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Current Opinion in Hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306669/role-of-shp2-in-hematopoiesis-and-leukemogenesis
#1
Ruchi Pandey, Mallika Saxena, Reuben Kapur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2), encoded by PTPN11 plays an important role in regulating signaling from cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases during normal development as well as oncogenesis. Herein we review recently discovered roles of SHP2 in normal and aberrant hematopoiesis along with novel strategies to target it. RECENT FINDINGS: Cell autonomous role of SHP2 in normal hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis has long been recognized...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306668/a-role-for-intracellular-and-extracellular-dek-in-regulating-hematopoiesis
#2
Maegan L Capitano, Hal E Broxmeyer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell fate decision during hematopoiesis is regulated by intracellular and extracellular signals such as transcription factors, growth factors, and cell-to-cell interactions. In this review, we explore the function of DEK, a nuclear phosphoprotein, on gene regulation. We also examine how DEK is secreted and internalized by cells, and discuss how both endogenous and extracellular DEK regulates hematopoiesis. Finally, we explore what currently is known about the regulation of DEK during inflammation...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306667/an-enlightening-year-in-vascular-biology
#3
Edward F Plow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306666/new-biomarkers-and-imaging-approaches-for-the-diagnosis-of-deep-venous-thrombosis
#4
Jordan K Schaefer, Benjamin Jacobs, Thomas W Wakefield, Suman L Sood
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Symptoms suggestive of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are extremely common in clinical practice, but unfortunately nonspecific. In both ambulatory and inpatient settings, clinicians are often tasked with evaluating these concerns. Here, we review the most recent advances in biomarkers and imaging to diagnose lower extremity DVT. RECENT FINDINGS: The modified Wells score remains the most supported clinical decision rule for risk stratifying patients...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306665/molecular-mechanisms-that-mediate-invasion-and-egress-of-malaria-parasites-from-red-blood-cells
#5
Aditi Alaganan, Pallavi Singh, Chetan E Chitnis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malaria parasites invade and multiply in diverse host cells during their complex life cycle. Some blood stage parasites transform into male and female gametocytes that are transmitted by female anopheline mosquitoes. The gametocytes are activated in the mosquito midgut to form male and female gametes, which egress from RBCs to mate and form a zygote. Here, we will review our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that mediate invasion and egress by malaria parasites at different life cycle stages...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306664/kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factors-in-endothelial-cell-biology
#6
Eugene Chang, Lalitha Nayak, Mukesh K Jain
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are a family of transcription factors that regulate integral functions of endothelial cells including inflammation, proliferation, growth, apoptosis, cell differentiation and plasticity, and migration. This review will focus on the role of KLFs in physiological activity and their loss in vascular pathology. RECENT FINDINGS: New studies have pointed at the role of microRNAs as repressors of KLFs in atherosclerotic areas providing another level of signaling regulation of KLFs...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212190/endothelial-cell-disease-emerging-knowledge-from-cerebral-cavernous-malformations
#7
Maria Grazia Lampugnani, Matteo Malinverno, Elisabetta Dejana
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endothelial cells dysfunctions are crucial determinants of several human diseases. We review here the most recent reports on endothelial cell defects in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs), particularly focusing on adherens junctions. CCM is a vascular disease that affects specifically the venous microvessels of the central nervous system and which is caused by loss-of-function mutation in any one of the three CCM genes (CCM1, 2 or 3) in endothelial cells. The phenotypic result of these mutations are focal vascular malformations that are permeable and fragile causing neurological symptoms and occasionally haemorrhagic stroke...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212189/wnt-signaling-in-the-vessel-wall
#8
Lina Badimon, Maria Borrell-Pages
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Wnt signaling plays a crucial role during embryogenesis. In an adult, Wnt is mainly associated to cellular proliferation and differentiation mechanisms. Recent data suggest that Wnt signaling is involved in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. However, the roles of Wnt signaling pathways in the vessel wall are poorly understood. This review outlines recent discoveries in understanding the role of Wnt pathways in healthy and atherosclerotic vessels. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last years, the involvement of both canonical and noncanonical Wnt pathways in the development of atherosclerotic lesions has been recognized...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212192/genetic-control-of-erythropoiesis
#9
Laxminath Tumburu, Swee Lay Thein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The discovery of several genetic variants associated with erythroid traits and subsequent elucidation of their functional mechanisms are exemplars of the power of the new genetic and genomic technology. The present review highlights findings from recent genetic studies related to the control of erythropoiesis and dyserythropoiesis, and fetal hemoglobin, an erythroid-related trait. RECENT FINDINGS: Identification of the genetic modulators of erythropoiesis involved two approaches: genome-wide association studies (GWASs) using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays that revealed the common genetic variants associated with erythroid phenotypes (hemoglobin, red cell count, MCV, MCH) and fetal hemoglobin; and massive parallel sequencing such as whole genome sequencing (WGS) and whole exome sequencing (WES) that led to the discovery of the rarer variants (GFI1B, SBDS, RPS19, PKLR, EPO, EPOR, KLF1, GATA1)...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212191/endothelial-cell-metabolism-an-update-anno-2017
#10
Laure-Anne Teuwen, Nihed Draoui, Charlotte Dubois, Peter Carmeliet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endothelial cell metabolism has recently emerged as an important coregulator of angiogenesis and is therefore a promising new target in various angiogenesis-associated illnesses, like cancer. In this review, we discuss recent insights in endothelial cell metabolism in both physiological and pathological conditions and discuss possible translational implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Two metabolic pathways that determine the performance of endothelial cells are glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO)...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178039/rap1-in-endothelial-biology
#11
Magdalena Chrzanowska-Wodnicka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ubiquitously-expressed small GTPase Rap1 is a key modulator of integrin- and cadherin-regulated processes. In endothelium, Rap1 promotes angiogenesis and endothelial barrier function, acting downstream from cAMP-activated Rap1GEF, Epac. Recent in-vivo studies in mouse models have provided more information about the physiological role of Rap1 in vessel development and after birth under normal and pathologic conditions. Important molecular details of dynamic regulation of endothelial barrier are uncovered...
February 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178038/p-selectin-glycoprotein-ligand-1-in-t-cells
#12
Michael Abadier, Klaus Ley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) as a selectin and chemokine-binding adhesion molecule. PSGL-1 is widely studied in neutrophils. Here, we focus on T cells, because PSGL-1 was recently described as a major immunomodulatory molecule during viral infection. PSGL-1 also plays a crucial role in T-cell homeostasis by binding to lymphoid chemokines, and can induce tolerance by enhancing the functions of regulatory T cells. RECENT FINDINGS: PSGL-1 was originally described as a leukocyte ligand for P-selectin, but it is actually a ligand for all selectins (P-, L- and E-selectin), binds chemokines, activates integrins and profoundly affects T-cell biology...
February 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157724/orchestration-of-late-events-in-erythropoiesis-by-klf1-eklf
#13
Merlin Nithya Gnanapragasam, James J Bieker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Transcriptional regulators provide the molecular and biochemical basis for the cell specific properties and characteristics that follow from their central role in establishing tissue-restricted expression. Precise and sequential control of terminal cell divisions, nuclear condensation, and enucleation are defining characteristics within erythropoietic differentiation. This review is focused on KLF1, a central global regulator of this process. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in the past year have brought a number of proteins that are targets of KLF1 regulation into focus with respect to their roles in terminal erythroid differentiation...
February 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118224/acute-hepatic-and-erythropoietic-porphyrias-from-ala-synthases-1-and-2-to-new-molecular-bases-and-treatments
#14
Hana Manceau, Laurent Gouya, Hervé Puy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many studies over the past decade have together identified new genes including modifier genes and new regulation and pathophysiological mechanisms in inherited inborn diseases of the heme biosynthetic pathway. A new porphyria has been characterized: X-linked protoporphyria and the perspective to have innovative treatment at very short-term became a reality. We will summarize how recent data on both ALAS1 and ALAS2 have informed our understanding of disease pathogenesis with an emphasis on how this information may contribute to new therapeutic strategies...
January 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118223/rna-splicing-during-terminal-erythropoiesis
#15
John G Conboy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Erythroid progenitors must accurately and efficiently splice thousands of pre-mRNAs as the cells undergo extensive changes in gene expression and cellular remodeling during terminal erythropoiesis. Alternative splicing choices are governed by interactions between RNA binding proteins and cis-regulatory binding motifs in the RNA. This review will focus on recent studies that define the genome-wide scope of splicing in erythroblasts and discuss what is known about its regulation...
January 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118222/maintenance-and-regulation-of-asymmetric-phospholipid-distribution-in-human-erythrocyte-membranes-implications-for-erythrocyte-functions
#16
Nobuto Arashiki, Yuichi Takakuwa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article summarizes new insights in the molecular mechanisms for the maintenance and regulation of the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in human erythrocyte membranes. We focus on phosphatidylserine, which is primarily found in the inner leaflet of the membrane lipid bilayer under low Ca conditions (<1 μmol/l) and is exposed to the outer leaflet under elevated Ca concentrations (>1 μmol/l), when cells become senescent. Clarification of the molecular basis of phosphatidylserine flipping and scrambling is important for addressing long-standing questions regarding phosphatidylserine functions...
January 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099275/characterization-regulation-and-targeting-of-erythroid-progenitors-in-normal-and-disordered-human-erythropoiesis
#17
Brian M Dulmovits, Jimmy Hom, Anupama Narla, Narla Mohandas, Lionel Blanc
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The erythroid progenitors burst-forming unit-erythroid and colony-forming unit-erythroid have a critical role in erythropoiesis. These cells represent a heterogeneous and poorly characterized population with modifiable self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation capabilities. This review focuses on the current state of erythroid progenitor biology with regard to immunophenotypic identification and regulatory programs. In addition, we will discuss the therapeutic implications of using these erythroid progenitors as pharmacologic targets...
January 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072603/dyserythropoiesis-of-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#18
Carine Lefèvre, Sabrina Bondu, Salomé Le Goff, Olivier Kosmider, Michaela Fontenay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are heterogeneous diseases of the hematopoietic stem cell in the elderly. Anemia is the main symptom that mostly correlates with dysplastic erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. We will review the recent advances in understanding the diverse mechanisms of dyserythropoiesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Dyserythropoiesis defined as 10% dysplastic erythroid cells in the bone marrow is found in more than 80% of early MDS. Immature erythroblasts accumulate at the expense of mature erythroblasts due to differentiation arrest and apoptosis...
January 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141615/editorial-introduction
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099274/can-any-patients-with-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-outside-of-a-clinical-trial-have-their-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-discontinued
#20
Michael J Mauro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article critically appraises the state of treatment-free remission as a strategy for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in deep remission after therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). RECENT FINDINGS: Approximately half of patients with CML defined fairly narrowly by trial criteria - TKI sensitive, in deep molecular remission for a defined period - can successfully maintain protective levels of response after TKI cessation...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
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