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Plant & Cell Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329458/three-fatty-acyl-coenzyme-a-reductases-bdfar1-bdfar2-and-bdfar3-are-involved-in-primary-alcohols-biosynthesis-of-cuticular-wax-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#1
Yong Wang, Yulin Sun, Qiuye You, Wenqiao Luo, Cong Wang, Shuai Zhao, Guaiqiang Chai, Tingting Li, Xue Shi, Chunlian Li, Reinhard Jetter, Zhonghua Wang
Plant cuticular wax is a heterogeneous mixture of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and their derivatives. Primary alcohols are the dominant wax components throughout leaf development of Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium). However, the genes involved in primary alcohols biosynthesis have not been investigated and their exact biological function remains currently unclear in Brachypodium to date. Here, we monitored the leaf wax profile and crystal morphology during Brachypodium leaf morphogenesis, and isolated three Brachypodium fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) genes, named BdFAR1, BdFAR2 and BdFAR3, then analyzed their biochemical activities, substrate specificities, expression patterns, subcellular localization, and stress induction...
January 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325168/plant-and-cell-physiology-s-2018-database-issue-and-beyond
#2
Hajime Ohyanagi, Yasukazu Nakamura, Kentaro Yano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325159/a-novel-rice-xylosyltransferase-catalyzes-the-addition-of-2-o-xylosyl-side-chains-onto-the-xylan-backbone
#3
Ruiqin Zhong, Dongtao Cui, Dennis R Phillips, Zheng-Hua Ye
Xylan is a major hemicellulose in both primary walls and secondary walls of grass species. It consists of a linear backbone of β-1,4-linked xylosyl residues that are often substituted with monosaccharides and disaccharides. Xylosyl substitutions directly on the xylan backbone have not been reported in grass species and genes responsible for xylan substitutions in grass species have not been well elucidated. Here, we report functional characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) GT61 glycosyltransferase, XYXT1 (xylan xylosyltransferase1), for its role in xylan substitutions...
January 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325120/strigolactone-biosynthesis-genes-of-rice-is-required-for-the-punctual-entry-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-into-the-roots
#4
Yoshihiro Kobae, Hiromu Kameoka, Yusaku Sugimura, Katsuharu Saito, Ryo Ohtomo, Toru Fujiwara, Junko Kyozuka
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a mutualistic association between most plant species and the ancient fungal phylum Glomeromycota in roots, and it plays a key role in a plant's nutrient uptake from the soil. Roots synthesize strigolactones (SLs), derivatives of carotenoids, and exude them to induce energy metabolism and hyphal branching of AM fungi. Despite the well-documented roles of SLs in the presymbiotic phase, little is known about the role of SLs in the process of root colonization. Here we show that the expansion of root colonization is suppressed in the mutants of rice (Oryza sativa) SL biosynthesis genes, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase D10 and more severely in D17...
January 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301019/mining-of-the-uncharacterized-cytochrome-p450-genes-involved-in-alkaloid-biosynthesis-in-california-poppy-using-a-draft-genome-sequence
#5
Kentaro Hori, Yasuyuki Yamada, Purwanto Ratmoyo, Yohei Minakuchi, Atsushi Toyoda, Hideki Hirakawa, Fumihiko Sato
Land plants produce specialized low-molecular-weight metabolites to adapt to various environmental stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation, pathogen infection, wounding, and animal feeding damage. Due to the large variety of stresses, plants produce various chemicals, particularly plant species-specific alkaloids, through specialized biosynthetic pathways. In this study, using a draft genome sequence and querying known biosynthetic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme-encoding genes, we characterized the P450 genes involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA) biosynthesis in California poppy (Eschscholzia californica), as P450s are key enzymes involved in the diversification of specialized metabolism...
December 29, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300930/-comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-plant-acclimation-to-six-different-long-term-environmental-changes
#6
Dániel Á Carrera, Sebastian Oddson, Jonas Grossmann, Christian Trachsel, Sebastian Streb
Plants are constantly challenged in their natural environment by a range of changing conditions. We investigated the acclimation processes and adaptive plant responses to various long-term mild changes and compared them directly within one experimental setup. Arabidopsis thaliana plants were grown in hydroponic culture for 10 days under controlled abiotic stress (15 °C, 25 °C, salt and osmotic) and in nutrient deficiency (nitrate and phosphate). Plant growth was monitored and proteomic experiments were performed...
December 29, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301030/gsnor-regulates-vnd7-mediated-xylem-vessel-cell-differentiation
#7
Juan Carlos Begara-Morales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294130/control-of-cell-fate-reprogramming-towards-de-novo-shoot-organogenesis
#8
Xin Tian, Chen Zhang, Jian Xu
Many plants have a high regenerative capacity, which can be used to induce de novo organogenesis and produce various valuable plant species and products. In the classic 2-step protocol for de novo shoot organogenesis, small pieces of plant parts or tissues known as explants are initially cultured on an auxin-rich medium to produce a cell mass called callus. Upon transfer to a cytokinin-rich medium, a subpopulation of cells within the callus acquire shoot cell fate and subsequently develop into a fertile shoot...
December 23, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294087/division-of-tasks-defense-by-the-spatial-separation-of-antagonistic-hormone-activities
#9
Kenichi Tsuda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 23, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309666/arabidopsis-phospholipase-c3-is-involved-in-lateral-root-initiation-and-aba-responses-in-seed-germination-and-stomatal-closure
#10
Qianqian Zhang, Ringo van Wijk, Muhammad Shahbaz, Wendy Roels, Bas van Schooten, Joop E M Vermeer, Xavier Zarza, Aisha Guardia, Denise Scuffi, Carlos García-Mata, Debabrata Laha, Phoebe Williams, Leo A J Willems, Wilco Ligterink, Susanne Hoffmann-Benning, Glenda Gillaspy, Gabriel Schaaf, Michel A Haring, Ana M Laxalt, Teun Munnik
Phospholipase C (PLC) is well known for its role in animal signaling, where it generates the second messengers, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) by hydrolyzing the minor phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) upon receptor stimulation. In plants, PLC's role is still unclear, especially because the primary targets of these second messengers are lacking, i.e. the ligand-gated Ca2+ channel and protein kinase C, but also because PIP2 levels are extremely low. Nonetheless, the Arabidopsis genome encodes 9 PLCs...
December 22, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281059/identification-of-c-terminal-regions-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-phytochelatin-synthase-1-specifically-involved-in-activation-by-arsenite
#11
Shimpei Uraguchi, Yuka Sone, Yumika Ohta, Naoko Ohkama-Ohtsu, Christian Hofmann, Natalia Hess, Ryosuke Nakamura, Yasukazu Takanezawa, Stephan Clemens, Masako Kiyono
Phytochelatins (PCs) are major chelators of toxic elements including inorganic As in plant cells. Their synthesis confers tolerance and influences within-plant mobility. Previous studies had shown that various metal/metalloid ions differentially activate PC synthesis. Here we identified C-terminal parts involved in arsenite [As(III)] dependent activation of AtPCS1, the primary Arabidopsis PC synthase. The T-DNA insertion in the AtPCS1 mutant cad1-6 causes a truncation in the C-terminal regulatory domain that differentially affects activation by Cd and Zn...
December 20, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281058/transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-reprogramming-from-roots-to-haustoria-in-the-parasitic-plant-thesium-chinense
#12
Yasunori Ichihashi, Miyako Kusano, Makoto Kobayashi, Kenji Suetsugu, Satoko Yoshida, Takanori Wakatake, Kie Kumaishi, Arisa Shibata, Kazuki Saito, Ken Shirasu
Most of plants show remarkable developmental plasticity in the generation of diverse types of new organs upon external stimuli, allowing them to adapt to their environment. Haustorial formation in parasitic plants is an example of such developmental reprogramming, but its molecular mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we performed field-omics using transcriptomics and metabolomics to profile the molecular switch occurring in haustorial formation of the root parasitic plant, Thesium chinense, collected from its natural habitat...
December 20, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272542/mutation-of-the-ossac1-gene-which-encodes-an-endoplasmic-reticulum-protein-with-an-unknown-function-causes-sugar-accumulation-in-rice-leaves
#13
Xiaoyan Zhu, Wenqiang Shen, Junyang Huang, Tianquan Zhang, Xiaobo Zhang, Yuanjiang Cui, Xianchun Sang, Yinghua Ling, Yunfeng Li, Nan Wang, Fangmin Zhao, Changwei Zhang, Zhenglin Yang, Guanghua He
Sugars are the most abundant organic compounds produced by plants, and can be used to build carbon skeleton and generate energy. The sugar accumulation 1 (OsSAC1) gene encodes a protein with an unknown function that exhibits four N-terminal transmembrane regions and two conserved domains DUF4220 and DUF594 with unknown functions. OsSAC1 was found poorly and specifically expressed at the bottoms of young leaves and in the developing leaf sheathes. Subcellular location results showed that OsSAC1 was co-localized with ER:mCherry and targeted the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
December 20, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272531/leaf-lateral-symmetry1-a-member-of-the-wuschel-related-homeobox3-gene-family-regulates-lateral-outgrowth-of-leaves-in-rice
#14
Eriko Honda, Chow-Lih Yew, Takanori Yoshikawa, Yutaka Sato, Ken-Ichiro Hibara, Jun-Ichi Itoh
In several eudicot species, one copy of each member of the WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) gene family, WOX1 and WOX3, are redundantly or differentially involved in lateral leaf outgrowth, whereas only WOX3 gene regulating the lateral domain of leaf development has been reported in grass. In this study, we show that a WOX3 gene, LEAF LATERAL SYMMETRY1 (LSY1), regulates lateral leaf development in a different manner than that of other duplicated paralogs of WOX3, NARROW LEAF2 (NAL2)/NAL3, in rice. A loss-of-function mutant of LSY1 exhibited an asymmetrical defect from early leaf development, which is different from a symmetric defect in a double loss-of-function mutant of NAL2/3, whereas the expression of both genes was observed in a similar domain in the margins of leaf primordia...
December 20, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272523/cystm-a-novel-non-secreted-cysteine-rich-peptide-family-involved-in-environmental-stresses-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#15
Yang Xu, Zipeng Yu, Di Zhang, Jinguang Huang, Changai Wu, Guodong Yang, Kang Yan, Shizhong Zhang, Chengchao Zheng
The cysteine-rich transmembrane module (CYSTM) is comprised of a small molecular protein family that is found in a diversity of tail-anchored membrane proteins across eukaryotes. This protein family belongs to a novel uncharacteristic non-secreted cysteine-rich peptides (NCRPs) according to their conserved domain and small molecular weight, and genome-wide analysis of this family has not yet been undertaken in plants. In this study, thirteen CYSTM genes were identified and located on 5 chromosomes with diverse densities in Arabidopsis thaliana...
December 20, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272465/wrky71-acts-antagonistically-against-salt-delayed-flowering-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#16
Yanchong Yu, Long Wang, Jiacai Chen, Zhenhua Liu, Chung-Mo Park, Fengning Xiang
Soil salinity affects various aspects of plant growth and development including flowering. Usually, plants showed delayed flowering phenotype under high salinity conditions, whereas some plants will risk their life to continue to grow, thereby escape serious salt stress to achieve reproductive success. However, the molecular mechanisms of the escape strategies are not clear yet. In this work, we report that transcription factor WRKY71 help escape salt stress in Arabidopsis. The expression of the WRKY71 wild type (WT) allele was salinity inducible...
December 20, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253219/sodium-potassium-root-defective1-regulates-flowering-locus-t-expression-via-microrna156-squamosa-promoter-binding-protein-like3-module-in-response-to-potassium-conditions
#17
Katsuya Negishi, Motomu Endo, Mitsutomo Abe, Takashi Araki
To determine flowering time, plants perceive multiple environmental stimuli and integrate these signals in the regulation of a florigen gene, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). It has been known that nutrient availability affects flowering time both in laboratories and fields. Nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) are the three major macronutrients which are important for plant growth and development. Although N and P stimuli can alter the expression of regulators of FT including microRNA156 (miR156) and miR156-targeted transcription factors of the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) family, how K+ conditions affect flowering is still unclear...
December 14, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237058/evolution-and-function-of-the-populus-sabath-family-reveal-that-a-single-amino-acid-change-results-in-a-substrate-switch
#18
Xue-Min Han, Qi Yang, Yan-Jing Liu, Zhi-Ling Yang, Xiao-Ru Wang, Qing-Yin Zeng, Hai-Ling Yang
Evolutionary mechanisms of substrate specificities of enzyme families remain poorly understood. Plant SABATH methyltransferases catalyse methylation of the carboxyl group of various low molecular weight metabolites. Investigation into the functional diversification of the SABATH family in plants could shed light on the evolution of substrate specificities in this enzyme family. Zhao et al. identified 28 SABATH genes from the Populus trichocarpa genome. In this study, we re-annotated the Populus SABATH gene family, and performed molecular evolution, gene expression, and biochemical analyses of this large gene family...
December 11, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237029/organization-of-vascular-cells-in-the-haustorium-of-the-parasitic-flowering-plant-cuscuta-japonica
#19
Kohki Shimizu, Akitaka Hozumi, Koh Aoki
The stem parasite dodder, Cuscuta japonica, has evolved a specialized root-like organ, the haustorium, which is differentiated from stem. In order to uptake water and nutrients, C. japonica reprograms haustorial cells to vascular cells, connecting the host's vascular system to the parasite's. However, little is known about vascular differentiation in haustoria. In this study, we first confirmed the temporal and spatial expression profiles of vascular cell type-specific genes, CjAPL, CjSEOR1, CjWOX4, and CjTED7, to examine whether phloem companion cells, developing sieve elements, procambial cells, and differentiating xylem cells, respectively, are present in the haustoria...
December 11, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228298/seedstor-a-germplasm-information-management-system-and-public-database
#20
R S P Horler, A Turner, P Fretter, M Ambrose
SeedStor (https://www.seedstor.ac.uk) acts as the publicly available database for the seed collections held by the Germplasm Resources Unit (GRU) based at the John Inness Centre, Norwich, UK. The GRU is a national capability supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). The GRU curates' germplasm collections of a range of temperate cereal, legume and Brassica crops and their associated wild relatives as well as precise genetic stocks, near-isogenic lines and mapping populations...
December 8, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
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