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Current Opinion in Hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049086/editorial-myeloid-biology-issue-2018
#1
David C Dale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035909/dysregulated-myelopoiesis-and-hematopoietic-function-following-acute-physiologic-insult
#2
Tyler J Loftus, Alicia M Mohr, Lyle L Moldawer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe recent findings in the context of previous work regarding dysregulated myelopoiesis and hematopoietic function following an acute physiologic insult, focusing on the expansion and persistence of myeloid-deriver suppressor cells, the deterioration of lymphocyte number and function, and the inadequacy of stress erythropoiesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Persistent myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) expansion among critically ill septic patients is associated with T-cell suppression, vulnerability to nosocomial infection, chronic critical illness, and poor long-term functional status...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016383/pathogenesis-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-in-the-female-reproductive-tract-neutrophilic-host-response-sustained-infection-and-clinical-sequelae
#3
Jacqueline S Stevens, Alison K Criss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gonorrhea is a major global health concern, caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The main clinical feature of acute gonorrhea is neutrophilic influx that is unable to clear infection. Women of reproductive age are predominantly at risk for serious sequelae of gonorrhea, including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. This review will highlight how neutrophils are recruited to the female reproductive tract (FRT) in response to N. gonorrhoeae, how N...
October 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984748/clozapine-induced-agranulocytosis-granulocytopenia-mechanisms-and-monitoring
#4
Michał Wiciński, Mateusz M Węclewicz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clozapine-induced agranulocytosis/granulocytopenia (CIAG) is an uncommon condition, but potentially fatal in consequences. The pathogenesis, despite multiple experiments, is not fully elucidated. The current theory suggests reactive oxygen species - nitrenium ion as the most important factor of CIAG. In this review, mechanism and monitoring of CIAG will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: The mechanism of CIAG seems to have an autoimmune background, rather than toxic...
October 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937404/genotyping-to-prevent-rh-disease-has-the-time-come
#5
C Ellen van der Schoot, Masja de Haas, Frederik Banch Clausen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we analyzed the current literature on noninvasive fetal RHD typing to answer the question whether the administration of RhIg to prevent D-alloimmunization during pregnancy can be safely guided by fetal RHD typing. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently the first centers that implemented large-scale nationwide fetal RHD typing in the second trimester for targeted RhIg administration have published their studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of their screening programs...
September 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914667/metabolic-regulation-of-macrophages-in-tumor-microenvironment
#6
Jaehong Kim, Jong-Sup Bae
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Insight into the metabolic changes in cancer has become so important that cancer is regarded as a disease entity full of metabolic implications. We summarize the recent findings pertaining to cancer cell-derived metabolic changes that regulate the function of macrophages to favor cancer cell survival, and the reported approaches to reverse these changes. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the observation and dramatic revitalization of the Warburg effect, metabolic changes were thought to be confined in cancer cells...
September 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914666/the-regulation-and-importance-of-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1
#7
Vanessa Bianconi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Stephen L Atkin, Matteo Pirro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, a chemokine regulating monocyte chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte differentiation by binding to the CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, atherosclerosis and cancer. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the regulation and importance of the MCP-1/CCR2 axis, focusing on the therapeutic potential of its inhibition. RECENT FINDINGS: Differential modulation of MCP-1 and CCR2 lead to downstream activation pathways, pathogenetic to differing disease conditions characterized by dysregulated monocyte/macrophage tissue recruitment...
September 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817402/the-importance-of-natural-killer-cell-killer-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-mismatch-in-transplant-outcomes
#8
Kate Stringaris, Austin J Barrett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, the rules of engagement between natural killer (NK) cells and their targets have become better defined with the identification of an array of NK surface molecules, notably the killer immunoglobulin-like (KIR) receptors and their ligands on target cells through which signals of activation or suppression of NK function are mediated. After allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), the opportunity for NK cell activation can occur both in human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matched and HLA mismatched pairs...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806274/transfusion-related-immunomodulation-a-reappraisal
#9
Lyla A Youssef, Steven L Spitalnik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes current and prior observations regarding transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM) and puts these ideas into a modern immunological context, incorporating concepts from innate, adaptive, and nutritional immunity. We propose that TRIM research focus on determining whether there are specific, well-defined immunosuppressive effects from transfusing 'pure' red blood cells (RBCs) themselves, along with the by-products produced by the stored RBCs as a result of the 'storage lesion...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806273/the-changing-landscape-of-gene-editing-in-hematopoietic-stem-cells-a-step-towards-cas9-clinical-translation
#10
Daniel P Dever, Matthew H Porteus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the discovery two decades ago that programmable endonucleases can be engineered to modify human cells at single nucleotide resolution, the concept of genome editing was born. Now these technologies are being applied to therapeutically relevant cell types, including hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which possess the power to repopulate an entire blood and immune system. The purpose of this review is to discuss the changing landscape of genome editing in hematopoietic stem cells (GE-HSC) from the discovery stage to the preclinical stage, with the imminent goal of clinical translation for the treatment of serious genetic diseases of the blood and immune system...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985194/current-status-of-blood-pharming-megakaryoctye-transfusions-as-a-source-of-platelets
#11
Kandace Gollomp, Michele P Lambert, Mortimer Poncz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Donor-derived platelets have proven to be of hemostatic value in many clinical settings. There is a fear that the need for platelets may outgrow the donor pool in first-world countries. Moreover, there are other challenges with donor platelets that add to the impetus to find an alternative platelet source, especially after the megakaryocyte cytokine thrombopoietin was identified. Megakaryocytes have since been differentiated from numerous cell sources and the observed released platelet-like particles (PLPs) have led to calls to develop such products for clinical use...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985193/medical-and-policy-considerations-for-nuclear-and-radiation-accidents-incidents-and-terrorism
#12
Robert Peter Gale
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to address the increasing medical and public concern regarding the health consequences of radiation exposure, a concern shaped not only by fear of another Chernobyl or Fukushima nuclear power facility accident but also by the intentional use of a nuclear weapon, a radiological dispersion device, a radiological exposure device, or an improved nuclear device by rogue states such as North Korea and terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda and ISIS...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877042/hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-for-aplastic-anemia
#13
Rajat Kumar, Carmem Bonfim, Biju George
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Improvements in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with better donor selection, conditioning regimens and graft vs. host disease prophylaxis make it reasonable to move HCT earlier in the algorithm for management of severe aplastic anemia (SAA). Recent progress in transplantation is reviewed whereas issues related to developing countries are also addressed. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple research centers are reporting on clonality, mutations and telomere disorders in SAA, which may help to choose the most appropriate therapy upfront...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832355/prehospital-hemostatic-resuscitation-to-achieve-zero-preventable-deaths-after-traumatic-injury
#14
Philip C Spinella, Andrew P Cap
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe how hemostatic resuscitation can be used in the prehospital phase of resuscitation to reduce preventable deaths after traumatic injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Hemorrhagic shock is the leading cause of death that is preventable after injury. The National Academy of Sciences, recently, recommended that achievement of zero preventable deaths after traumatic injury should be the goal of a national trauma system. In the United States, there are an estimated 25 000 preventable deaths per year in the prehospital phase of resuscitation because of traumatic hemorrhagic shock...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832354/autologous-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-of-mantle-cell-lymphoma-emerging-trends
#15
Umberto Falcone, John Kuruvilla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The management of mantle cell lymphoma has changed significantly with the adoption of immunochemotherapy and dose intensive treatment strategies in specific patient populations. Randomized controlled trials have established the role of rituximab-based treatments and autologous stem cell transplantation as standards of care. Novel therapeutics are also being integrated into these treatment strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Rituximab-based primary treatment has been shown to significantly improve complete remission rates...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832353/allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-myelofibrosis
#16
Noa Lavi, Jacob M Rowe, Tsila Zuckerman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only curative therapy for myelofibrosis. The number of HSCTs performed for this indication has been steadily increasing over the past years, even after the approval of the Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, ruxolitinib. This increase may be attributed to improved patient selection based on new prognostic molecular markers, more frequent use of matched unrelated donors, secondary to better (high-resolution) human leukocyte antigen typing and supportive care...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806272/is-there-a-standard-of-care-for-transfusion-support-of-patients-with-haematological-malignancies
#17
Jingcheng Zhao, Gustaf Edgren, Simon J Stanworth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with haematological malignancies are a high-user group for blood transfusions. Here, we describe the current evidence on transfusion policies in patients with haematological malignancies, based on recent systematic reviews of RCTs. RECENT FINDINGS: Results from six RCTs (1195 participants) suggest that prophylactic platelet transfusions reduce bleeding compared with therapeutic-only use, although the effects varied according to patient diagnosis/treatment plan...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759473/novel-therapeutic-approaches-for-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura
#18
Yvette C Tanhehco, Gowthami Arepally, Ara Metjian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is an immune-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy caused by antibodies to ADAMTS13 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase with a ThromboSpondin type 1 motif, member 13). Standard treatment with therapeutic plasma exchange and immunosuppression with steroids results in high remission and low mortality rates. However, a number of patients remain refractory to frontline therapy and/or experience multiple relapses. This study reviews emerging therapies for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767490/editorial-introduction
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731874/novel-targets-for-anticoagulants-lacking-bleeding-risk
#20
Julia K Bickmann, Trevor Baglin, Joost C M Meijers, Thomas Renné
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Arterial and venous thromboembolic diseases are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and present a major medical burden. Currently used anticoagulants for the prevention or treatment of thromboembolic events including heparins, vitamin K-antagonists and inhibitors of thrombin or factor Xa target enzymes of the coagulation cascade that are critical for fibrin formation. However, fibrin is also necessary for hemostatic mechanisms to terminate blood loss at injury sites...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
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