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Plant & Cell Physiology

Jonathan Michael Dragwidge, Brett Andrew Ford, Joanne Rachel Ashnest, Partha Das, Anthony Richard Gendall
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the endosomal localised Na+/H+ antiporters NHX5 and NHX6 regulate ion and pH homeostasis and are important for plant growth and development. However, the mechanism of how these endosomal NHXs function in plant development is not well understood. Auxin modulates plant growth and development through the formation of concentration gradients in plant tissue to control cell division and expansion. Here, we identified a role for NHX5 and NHX6 in the establishment and maintenance of auxin gradients in embryo and root tissues...
May 16, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Fu Guo, Haidao Zhang, Wu Liu, Xingming Hu, Ning Han, Qian Qian, Lin Xu, Hongwu Bian
Callus formation in tissue culture follows the rooting pathway and newly formed callus seems to be a group of root primordium-like cells. However, it is not clear whether there are multiple mechanisms of callus initiation in different species and in different organs. Here we show that the OsIAA11-mediated pathway is specifically and strictly required for callus initiation in the lateral root (LR) formation region of the primary root (PR) but not for callus initiation at the root tip or the stem base in rice...
May 16, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Fang Liu, Yunjian Xu, Guomin Han, Wei Wang, Xiaoyu Li, Beijiu Cheng
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant life, although it is frequently not readily available to crops. Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) can improve plant P levels by inducing the expression of some phosphate (Pi) transporters. Symbiotic Pi uptake by Pi transporters is crucial for AMF colonization and arbuscule dynamics. However, the functions of mycorrhiza-inducible maize Pi transporters are largely unclear. We focused on the interaction between the Pi concentration and AMF colonization in maize, and detecting the induction of Pi transporter...
May 14, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Sakuya Nakamura, Masanori Izumi
Light energy is essential for photosynthetic energy production and plant growth. Chloroplasts in green tissues convert energy from sunlight into chemical energy via the electron transport chain. When the level of light energy exceeds the capacity of the photosynthetic apparatus, chloroplasts undergo a process known as photoinhibition. Since photoinhibition leads to the overaccumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the spreading of cell death, plants have developed multiple systems to protect chloroplasts from strong light...
May 14, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Mayuko Otsubo, Chikako Ikoma, Mariko Ueda, Yumi Ishii, Noriaki Tamura
The functional role of a lipid-associated soluble protein, fibrillin5 (FBN5), was determined with the Arabidopsis thaliana homozygous fbn5-knockout mutant line (SALK_064597) that carries a T-DNA insertion within the FBN5 gene. The fbn5 mutant remained alive, displaying a slow growth and a severe dwarf phenotype. The mutant grown even under growth light conditions at 80 μmol·m-2·s-1 showed a drastic decrease in electron transfer activities around PSII, with little change in electron transfer activities around PSI, a phenomenon which was exaggerated under high light stress...
May 7, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Isha Sharma, Eugenia Russinova
Plant cells rely on numerous membrane-localized receptor kinases for communication with each other as well as with the environment to ensure coordinated growth, development, and survival. Additionally, several families of small secreted peptides have been identified in plants that possibly regulate various developmental processes through activation of specific membrane receptor kinases. In research efforts to elucidate the underlying signaling processes in plants, it has become obvious that knowledge of both the extracellular ligand and its corresponding receptor(s) is a prerequisite to understand cell communication...
May 3, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
You-Liang Cheng, Shih-Long Tu
Alternative splicing (AS) is the main source of proteome diversity that in large part contributes to the complexity of eukaryotes. Recent global analysis of AS with RNA sequencing has revealed that AS is prevalent in plants particularly when responding to environmental changes. Light is one of the most important environmental factors for plant growth and development. To optimize light absorption, plants evolve complex photoreceptors and signaling systems to regulate gene expression and biological processes in the cell...
May 2, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Hsou-Min Li, Chun-Wei Yu
Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) together constitute approximate 80% of chloroplast lipids. Apart from facilitating the photosynthesis light reaction in the thylakoid membrane, these two lipids are important for maintaining chloroplast morphology and for plant survival under abiotic stresses like phosphate starvation and freezing. Recently, it was shown that severe growth retardation phenotypes of the DGDG-deficient mutant dgd1 were due to jasmonate over-production, linking MGDG and DGDG homeostasis with phytohormone production and suggesting MGDG as a major substrate for jasmonate biosynthesis...
May 2, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Jun Takeuchi, Kai Jiang, Kei Hirabayashi, Yusaku Imamura, Yashan Wu, Yuqun Xu, Takuya Miyakawa, Hidemitsu Nakamura, Masaru Tanokura, Tadao Asami
Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones that inhibit shoot branching and act as signals in communications with symbiotic fungi and parasitic weeds in the rhizosphere. SL signaling is mediated by DWARF14 (D14), which is an α/β-hydrolase that cleaves SLs into an ABC tricyclic lactone and a butenolide group (i.e., D-ring). This cleavage reaction (hydrolysis and dissociation) is important for inducing the interaction between D14 and its target proteins, including D3 and D53. In this study, a hydrolysis-resistant SL analog was predicted to inhibit the activation of the D14 receptor, thereby disrupting the SL signaling pathway...
May 2, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Junyan Zhu, Xuewen Wang, Lingxiao Guo, Qingshan Xu, Shiqi Zhao, Fangdong Li, Xiaomei Yan, Shengrui Liu, Chaoling Wei
Oxylipins, including jasmonic acid (JA) and volatiles, are important for signaling in plants, and these are formed by the Lipoxygenases (LOX) enzyme family. There is a large gap in understanding of the underlying molecular basis of their roles in tea plants. Here, we identified eleven CsLOX genes from tea plant (Camellia sinensis), and characterized their phylogeny, gene structure and protein features into three subclasses. We then examined their enzymatic activities, LOX expression and alternative splicing of transcripts during development and in response to abiotic or biotic stresses in tea plants...
May 2, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Mizuho Ichinose, Mamoru Sugita
In land plant organelles, many transcripts are modified by cytidine-to-uridine RNA editing. Target cytidines are specifically recognized by nuclear-encoded pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins via their sequence-specific RNA binding motifs. In the moss Physcomitrella patens, all PPR editing factors have C-terminal E and DYW domains. To examine the contribution of E and DYW domains in RNA editing, we performed a complementation assay using mutated PpPPR_56 and PpPPR_71, which are responsible for mitochondrial editing sites...
April 27, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Keach Murakami, Ryo Matsuda, Kazuhiro Fujiwara
To enable us to analyze the effects of the spectral distribution of light (i.e. light quality) on the photosynthetic electron transport more systematically, we propose a simple mathematical model which describes electron transport reactions under light-limited conditions based on the excitation energy distributed to the photosystems. The model assumes that the rate-limiting photosystem performs the photochemical reaction at its maximum yield, while the yield in the other photosystem is passively down-regulated to equalize the rates of linear electron transport through the photosystems...
April 25, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Masato Nakai
Virtually all chloroplasts in extant photosynthetic eukaryotes derive from a single endosymbiotic event that likely occurred more than a billion years ago between a host eukaryotic cell and a cyanobacterium-like ancestor. Many endosymbiont genes were subsequently transferred to the host nuclear genome, concomitant with the establishment of a system for protein transport through the chloroplast double-membrane envelope. Presently, 2000-3000 different nucleus-encoded chloroplast proteins must be imported into the chloroplast following their synthesis in the cytosol...
April 19, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Huapeng Zhou, Chongwu Wang, Tinghong Tan, Jingqing Cai, Jiaxian He, Honghui Lin
Soil salinity significantly represses plant development and growth. Mechanisms involved sodium (Na+) extrusion and compartmentation, intracellular membrane trafficking as well as redox homeostasis regulation play important roles in plant salt tolerance. In this study, we report that Patellin1 (PATL1), a membrane trafficking-related protein, modulates salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. The T-DNA insertion mutant of PATL1 (patl1) with elevated PATL1 transcription level displays salt-sensitive phenotype. PATL1 partially associates with plasma membrane (PM) and endosomal system, and might participate in regulating membrane trafficking...
April 19, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Miao Liu, Haihua Zhang, Xianzhi Fang, Yongsong Zhang, Chongwei Jin
This study examines the association of auxin with ethylene and nitric oxide (NO) in regulating the magnesium-deficiency-induced root hair development in Arabidopsis thaliana. With magnesium (Mg) deficiency, both ethylene and NO promoted the elevation of root auxin levels in roots by inducing the expression of AUX1, PIN1, and PIN2 transporters. In turn, auxin stimulated ethylene and NO production by activating the activities of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase (ACO), ACC synthase (ACS), nitrate reductase (NR), and NO synthase-like (NOS-L)...
April 16, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Arunee Wongkaew, Koki Asayama, Taisuke Kitaiwa, Shin-Ichi Nakamura, Katsuhiro Kojima, Gary Stacey, Hitoshi Sekimoto, Tadashi Yokoyama, Naoko Ohkama-Ohtsu
The involvement of the Arabidopsis oligopeptide transporter AtOPT6, which was previously shown to uptake GSH when expressed in yeast cells (Cagnac et al. 2004) or in Xenopus Laevis oocytes (Pike et al. 2009), in glutathione (GSH) transport was analyzed using opt6 knockout mutant lines. The concentration of GSH in flowers or siliques was lower in opt6 mutants relative to wild-type plants, suggesting involvement of AtOPT6 in long distant transport of GSH. GSH concentration in phloem sap was similar between opt6 mutants and wild-type plants...
April 14, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Kosuke Fukui, Ken-Ichiro Hayashi
The plant hormone auxin is involved in virtually every aspect of plant growth and development. Chemical genetic approach has greatly contributed to identify important genes in auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling. Molecular genetic technologies and structural information for auxin regulatory components have accelerated the identification and characterization of many novel small molecule modulators in auxin biology. These modulators have been widely utilized to dissect auxin responses. This review will provide an overview of the structure, primary target, in planta activity and application of small molecule modulators in auxin biology...
April 14, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Kenji Nishimura, Tomonao Matsushita, Toshiharu Shikanai, Wataru Sakamoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Miwa Ohnishi, Aya Anegawa, Yuko Sugiyama, Kazuo Harada, Akira Oikawa, Yasumune Nakayama, Fumio Matsuda, Yukiko Nakamura, Ryosuke Sasaki, Chizuko Shichijo, Patrick G Hatcher, Hidehiro Fukaki, Shigehiko Kanaya, Koh Aoki, Mami Yamazaki, Eiichiro Fukusaki, Kazuki Saito, Tetsuro Mimura
We analyzed the metabolites and proteins contained in pure intact vacuoles isolated from Arabidopsis suspension cultured cells using CE (capillary electrophoresis)-MS, FT-ICR (Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance)-MS and LC (Liquid chromatography)-MS. We identified 19 amino acids and 5 organic acids as major primary metabolites in the vacuoles with CE-MS. Further, we identified small amounts of 27 substances including well-known vacuolar molecules, but also some unexpected substances (for example, organic phosphate compounds)...
April 12, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Mei-Yu Sun, Jing-Yi Li, Dong Li, Feng-Jie Huang, Di Wang, Hui Li, Quan Xing, Hui-Bin Zhu, Lei Shi
Drynaria roosii (Nakaike) is a traditional Chinese medicinal fern, known as 'GuSuiBu'. The corresponding effective components of naringin/neoeriocitrin share highly similar chemical structure and medicinal function. Our HPLC-MS/MS results showed that the accumulation of naringin/neoeriocitrin depended on specific tissues or ages. However, little was known about the expression patterns of naringin/neoeriocitrin related genes involved in their regulatory pathways. For lack of the basic genetic information, we applied a combination of SMRT sequencing and SGS to generate the complete and full-length transcriptome of D...
April 12, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
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