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Plant & Cell Physiology

Zhenle Yang, Hongying Ji, Dantong Liu
Cyperus esculentus is unique in that it can accumulate rich oil in tuber. However, the underlying mechanism of tuber oil biosynthesis is still unclear. Our transcriptional analyses of the pathways from pyruvate production up to triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in tuber revealed many distinct species-specific lipid expression patterns from oil seeds and fruits, indicating that in C. esculentus tuber, (1) carbon flux from sucrose toward plastid pyruvate could be produced mostly through cytosolic glycolytic pathway, (2) acetyl-CoA synthetase might be an important contributor to acetyl-CoA formation for plastid fatty acid biosynthesis, (3) expression pattern for stearoyl-ACP desaturase was associated with high oleic acid composition, (4) it was most likely that endoplasmic reticulum-associated acyl-CoA synthetase played a significant role in the export of fatty acids between the plastid and ER, (5) lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP)-δ was most probably related to the formation of DAG pool in Kennedy pathway, (6) diacylglyceroltransacylase 2 (DGAT2) and phospholipid:diacylglycerolacyltransferase 1 (PDAT1) might play crucial roles in tuber oil biosynthesis...
October 13, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Maryam Nourimand, Christopher D Todd
Plants apply various molecular, physiological, and morphological strategies in response to undesirable environmental conditions. One of the possible responses which may contribute to surviving stressful conditions is the accumulation of ureides. Ureides are recognized as important nitrogen-rich compounds involved in recycling nitrogen in plants to support growth and reproduction. Amongst them, allantoin not only serves as a transportable nitrogen-rich compound, but has also been suggested to protect plants from abiotic stresses via minimizing oxidative damage...
October 13, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Namiki Mitani-Ueno, Naoki Yamaji, Jian Feng Ma
Rice requires high silicon (Si) for its high and sustainable yield. The efficient uptake of Si in rice is mediated by two transporters OsLsi1 and OsLsi2, which function as influx and efflux transporters, respectively. Our previous studies showed that the mRNA expression levels of these transporter genes were down-regulated by Si. Herein we investigated the mechanism underlying regulation of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 expression. There was a negative correlation between the expression level of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 and shoot Si accumulation when the rice seedlings were exposed to different Si supply conditions...
October 13, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Bradley W Abramson, Benjamin Kachel, David M Kramer, Daniel C Ducat
In plants, a limited capacity to utilize or export the end products of the Calvin Benson cycle (CB) from photosynthetically-active source cells to non-photosynthetic sink cells can result in reduced carbon capture, photosynthetic electron transport (PET) and lowered photochemical efficiency. The downregulation of photosynthesis caused by reduced capacity to utilize photosynthate has been termed "sink limitation". Recently, several cyanobacterial and algal strains engineered to over-produce target metabolites have exhibited increased photochemistry suggesting possible source-sink regulatory mechanisms may be involved...
October 13, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Jan Mertens, Alex Van Moerkercke, Robin Vanden Bossche, Jacob Pollier, Alain Goossens
Plants produce many bioactive, specialized metabolites to defend themselves when facing various stress situations. Their biosynthesis is directed by a tightly controlled regulatory circuit that is elicited by phytohormones such as jasmonate (JA). The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) bHLH iridoid synthesis 1 (BIS1) and Triterpene Saponin Activating Regulator (TSAR) 1 and 2, from Catharanthus roseus and Medicago truncatula, respectively, all belong to clade IVa of the bHLH protein family and activate distinct terpenoid pathways, thereby mediating monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA) and triterpene saponin (TS) accumulation, respectively, in these two species...
October 1, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Tanja Kühnlenz, Christian Hofmann, Shimpei Uraguchi, Holger Schmidt, Stefanie Schempp, Michael Weber, Brett Lahner, David E Salt, Stephan Clemens
Phytochelatin (PC) synthesis is essential for the detoxification of non-essential metals such as cadmium (Cd). In vitro experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings had indicated a contribution to zinc (Zn) tolerance as well. We addressed the physiological role of PC synthesis in Zn homeostasis of plants under more natural conditions. Growth responses, PC accumulation and leaf ionomes of wild-type and AtPCS1 mutant plants cultivated in different soils representing adequate Zn supply, Zn deficiency and Zn excess were analyzed...
October 1, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Tomohiro Uemura
Membrane trafficking is the fundamental system through which proteins are sorted to their correct destinations in eukaryotic cells. Key regulators of this system include RAB GTPases and SNAREs. Interestingly, numbers of RAB GTPases and SNAREs involved in post-Golgi transport pathways in plant cells are larger than those in animal and yeast cells, suggesting that plants have evolved unique and complex post-Golgi transport pathways. The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is an important organelle that acts as a sorting station in the post-Golgi transport pathways of plant cells...
September 20, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Huajian Zhang, Tongyao Zhao, Peitong Zhuang, Zhiqiang Song, Hui Du, Zhaozhao Tang, Zhimou Gao
SsCut, which functions as an elicitor, can induce plant immunity. In this study, we utilized Nicotiana benthamiana and virus-induced gene silencing to individually decrease the expression of over 2,500 genes. Using this forward genetics approach, several genes were identified that, when silenced, compromised SsCut-triggered cell death based on a cell death assay. A C2H2-type zinc finger gene was isolated from N. benthamiana Sequence analysis indicated that the gene encodes a 27-kDa protein with 253 amino acids containing two typical C2H2-type zinc finger domains; this gene was named NbCZF1 We found that SsCut-induced cell death could be inhibited by virus-induced gene silencing of NbCZF1 in N...
September 20, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Isabel Orf, Doreen Schwarz, Aaron Kaplan, Joachim Kopka, Wolfgang R Hess, Martin Hagemann, Stephan Klähn
Acclimation to low CO2 conditions in cyanobacteria involves the coordinated regulation of genes mainly encoding components of the carbon concentration mechanism (CCM). Making use of several independent microarray datasets a core set of CO2-regulated genes was defined for the model strain Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. On the transcriptional level, the CCM is mainly regulated by the well-characterized transcriptional regulators NdhR (= CcmR) and CmpR. However, the role of an additional regulatory protein, namely cyAbrB2 belonging to the widely distributed AbrB regulator family that was originally characterized in the genus Bacillus, is less defined...
September 16, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Takayuki Sasaki, Yoshiyuki Tsuchiya, Michiyo Ariyoshi, Ryohei Nakano, Koichiro Ushijima, Yasutaka Kubo, Izumi C Mori, Emi Higashiizummi, Ivan Galis, Yoko Yamamoto
The aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT) family of proteins transports malate and/or inorganic anions across plant membranes. To demonstrate the possible role of ALMT genes in tomato fruit development, we focused on SlALMT4 and SlALMT5, the two major genes expressed during fruit development. Predicted proteins were classified into clade-2 of the family many members of which localize to endomembranes. Tissue-specific gene expression was determined using transgenic tomato expressing the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene controlled by their own promoters...
September 11, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Kaichiro Endo, Koichi Kobayashi, Hajime Wada
Anionic lipids, sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG), are major classes of the thylakoid membrane lipids in cyanobacteria and plant chloroplasts. PG is essential for growth and photosynthesis of cyanobacteria, algae and plants, but the requirement for SQDG differs even among cyanobacterial species. Although SQDG and PG can compensate each other in part presumably to maintain proper balance of anionic charge in lipid bilayers, the functional relationship of these lipids is largely unknown...
September 11, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Takushi Hachiya, Nanae Ueda, Munenori Kitagawa, Guy Hanke, Akira Suzuki, Toshiharu Hase, Hitoshi Sakakibara
Ferredoxin : NADP(H) oxidoreductase (FNR) plays a key role in redox metabolism in plastids. Whereas leaf FNR (LFNR) is required for photosynthesis, root FNR (RFNR) is believed to provide electrons to ferredoxin (Fd)-dependent enzymes, including nitrite reductase (NiR) and Fd-glutamine-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (Fd-GOGAT) in non-photosynthetic conditions. In some herbal species, however, most nitrate reductase activity is located in photosynthetic organs, and ammonium in roots is assimilated mainly by Fd-independent NADH-GOGAT...
September 11, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Shin-Nosuke Hashida, Taketo Itami, Kentaro Takahara, Takayuki Hirabayashi, Hirofumi Uchimiya, Maki Kawai-Yamada
NAD is a well-known co-enzyme that mediates hundreds of redox reactions and is the basis of various processes regulating cell responses to different environmental and developmental cues. The regulatory mechanism that determines the amount of cellular NAD and the rate of NAD metabolism remains unclear. We created Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing the NAD synthase (NADS) gene that participates in the final step of NAD biosynthesis. NADS overexpression enhanced the activity of NAD biosynthesis but not the amounts of NAD(+), NADH, NADP(+), or NADPH...
September 1, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Chisato Yamaguchi, Yuki Takimoto, Naoko Ohkama-Ohtsu, Akiko Hokura, Takuro Shinano, Toshiki Nakamura, Akiko Suyama, Akiko Maruyama-Nakashita
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic and non-essential element for plants, whereas phytochelatins and glutathione are low-molecular-weight sulfur compounds that function as chelators and play important roles in detoxification. Cadmium exposure is known to induce the expression of sulfur-assimilating enzymes and sulfate uptake by roots. However, the molecular mechanism underlying Cd-induced changes remains largely unknown. Accordingly, we analyzed the effects of Cd treatment on the uptake and translocation of sulfate and accumulation of thiols in Arabidopsis thaliana Both wild type (WT) and null mutant (sel1-10 and sel1-18) plants of the sulfate transporter SULTR1;2 exhibited growth inhibition when treated with CdCl2 However, the mutant plants exhibited a lower growth rate and lower Cd accumulation...
September 1, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Ambroise Testard, Daniel Da Silva, Mélanie Ormancey, Carole Pichereaux, Cécile Pouzet, Alain Jauneau, Sabine Grat, Eugénie Robe, Christian Brière, Valérie Cotelle, Christian Mazars, Patrice Thuleau
Sphinganine or dihydrosphingosine (d18:0, DHS), one of the most abundant free sphingoid Long Chain Base (LCB) in plants, is known to induce a calcium-dependent programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. In addition, in tobacco BY-2 cells, it has been shown that DHS triggers a rapid production of H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO). Recently, in analogy to what is known in the animal field, plant cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC), a ubiquitous enzyme involved in glycolysis, has been suggested to fulfill other functions associated with its oxidative post-translational modifications such as S-nitrosylation on cysteine residues...
August 31, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Saet Buyl Lee, Hyun Uk Kim, Mi Chung Suh
Aerial plant surfaces are coated by a cuticular wax layer to protect against environmental stresses, such as desiccation. In this study, we investigated the functional relationship between MYB94 and MYB96 transcription factors involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis. Both MYB94 and MYB96 transcripts were abundantly expressed in the aerial organs of Arabidopsis, and significantly induced at the same or similar time-points under conditions of drought. MYB94 complemented the wax-deficient phenotype of the myb96 loss-of-function mutant under both well-watered and drought stress conditions...
August 29, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Hongjia Liu, Qingzhu Li, Feng Yang, Fuyuan Zhu, Yi Sun, Yuezhi Tao, Clive Lo
A low-temperature virescent mutant (osv5a) was isolated from a (60)Coγ-irradiated rice (Oryza sativa) population. At early seedling stage, the mutant exhibits chlorosis phenotype with reduced pigment content at a low temperature (22 °C), but it produces green leaves at normal growth temperature (28 °C). Chlorophyll accumulation is gradually restored in the mutant at 22 °C as it is developing into five-leaf stage. Map-based cloning revealed that OsV5A is a J-like protein with four transmembrane domains. A close homolog OsV5B was also identified in the rice genome...
August 26, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Ken-Ichi Kubo, Mai Tsukahara, Sota Fujii, Kohji Murase, Yuko Wada, Tetsuyuki Entani, Megumi Iwano, Seiji Takayama
Self-incompatibility (SI) in flowering plants is a genetic reproductive barrier to distinguish self- and non-self pollen to promote outbreeding. In Solanaceae, self-pollen is rejected by the ribonucleases expressed in the styles (S-RNases), via its cytotoxic function. On the other side, male-determinant is the S-locus F-box proteins (SLFs) expressed in pollen. Multiple SLFs collaboratively detoxify non-self S-RNases; therefore non-self recognition is the mode of self-/non-self discrimination in Solanaceae. It is considered that SLFs function as a substrate-recognition module of Skp1-Cullin1-F-box (SCF) complex that inactivates non-self S-RNases via their polyubiquitination that leads to degradation by 26S proteasome...
August 26, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Mamoru Ueno, Penporn Sae-Tang, Yuri Kusama, Yukako Hihara, Mami Matsuda, Tomohisa Hasunuma, Yoshitaka Nishiyama
Examination of the effects of high temperature on the photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII) in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 revealed that the extent of photoinhibition of PSII was lower at moderately high temperatures (35 to 42°C) than at 30°C. Photodamage to PSII, as determined in the presence of chloramphenicol, which blocks the repair of PSII, was accelerated at the moderately high temperatures but the effects of repair were greater than those of photodamage. The synthesis de novo of the D1 protein, which is essential for the repair of PSII, was enhanced at 38°C...
August 26, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Masako Fukuda, Yasushi Kawagoe, Takahiro Murakami, Haruhiko Washida, Aya Sugino, Ai Nagamine, Thomas W Okita, Masahiro Ogawa, Toshihiro Kumamaru
The rice glup2 lines are characterized by their abnormally high levels of endosperm 57 kDa proglutelins and of the luminal chaperone binding protein (BiP), features characteristic of a defect within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To elucidate the underlying genetic basis, the glup2 locus was identified by map based cloning. DNA sequencing of the genomes of three glup2 alleles and wild type demonstrated that the underlying genetic basis was mutations in the Golgi transport 1 (GOT1B) coding sequence. This conclusion was further validated by restoration of normal proglutelin levels in a glup2 line complemented by a GOT1B gene...
August 26, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
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