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Current Opinion in Hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817402/the-importance-of-natural-killer-cell-killer-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-mismatch-in-transplant-outcomes
#1
Kate Stringaris, Austin J Barrett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, the rules of engagement between natural killer (NK) cells and their targets have become better defined with the identification of an array of NK surface molecules, notably the killer immunoglobulin-like (KIR) receptors and their ligands on target cells through which signals of activation or suppression of NK function are mediated. After allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), the opportunity for NK cell activation can occur both in human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matched and HLA mismatched pairs...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806274/transfusion-related-immunomodulation-a-reappraisal
#2
Lyla A Youssef, Steven L Spitalnik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes current and prior observations regarding transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM) and puts these ideas into a modern immunological context, incorporating concepts from innate, adaptive, and nutritional immunity. We propose that TRIM research focus on determining whether there are specific, well-defined immunosuppressive effects from transfusing 'pure' red blood cells (RBCs) themselves, along with the by-products produced by the stored RBCs as a result of the 'storage lesion...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806273/the-changing-landscape-of-gene-editing-in-hematopoietic-stem-cells-a-step-towards-cas9-clinical-translation
#3
Daniel P Dever, Matthew H Porteus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the discovery two decades ago that programmable endonucleases can be engineered to modify human cells at single nucleotide resolution, the concept of genome editing was born. Now these technologies are being applied to therapeutically relevant cell types, including hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which possess the power to repopulate an entire blood and immune system. The purpose of this review is to discuss the changing landscape of genome editing in hematopoietic stem cells (GE-HSC) from the discovery stage to the preclinical stage, with the imminent goal of clinical translation for the treatment of serious genetic diseases of the blood and immune system...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806272/is-there-a-standard-of-care-for-transfusion-support-of-patients-with-haematological-malignancies
#4
Jingcheng Zhao, Gustaf Edgren, Simon J Stanworth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with haematological malignancies are a high-user group for blood transfusions. Here, we describe the current evidence on transfusion policies in patients with haematological malignancies, based on recent systematic reviews of RCTs. RECENT FINDINGS: Results from six RCTs (1195 participants) suggest that prophylactic platelet transfusions reduce bleeding compared with therapeutic-only use, although the effects varied according to patient diagnosis/treatment plan...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759473/novel-therapeutic-approaches-for-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura
#5
Yvette C Tanhehco, Gowthami Arepally, Ara Metjian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is an immune-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy caused by antibodies to ADAMTS13 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase with a ThromboSpondin type 1 motif, member 13). Standard treatment with therapeutic plasma exchange and immunosuppression with steroids results in high remission and low mortality rates. However, a number of patients remain refractory to frontline therapy and/or experience multiple relapses. This study reviews emerging therapies for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura...
July 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719385/prevention-of-hemolytic-disease-of-the-fetus-and-newborn-what-have-we-learned-from-animal-models
#6
Yoelys Cruz-Leal, Danielle Marjoram, Alan H Lazarus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to highlight recent advances in our understanding of how anti-red blood cell (RBC) antibodies prevent erythrocyte immunization with an emphasis on new murine models. RECENT FINDINGS: New murine models with clinically relevant human erythrocyte antigens have been used to understand the alloimmunization process and its inhibition. The search to elucidate the mechanism of action of IgG-mediated inhibition of erythrocyte alloimmunization has provided new evidence in support of a potential role for epitope masking, immune deviation and/or antigen modulation in this process...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719386/is-there-a-standard-of-care-for-transfusion-therapy-in-thalassemia
#7
Massimo Franchini, Gian L Forni, Giancarlo M Liumbruno
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Thalassemia is the most common form of inherited anemia, characterized by variable clinical phenotypes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the transfusion support in thalassemia patients and the management of transfusion-related iron overload. RECENT FINDINGS: The most recent evidence on transfusion strategy and iron chelation therapy in thalassemia arising from clinical trials as well as from recommendation guidelines are critically discussed...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767490/editorial-introduction
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731874/novel-targets-for-anticoagulants-lacking-bleeding-risk
#9
Julia K Bickmann, Trevor Baglin, Joost C M Meijers, Thomas Renné
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Arterial and venous thromboembolic diseases are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and present a major medical burden. Currently used anticoagulants for the prevention or treatment of thromboembolic events including heparins, vitamin K-antagonists and inhibitors of thrombin or factor Xa target enzymes of the coagulation cascade that are critical for fibrin formation. However, fibrin is also necessary for hemostatic mechanisms to terminate blood loss at injury sites...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692575/rendering-factor-xa-zymogen-like-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-to-treat-bleeding
#10
Nabil K Thalji, Rodney M Camire
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: New therapies are needed to control bleeding in a range of clinical conditions. This review will discuss the biochemical properties of zymogen-like factor Xa, its preclinical assessment in different model systems, and future development prospects. RECENT FINDINGS: Underlying many procoagulant therapeutic approaches is the rapid generation of thrombin to promote robust clot formation. Clinically tested prohemostatic agents (e.g., factor VIIa) can provide effective hemostasis to mitigate bleeding in hemophilia and other clinical situations...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678029/introduction-to-current-issue
#11
Alvin H Schmaier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661939/interactions-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptide-with-fibrinogen-and-coagulation-factor-xii-may-contribute-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Hyung J Ahn, Zu-Lin Chen, Daria Zamolodchikov, Erin H Norris, Sidney Strickland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the evidence that the Alzheimer peptide β-amyloid interacts with the blood coagulation system and influences the pathophysiology of the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: β-amyloid can interact with fibrinogen and blood coagulation factor XII and trigger ischemia and inflammation. SUMMARY: β-amyloid interacts with fibrinogen and factor XII. These interactions can lead to increased clotting, abnormal clot formation, persistent fibrin deposition, and generation of proinflammatory molecules...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650849/the-ins-and-outs-of-endocytic-trafficking-in-platelet-functions
#13
Meenakshi Banerjee, Sidney W Whiteheart
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although platelet endocytosis has been recognized in granule cargo loading and the trafficking of several platelet surface receptors, its acute physiological relevance is poorly understood as is its mechanism. The present review discusses the current understanding of platelet endocytosis and its implications for platelet function. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies are beginning to identify and define the proteins that mediate platelet endocytosis...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650848/ser-thr-protein-kinase-b%C3%AE-nadph-oxidase-2-signaling-in-thromboinflammation
#14
Jing Li, Jaehyung Cho
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interactions between neutrophils and platelets contribute to the progression of thromboinflammatory disease. However, the regulatory mechanism governing these interactions is poorly understood. The present review focuses on the crucial role of Ser/Thr protein kinase B (AKT)β-NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) signaling in regulating neutrophil and platelet activation and their heterotypic interactions under thromboinflammatory conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Growing evidence has shown that platelets, leukocytes, and blood coagulation need to be considered to treat thromboinflammatory disease in which inflammation and thrombosis occur concurrently...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632502/targeting-activated-protein-c-to-treat-hemophilia
#15
Stéphanie G I Polderdijk, Trevor P Baglin, James A Huntington
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hemophilia is a debilitating disease, marked by frequent, painful bleeding events, joint deterioration and early death. All current treatments consist of i.v. infusions of replacement factor or other procoagulant factors, and are incompletely effective, due in part to the short half-lives of the proteins. An alternative approach is to rebalance hemostasis by inhibiting natural anticoagulant mechanisms. In this article, we explain why activated protein C (APC) is an appropriate and safe target for the treatment of hemophilia...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604413/single-chain-factor-xii-a-new-form-of-activated-factor-xii
#16
Ivan Ivanov, Anton Matafonov, David Gailani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exposure of blood to foreign surfaces induces reciprocal conversion of the plasma proteins factor XII (fXII) and plasma prekallikrein (PPK) to the proteases α-fXIIa and α-kallikrein. This process, called contact activation, has a range of effects on host defence mechanisms, including promoting coagulation. The nature of the triggering mechanism for contact activation is debated. One hypothesis predicts that fXII has protease activity, either intrinsically or upon surface-binding, that initiates contact activation...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598864/advances-in-vascular-thiol-isomerase-function
#17
Robert Flaumenhaft
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review will provide an overview of several recent advances in the field of vascular thiol isomerase function. RECENT FINDINGS: The initial observation that protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) functions in thrombus formation occurred approximately a decade ago. At the time, there was little understanding regarding how PDI or other vascular thiol isomerases contribute to thrombosis. Although this problem is far from solved, the past few years have seen substantial progress in several areas that will be reviewed in this article...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582314/angiopoietins-and-tie2-in-vascular-inflammation
#18
Samir M Parikh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As a subset of the organism-wide reaction to severe infection, the host vascular response has received increasing attention in recent years. The transformation that small blood vessels undergo to facilitate the clearance of pathogens may become harmful to the host if it occurs too broadly or if it is sustained too long. Adverse clinical manifestations of leaky and inflamed blood vessels include edema impairing the function of critical organs and circulatory shock. RECENT FINDINGS: The study suggests that this host vascular response may be both measurable and potentially targetable...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594662/patient-derived-tumor-xenografts-of-lymphoproliferative-disorders-are-they-surrogates-for-the-human-disease
#19
Marco Pizzi, Giorgio Inghirami
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDTXs) have emerged as powerful platforms in medical oncology. A plethora of PDTXs were generated to study solid cancers, but limited data are as yet available on hematological diseases. The aim of this review is to describe the state of art of lymphoma PDTXs, discussing future directions for the development of integrated/personalized cancer programs. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last decades, several PDTXs of lymphoproliferative disorders have been produced...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594661/paracrine-regulation-of-normal-and-malignant-hematopoiesis
#20
Wanxing Chai-Ho, John P Chute
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The paradigm of niche-regulation of hematopoiesis has rapidly and substantially evolved within the last 12 months. Here, we will review the most critical advances in understanding of paracrine regulation of normal and malignant hematopoietic stem cell fate during the past year. RECENT FINDINGS: Several novel paracrine mechanisms have been recently identified, highlighting the function of mesenchymal progenitor cells, osteoprogenitor cells and endothelial cells in regulating hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and regeneration...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
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