacuoles or trans-Golgi network/early endosomes of cortical cells of the root differentiation zone...
July 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633497/genome-wide-identification-and-functional-characterization-of-udp-glucosyltransferase-genes-involved-in-flavonoid-biosynthesis-in-glycine-max
#16
Qinggang Yin, Guoan Shen, Shaokang Di, Cunying Fan, Zhenzhan Chang, Yongzhen Pang
Flavonoids, natural products abundant in the model legume Glycine max, confer benefits to plants and to animal health. Flavonoids are present in soybean mainly as glycoconjugates. However, the mechanisms of biosynthesis of flavonoid glycosides are largely unknown in G. max. In the present study, 212 putative UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes were identified in G. max by genome-wide searching. The GmUGT genes were distributed differentially among the 20 chromosomes, and they were expressed in various tissues with distinct expression profiles...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633475/cloning-and-characterization-of-cheilanthifoline-and-stylopine-synthase-genes-from-chelidonium-majus
#17
Mahdi Yahyazadeh, Purwanto Ratmoyo, Florian Bittner, Fumihiko Sato, Dirk Selmar
The most prominent alkaloid of Chelidonium majus is dihydrocoptisine, revealing the characteristical benzophenanthridine skeleton. Up to now, any information about the enzymes responsible for its biosynthesis in C. majus and the related genes respectively, is lacking. Based on sequence similarities to the corresponding methylenedioxy bridge-forming cytochrome P450-enzymes involved in the isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in Eschscholzia californica, genes for a cheilanthifoline synthase and a stylopine synthase from C...
June 19, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637253/synthesis-and-secretion-of-isoflavones-by-field-grown-soybean
#18
Akifumi Sugiyama, Yumi Yamazaki, Shoichiro Hamamoto, Hisabumi Takase, Kazufumi Yazaki
Isoflavones play important roles in rhizosphere plant-microbe interactions. Daidzein and genistein secreted by soybean roots induce the symbiotic interaction with rhizobia and may modulate rhizosphere interactions with microbes. Yet despite their important roles, little is known about the biosynthesis, secretion and fate of isoflavones in field-grown soybeans. Here, we analyzed isoflavone contents and the expression of isoflavone biosynthesis genes in field-grown soybeans. In roots, isoflavone contents and composition did not change with crop growth, but the expression of UGT4, an isoflavone-specific 7-O-glucosyltransferase, and of ICHG (isoflavone conjugates hydrolyzing beta-glucosidase) was decreased during the reproductive stages...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633325/malus-hupehensis-mir168-targets-to-argonaute1-and-contributes-to-the-resistance-against-botryosphaeria-dothidea-infection-by-altering-defense-responses
#19
Xinyi Yu, Yingjun Hou, Weiping Chen, Sanhong Wang, Peihong Wang, Shenchun Qu
MicroRNA (miRNA)-mediated post-transcriptional regulation plays a fundamental role in various plant physiological processes, including responses to pathogens. MicroRNA168 has been implicated as an essential factor of miRNA pathways by targeting ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1), the core component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). A fluctuation in AGO1 expression influences various plant-pathogen interactions, and the homeostasis of AGO1 and miR168 accumulation is maintained by a complicated feedback regulatory loop...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633293/the-tonoplast-localized-transporter-mtp8-2-contributes-to-manganese-detoxification-in-the-shoots-and-roots-of-oryza-sativa-l
#20
Yuma Takemoto, Yuta Tsunemitsu, Miho Fujii-Kashino, Namiki Mitani-Ueno, Naoki Yamaji, Jian Feng Ma, Shin-Ichiro Kato, Kozo Iwasaki, Daisei Ueno
Manganese (Mn) cation diffusion facilitators (Mn-CDFs) play important roles in the Mn homeostasis of plants. In rice, the tonoplast-localized Mn-CDF metal tolerance protein 8.1 (MTP8.1) is involved in Mn detoxification in the shoots. This study functionally characterized the Mn-CDF MTP8.2 and determined its contribution to Mn tolerance. MTP8.2 was found to share 68% identity with MTP8.1 and was expressed in both the shoots and roots, but its transcription level was lower than that of MTP8.1. Transient expression of the MTP8...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
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