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Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640746/a-chromosome-4-trisomy-contributes-to-increased-fluconazole-resistance-in-a-clinical-isolate-of-candida-albicans
#1
Matthew Z Anderson, Amrita Saha, Abid Haseeb, Richard J Bennett
Candida albicans is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen capable of causing both mucosal and disseminated disease. Infections are often treated with fluconazole, a front-line antifungal drug that targets the biosynthesis of ergosterol, a major component of the fungal cell membrane. Resistance to fluconazole can arise through a variety of mechanisms, including gain-of-function mutations, loss of heterozygosity events and aneuploidy. The clinical isolate P60002 was found to be highly resistant to azole-class drugs, yet lacked mutations or chromosomal rearrangements known to be associated with azole resistance...
June 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640743/glucose-consumption-in-carbohydrate-mixtures-by-phosphotransferase-system-mutants-of-escherichia-coli
#2
Tian Xia, Neeraj Sriram, Sarah A Lee, Ronni Altman, Jeffrey L Urbauer, Elliot Altman, Mark A Eiteman
Escherichia coli lacking the glucose phosphotransferase system (PTS), mannose PTS and glucokinase are supposedly unable to grow on glucose as the sole carbon source (Curtis SJ, Epstein W. J Bacteriol 1975;122:1189-1199). We report that W ptsG manZ glk (ALS1406) grows slowly on glucose in media containing glucose with a second carbon source: ALS1406 metabolizes glucose after that other carbon source, including arabinose, fructose, glycerol, succinate or xylose, is exhausted. Galactose is an exception to this rule, as ALS1406 simultaneously consumes both galactose and glucose...
June 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640741/an-endophytic-fusarium-sp-isolated-from-monarda-citriodora-produces-the-industrially-important-plant-like-volatile-organic-compound-hexanal
#3
Meenu Katoch, Kushal Bindu, Shipra Phull, M K Verma
An endophytic fungus, MC_25L, has been isolated from the leaves of MonardacitriodoraCerv. ex Lag., a medicinal and aromatic herb from the northwestern Himalayas. It produces a fruity fragrance while growing on potato dextrose agar, suggesting that it is producing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The endophyte inhibited the growth of plant pathogens such asSclerotiniasp. and Aspergillusflavus by virtue of VOCs. Identification of MC_25L based on morphological and microscopic features, as well as ITS-based rDNA sequence analysis, revealed that it is a Fusariumsp...
June 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640740/differential-effects-of-isc-operon-mutations-on-the-biosynthesis-and-activity-of-key-anaerobic-metalloenzymes-in-escherichia-coli
#4
Monique Jaroschinsky, Constanze Pinske, R Gary Sawers
Escherichia coli has two machineries for the synthesis of FeS clusters, namely Isc (iron-sulfur cluster) and Suf (sulfur formation). The Isc machinery, encoded by the iscRSUA-hscBA-fdx-iscXoperon, plays a crucial role in the biogenesis of FeS clusters for the oxidoreductases of aerobic metabolism. Less is known, however, about the role of ISC in the maturation of key multi-subunit metalloenzymes of anaerobic metabolism. Here, we determined the contribution of each iscoperon gene product towards the functionality of the major anaerobic oxidoreductases in E...
June 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635593/the-protein-slr1143-is-an-active-diguanylate-cyclase-in-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803-and-interacts-with-the-photoreceptor-cph2
#5
Veronika Angerer, Philipp Schwenk, Thomas Wallner, Volkhard Kaever, Andreas Hiltbrunner, Annegret Wilde
Cyclic-di-GMP is an ubiquitous second messenger in bacteria. Several c-di-GMP receptor proteins have been identified to date, and downstream signalling pathways are often mediated through protein-protein interactions. The photoreceptor Cph2 from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 comprises three domains related to c-di-GMP metabolism: two GGDEF and one EAL domain. It has been shown that the C-terminal GGDEF domain acts as blue-light triggered c-di-GMP producer thereby inhibiting motility of the cells in blue light...
June 21, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635591/camoptimus-a-tool-for-exploiting-complex-adaptive-evolution-to-optimize-experiments-and-processes-in-biotechnology
#6
Ayca Cankorur-Cetinkaya, Joao M L Dias, Jana Kludas, Nigel K H Slater, Juho Rousu, Stephen G Oliver, Duygu Dikicioglu
Multiple interacting factors affect the performance of engineered biological systems in synthetic biology projects. The complexity of these biological systems means that experimental design should often be treated as a multiparametric optimization problem. However, the available methodologies are either impractical, due to a combinatorial explosion in the number of experiments to be performed, or are inaccessible to most experimentalists due to the lack of publicly available, user-friendly software. Although evolutionary algorithms may be employed as alternative approaches to optimize experimental design, the lack of simple-to-use software again restricts their use to specialist practitioners...
June 21, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598313/deactivation-of-the-autotrophic-sulfate-assimilation-pathway-substantially-reduces-high-level-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotic-biosynthesis-and-arthrospore-formation-in-a-production-strain-from-acremonium-chrysogenum
#7
Dominik Terfehr, Ulrich Kück
The filamentous ascomycete Acremonium chrysogenum is the only industrial producer of the β-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin C. Synthesis of all β-lactam antibiotics starts with the three amino acids l-α-aminoadipic acid, l-cysteine and l-valine condensing to form the δ-(l-α-aminoadipyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-valine tripeptide. The availability of building blocks is essential in every biosynthetic process and is therefore one of the most important parameters required for optimal biosynthetic production. Synthesis of l-cysteine is feasible by various biosynthetic pathways in all euascomycetes, and sequencing of the Acr...
June 9, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597819/phage-exposure-causes-dynamic-shifts-in-the-expression-states-of-specific-phase-variable-genes-of-campylobacter-jejuni
#8
Jack Aidley, Martine C Holst Sørensen, Christopher D Bayliss, Lone Brøndsted
Phase variation (PV) creates phenotypic heterogeneity at high frequencies and in a reversible manner. This phenomenon allows bacteria to adapt to a variety of different environments and selective pressures. In Campylobacterjejuni this reversible adaptive process is mediated by mutations in homopolymeric G/C tracts. Many C. jejuni-specific phages are dependent on phase-variable surface structures for successful infection. We previously identified the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) moiety, MeOPN-GalfNAc, as a receptor for phage F336 and showed that phase-variable expression of the transferase for this CPS modification, cj1421, and two other phase-variable CPS genes generated phage resistance in C...
June 8, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597815/dksa-hapr-rpos-axis-regulates-haemagglutinin-protease-production-in-vibrio-cholerae
#9
Pallabi Basu, Ritesh Ranjan Pal, Shreya Dasgupta, Rupak K Bhadra
DksA acts as a co-factor for the intracellular small signalling molecule ppGpp during the stringent response. We recently reported that the expression of the haemagglutinin protease (HAP), which is needed for shedding of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae during the late phase of infection, is significantly downregulated in V. cholerae ∆dksA mutant (∆dksAVc) cells. So far, it has been shown that HAP production by V. cholerae cells is critically regulated by HapR and also by RpoS. Here, we provide evidence that V...
June 8, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548036/systematics-of-haloarchaea-and-biotechnological-potential-of-their-hydrolytic-enzymes
#10
Mohammad Ali Amoozegar, Maryam Siroosi, Siavash Atashgahi, Hauke Smidt, Antonio Ventosa
Halophilic archaea, also referred to as haloarchaea, dominate hypersaline environments. To survive under such extreme conditions, haloarchaea and their enzymes have evolved to function optimally in environments with high salt concentrations and, sometimes, with extreme pH and temperatures. These features make haloarchaea attractive sources of a wide variety of biotechnological products, such as hydrolytic enzymes, with numerous potential applications in biotechnology. The unique trait of haloarchaeal enzymes, haloenzymes, to sustain activity under hypersaline conditions has extended the range of already-available biocatalysts and industrial processes in which high salt concentrations inhibit the activity of regular enzymes...
May 26, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537542/malonate-degradation-in-acinetobacter-baylyi-adp1-operon-organization-and-regulation-by-mdcr
#11
Julie L Stoudenmire, Alicia L Schmidt, Melissa P Tumen-Velasquez, Kathryn T Elliott, Nicole S Laniohan, S Walker Whitley, Nickolaus R Galloway, Melesse Nune, Michael West, Cory Momany, Ellen L Neidle, Anna C Karls
Transcriptional regulators in the LysR or GntR families are typically encoded in the genomic neighbourhood of bacterial genes for malonate degradation. While these arrangements have been evaluated using bioinformatics methods, experimental studies demonstrating co-transcription of predicted operons were lacking. Here, transcriptional regulation was characterized for a cluster of mdc genes that enable a soil bacterium, Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, to use malonate as a carbon source. Despite previous assumptions that the mdc-gene set forms one operon, our studies revealed distinct promoters in two different regions of a nine-gene cluster...
May 25, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535857/functional-characterization-of-the-collagen-binding-protein-dip2093-and-its-influence-on-host-pathogen-interaction-and-arthritogenic-potential-of-corynebacterium-diphtheriae
#12
Renata Stavracakis Peixoto, Camila Azevedo Antunes, Liliane Simpson Lourêdo, Vanilda Gonçalves Viana, Cintia Silva Dos Santos, Jemima Fuentes Ribeiro da Silva, Raphael Hirata, Elena Hacker, Ana Luíza Mattos-Guaraldi, Andreas Burkovski
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is typically recognized as the a etiological agent of diphtheria, a toxaemic infection of the respiratory tract; however, both non-toxigenic and toxigenic strains are increasingly isolated from cases of invasive infections. The molecular mechanisms responsible for bacterial colonization and dissemination to host tissues remain only partially understood. In this report, we investigated the role of DIP2093, described as a putative adhesin of the serine-aspartate repeat (Sdr) protein family in host-pathogen interactions of C...
May 23, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535856/chlamydia-trachomatis-induces-an-upregulation-of-molecular-biomarkers-podoplanin-wilms-tumour-gene-1-osteopontin-and-inflammatory-cytokines-in-human-mesothelial-cells
#13
Anna De Filippis, Elisabetta Buommino, Marina Di Domenico, Antonia Feola, Raffaella Brunetti-Pierri, Antonietta Rizzo
Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent infection of the genital tract in women worldwide. C. trachomatis has a tendency to cause persistent infection and induce a state of chronic inflammation, which has been reported to play a role in carcinogenesis. We report that persistent C. trachomatis infection increases the expression of inflammatory tumour cytokines and upregulates molecular biomarkers such as podoplanin, Wilms' tumour gene 1 and osteopontin in primary cultures of mesothelial cells (Mes1) and human mesothelioma cells (NCI)...
May 23, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535846/physical-contact-and-carbon-transfer-between-a-lichen-forming-trebouxia-alga-and-a-novel-alphaproteobacterium
#14
Mieko Kono, Hideyuki Tanabe, Yoshihito Ohmura, Yoko Satta, Yohey Terai
Recent progress in molecular techniques has begun to alter traditional recognition of lichens as symbiotic organisms comprised of a fungus and photosynthetic partners (green algae and/or cyanobacteria). Diverse organisms, especially various non-photosynthetic bacteria, are now indicated to be integral components of lichen symbiosis. Although lichen-associated bacteria are inferred to have functions that could support the symbiosis, little is known about their physical and nutritional interaction with fungi and algae...
May 23, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535845/phylogenetic-distribution-of-the-euryarchaeal-archaellum-regulator-eara-and-complementation-of-a-methanococcus-maripaludis-%C3%A2-eara-mutant-with-heterologous-eara-homologues
#15
Yan Ding, Alison Berezuk, Cezar M Khursigara, Ken F Jarrell
Archaella are the swimming organelles in the Archaea. Recently, the first archaellum regulator in the Euryarchaeota, EarAMma, was identified in Methanococcus maripaludis, one of the model organisms used for archaellum studies. EarAMma binds to 6 bp consensus sequences upstream of the fla promoter to activate the transcription of the fla operon, which encodes most of the proteins required for archaella synthesis. In this study, synteny analysis showed that earA homologues are widely distributed in the phylum of Euryarchaeota, with the notable exception of extreme halophiles...
May 23, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535844/impact-of-temperature-on-marinobacter-hydrocarbonoclasticus-sp17-morphology-and-biofilm-structure-during-growth-on-alkanes
#16
Priscilla Branchu, Alexis Canette, Sara Medina Fernandez, Julie Mounier, Thierry Meylheuc, Romain Briandet, Régis Grimaud, Murielle Naïtali
Alkanes are widespread pollutants found in soil, freshwater and marine environments. Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus (Mh) strain SP17 is a marine bacterium able to use many hydrophobic organic compounds, including alkanes, through the production of biofilms that allow their poor solubility to be overcome. This study pointed out that temperature is an environmental factor that strongly affects the biofilm formation and morphology of Mh on the model alkanes, hexadecane and paraffin. We showed that Mh biofilm formation and accumulation of intracytoplasmic inclusions are higher on solid alkanes (hexadecane at 10 °C and paraffin at 10 °C and 30 °C) than on liquid alkane (hexadecane at 30 °C) or soluble substrate (lactate at both temperatures)...
May 23, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530170/k-modulates-genetic-competence-and-the-stress-regulon-of-streptococcus-mutans
#17
Gursonika Binepal, Iwona B Wenderska, Paula Crowley, Richard N Besingi, Dilani B Senadheera, L Jeannine Brady, Dennis G Cvitkovitch
Potassium (K+) is the most abundant cation in dental plaque fluid. Previously, we reported the link between K+ transport via Trk2 in Streptococcus mutans and its two critical virulence attributes: acid tolerance and surface adhesion. Herein, we build further on the intimate link between K+ levels and S. mutans biology. High (>25 mM) versus low (≤5 mM) K+ concentrations in the growth medium affected conformational epitopes of cell surface-localized adhesin P1. At low K+, the expression of stress response elements gcrR and codY, cell-adhesion-associated genes such as spaP and metabolism-associated genes such as bglP was induced at stationary phase (P<0...
May 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530168/microbe-profile-akkermansia-muciniphila-a-conserved-intestinal-symbiont-that-acts-as-the-gatekeeper-of-our-mucosa
#18
Willem M de Vos
Akkermansia muciniphila is an abundant inhabitant of the intestinal tract of humans and many other animals. It is the sole intestinal representative of the verrucomicrobia in human stools and depleted in adults suffering from obesity, diabetes and several other diseases. A. muciniphila degrades intestinal mucin into mainly propionic and acetic acid, and lives in symbiosis with its host, marked by signalling to immune and metabolic pathways, priming trophic chains and likely providing competitive exclusion at the host-microbe interface...
May 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530167/biofilm-community-succession-a-neutral-perspective
#19
Stephen Woodcock, William T Sloan
Although biofilms represent one of the dominant forms of life in aqueous environments, our understanding of the assembly and development of their microbial communities remains relatively poor. In recent years, several studies have addressed this and have extended the concepts of succession theory in classical ecology into microbial systems. From these datasets, niche-based conceptual models have been developed explaining observed biodiversity patterns and their dynamics. These models have not, however, been formulated mathematically and so remain untested...
May 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530166/quorum-sensing-and-rsam-regulons-of-the-rice-pathogen-pseudomonas-fuscovaginae
#20
Gordana Uzelac, Hitendra Kumar Patel, Giulia Devescovi, Danilo Licastro, Vittorio Venturi
Pseudomonas fuscovaginae (Pfv) is an emerging plant pathogen causing sheath brown rot in rice, as well as diseases in other gramineae food crops including maize, sorghum and wheat. Pfv possesses two conserved N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing (QS) systems called PfvI/R and PfsI/R, which are repressed by RsaL and RsaM, respectively. The two systems are not hierarchically organized and are involved in plant virulence. In this study the AHL QS PfsI/R, PfvI/R and RsaM regulons were determined by transcriptomic analysis...
May 22, 2017: Microbiology
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