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Plant & Cell Physiology

Yukari Nagatoshi, Yasunari Fujita
Soybean (Glycine max) is the most important dicot crop worldwide, and is increasingly used as a model legume due to the wide availability of genomic soybean resources; however, the slow generation times of soybean plants are currently a major hindrance to research. Here, we demonstrate a method for accelerating soybean breeding in compact growth chambers, which greatly shortens the generation time of the plants and accelerates breeding and research projects. Our breeding method utilizes commonly used fluorescent lamps (220 µmol m-2 s-1 at the canopy level), a 14-h light (30 °C)/10-h dark (25 °C) cycle, and carbon dioxide (CO2) supplementation over 400 ppm...
September 13, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Eri Adams, Takae Miyazaki, Shunya Saito, Nobuyuki Uozumi, Ryoung Shin
Cesium (Cs+) is known to compete with the macronutrient potassium (K+) inside and outside of plants and inhibit plant growth at high concentrations. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of how Cs+ exerts its deleterious effects on K+ accumulation in plants are not fully elucidated. Here, we show that mutation in a member of the major K+ channel AKT1-KC1 complex renders Arabidopsis thaliana hypersensitive to Cs+. Higher severity of the phenotype and K+ loss was observed for these mutants in response to Cs+ than to K+ deficiency...
September 13, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Jian Wu, Wenjing Wu, Jiahui Liang, Yujie Jin, Sonia Gazzarrini, Junna He, Mingfang Yi
Dormancy is one of the least understood phenomena in plant biology, however bud/corm dormancy is an important economic trait in agricultural/horticultural breeding. In this study, we isolated an abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis gene, GhNCED, from the transcriptome database of corm dormancy release (CDR), and characterized its negative role in regulating CDR. To understand transcriptional regulation of GhNCED, yeast one-hybrid screening was conducted and GhTCP19 was identified and shown to directly regulate GhNCED expression...
September 6, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Adam R Bentham, Rafal Zdrzalek, Juan Carlos De la Concepcion, Mark J Banfield
Plant NLRs are intracellular pathogen receptors whose N-terminal domains are integral to signal transduction after perception of a pathogen-derived effector proteins. The two major plant NLR classes are defined by the presence of either a TIR or CC domain at their N-terminus (TNLs and CNLs). Our knowledge of how CC domains function in plant CNLs lags behind that of how TIR domains function in plant TNLs. CNLs are the most abundant class of NLRs in monocotyledonous plants, and further research is required to understand the molecular mechanisms of how these domains contribute to disease resistance in cereal crops...
September 6, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yoshihiro Okabe, Tatsuya Yamaoka, Tohru Ariizumi, Koichiro Ushijima, Mikiko Kojima, Yumiko Takebayashi, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Miyako Kusano, Yoshihito Shinozaki, Sri I Pulungan, Yasutaka Kubo, Ryohei Nakano, Hiroshi Ezura
Parthenocarpy, a process in which fruit set occurs without fertilization, leads to the production of seedless fruit. A number of floral homeotic mutants with abnormal stamen development exhibit parthenocarpic fruit set. Flower development is thought to repress ovary growth before anthesis. However, the mechanism of parthenocarpic fruit development caused by aberrant flower formation is poorly understood. To investigate the molecular mechanism of parthenocarpic fruit development in floral homeotic mutants, we performed functional analysis of Tomato APETALA3 (TAP3) by loss-of-function approaches...
September 6, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Kristen Van Gelder, Kevin A Rea, Lilia K A Virta, Kenna L Whitnell, Michael Osborn, Maritza Vatta, Alexandra Khozin, Karolina Skorupinska-Tudek, Liliana Surmacz, Tariq A Akhtar
The widespread occurrence of polyprenols throughout the plant kingdom is well documented, yet their functional role is poorly understood.  These lipophilic compounds are known to be assembled from isoprenoid precursors by a class of enzymes designated as cis-prenyltransferases (CPTs), which are encoded by small CPT gene families in plants.  In this study, we report that RNAi-mediated knockdown of one member of the tomato CPT family (SlCPT5) reduced polyprenols in leaves by ∼70%. Assays with recombinant SlCPT5 produced in E...
September 6, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yousef Yari Kamrani, Takuya Matsuo, Maria Mittag, Jun Minagawa
Strong light intensity leads to harmful overexcitation of the photosystems in green algae. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, LHCSR3 is required for the rapid protective response known as energy-dependent quenching (qE). Because the majority of photoacclimation analysis has been conducted under controlled laboratory conditions, physiological responses to natural environmental changes such as light/dark cycles have not been examined in detail. Regarding fitness in higher plants and microalgae, light-dark cycles represent a major Zeitgeber for synchronizing the circadian clock to multiple physiological responses, yet there is little consensus with respect to the clock response to high-intensity light in photosynthetic organisms...
September 4, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Berit Ebert, Devon Birdseye, April J M Liwanag, Tomas Laursen, Emilie A Rennie, Xiaoyuan Guo, Michela Catena, Carsten Rautengarten, Solomon H Stonebloom, Pawel Gluza, Venkataramana Pidatala, Mathias C F Andersen, Roshan Cheetamun, Jenny C Mortimer, Joshua L Heazlewood, Antony Bacic, Mads H Clausen, William G T Willats, Henrik V Scheller
Pectin is a major component of primary cell walls and performs a plethora of functions crucial for plant growth, development and plant-defense responses. Despite the importance of pectic polysaccharides their biosynthesis is poorly understood. Several genes have been implicated in pectin biosynthesis by mutant analysis, but biochemical activity has been shown for very few.We used reverse genetics and biochemical analysis to study members of Glycosyltransferase Family 92 (GT92) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochemical analysis gave detailed insight into the properties of GALS1 (Galactan synthase 1) and showed galactan synthase activity of GALS2 and GALS3...
September 1, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Chin Hong Lee, Bernard J Carroll
Small regulatory RNAs guide gene silencing at the DNA or RNA level through repression of complementary sequences. The two main forms of small RNAs are microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNAs), which are generated from the processing of different forms of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) precursors. These two forms of small regulatory RNAs function in distinct but overlapping gene silencing pathways in plants. Gene silencing pathways in eukaryotes evolved from an ancient prokaryotic mechanism involved in genome defense against invasive genetic elements, but have since diversified to also play a crucial role in regulation of endogenous gene expression...
August 31, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Mashiguchi Kiyoshi, Hiroshi Hisano, Noriko Takeda-Kamiya, Yumiko Takebayashi, Toru Ariizumi, Yangbin Gao, Hiroshi Ezura, Kazuhiro Sato, Yunde Zhao, Ken-Ichiro Hayashi, Hiroyuki Kasahara
The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects plants and introduces the transferred-DNA (T-DNA) region of the Ti-plasmid into nuclear DNA of host plants to induce the formation of tumors (crown galls). The T-DNA region carries iaaM and iaaH genes for synthesis of the plant hormone auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). It has been demonstrated that the iaaM gene encodes a tryptophan 2-monooxygenase which catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to indole-3-acetamide (IAM), and the iaaH gene encodes an amidase for subsequent conversion of IAM to IAA...
August 30, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Kojiro Takanashi, Yukimi Nakagawa, Shunsuke Aburaya, Kenta Kaminade, Wataru Aoki, Yuka Saida-Munakata, Akifumi Sugiayama, Mitsuyoshi Ueda, Kazufumi Yazaki
Plants produce a large variety of specialized (secondary) metabolites having a wide range of hydrophobicity. Shikonin, a red naphthoquinone pigment, is a highly hydrophobic metabolite produced in the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, a medicinal plant in the family Boraginaceae. The shikonin molecule is formed by the coupling of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and geranyl diphosphate, catalyzed by a membrane-bound geranyltransferase LePGT at the endoplasmic reticulum, followed by cyclization of the geranyl chain and oxidations; the latter half of this biosynthetic pathway, however, has not yet been clarified...
August 30, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Muhammad Furqan Ashraf, Sheng Yang, Wu Ruijie, Wang Yuzhu, Ansar Hussain, Ali Noman, Muhammad Ifnan Khan, Zhiqin Liu, Ailian Qiu, Deyi Guan, Shuilin He
The responses of pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants to inoculation with the pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum and to high-temperature-high-humidity (HTHH) conditions were previously found to be coordinated by the transcription factors CaWRKY6 and CaWRKY40; however, the underlying molecular mechanism was unclear. Herein, we identified and functionally characterized CaHsfB2a, a nuclear-localized heat shock factor involved in pepper immunity to R. solanacearum inoculation (RSI) and tolerance to HTHH. CaHsfB2a is transcriptionally induced in pepper plants by RSI or HTHH and by exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), ethylene (ETH), or abscisic acid (ABA)...
August 30, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yadi Xing, Shuang Guo, Xinlong Chen, Dan Du, Mingming Liu, Yanhua Xiao, Tianquan Zhang, Maodi Zhu, Yingying Zhang, Xianchun Sang, Guanghua He, Nan Wang
Calcium-dependent protein kinases are involved in various biological processes, including hormone response, growth and development, abiotic stress response, disease resistance, and nitrogen metabolism. We identified a novel mutant of a calcium-dependent protein-kinase-encoding gene, esl4, by performing map cloning. The esl4 mutant was nitrogen deficient, and expression and enzyme activities of genes related to nitrogen metabolism were down-regulated. ESL4 was mainly expressed in the vascular bundles of roots, stems, leaves, and sheaths...
August 28, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Masahito Nakano, Takafumi Mukaihara
Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease of plants. This pathogen injects more than 70 type III effector proteins called Rips (Ralstonia-injected proteins) into plant cells to succeed in infection. One of the Rips, RipAL, contains a putative lipase domain that shared homology with Arabidopsis DEFECTIVE IN ANTHER DEHISCENCE1 (DAD1). RipAL significantly suppressed pattern-triggered immunity in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Subcellular localization analyses suggest that RipAL localizes to chloroplasts and targets chloroplast lipids in plant cells...
August 28, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Feng-Pan Wang, Xiao-Fei Wang, Jiucheng Zhang, Fengwang Ma, Yu-Jin Hao
Nutrient element deprivation, such as iron (Fe) deficiency stress, is a major factor limiting plant survival and proliferation in marginal soils. To cope with a low Fe environment, plants have evolved elaborate mechanisms underlying Fe homeostasis via intricate transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Here, we characterized the Fe deficiency-inducible MYB transcription factor MdMYB58 in apple plants. Overexpressing MdMYB58 resulted in the accumulation of Fe in the root of transgenic Arabidopsis and apple calli when they were exposed to low Fe available conditions...
August 28, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Takanori Yoshida, Takahiro Kawanabe, Yina Bo, Ryo Fujimoto, Akira Kawabe
Uniparental gene expression, observed in both animals and plants, is termed genomic imprinting. Genomic imprinting is a well-known epigenetic phenomenon regulated through epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation and histone modifications. Recent genome-wide studies of endosperm transcription have revealed the rapid change of imprinted genes between species, suggesting the flexibility of this phenomenon. Although the functional significance and evolutionary trends of imprinted genes are still obscure, it can be clarified by inter-species comparisons...
August 28, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Peng Cui, Qiang Lin, Dongming Fang, Lingling Zhang, Rongjun Li, Junyong Cheng, Fei Gao, Jay Shockey, Songnian Hu, Shiyou Lü
The tung tree (Vernicia fordii) is one of only a few plant species that produces high oil-yielding seeds rich in α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA, 18:3Δ9cis,11trans,13trans), a conjugated trienoic fatty acid with valuable industrial and medical properties. Previous attempts have been made to engineer tung oil biosynthesis in transgenic oilseed crops, but these efforts have met with limited success. Here we present a high-quality genome assembly and developing seed transcriptomic data set for this species. Whole-genome shotgun sequencing generated 176 Gb of genome sequence data used to create a final assembled sequence 1,176,320 kb in size, with a scaffold N50 size of > 474 kb, and containing ∼47,000 protein-coding genes...
August 21, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Ting Wang, Sihui Li, Dan Chen, Yue Xi, Xuezhong Xu, Nenghui Ye, Jianhua Zhang, Xinxiang Peng, Guohui Zhu
Photorespiration is an essential process for plant photosynthesis, development and growth in aerobic conditions. Recent studies have shown that photorespiration is an open system integrated with the plant primary metabolism network and intracellular redox systems, though the mechanisms of regulating photorespiration are far from clear. Through a forward genetic method, we identified a photorespiratory mutant pr1 (photorespiratory related 1), which produced a chlorotic and smaller photorespiratory growth phenotype with decreased chlorophyll content and accumulation of glycine and serine in ambient air...
August 21, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Laura Siles, Leonor Alegre, Ariadna González-Solís, Edgar B Cahoon, Sergi Munné-Bosch
Vitamin E, a potent antioxidant either present in the form of tocopherols and/or tocotrienols depending on the plant species, tissue and developmental stage, plays a major role in protecting lipids from oxidation in seeds. Unlike tocopherols, which have a more universal distribution, the occurrence of tocotrienols is limited primarily to monocot seeds. Dwarf fan palm (Chamaerops humilis var. humilis) seeds accumulate tocotrienols in quiescent and dormant seeds, while tocopherols are de novo synthesized during germination...
August 20, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yong Min Lao, Hui Jin, Jin Zhou, Huai Jin Zhang, Xiao Shan Zhu, Zhong Hua Cai
Under environmental stresses, Haematococcus pluvialis accumulates large amounts of carotenoids. Scale of carotenoid biosynthesis depends on availability of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) precursor, which is supplied by GGPP synthase (GGPPS) through sequential 1'-4 condensation of three isopentenyl pyrophosphates (IPPs) into dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP). Using IPP and DMAPP as substrates, a tri-functional HpGGPPS was identified in this study to promiscuously synthesize allylic prenyl pyrophosphates (PPPs), e...
August 20, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
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