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Plant & Cell Physiology

Man-Wah Li, Wei Liu, Hon-Ming Lam, Joshua M Gendron
Soybean yield is largely dependent on growth period. We characterized two growth period quantitative trait loci, Gp11 and Gp12, from a recombinant inbred population generated from a cross of wild (W05) and cultivated (C08) soybean. Lines carrying Gp11C08 and Gp12C08 tend to have shorter growth period and higher expression of GmFT2a and GmFT5a. Furthermore, multiple interval mapping suggests that Gp11 and Gp12 maybe genetically interacting with E2 locus. This is consistent with the observation GmFT2a and GmFT5a are activated by Gp11C08 and Gp12C08 at ZT4 in the recessive e2 but not the dominant E2 background...
November 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Kaisa Hakkila, Dimitar Valev, Taras Antal, Esa Tyystjärvi, Taina Tyystjärvi
Regulatory σ factors of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) adjust gene expression according to environmental cues when the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 acclimates to suboptimal conditions. Here we show central roles of the non-essential group 2 σ factors in oxidative stress responses. Cells missing all group 2 σ factors fail to acclimate to chemically induced singlet oxygen, superoxide or H2O2 stresses and lose pigments in high light. The SigB and SigD are the major σ factors in oxidative stress whereas SigC and SigE play only minor roles...
November 8, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Bing Hu, Biao Lai, Dan Wang, Jiaqi Li, Linhuan Chen, Yaqi Qin, Huicong Wang, Yonghua Qin, Guibing Hu, Jietang Zhao
During litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruits ripening, two major physiological changes, degreening (chlorophyll degradation) and pigmentation (anthocyanin biosynthesis) are visually apparent. However, the specific factor triggering this important transition is still unclear. In the present study, we found that endogenous ABA content increased sharply when chlorophyll (Chl) breakdown initiated and ABA level peaked just before the onset of anthocyanin accumulation, suggesting that ABA plays an important role during litchi fruit pigmentation...
November 8, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Qinwu Chen, Fabienne Soulay, Baptiste Saudemont, Taline Elmayan, Anne Marmagne, Céline Masclaux-Daubresse
Autophagy knock-out mutants in maize and in Arabidopsis are impaired for nitrogen recycling and exhibit reduced levels of nitrogen remobilization to their seeds. An important question is then to determine whether higher autophagy activity could at the reverse improve N remobilization efficiency and seed protein content, and under which circumstances.As autophagy machinery involves many genes amongst which 18 are important for the core machinery, the choice of which ATG gene to manipulate to increase autophagy was examined...
November 8, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Daniel Ballesteros, Lisa M Hill, Ryan T Lynch, Hugh W Pritchard, Christina Walters
This study explores temperature dependency of aging rate in dry cells over a broad temperature range encompassing the fluid to solid transition (Tg) and well below. Spores from diverse species of eight families of ferns were stored at temperatures ranging from +45oC to c. -176oC (vapor phase above liquid nitrogen), and viability was monitored periodically for up to 4300 days (ca. 12 years). Accompanying measurements using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) provide insights into structural changes that occur such as Tg, between +45 and -20oC (depending on moisture), and triacylglycerol (TAG) crystallization, between -5 and -35oC (depending on species)...
November 6, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Hiroko Takahashi, Yuri Kusama, Xinxiang Li, Shinichi Takaichi, Yoshitaka Nishiyama
Orange carotenoid protein (OCP) plays a vital role in the thermal dissipation of excitation energy in the photosynthetic machinery of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. To clarify the role of OCP in the protection of photosystem II (PSII) from strong light, we generated an OCP-overexpressing strain of Synechocystis and examined the effects of overexpression on the photoinhibition of PSII. In OCP-overexpressing cells, thermal dissipation of energy was enhanced and the extent of photoinhibition of PSII was reduced...
November 6, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Niels van Tol, Gema Flores Andaluz, Hendrika A C F Leeggangers, M Reza Roushan, Paul J J Hooykaas, Bert J van der Zaal
The large majority of core photosynthesis proteins in plants are encoded by nuclear genes, but a small portion has been retained in the plastid genome. These plastid-encoded chloroplast proteins fulfill essential roles in the process of photochemistry. Here, we report about the use of nuclear-encoded, chloroplast targeted zinc finger artificial transcription factors (ZF-ATFs) with effector domains of prokaryotic origin to modulate the expression of chloroplast genes, and to enhance the photochemical activity and growth characteristics of Arabidopsis thaliana plants...
November 6, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Jun Wu, Wenxiu Wang, Pengbo Xu, Jian Pan, Ting Zhang, Yang Li, Guowei Li, Hongquan Yang, Hongli Lian
Light is an important environmental factor, which mainly inhibits hypocotyl elongation through various photoreceptors. In contrast, brassinosteroids (BR) are major hypocotyl elongation-promoting hormones in plants, which could optimize photomorphogenesis in concurrent with external light. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the antagonism of light and BR signaling remain largely unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis red light receptor phyB involves in inhibition of BR signaling via its direct interaction with BR transcription factor BES1...
November 2, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Min Wang, Zechen Gu, Ruirui Wang, Junjie Guo, Ning Ling, Les G Firbank, Shiwei Guo
Nitrogen contributes to plant defence responses by the regulation of plant primary metabolism during plant-pathogen interactions. Based on biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we investigated how different nitrogen forms (ammonium vs. nitrate) regulate the physiological response of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) infection. The metabolic profile revealed that nitrate-grown plants accumulated more organic acids, while ammonium-grown plants accumulated more amino acids; FOC infection significantly increased levels of both amino acids and organic acids in the roots of ammonium-grown plants...
November 2, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Farzaneh Yazdanpanah, Veronica G Maurino, Tabea Mettler-Altmann, Gonda Buijs, Marlène Bailly, Mansoor Karimi Jashni, Leo Willems, Lidiya I Sergeeva, Loïc Rajjou, Henk W M Hilhorst, Leónie Bentsink
Aging decreases the quality of seeds and results in agricultural and economic losses. The damage that occurs at the biochemical level can alter the seed physiological status. Although loss of viability has been investigated frequently, little information exist on the molecular and biochemical factors involved in seed deterioration and loss of viability. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a major contributor to seed deterioration and several pathways are involved in protection against this. In this study, we show that seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana lacking a functional NADP-MALIC ENZYME 1 (NADP-ME1) have reduced seed viability relative to wild type...
November 2, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Hayato Hiraki, Matsuo Uemura, Yukio Kawamura
Environmental adaptability is essential for plant survival. Though it is well known that a simple cooling or cold shock leads to Ca2+ signals, direct evidence has not been provided that plants use Ca2+ signals as a second messenger in the cold acclimation (CA) process in the field. By developing a technique to analyze Ca2+ signals using confocal cryomicroscopy, we investigated Ca2+ signals under several temperature conditions by combining start temperature, cooling rate, and cooling time duration. In both root and leaf cells, Ca2+ signals rapidly disappeared after cooling stopped, and thereafter under a constant low temperature, no Ca2+ signal was observed...
October 31, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Peipei Wu, Mingsheng Peng, Zhigang Li, Ning Yuan, Qian Hu, Cliff E Foster, Christopher Saski, Guohai Wu, Dongfa Sun, Hong Luo
Plant organ development to a specific size and shape is controlled by cell proliferation and cell expansion. Here, we identify a novel Myb-like Arabidopsis gene, Development Related Myb-like1 (DRMY1), which controls cell expansion in both vegetative and reproductive organs. DRMY1 is strongly expressed in developing organs and its expression is reduced by ethylene while induced by abscisic acid (ABA). DRMY1 has a Myb-like DNA binding domain, which is predominantly localized in the nucleus and does not exhibit transcriptional activation activity...
October 23, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Shota Kato, Yuri Tanno, Shinichi Takaichi, Tomoko Shinomura
Carotenoids participate in photosynthesis and photoprotection in oxygenic phototrophs. Euglena gracilis, an eukaryotic phytoflagellate, synthesizes several carotenoids; β-carotene, neoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, and diatoxanthin. Temperature is one of the most striking external stimuli altering carotenoid production. In the present study, to elucidate the regulation of carotenoid synthesis of E. gracilis in response to environmental stimuli, we functionally identified phytoene desaturase genes (crtP1 and crtP2) and ζ-carotene desaturase gene (crtQ) of this alga and analyzed expression of those genes and composition of major carotenoids in cells grown under cold (20˚C) and high-intensity light (HL, 240 µmol photon m-2 s-1) conditions...
October 22, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Shin-Hee Han, Young-Joon Park, Chung-Mo Park
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as critical signaling mediators in plant adaptation responses to environmental stimuli. Meanwhile, ROS biosynthesis and metabolism should be tightly regulated, because they often impose oxidative damages on biological molecules, such as DNA and proteins, and cellular structures. It is known that at high temperatures, ROS rapidly accumulate in plant tissues. Thus, a quick activation of ROS scavenging systems is necessary for thermal adaptation. However, it is largely unknown how the thermo-induced ROS detoxifying capacity is enhanced by environmental factors at the molecular level...
October 17, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Kwang-Hee Lee, Utku Avci, Liying Qi, Huanzhong Wang
The Aurora kinases are serine/threonine kinases with conserved functions in mitotic cell division in eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, Aurora kinases play important roles in primary meristem maintenance, but their functions in vascular development are still elusive. We report a dominant xdi-d mutant showing xylem development inhibition (XDI) phenotype. Gene identification and transgenic over-expression experiments indicated that the activation of the Arabidopsis Aurora 2 (AtAUR2) gene is responsible for the XDI phenotype...
October 17, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Jian Yang, Meng-Yang Xie, Lan Wang, Zhi-Li Yang, Zhi-Hui Tian, Zhi-Ye Wang, Ji-Ming Xu, Bao-Hui Liu, Liang-Wei Deng, Chuan-Zao Mao, Hong-Hui Lin
Phosphate (Pi), as the main form of phosphorus that can be absorbed by plants, is one of the most limiting macro-nutrients for plants. However, the mechanism for maintaining Pi homeostasis in rice (Oryza sativa) is still not well understood. We identified a Pi-starvation-induced E3 ligase (OsPIE1) in rice. Using an in vitro self-ubiquitination assay, we determined the E3 ligase activities of OsPIE1. Using GUS staining and GFP detection, we analyzed tissue expression patterns of OsPIE1 and the subcellular localization of its encoded protein...
October 17, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Paula da Fonseca-Pereira, Danilo M Daloso, Jorge Gago, Franklin Magnum de Oliveira Silva, Jorge A Condori-Apfata, Igor Florez-Sarasa, Takayuki Tohge, Jean-Philippe Reichheld, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Alisdair R Fernie, Wagner L Araújo
Thioredoxins (Trxs) modulate metabolic responses during stress conditions; however the mechanisms governing the responses of plants subjected to multiple drought events and the role of Trxs under these conditions are not well understood. Here we explored the significance of the mitochondrial Trx system in Arabidopsis following exposure to single and repeated drought events. We analyzed the previously characterized NADPH-dependent Trx reductase A and B double mutant (ntra ntrb) and two independent mitochondrial thioredoxin o1 (trxo1) mutant lines...
October 17, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Bin Xu, Guohui Yu, Hui Li, Zheni Xie, Wuwu Wen, Jing Zhang, Bingru Huang
Chlorophyll (Chl) breakdown is a hallmark of leaf senescence. Protein degradation is tightly associated with accelerated Chl catabolism during leaf senescence. Therefore, blocking or reducing Chl breakdown and thereby improving Chl and leaf protein contents is desirable for agronomic improvement in perennial forage grasses. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is one principle cool-season forage grass in temperate areas throughout the world. In this study, the perennial ryegrass STAYGREEN gene (LpSGR) was cloned and characterized...
October 17, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yuichi Tada, Chisato Endo, Maki Katsuhara, Tomoaki Horie, Mineo Shibasaka, Yoshiki Nakahara, Takamitsu Kurusu
Class II high-affinity potassium transporters (HKTs) proposed to mediate Na+-K+ cotransport in plants, as well as Na+ and K+ homeostasis under K+-starved and saline environments. We identified class II HKTs, namely SvHKT2;1 and SvHKT2;2 (SvHKTs), from the halophytic turf grass, Sporobolus virginicus. SvHKT2;2 expression in S. virginicus was upregulated by NaCl treatment, while SvHKT2;1 expression was assumed to be upregulated by K+ starvation and downregulated by NaCl treatment. Localization analysis revealed SvHKTs predominantly targeted the plasma membrane...
October 16, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Shan Gao, Zhen Chi, Hailong Chen, Zhenbing Zheng, Yuxiang Weng, Guangce Wang
The thylakoid membranes of plants play a critical role in electron transfer and energy fixation, and are highly dynamic. So far, studies on the thylakoid membranes have mainly focused on microalgae and higher plants, yet very little information is available on the macroalgal thylakoids. Here, we studied the structure and organization of the thylakoid membranes in Ulva prolifera, a representative species of the green macroalgae. We found U. prolifera had few but long loosely-stacked membranes which lack the conventional grana found in higher plants...
October 8, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
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