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Current Opinion in Hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099275/characterization-regulation-and-targeting-of-erythroid-progenitors-in-normal-and-disordered-human-erythropoiesis
#1
Brian M Dulmovits, Jimmy Hom, Anupama Narla, Narla Mohandas, Lionel Blanc
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The erythroid progenitors burst-forming unit-erythroid and colony-forming unit-erythroid have a critical role in erythropoiesis. These cells represent a heterogeneous and poorly characterized population with modifiable self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation capabilities. This review focuses on the current state of erythroid progenitor biology with regard to immunophenotypic identification and regulatory programs. In addition, we will discuss the therapeutic implications of using these erythroid progenitors as pharmacologic targets...
January 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099274/can-any-patients-with-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-outside-of-a-clinical-trial-have-their-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-discontinued
#2
Michael J Mauro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article critically appraises the state of treatment-free remission as a strategy for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in deep remission after therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). RECENT FINDINGS: Approximately half of patients with CML defined fairly narrowly by trial criteria - TKI sensitive, in deep molecular remission for a defined period - can successfully maintain protective levels of response after TKI cessation...
January 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099273/making-the-most-of-hypomethylating-agents-in-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#3
Geetika Bhatt, William Blum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypomethylating agents (HMA) are the preferred therapy for patients with higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and an alternative therapeutic strategy for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia. These agents have improved both survival and quality of life, but results overall remain poor. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent developments in clinical research with HMA in MDS/acute myeloid leukemia over the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: Combination of HMA with B-cell lymphoma-2 inhibitors, hedgehog inhibitors, and a variety of other agents are underway, as are further studies with reformulated HMA that have more favorable pharmacokinetics (including oral bioavailability)...
January 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099272/mixed-phenotype-acute-leukemia-current-challenges-in-diagnosis-and-therapy
#4
Ofir Wolach, Richard M Stone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) is a rare disease that poses many diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Patients with MPAL are considered to have poor outcomes. The difficulties in classifying this leukemia, the lack of prospectively collected data concerning therapeutic outcomes, and rare incidence result in much uncertainty as to the best approach for patients with MPAL. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies demonstrated that most MPALs are associated with cytogenetic abnormalities; genetic sequencing studies disclose a high frequency of somatic mutations in genes encoding epigenetic regulators, tumor suppressors, and transcription factors...
January 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099271/innovative-strategies-for-adverse-karyotype-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#5
Sabine Blum, Gabriele Greve, Michael Lübbert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adverse karyotype acute myeloid leukemia is a disease particularly of older patients, but also observed in younger patients. Despite all efforts, standard chemotherapy is still generally applied in fit patients, as already for decades, and for nearly all different subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia. Lack of more specifically targeted therapy and the often older age of the patients are complicating treatment, and in the subgroup of patients achieving a complete remission, the strikingly high frequency of relapse is a characteristic of this disease...
January 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072603/dyserythropoiesis-of-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#6
Carine Lefèvre, Sabrina Bondu, Salomé Le Goff, Olivier Kosmider, Michaela Fontenay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are heterogeneous diseases of the hematopoietic stem cell in the elderly. Anemia is the main symptom that mostly correlates with dysplastic erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. We will review the recent advances in understanding the diverse mechanisms of dyserythropoiesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Dyserythropoiesis defined as 10% dysplastic erythroid cells in the bone marrow is found in more than 80% of early MDS. Immature erythroblasts accumulate at the expense of mature erythroblasts due to differentiation arrest and apoptosis...
January 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072602/-janus-kinase-ing-up-the-treatment-of-primary-myelofibrosis-building-better-combination-strategies
#7
Rita Assi, Srdan Verstovsek, Naval Daver
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article discusses the promising agents that are approved or currently under investigation for the treatment of myelofibrosis and reviews the ongoing Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors-based combinatorial strategies in this setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Myelofibrosis is a Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm with constitutive JAK/STAT activation. The JAK-inhibitor ruxolitinib is the only approved drug for this disease in the United States and Europe based on two randomized phase III studies that demonstrated clinically meaningful reduction in spleen size, improvement in symptoms, quality of life, and an overall survival advantage with prolonged follow-up...
January 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030373/what-are-the-most-promising-new-agents-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#8
David A Sallman, Jeffrey E Lancet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the treatment paradigm for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) had been largely unchanged for many years, in-depth molecular characterization has revolutionized our understanding of mutations that drive the disease, subsequently serving to guide current clinical investigation. Furthermore, recent advances in the field have highlighted the importance of optimizing known efficacious agents by improving drug delivery or bypassing resistance mechanisms. The current status of novel agents which are shaping the clinical management of AML patients are summarized in this review...
December 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930389/therapy-related-myeloid-neoplasms
#9
Arnold Ganser, Michael Heuser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in the genetic characterization of patients with therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs) have changed our understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases. In addition, extensive sequencing studies have identified recurrent mutations with diagnostic and prognostic impact. Thus, the revised version of the WHO classification combines therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes (t-MDS) and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) in the one entity of t-MNs because of their similar pathogenesis, rapid progression from t-MDS to t-AML, and their equally poor prognosis...
December 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930388/should-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-and-measurable-residual-disease-be-transplanted-in-first-complete-remission
#10
Francesco Buccisano, Roland B Walter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Measurable ('minimal') residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia during first complete morphologic remission (MRD CR1) identifies patients with particularly high relapse risk and short survival. Here, we examine the evidence regarding optimal postremission treatment strategy for such patients. RECENT FINDINGS: With chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy/autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), disease recurrence appears inevitable in patients with MRD CR1...
December 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875375/management-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#11
Tiziano Barbui, Valerio De Stefano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Venous thromboembolism is frequent in chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). The current strategy for its management includes cytoreductive therapy and antithrombotic prophylaxis, but many issues remain uncertain. In this review, the risk factors and prevention of recurrences will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Around one-third of patients with polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia experience a major thrombosis at diagnosis or during follow-up...
November 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875374/implications-of-molecular-genetic-diversity-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#12
Rafael Bejar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) have remarkably diverse somatic mutation patterns that can be challenging to interpret clinically. Yet, genetic information is increasingly available to physicians. This review will examine several implications of genetic diversity in MDS. RECENT FINDINGS: Somatic mutations can serve as clinically relevant biomarkers in MDS. Molecular subtypes may exist that share clinical features including risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia, response to treatment, and overall survival...
November 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875373/revisiting-erythroleukemia
#13
Daniel A Arber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The 2016 WHO classification of hematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms alters the diagnostic criteria for erythroleukemia, including eliminating the erythroid/myeloid type of acute erythroleukemia, which was a prior subcategory of acute myeloid leukemia, not otherwise specified. Only pure erythroid leukemia remains in the WHO classification. This review will summarize the literature that contributed to that classification change as well as recent literature on the significance of the change...
November 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902518/editorial-introductions
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841775/an-update-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-chronic-idiopathic-neutropenia
#15
David C Dale, Audrey A Bolyard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neutropenia lasting for at least for 3 months and not attributable to drugs or a specific genetic, infectious, inflammatory, autoimmune or malignant cause is called chronic idiopathic neutropenia (CIN). CIN and autoimmune neutropenia (AIN) are very similar and overlapping conditions. The clinical consequences depend upon the severity of neutropenia, but it is not considered a premalignant condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term observational studies in children indicate that the disease often lasts for 3-5 years in children, then spontaneously remits, but it rarely remits in adult cases...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820737/editorial-for-myeloid-biology-2017
#16
David C Dale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820736/platelets-in-neutrophil-recruitment-to-sites-of-inflammation
#17
Simon Pitchford, Dingxin Pan, Heidi C E Welch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the essential roles of platelets in neutrophil recruitment from the bloodstream into inflamed and infected tissues, with a focus on recent findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Platelets are required for the recruitment of neutrophils to sites of inflammation and infection. They fulfil this role largely by enabling contacts of circulating neutrophils with the inflamed blood vessel wall prior to extravasation. Platelets promote both early stages of neutrophil recruitment (tethering, rolling, arrest, firm adhesion) and - as recent work has demonstrated - later stages (intravascular crawling and diapedesis)...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820735/consequences-of-extracellular-trap-formation-in-sepsis
#18
Xian M O'Brien, Bethany M Biron, Jonathan S Reichner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will focus on in-vivo findings derived from animal models of sepsis regarding the trapping role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) which is difficult to assess ex vivo. The NETotic response of neutrophils at sites of sterile injury or autoimmune disease is destructive as no antimicrobial advantage to the host is realized and dampening NETosis is largely beneficial. In early stages of local infection or in sepsis, the trapping function of NETs may help abscess formation and limit microbial dissemination...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820734/the-role-of-the-transcriptional-repressor-growth-factor-independent-1-in-the-formation-of-myeloid-cells
#19
Jennifer Fraszczak, Tarik Möröy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Growth factor independent 1 (Gfi1) is a transcriptional repressor that plays multiple roles during myeloid commitment and development. Gfi1-deficient mice lack granulocytes, accumulate aberrant monocytes and show a hyperactivity of macrophages toward bacterial cell wall components. Since these initial findings, numerous additional studies have confirmed the role of Gfi1 in myeloid differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent progenitors to bipotential lymphoid/myeloid precursors and myeloid effector cells...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755127/mechanism-of-granuloma-formation-in-sarcoidosis
#20
Priya Sakthivel, Dunja Bruder
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The formation of noncaseating granuloma is a hallmark of pulmonary sarcoidosis. This review summarizes recent progress made to explain the cellular dynamics within the granuloma structure that may considerably differ between the two clinically distinct variants, that is, acute and chronic sarcoidosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Compelling evidence exists that in acute but not chronic sarcoidosis CD4 T lymphocytes specifically recognizing the auto-antigen vimentin on human leukocyte antigen-DR3 molecules accumulate in sarcoid granuloma...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
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