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Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086072/identification-of-naegleria-fowleri-proteins-linked-to-primary-amebic-meningoencephalitis
#1
Melissa Jamerson, Jacqueline A Schmoyer, Jay Park, Francine Marciano-Cabral, Guy Cabral
Naegleria fowleri (N. fowleri) causes Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS). This opportunistic pathogen can exist in cyst, flagellate, or amebic forms, depending on environmental conditions. The amebic form can invade the brain following introduction into the nasal passages. When applied intranasally to a mouse model, cultured N. fowleri amebae exhibit low virulence. However, upon serial passage in mouse brain the amebae acquire a highly virulent state...
January 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086070/the-function-of-the-three-phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate-synthetase-prs-genes-in-hyphal-growth-and-conidiation-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#2
Ping Jiang, Wen-Fan Wei, Guo-Wei Zhong, Xiao-Gang Zhou, Wei-Ran Qiao, Ling Lu
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase, which is encoded by the Prs gene, catalyzes the reaction of ribose-5-phosphate and adenine ribonucleotide triphosphate (ATP) and has central importance in cellular metabolism. However, knowledge about how Prs family members function and contribute to total PRPP synthetase activity is limited. In this study, we identified that the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans genome contains three 5-phosphoribosyl-α-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) synthase-homologous genes (AnprsA, B, and C), among which AnprsB and AnprsC but not AnprsA are auxotrophic genes...
January 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086069/an-explanation-of-the-nagoya-protocol-and-access-and-benefit-sharing-and-its-implication-for-microbiology
#3
David Smith, Manuela da Silva, Julian Jackson, Christopher Lyal
Working with genetic resources and associated data requires greater attention since the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing came into force in October 2014. Biologists must ensure that they have legal clarity in how they can and cannot use the genetic resources on which they carry out research. Not only must they work within the spirit in the Convention for Biological Diversity (CBD) but may also have regulatory requirements to meet. Access legislation is in place in many countries and information on this can be found at the ABS Clearing House (https://absch...
January 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073401/proteome-analysis-reveals-differential-expression-of-proteins-involved-in-triacylglycerol-accumulation-by-rhodococcus-jostii-rha1-after-addition-of-methyl-viologen
#4
José S Dávila Costa, Roxana A Silva, Lars Leichert, Héctor M Alvarez
Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 is able to degrade toxic compounds and accumulate high amount of triacylglycerols (TAG) upon nitrogen starvation. These NADPH-dependent processes are essential for the adaptation of rhodococci to fluctuating environmental conditions. In this study, we used a mass spectrometry (MS)-based, label-free, and quantitative proteomic approach to better understand the integral response of R. jostii RHA1 to the presence of methyl viologen (MV) in relation with the synthesis and accumulation of TAG...
January 10, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073397/identification-of-new-members-of-the-escherichia-coli-k-12-mg1655-slya-regulon
#5
Thomas Curran, Fatima Abacha, Stephen Hibberd, Matthew Rolfe, Melissa Lacey, Jeffrey Green
SlyA is a member of the MarR family of bacterial transcriptional regulators. Previously, SlyA has been shown to directly regulate only two operons in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655, fimB and hlyE (clyA). In both cases SlyA activates gene expression by antagonizing repression by the nucleoid associated protein H-NS. Here the transcript profiles of aerobic glucose-limited steady-state chemostat cultures of E. coli K-12 MG1655, slyA mutant and slyA over-expression strains are reported. The transcript profile of the slyA mutant was not significantly different to that of the parent; however, that of the slyA expression strain was significantly different from that of the vector control...
January 10, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036248/functional-analysis-of-a-biosynthetic-cluster-essential-for-production-of-4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine-a-germination-arrest-factor-from-pseudomonas-fluorescens-wh6
#6
Rachel A Okrent, Kristin Trippe, Maciej Maselko, Viola A Manning
Rhizosphere-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6 produces the germination-arrest factor, 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine (FVG). FVG has previously been shown to both arrest the germination of weedy grasses and to inhibit the growth of the bacterial plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Very little is known about the mechanism by which FVG is produced. Although a previous study identified a region of the genome that may be involved in FVG biosynthesis, it has not yet been determined which genes within that region are sufficient and necessary for FVG production...
December 30, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036246/down-regulation-of-pe11-a-cell-wall-associated-esterase-enhances-the-biofilm-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-reduces-cell-wall-virulence-lipid-levels
#7
Shivangi Rastogi, Amit Kumar Singh, Garima Pant, Kalyan Mitra, Koneni V Sashidhara, Manju Y Krishnan
PE11 (Rv1169c or LipX) is a cell wall associated esterase/lipase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis(Mtb). Evidences suggest that PE11 is expressed by Mtb both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that when expressed in the non-pathogenic surrogate M. smegmatis, PE11 leads to modification in cell wall lipid content and enhanced virulence. Since cell wall lipids often play different roles in pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacteria, we investigated the role of PE11 in its host, Mtb. Mtb with lowered expression of PE11 (PE11 knock-down) displayed significant changes in colony morphology and cell wall lipid profile, confirming the role of PE11 in cell wall architecture...
December 30, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036244/viscosity-dependent-variations-in-the-cell-shape-and-swimming-manner-of-leptospira
#8
Kyosuke Takabe, Hajime Tahara, Md Shafiqul Islam, Samia Affroze, Seishi Kudo, Shuichi Nakamura
Spirochetes are spiral or flat-wave-shaped Gram-negative bacteria that have periplasmic flagella (PF) between the peptidoglycan layer and outer membrane. Rotation of the PF transforms the cell body shape periodically, allowing the cell to swim in aqueous environments. Because the virulence of motility-deficient mutants of pathogenic species is drastically attenuated, motility is thought to be an essential virulence factor in spirochetes. However, it remains unknown how motility practically contributes to the infection process...
December 30, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036242/identification-of-new-regulatory-genes-involved-in-the-pathogenic-functions-of-the-rice-pathogenic-bacterium-burkholderia-glumae
#9
Rebecca A Melanson, Inderjit Barphagha, Surendra Osti, Tiago P Lelis, Hari S Karki, Ruoxi Chen, Bishnu K Shrestha, Jong Hyun Ham
Burkholderia glumae is an emerging plant-pathogenic bacterium that causes disease in rice in several of the major of rice-producing areas throughout the world. In the southern United States, B. glumae is the major causal agent of bacterial panicle blight of rice and has caused severe yield losses in recent decades. Despite its importance, few management options are available for diseases caused by B. glumae, and knowledge of how this pathogen causes disease is limited. In an effort to identify novel factors that contribute to the pathogenicity of B...
December 30, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036241/suppressor-analysis-of-eepr-mutant-defects-reveals-coordinate-regulation-of-secondary-metabolites-and-serralysin-biosynthesis-by-eepr-and-hexs
#10
Robert M Q Shanks, Nicholas A Stella, Roni M Lahr, Marissa A Aston, Kimberly M Brothers, Jake Callaghan, Cihad Sigindere, Xinyu Liu
The EepR transcription factor positively regulates secondary metabolites and tissue damaging metalloproteases. To gain insight into mechanisms by which EepR regulates pigment and co-regulated factors, genetic suppressor analysis was performed. Suppressor mutations that restored pigment to the non-pigmented ∆eepR mutant mapped to the hexS open reading frame. Mutation of hexS also restored hemolysis, swarming motility, and protease production to the eepR mutant. HexS is a known direct and negative regulator of secondary metabolites in S...
December 30, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008818/deletion-of-a-putative-nlpc-p60-endopeptidase-bas1812-affects-germination-long-term-survival-and-endospore-formation-in-bacillus-anthracis
#11
Se Kye Kim, Yun Min Park, Kyoung Hwa Jung, Young Gyu Chai
Bacillus anthracis, an etiologic agent of the zoonotic disease anthrax, encodes a putative NlpC/P60 endopeptidase BAS1812. It harbors a signal peptide, three bacterial SH3 domains and an NlpC/P60 family domain. Previous studies showed that BAS1812 is immunogenic in infected hosts and is a potential biomarker for anthrax treatment. To date, however, little information is known about its function and involvement in anthrax pathogenesis. Here we describe the phenotypic effect of BAS1812 deletion in B. anthracis Sterne strain...
December 23, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995873/the-crispr-cas-system-presents-multiple-transcriptional-units-including-antisense-rnas-that-are-expressed-in-minimal-medium-and-up-regulated-by-ph-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#12
Liliana Medina-Aparicio, Javier Esteban Rebollar-Flores, América Abigail Beltrán-Luviano, Alejandra Vázquez Ramos, Rosa María Gutíerrez-Ríos, Leticia Olvera, Edmundo Calva, Ismael Hernández Lucas
The CRISPR-Cas system is involved in bacterial immunity, virulence, gene regulation, biofilm formation and sporulation. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi this system consists of five transcriptional units including antisense RNAs. It was determined that these genetic elements are expressed in minimal medium and are up-regulated by pH. In addition, a transcriptional characterization of cas3 and ascse2-1 is included herein.
December 20, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995867/poly-a-polymerase-i-participates-in-the-indole-regulatory-pathway-of-pantoea-agglomerans-ys19
#13
Zihua Li, Jing Jiang, Xuemei Yu, Cunxiang Wu, Delong Shen, Yongjun Feng
Pantoea agglomerans YS19 is a preponderant endophytic bacterium isolated from rice. It is characterized by the formation of symplasmata, a type of multicellular aggregate structure, contributing to a strong stress-resistance and specific adaptation of YS19 in endophyte-host associations. Indole is an important signal molecule in intraspecies or interspecies relationships, regulating a variety of bacterial behaviors such as cell aggregation and stress-resistance; however, the regulatory mechanism remains an on-going area of investigation...
December 20, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983482/lack-of-formylated-methionyl-trna-has-pleiotropic-effects-on-bacillus-subtilis
#14
Yanfei Cai, Pete Chandrangsu, Ahmed Gaballa, John D Helmann
Bacteria initiate translation using a modified amino acid, N-formylmethionine (fMet), adapted specifically for this function. Most proteins are processed co-translationally by peptide deformylase (PDF) to remove this modification. Although PDF activity is essential in wild-type cells, and is the target of the antibiotic actinonin, bypass mutations in the fmt gene that eliminate the formylation of Met-tRNAMet render PDF dispensable. The extent to which the emergence of fmt bypass mutations might compromise the therapeutic utility of actinonin is determined, in part, by the effects of these bypass mutations on fitness...
December 15, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983481/the-intestinal-proteome-of-diabetic-and-control-children-is-enriched-with-different-microbial-and-host-proteins
#15
Elsa Pinto, Marisol Anselmo, Manuela Calha, Andrew Bottrill, Isabel Duarte, Peter Andrew, Maria Leonor Faleiro
In this study the intestinal microbial proteome of children with established type 1 diabetes (T1D) was compared with the proteome of healthy children (Control) with the aim to identify differences in the activity of the intestinal microbiota that will not only contribute to a deeper knowledge of the functionality of the gut in these children but may also provide new approaches to improve the Control of the disease. Fecal protein extracts collected from three T1D children (aged of 9.3 ± 0.6) and three Control children (aged of 9...
December 15, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983472/characterization-of-two-new-putative-adhesins-of-leptospira-interrogans
#16
Jupciana Figueredo, Gabriela Siqueira, Gisele Souza, Marcos Heinemann, Silvio Vasconcellos, Erica Chapola, Ana Lucia T O Nascimento
We here report the characterization of two novel proteins encoded by the genes LIC11122 and LIC12287, identified in the genome sequences of Leptospira interrogans, annotated, respectively, as a putative sigma factor and hypothetical. . The coding sequences (CDSs) LIC11122 and LIC12287 have signal peptide SPII and SPI and are predicted to be located mainly at the cytoplasm membrane of the bacteria. The genes were cloned and the proteins expressed using Escherichia coli. Proteinase K digestion showed that both proteins are surface exposed...
December 15, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983483/cross-regulation-between-two-common-ancestral-response-regulators-hprr-and-cusr-in-escherichia-coli
#17
Hiroyuki Urano, Myu Yoshida, Ayano Ogawa, Kaneyoshi Yamamoto, Akira Ishihama, Hiroshi Ogasawara
The uncharacterized two-component system YedVW of Escherichia coli is involved in stress response to hydrogen peroxide (Urano et al., 2015). To identify the H2O2-sensing role of YedV, a set of single Cys-to-Ala substitution mutants were constructed. One particular mutant with C165A substitution in the membrane domain rendered YedV inactive in H2O2-dependent transcription of its regulatory target hiuH. We then propose to rename YedVW to HprSR (hydrogen peroxide response sensor / regulator). One unique characteristic of HprR is the overlapping of its recognition sequence with that of the Cu(II)-response TCS regulator CusR (Urano et al...
December 9, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926818/disruption-of-miaa-provides-insights-into-the-regulation-of-phenazine-biosynthesis-under-suboptimal-growth-conditions-in-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-30-84
#18
Jun Myoung Yu, Donping Wang, Leland S Pierson, Elizabeth A Pierson
Many products of secondary metabolism are activated by quorum sensing (QS), yet even at cell densities sufficient for QS, their production may be repressed under suboptimal growth conditions via mechanisms that still require elucidation. For many beneficial plant-associated bacteria, secondary metabolites such as phenazines are important for their competitive survival and plant-protective activities. Previous work established that phenazine biosynthesis in Pseudomonas chlororaphis 30-84 is regulated by the PhzR/PhzI QS system, which in turn is regulated by transcriptional regulator Pip, two-component system RpeA/RpeB, and stationary-phase/stress sigma factor RpoS...
December 7, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926815/identification-of-lysophospholipase-protein-from-spiroplasma-eriocheiris-and-verification-of-its-function
#19
Huanxi Zhu, Peng Liu, Jie Du, Jian Wang, Yunting Jing, Jia Zhang, Wei Gu, Wen Wang, Qingguo Meng
Spiroplasma eriocheiris is known to cause the tremor disease in the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis; however, the molecular characterization of this pathogen is still unclear. S. eriocheiris has the ability to invade and survive within mouse 3T6 cells. The invasion process may require causing damage to the host cell membrane by chemical, physical, or enzymatic means. In this study, we systematically characterized a novel lysophospholipase (lysoPL) of S. eriocheiris TDA-040725-5T. The gene that encodes lysoPL in S...
December 7, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926824/identification-and-characterization-of-chemosensors-for-d-malate-unnatural-enantiomer-of-malate-in-ralstonia-pseudosolanacearum
#20
Mattana Tunchai, Akiko Hida, Shota Oku, Yutaka Nakashimada, Takahisa Tajima, Junichi Kato
Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum Ps29 is attracted by nonmetabolizable D-malate, an unnatural enantiomer. Screening of a complete collection of single-mcp-gene deletion mutants of Ps29 revealed that the RSc1156 homolog is a chemosensor for D-malate. An RSc1156 homolog deletion mutant of Ps29 showed decreased but significant responses to D-malate, suggesting the existence of another D-malate chemosensor. McpM previously had been identified as a chemosensor for L-malate. We constructed an RSc1156 homolog mcpM double deletion mutant and noted that this mutant failed to respond to D-malate; thus, the RSc1156 homolog and McpM are the major chemosensors for D-malate in this organism...
December 2, 2016: Microbiology
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