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Plant & Cell Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986078/small-molecule-probes-of-aba-biosynthesis-and-signaling
#1
Wim Dejonghe, Masanori Okamoto, Sean R Cutler
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) mediates many physiological and developmental responses and its key role in plant water relations has fueled efforts to improve crop water productivity by manipulating ABA responses. ABA's core signaling components are encoded by large gene families, which has hampered functional studies using classical genetic approaches due to redundancy. Chemical approaches can complement genetic approaches and have the advantage of delivering both biological probes and potential agrochemical leads; these benefits have spawned the discovery and design of new chemical modulators of ABA signaling and biosynthesis, which have contributed to the identification of ABA receptors and helped to define PYR1 and related subfamily III receptors as key cellular targets for chemically manipulating water productivity...
July 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986119/transcriptome-wide-analysis-reveals-the-origin-of-peloria-in-chinese-cymbidium-cymbidium-sinense
#2
Shihao Su, Xiaoyu Shao, Changfa Zhu, Jiayin Xu, Hanbin Lu, Yuhuan Tang, Keyuan Jiao, Wuxiu Guo, Wei Xiao, Zhongjian Liu, Da Luo, Xia Huang
An orchid flower exhibits zygomorphic corolla with a well-differentiated labellum. In Cymbidium sinense, plenty of varieties with peloric or pseudopeloric flowers have been bred during centuries of domestication. However, little is known about the molecular basis controlling orchid floral zygomorphy and the origin of these varieties. Here, we studied the floral morphogenesis of C. sinense and transcriptome-wide enriched differentially expressed genes among different varieties. The floral zygomorphy of C. sinense is established in the early developmental process...
July 7, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986114/a-super-strong-engineered-auxin-tir1-pair
#3
Ryotaro Yamada, Keiichiro Murai, Naoyuki Uchida, Koji Takahashi, Rie Iwasaki, Yasuomi Tada, Toshinori Kinoshita, Kenichiro Itami, Keiko U Torii, Shinya Hagihara
Auxin regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development through induction of the interaction between TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX proteins (TIR1/AFBs) and AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) co-receptor proteins and the subsequent transcriptional regulation. The artificial control of endogenous auxin signaling should enable the precise delineation of auxin-mediated biological events as well as the agricultural application of auxin. To this end, we previously developed synthetic auxin-receptor pair that consists of 5-(3-methoxyphenyl)-IAA (convexIAA, cvxIAA) and the engineered TIR1 whose Phe at the position of 79 in the auxin binding pocket is substituted to Gly (TIR1F79G) (concaveTIR1, ccvTIR1)...
July 7, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986082/beta-lactam-antibiotics-modify-root-architecture-and-indole-glucosinolate-metabolism-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#4
Marco E Gudiño, Noel Blanco-Touriñán, Vicent Arbona, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas, Miguel A Blázquez, Federico Navarro-García
The presence of antibiotics in soils could be due to natural production by soil microorganisms or to the effect of anthropogenic activities. However, the impact of these compounds on plant physiology has not been thoroughly investigated. To evaluate the effect of beta-lactam antibiotics (carbenicillin and penicillin) on the growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana roots, plants were grown in the presence of different amounts and we found a reduction in root size, an increase in the size of root hairs as well as an abnormal position closer to tip of the roots...
July 6, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986079/identification-and-characterization-of-novel-nemophila-menziesii-flavone-glucosyltransferases-that-catalyze-flavone-7-4-o-diglucoside-a-key-component-of-the-blue-metalloanthocyanin
#5
Naoko Okitsu, Keisuke Matsui, Manabu Horikawa, Kohtaro Sugahara, Yoshikazu Tanaka
The brilliant blue color of the Nemophila menziesii flower is derived from metalloanthocyanin, which consists of anthocyanin (petunidin 3-O-[6-O-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-β-glucoside]-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucoside]), flavone (apigenin 7-O-β-glucoside-4'-O-(6-O-malonyl)-O-β-glucoside), and metal ions (Mg2+, Fe3+). Although the two glucosyl moieties at the apigenin 7-O and 4'-O positions are essential for metalloanthocyanin formation, the mechanism of glucosylation has not yet been clarified. In this study, we used crude protein extract prepared from N...
July 6, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982633/sag12-a-major-cysteine-protease-involved-in-nitrogen-mobilization-during-senescence-for-seed-production-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#6
Maxence James, Marine Poret, Céline Masclaux-Daubresse, Anne Marmagne, Laurent Coquet, Thierry Jouenne, Philippe Chan, Jacques Trouverie, Philippe Etienne
SAG12 is the most widely used senescence-associated reference gene for characterizing leaf senescence, and the increase in SAG12 protein during leaf senescence is remarkable. However, the role of this cysteine protease in N remobilization and the leaf senescence process remains unclear. The role of SAG12 has been poorly investigated and the few reports dealing with this are somewhat controversial. Indeed, sag12 Arabidopsis mutants have not shown any phenotype while OsSAG12-1 and OsSAG12-2 overexpression in rice moderates senescence progression...
July 3, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939322/osysl16-is-required-for-preferential-cu-distribution-to-floral-organs-in-rice
#7
Chang Zhang, Wenhui Lu, Yang Yang, Zhenguo Shen, Jian Feng Ma, Luqing Zheng
Deficiency of copper (Cu) causes low fertility in many plant species, but the molecular mechanisms underlying distribution of Cu to the floral organs are poorly understood. Here, we found that a member of yellow-stripe like (YSL) family, YSL16 encoding the Cu-nicotianamine (Cu- NA) transporter, was highly expressed in the rachilla, with less expression in the palea and lemma of rice (Oryza sativa). GUS staining of transgenic rice carrying OsYSL16 promoter-GUS showed that OsYSL16 was mainly expressed in vascular bundles of rachilla as well as palea and lemma...
June 25, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931201/chemical-activation-of-eds1-pad4-signaling-leading-to-pathogen-resistance-in-arabidopsis
#8
Shachi Joglekar, Mohamed Suliman, Michael Bartsch, Vivek Halder, Jens Maintz, Jaqueline Bautor, Jürgen Zeier, Jane E Parker, Erich Kombrink
In a chemical screen we identified thaxtomin A (TXA), a phytotoxin from plant pathogenic Streptomyces scabies, as a selective and potent activator of Flavin-dependent monooxygenase1 (FMO1) expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). TXA induction of FMO1 was unrelated to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), plant cell death or its known inhibition of cellulose synthesis. TXA-stimulated FMO1 expression was strictly dependent on Enhanced disease susceptibility1 (EDS1) and Phytoalexin deficient4 (PAD4) but independent of salicylic acid (SA) synthesis via Isochorismate synthase1 (ICS1)...
June 21, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931091/disruption-of-polyhydroxybutyrate-synthesis-redirects-carbon-flow-towards-glycogen-synthesis-in-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803-overexpressing-glgc-glga
#9
Velmurugan Rajendran, Aran Incharoensakdi
The photoautotrophic Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis) is known for its α-polyglucan (glycogen) synthesis to serve as a carbon storage compound. In this study, the glgC and glgA overexpressing Synechocystis strain with the disruption of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis (▲GCAX-ΔBK) showed an increased glycogen production. This engineered strain had highest glycogen content of 38.3% (g/g dry cell weight) as compared to 27.4% in the phaA knockout strain (ΔBK) and 34.8% in the glgC/glgA overexpressing strain (▲GCAX) after 20 days growth...
June 21, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931079/small-molecule-toolbox-for-strigolactone-biology
#10
Yuichiro Tsuchiya
Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones associated with diverse developmental processes including plant architecture and stress responses. SLs are exuded to the soil as an ecological signal to attract symbiotic arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi. This ecological mechanism is also used by parasitic plants to detect the presence of host plants and initiate germination. The functional diversity of SLs makes the SL biology so wide that single methodology can barely comprehend. This review describes the theoretical and practical aspects of the design of small-molecule probes that have been used to elucidate the functions of SLs...
June 21, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917161/slpti4-affects-regulation-of-fruit-ripening-seed-germination-and-stress-responses-by-modulating-aba-signaling-in-tomato
#11
Yufei Sun, Bin Liang, Juan Wang, Wenbin Kai, Pei Chen, Li Jiang, Yangwei Du, Ping Leng
Although the role of ethylene-response factor (ERF) Pti4 in disease resistance has been demonstrated in higher plants, it is presently unknown whether the tomato SlPti4 protein plays a role in the regulation of fruit development and the stress response. Here, we show that SlPti4 is involved in the regulation of fruit ripening, seed germination, and responses to drought and Botrytis cinerea infection through adjustments to ABA metabolism and signaling. SlPti4 gene expression is very low early in fruit development, but increases rapidly during ripening and can be induced by exogenous ABA and 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylate (ACC)...
June 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917153/a-sodium-transporter-hvhkt1-1-confers-salt-tolerance-in-barley-via-regulating-tissue-and-cell-ion-homeostasis
#12
Yong Han, Shuya Yin, Lu Huang, Xuelong Wu, Jianbin Zeng, Xiaohui Liu, Long Qiu, Rana Munns, Zhong-Hua Chen, Guoping Zhang
Our previous studies showed that high salt tolerance in Tibetan wild barley accessions was associated with HvHKT1;1, a member of high-affinity potassium transporter family. However, molecular mechanisms of HvHKT1;1 for salt tolerance and its roles in K+/Na+ homeostasis remain to be elucidated. Functional characterization of HvHKT1;1 was conducted in the present study. NaCl-induced transcripts of HvHKT1;1 were significantly higher in the roots of Tibetan wild barley XZ16 relative to other genotypes, being closely associated with its higher biomass and lower tissue Na+ content under salt stress...
June 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917151/synthesis-of-seed-specific-bidirectional-promoters-for-metabolic-engineering-of-anthocyanin-rich-maize
#13
Xiaoqing Liu, Suzhen Li, Wenzhu Yang, Bona Mu, Yong Jiao, Xiaojin Zhou, Chunyi Zhang, Yunliu Fan, Rumei Chen
Tissue-specific promoters play an important role in plant molecular farming. Here, we describe a strategy to modify the tissue specificity of a maize embryo-specific bidirectional promoter PZmBD1. Six types of cis elements: RY repeats (R), GCN4 (G), the prolamin box (P), Skn-1 (S), and the ACGT and AACA (A) motifs, were collected and fused to PZmBD1 to generate eight chimeric putative bidirectional promoters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of reporter genes driven by the promoters showed that two promoters exhibited high seed-specific bidirectional activity in maize transient and stable transformed system...
June 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917144/crassulacean-acid-metabolism-induction-in-mesembryanthemum-crystallinum-can-be-estimated-by-non-photochemical-quenching-upon-actinic-illumination-during-the-dark-period
#14
Tatsuya Matsuoka, Aya Onozawa, Kintake Sonoike, Shin Kore-Eda
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, which switches the mode of photosynthesis from C3 to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) upon high salt stress, was shown here to exhibit diurnal changes in not only CO2 fixation pathway but also chlorophyll fluorescence parameters under CAM-induced conditions. We conducted comprehensive time course measurements of M. crystallinum leaf chlorophyll fluorescence using the same leaf through the CAM-induction period. By doing so, we were able to distinguish the effect of CAM induction from that of photoinhibition and avoid the possible effects of differences in foliar age...
June 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901752/the-multifaceted-roles-of-plant-vacuoles
#15
Enrico Martinoia, Tetsuro Mimura, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura, Katsuhiro Shiratake
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893960/evidences-for-the-involvement-of-auxin-ethylene-and-ros-signaling-during-allelochemical-benzoic-acid-mediated-primary-root-inhibition-of-arabidopsis
#16
Wei Zhang, Li-Ying Lu, Li-Yan Hu, Wei Cao, Kai Sun, Qi-Biao Sun, Md Ashaduzzaman Siddikee, Run-Han Shi, Chuan-Chao Dai
Allelopathy is mediated by plant-derived secondary metabolites (allelochemicals), which are released by donor plants, and affect the growth and development of receptor plants. The plant root is the first organ sensing soil allelochemicals that produces shorter primary root, but the mechanisms underlying this process remain elusive. Here, we reported that a model allelochemical benzoic acid (BA) inhibited primary root elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings by reducing the sizes of both the meristem and elongation zones and that auxin signaling affected this process...
June 8, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893925/unveiling-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-plant-autophagy-from-autophagosomes-to-vacuoles-in-plants
#17
Kohki Yoshimoto, Yoshinori Ohsumi
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular vacuolar process. Since Christian de Duve first coined the term 'autophagy' in 1963, it had not been well understood at the molecular level until much later due to limitations in biochemical approaches and/or morphological approaches posed by electron microscopy. An important milestone was achieved with the isolation and identification of autophagy-related (ATG) genes by genetic screening using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ATG genes are well conserved in most eukaryotic organisms, which has allowed the subsequent isolation of ATG gene-knockouts in plants...
June 8, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893915/a-single-nucleotide-mutation-of-ispe-gene-participating-in-the-mep-pathway-for-isoprenoid-biosynthesis-causes-green-revertible-yellow-leaf-phenotype-in-rice
#18
Nenggang Chen, Pingrong Wang, Chunmei Li, Qian Wang, Jihong Pan, Fuliang Xiao, Yang Wang, Kuan Zhang, Caixia Li, Bin Yang, Changhui Sun, Xiaojian Deng
Plant isoprenoids are dependent on two independent pathways, the cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway and the plastidic methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. IspE is one of seven known enzymes in the MEP pathway. Currently, no IspE gene has been identified in rice. In addition, no virescent mutants have been reported to result from a gene mutation affecting the MEP pathway. In this study, we isolated a green-revertible yellow leaf mutant gry340 in rice. The mutant exhibited a reduced level of photosynthetic pigments, and an arrested development of chloroplasts and mitochondria in its yellow leaves...
June 8, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878281/functional-and-evolutionary-characterization-of-the-constans-like-family-in-lilium-%C3%A3-formolongi
#19
Yu-Fan Li, Yu-Qian Zhao, Meng Zhang, Gui-Xia Jia, Michele Zaccai
Lilium × formolongi is a facultative long day (LD) plant. Aiming to dissect the molecular regulation of the photoperiodic pathway, largely unknown in Lilium, we explored the CONSTANS/FLOWERING LOCUS T (CO/FT) module, a major regulatory factor in the external coincidence model of photoperiodic flowering pathway in lily. We identified eight CONSTANS-LIKE (COL) family members in L. × formolongi, which could be divided into three types, according to their zinc-finger (B-box) protein domains. Type I included only LfCOL5, containing two B-box motifs...
June 6, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878186/systemic-calcium-wave-propagation-in-physcomitrella-patens
#20
Mattia Storti, Alex Costa, Serena Golin, Michela Zottini, Tomas Morosinotto, Alessandro Alboresi
The adaptation to dehydration and rehydration cycles represents a key step in the evolution of photosynthetic organisms and require the development of mechanisms by which to sense external stimuli and translate them into signaling components. In this study, we used genetically encoded fluorescent sensors to detect specific transient increases in the Ca2+ concentration in the moss Physcomitrella patens upon dehydration and rehydration treatment. Observation of the entire plant in a single time-series acquisition revealed that various cell types exhibited different sensitivities to osmotic stress and that Ca2+ waves originated from the basal part of the gametophore and were directionally propagated towards the top of the plant...
June 6, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
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