Read by QxMD icon Read

Plant & Cell Physiology

Shoji Segami, Mariko Asaoka, Satoru Kinoshita, Mayu Fukuda, Yoichi Nakanishi, Masayoshi Maeshima
Proton-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase) actively translocates protons across membranes coupled with the hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). H+-PPase, which is composed of a single protein and uses a simple compound as a substrate, has been recognized as a new type of ion pump in addition to the P-, F-, and V-type ion translocating ATPases. H+- and Na+-PPases are distributed in various organisms including plants, parasitic protozoa, Archaebacteria, and bacteria, but are not present in animals or yeast...
March 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Sri I Pulungan, Ryoichi Yano, Yoshihiro Okabe, Takuji Ichino, Mikiko Kojima, Yumiko Takebayashi, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Tohru Ariizumi, Hiroshi Ezura
Leaves are the major plant organs with a primary function for photosynthesis. Auxin controls various aspects of plant growth and development, including leaf initiation, expansion, and differentiation. Unique and intriguing auxin features include its polar transport, which is mainly controlled by the AUX1/LAX and PIN gene families as influx and efflux carriers, respectively. The role of AUX1/ LAX genes in root development is well documented, but the role of these genes in leaf morphogenesis remains unclear. Moreover, most studies have been conducted in the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana, while studies in tomato are still scarce...
March 8, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yi-Feng Wu, Yu Zhao, Xin-Yan Liu, Shuai Gao, Ai-Xia Cheng, Hong-Xiang Lou
Liverworts, a section of the bryophyte plants which pioneered the colonization of terrestrial habitats, produce cyclic bisbibenzyls as a secondary metabolite. These compounds are generated via the phenylpropanoid pathway, similar with flavonoid biosynthesis for which bHLH transcription factors have been identified as one of the improtant regulators in higher plants. Here, a bHLH homolog (PabHLH) was isolated from the liverwort species Plagiochasma appendiculatum and its contribution to bisbibenzyl biosynthesis was explored...
March 8, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Shang Jye Leong, Wen-Chien Lu, Tzyy-Jen Chiou
Despite the essential role of phosphate (Pi) in plant growth and development, how plants sense and signal the change of Pi supply to adjust its uptake and utilization is not yet well understood. Pi itself has been proposed to be a signaling molecule that regulates Pi starvation responses (PSRs) because phosphite (Phi), a non-metabolized Pi analog, suppresses several PSRs. In this study, we identified a phosphite-insensitive1 (phi1) mutant which retained anthocyanin, a visible PSR, in Phi-containing but Pi-deficient medium...
March 5, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Huizhen Hu, Ran Zhang, Zhangsheng Tao, Xukai Li, Yuyang Li, Jiangfeng Huang, Xinxin Li, Xiao Han, Shengqiu Feng, Guimin Zhang, Liangcai Peng
Cellulose is the most characteristic component of plant cell walls and plays a central role in plant mechanical strength and morphogenesis. Despite cellulose synthase (CesA) mutants have exhibited a reduction of cellulose level, much remains unknown about their impacts on the cell growth (elongation and division) and cell wall integrity that fundamentally determine plant growth. Here, we examined three major types of AtCesAs mutants (rsw1, AtCesA1 mutant; prc1-1 and cesa6, AtCesA6-null mutants; IRX3, AtCesA7 mutant) and transgenic mutants that overexpressed AtCesAs genes in the background of AtCesA6-null mutants...
March 5, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Leandro Francisco de Oliveira, Bruno Viana Navarro, Giovanni Cerruti, Paula Elbl, Rakesh Minocha, Subhash C Minocha, André Luis Wendt Dos Santos, Eny Iochevet Segal Floh
The mechanisms that control polyamine (PA) metabolism in plant cell lines with different embryogenic potential are not well understood. This study involved the use of two Araucaria angustifolia cell lines, one of which was defined as being blocked, in that the cells were incapable of developing somatic embryos, and the other as being responsive, as it could generate somatic embryos. Cellular PA metabolism was modulated by using 5 mM arginine (Arg) or ornithine (Orn) at two time points during cell growth. Two days after subculturing with Arg, an increase in citrulline (Cit) content was observed, followed by a higher expression of genes related to PA catabolism in the responsive cell line; whereas, in the blocked cell line, we only observed an accumulation of PAs...
February 27, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Lucía Arenas-Alfonseca, Cecilia Gotor, Luis C Romero, Irene García
In Arabidopsis thaliana, cyanide is produced concomitantly with ethylene biosynthesis and is mainly detoxified by the ß-cyanoalanine synthase CAS-C1. In roots, CAS-C1 activity is essential to maintain a low level of cyanide for proper root hair development. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, and we have observed that CAS-C1 locates in mitochondria and accumulates in root hair tips during root hair elongation, as shown by observing the fluorescence in plants transformed with the translational construct ProC1:CASC1-GFP, containing the complete CAS-C1 gene fused to GFP...
February 27, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Alessandro Vannozzi, Darren Chern Jan Wong, Janine Höll, Ibrahim Hmmam, José Tomás Matus, Jochen Bogs, Tobias Ziegler, Ian Dry, Gianni Barcaccia, Margherita Lucchin
Stilbene synthase (STS) is the key enzyme leading to the biosynthesis of resveratrol. Recently we reported two R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) that regulate the stilbene biosynthetic pathway in grapevine: VviMYB14 and VviMYB15. These genes strongly co-express with STSs under a range of stress and developmental conditions, in agreement with the specific activation of STS promoters by these TFs. Genome-wide gene co-expression analysis using two separate transcriptome compendia based on microarray and RNA-Seq data revealed that WRKY TFs were the top TF family correlated with STS genes...
February 26, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Ken Haga, Lena Frank, Taro Kimura, Claus Schwechheimer, Tatsuya Sakai
Regulation of protein function by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are major regulatory mechanisms in many cellular events. The phototropin blue-light photoreceptors, plant-specific AGCVIII kinases, are essential for phototropic responses. Members of the D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) family, representing a subfamily of the AGCVIII kinases, also contribute to phototropic responses, suggesting that possibly further AGCVIII kinases may potentially control phototropism. The present study investigates the functional roles of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AGCVIII kinases in hypocotyl phototropism...
February 26, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Tuo Yang, Keting Li, Suxiao Hao, Jie Zhang, Tingting Song, Ji Tian, Yuncong Yao
Anthocyanins are plant pigments that contribute to the color of leaves, flowers and fruits, and that beneficial to human health in the form of dietary antioxidants. The study of a transformable crabapple cultivar, 'India magic', which has red buds and green mature leaves, using mRNA profiling of four leaf developmental stages, allowed us to characterize molecular mechanisms regulating red color formation in early leaf development and the subsequent rapid down-regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. This analysis of differential gene expression during leaf development, revealed that ethylene signaling responsive genes are upregulated during leaf pigmentation...
February 20, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Beatrice Lace, Thomas Ott
Legumes have the almost unique ability to establish symbiotic associations with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Forward and reverse genetics have identified a large number of genes that are required for either or both interactions. However, and in sharp contrast to natural soils, these interactions have been almost exclusively investigated under laboratory conditions by using separate inoculation systems, whereas both symbionts are simultaneously present in the field. Considering our recent understanding of the individual symbioses the community is now promisingly positioned to co-inoculate plants with two or more microbes in order to mechanistically understand how legumes efficiently balance, regulate and potentially separate these symbioses and other endophytic microbes within the same root...
February 20, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Kayo Hashimoto, Shunsuke Miyashima, Kumi Sato-Nara, Toshihiro Yamada, Keiji Nakajima
The ovules of flowering plants consist of a central embryo sac and surrounding layers of the inner and outer integument. As these structural units eventually give rise to the embryo/endosperm and seed coat, respectively, a precisely organized ovule structure is essential for successful fertilization and seed production. In Arabidopsis thaliana, correct ovule patterning depends on the restricted expression of the CLASS III HOMEODOMAIN LEUCINE ZIPPER (HD-ZIP III) gene PHABULOSA (PHB) in the apical region of the incipient inner integument, which in turn is regulated via post-transcriptional suppression by miR165 and miR166 (miR165/6) derived from multiple MIR165/6 genes...
February 16, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Marta Kolodziejczak, Renata Skibior-Blaszczyk, Hanna Janska
For optimal mitochondrial activity, the mitochondrial proteome must be properly maintained or altered in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. Based on studies of yeast and humans, one of the key players in this control is m-AAA proteases, mitochondrial inner membrane-bound ATP-dependent metalloenzymes. This study focuses on the importance of m-AAA proteases in plant mitochondria providing their first experimentally proven physiological substrate. We found that the Arabidopsis m-AAA complexes composed of AtFTSH3 and/or AtFTSH10 are involved in the proteolytic maturation of ribosomal subunit L32...
February 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Momoko Ikeuchi, Michitaro Shibata, Bart Rymen, Akira Iwase, Anne-Maarit Bågman, Lewis Watt, Duncan Coleman, David S Favero, Tatsuya Takahashi, Sebastian E Ahnert, Siobhan M Brady, Keiko Sugimoto
Wounding triggers organ regeneration in many plant species, and application of plant hormones, such as auxin and cytokinin, enhances their regenerative capacities in tissue culture. Recent studies have identified several key players mediating wound- and/or plant hormone-induced cellular reprogramming, but the global architecture of gene regulatory relationships underlying plant cellular reprogramming is still far from clear. In this study, we uncovered a gene regulatory network (GRN) associated with plant cellular reprogramming by using an enhanced yeast one-hybrid (eY1H) screen systematically to identify regulatory relationships between 252 transcription factors (TFs) and 48 promoters...
February 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Rita de Brito Francisco, Enrico Martinoia
The plant vacuole is a cellular compartment that is essential to plant development and growth. Often plant vacuoles accumulate specialized metabolites, also called secondary metabolites, which constitute functionally and chemically diverse compounds that exert in planta many essential functions and improve the plant's fitness. These metabolites provide for example chemical defence against herbivorous and pathogens or chemical attractants (colour and fragrance) to attract pollinators. The chemical composition of the vacuole is dynamic and is altered during development and as a response to environmental changes...
February 14, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Hanqing Guo, Nu Wang, Tami R McDonald, Anke Reinders, John M Ward
Plant ammonium transporters in the AMT/MEP/Rh superfamily have only been previously characterized in flowering plants (angiosperms). Plant AMT1s are electrogenic, while plant AMT2s are electroneutral and MEP and Rh transporters in other organisms are electroneutral. We analyzed the transport function of MpAMT1;2 from the basal land plant Marchantia polymorpha, a liverwort. MpAMT1;2 was shown to localize to the plasma membrane in Marchantia gametophyte thallus by stable transformation using a C-terminal citrine fusion...
February 12, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Fong-Chin Huang, Ashok Giri, Melina Daniilidis, Guangxin Sun, Katja Härtl, Thomas Hoffmann, Wilfried Schwab
Glycosylation mediated by uridine diphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferase (UGT) is one of the most common reactions for the biosynthesis of small molecule glycosides. As glycosides have various biological roles we characterized UGTs from grapevine (Vitis vinifera). In silico analysis of VvUGTs that were highly expressed in leaves identified UGT92G6 which showed sequence similarity to both, monosaccharide and disaccharide glucoside forming transferases. The recombinant UGT92G6 glucosylated phenolics, among them caffeic acid, carvacrol, eugenol, and raspberry ketone, and also accepted geranyl glucoside and citronellyl glucoside...
February 10, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Benjamin Pommerrenig, Frank Ludewig, Jelena Cvetkovic, Oliver Trentmann, Patrick A W Klemens, H Ekkehard Neuhaus
The sessile lifestyle of higher plants is accompanied by their remarkable ability to tolerate unfavourable environmental conditions. This is, because during evolution plants developed a sophisticated repertoire of molecular and metabolic reactions to cope with changing biotic and abiotic challenges. In particular, the abiotic factors light intensity and ambient temperature are characterized by altering their amplitude within comparably short periods of time and are causative for onset of dynamic plant responses...
February 10, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Naoki Minamino, Takehiko Kanazawa, Atsuko Era, Kazuo Ebine, Akihiko Nakano, Takashi Ueda
The RAB GTPase is an evolutionarily conserved machinery component of membrane trafficking, which is the fundamental system for cell viability and higher-order biological functions. The composition of RAB GTPases in each organism is closely related to the complexity and organization of the membrane-trafficking pathway, which has been developed uniquely to realize the organism-specific membrane trafficking system. Comparative genomics has suggested that terrestrialization and/or multicellularization were associated with the expansion of membrane trafficking pathways in green plants, which has yet to be validated in basal land plant lineages...
February 10, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Kyoko Ohashi-Ito, Kuninori Iwamoto, Hiroo Fukuda
Xylem includes xylem parenchyma cells, fibers, and tracheary elements. Differentiation of tracheary elements is an irreversible process that is controlled by the master regulator VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN 7 (VND7). Molecular events occurring downstream of VND7 are well understood, but little is known regarding upstream regulation of VND7. In this study, we identified LOB DOMAIN-CONTAINING PROTEIN 15 (LBD15)/ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2-LIKE (ASL11) as a regulator of VND7. LBD15 was expressed in immature vascular cells and positively regulated both VND7 expression and differentiation of tracheary elements...
February 10, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"