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Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721852/effective-identification-of-lactobacillus-casei-group-species-genome-based-selection-of-the-gene-mutl-as-the-target-of-a-novel-multiplex-pcr-assay
#1
Benedetta Bottari, Giovanna E Felis, Elisa Salvetti, Anna Castioni, Ilenia Campedelli, Sandra Torriani, Valentina Bernini, Monica Gatti
Lactobacillus casei,Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillusrhamnosus form a closely related taxonomic group (the L. casei group) within the facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli. Strains of these species have been used for a long time as probiotics in a wide range of products, and they represent the dominant species of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria in ripened cheeses, where they contribute to flavour development. The close genetic relationship among those species, as well as the similarity of biochemical properties of the strains, hinders the development of an adequate selective method to identify these bacteria...
July 18, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721850/amphotericin-b-induces-apoptosis-like-programmed-cell-death-in-naegleria-fowleri-and-naegleria-gruberi
#2
Roberto Cárdenas-Zúñiga, Angélica Silva-Olivares, José D' Artagnan Villalba-Magdaleno, Virginia Sánchez-Monroy, Jesús Serrano-Luna, Mineko Shibayama
Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria gruberi belong to the free-living amoebae group. It is widely known that the non-pathogenic species N. gruberi is usually employed as a model to describe molecular pathways in this genus, mainly because its genome has been recently described. However, N. fowleri is an aetiological agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, an acute and fatal disease. Currently, the most widely used drug for its treatment is amphotericin B (AmB). It was previously reported that AmB has an amoebicidal effect in both N...
July 18, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714842/molecular-and-biochemical-characteristics-of-the-inulosucrase-hugo-from-streptomyces-viridochromogenes-dsm40736-t%C3%A3-494
#3
Hans-Jörg Frasch, Sander S van Leeuwen, Lubbert Dijkhuizen
Polyfructans are synthesized from sucrose by plants (mostly inulin) and by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (mostly levan). In the phylum Actinobacteria only levan synthesis by Actinomyces species has been reported. We have identified a putative fructansucrase gene (hugO) in Streptomyces viridochromogenes DSM40736 (Tü494). HugO was heterologously expressed and biochemically characterized. HPSEC-MALLS and 2D-1H-13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analysis showed that the fructan polymer produced in vitro has an Molecular Weight of 2...
July 17, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708056/metarhizium-robertsii-produces-indole-3-acetic-acid-which-promotes-root-growth-in-arabidopsis-and-enhances-virulence-to-insects
#4
Xinggang Liao, Brian Lovett, Weiguo Fang, Raymond J St Leger
The plant root colonizing insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii has been shown to boost plant growth, but little is known about the responsible mechanisms. Here we show that M. robertsii promotes lateral root growth and root hair development of Arabidopsis seedlings in part through an auxin [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)]-dependent mechanism. M. robertsii, or its auxin-containing culture filtrate promoted root proliferation, activated IAA-regulated gene expression and rescued the root hair defect of the IAA-deficient rhd6 Arabidopsis mutant...
July 15, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708051/ralstonia-solanacearum-novel-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-nel-effectors-ripaw-and-ripar-suppress-pattern-triggered-immunity-in-plants
#5
Masahito Nakano, Kenji Oda, Takafumi Mukaihara
Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of bacterial wilt in solanaceous crops. This pathogen injects more than 70 effector proteins into host plant cells via the Hrp type III secretion system to cause a successful infection. However, the function of these effectors in plant cells, especially in the suppression of plant immunity, remains largely unknown. In this study, we characterized two Ralstonia solanacearum effectors, RipAW and RipAR, which share homology with the IpaH family of effectors from animal and plant pathogenic bacteria, that have a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL) domain...
July 15, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703701/mutations-in-mmpl3-alter-membrane-potential-hydrophobicity-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-in-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#6
Matthew B McNeil, Devon Dennison, Tanya Parish
MmpL3 is a promising target for novel anti-tubercular agents, with numerous compound series identified as MmpL3 inhibitors. Despite this, there is an incomplete understanding of MmpL3 function. Here we show that Mycobacterium smegmatis MmpL3 mutant strains had an altered cell wall hydrophobicity, disrupted membrane potential and growth defects in liquid media. Compensatory mutations that restored normal growth also returned membrane potential to wild-type. M. smegmatis MmpL3 mutant strains were resistant to two anti-tubercular agents, SQ109 and AU1235, but were more sensitive to rifampicin, erythromycin and ampicillin...
July 13, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699879/d-methionine-interferes-with-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-peptidoglycan-synthesis-during-growth-and-biofilm-formation
#7
Harriet Dawe, Evelin Berger, Carina Sihlbom, Elizabeth M Angus, Robert P Howlin, Jay R Laver, Marc Tebruegge, Luanne Hall-Stoodley, Paul Stoodley, Saul N Faust, Raymond N Allan
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen that plays a major role in a number of respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Biofilm formation has been implicated in both NTHi colonization and disease, and is responsible for the increased tolerance of this pathogen towards antibiotic treatment. Targeting metabolic pathways that are important in NTHi biofilm formation represents a potential strategy to combat this antibiotic recalcitrance...
July 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699876/characterization-of-vsr-endonucleases-from-neisseria-meningitidis
#8
Milena Bażlekowa, Monika Adamczyk-Popławska, Agnieszka Kwiatek
DNA methylation is a common modification occurring in all living organisms. 5-methylcytosine, which is produced in a reaction catalysed by C5-methyltransferases, can spontaneously undergo deamination to thymine, leading to the formation of T:G mismatches and C→T transitions. In Escherichia coli K-12, such mismatches are corrected by the Very Short Patch (VSP) repair system, with Vsr endonuclease as the key enzyme. Neisseria meningitidis possesses genes that encode DNA methyltransferases, including C5-methyltransferases...
July 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699871/two-component-system-cbra-cbrb-controls-alginate-production-in-azotobacter-vinelandii
#9
Elva Quiroz-Rocha, Fernando Bonilla-Badía, Valentina García-Aguilar, Liliana López-Pliego, Jade Serrano-Román, Miguel Cocotl-Yañez, Josefina Guzmán, Carlos L Ahumada-Manuel, Luis Felipe Muriel-Millán, Miguel Castañeda, Guadalupe Espín, Cinthia Nuñez
Azotobacter vinelandii, belonging to the Pseudomonadaceae family, is a free-living bacterium that has been considered to be a good source for the production of bacterial polymers such as alginate. In A. vinelandii the synthesis of this polymer is regulated by the Gac/Rsm post-transcriptional regulatory system, in which the RsmA protein binds to the mRNA of the biosynthetic algD gene, inhibiting translation. In several Pseudomonas spp. the two-component system CbrA/CbrB has been described to control a variety of metabolic and behavioural traits needed for adaptation to changing environmental conditions...
July 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696187/dpra-from-neisseria-meningitidis-properties-and-role-in-natural-competence-for-transformation
#10
Eirik Hovland, Getachew Tesfaye Beyene, Stephan A Frye, Håvard Homberset, Seetha V Balasingham, Marta Gómez-Muñoz, Jeremy P Derrick, Tone Tønjum, Ole H Ambur
DNA processing chain A (DprA) is a DNA-binding protein that is ubiquitous in bacteria and expressed in some archaea. DprA is active in many bacterial species that are competent for transformation of DNA, but its role in Neisseriameningitidis (Nm) is not well characterized. An Nm mutant lacking DprA was constructed, and the phenotypes of the wild-type and ΔdprA mutant were compared. The salient feature of the phenotype of dprA null cells is the total lack of competence for genetic transformation shown by all of the donor DNA substrates tested in this study...
July 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691898/post-transcriptional-regulation-of-target-genes-by-the-srna-fnrs-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#11
Pooja Tanwer, Susanne Bauer, Elisabeth Heinrichs, Gurudutta Panda, Daman Saluja, Thomas Rudel, Dagmar Beier
Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are well-established post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in bacteria that respond to a variety of environmental stimuli. They usually act by base-pairing with their target mRNAs, which is commonly facilitated by the RNA chaperone Hfq. In this study we initiated the analysis of the sRNA FnrS of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which is induced under anaerobic conditions. We identified four putative FnrS target genes using bioinformatics approaches and validated these target genes using translational reporter gene fusions in both Escherichia coli and N...
July 10, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691665/cold-stress-response-during-the-stationary-growth-phase-of-antarctic-and-temperate-climate-penicillium-strains
#12
Jeni G Miteva-Staleva, Ekaterina T Krumova, Spassen V Vassilev, Maria B Angelova
Cold-induced oxidative stress during the aging of three Penicillium strains (two Antarctic and one from a temperate region) in stationary culture was documented and demonstrated a significant increase in the protein carbonyl content, the accumulation of glycogen and trehalose, and an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase). The cell response to a temperature downshift depends on the degree of stress and the temperature characteristics of the strains. Our data give further support for the role of oxidative stress in the aging of fungi in stationary cultures...
July 8, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691662/role-of-the-inner-membrane-histidine-kinase-rcsc-and-outer-membrane-lipoprotein-rcsf-in-the-activation-of-the-rcs-phosphorelay-signal-transduction-system-in-escherichia-coli
#13
Takatsugu Sato, Akira Takano, Nanako Hori, Tomoko Izawa, Takayoshi Eda, Kota Sato, Mitsuru Umekawa, Hiroyoshi Miyagawa, Kenji Matsumoto, Ayako Muramatsu-Fujishiro, Kouji Matsumoto, Satoshi Matsuoka, Hiroshi Hara
The Rcs phosphorelay signal transduction system of Escherichia coli controls genes for capsule production and many other envelope-related functions and is implicated in biofilm formation. The outer-membrane lipoprotein RcsF is an essential component of the Rcs system. Mislocalization of RcsF to the periplasm or the cytoplasmic membrane leads to high activation of the Rcs system, suggesting that RcsF functions by interacting with the cytoplasmic membrane component(s) of the system in activating the system. This is consistent with the result reported by Cho et al...
July 8, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691660/endoribonuclease-type-ii-toxin-antitoxin-systems-functional-or-selfish
#14
Bhaskar Chandra Mohan Ramisetty, Ramachandran Sarojini Santhosh
Most bacterial genomes have multiple type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) that encode two proteins which are referred to as a toxin and an antitoxin. Toxins inhibit a cellular process, while the interaction of the antitoxin with the toxin attenuates the toxin's activity. Endoribonuclease-encoding TAs cleave RNA in a sequence-dependent fashion, resulting in translational inhibition. To account for their prevalence and retention by bacterial genomes, TAs are credited with clinically significant phenomena, such as bacterial programmed cell death, persistence, biofilms and anti-addiction to plasmids...
July 8, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691659/proline-utilization-system-is-required-for-infection-by-the-pathogenic-%C3%AE-proteobacterium-brucella-abortus
#15
Mitchell T Caudill, James A Budnick, Lauren M Sheehan, Christian R Lehman, Endang Purwantini, Biswarup Mukhopadhyay, Clayton C Caswell
Proline utilization (Put) systems have been described in a number of bacteria; however, the importance and functionality of the Put system in the intracellular pathogen Brucellaabortus has not been explored. Generally, bacterial Put systems are composed of the bifunctional enzyme proline dehydrogenase PutA and its transcriptional activator PutR. Here, we demonstrate that the genes putA (bab2_0518) and putR (bab2_0517) are critical for the chronic infection of mice by B. abortus, but putA and putR are not required for the survival and replication of the bacteria in naive macrophages...
July 8, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691656/mutational-analysis-of-the-ms2-lysis-protein-l
#16
Karthik R Chamakura, Garrett B Edwards, Ry Young
Small single-stranded nucleic acid phages effect lysis by expressing a single protein, the amurin, lacking muralytic enzymatic activity. Three amurins have been shown to act like 'protein antibiotics' by inhibiting cell-wall biosynthesis. However, the L lysis protein of the canonical ssRNA phage MS2, a 75 aa polypeptide, causes lysis by an unknown mechanism without affecting net peptidoglycan synthesis. To identify residues important for lytic function, randomly mutagenized alleles of L were generated, cloned into an inducible plasmid and the transformants were selected on agar containing the inducer...
July 8, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671531/genomic-and-physiological-characterization-of-a-laboratory-isolated-acinetobacter-schindleri-ace-strain-that-quickly-and-efficiently-catabolizes-acetate
#17
Juan-Carlos Sigala, Brisa Paola Suárez, Alvaro R Lara, Sylvie Le Borgne, Patricia Bustos, Rosa Isela Santamaría, Víctor González, Alfredo Martinez
An Acinetobacter strain, designated ACE, was isolated in the laboratory. Phylogenetic tests and average nucleotide identity value comparisons suggested that ACE belongs to the species Acinetobacterschindleri. We report for the first time the complete genome sequence of an A. schindleri strain, which consists of a single circular chromosome of 3 001 209 bp with an overall DNA G+C content of 42.9 mol% and six plasmids that account for 266 844 bp of extrachromosomal material. The presence or absence of genes related to carbon catabolism and antibiotic resistance were in agreement with the phenotypic characterization of ACE...
July 3, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640746/a-chromosome-4-trisomy-contributes-to-increased-fluconazole-resistance-in-a-clinical-isolate-of-candida-albicans
#18
Matthew Z Anderson, Amrita Saha, Abid Haseeb, Richard J Bennett
Candida albicans is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen capable of causing both mucosal and disseminated disease. Infections are often treated with fluconazole, a front-line antifungal drug that targets the biosynthesis of ergosterol, a major component of the fungal cell membrane. Resistance to fluconazole can arise through a variety of mechanisms, including gain-of-function mutations, loss of heterozygosity events and aneuploidy. The clinical isolate P60002 was found to be highly resistant to azole-class drugs, yet lacked mutations or chromosomal rearrangements known to be associated with azole resistance...
June 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640743/glucose-consumption-in-carbohydrate-mixtures-by-phosphotransferase-system-mutants-of-escherichia-coli
#19
Tian Xia, Neeraj Sriram, Sarah A Lee, Ronni Altman, Jeffrey L Urbauer, Elliot Altman, Mark A Eiteman
Escherichia coli lacking the glucose phosphotransferase system (PTS), mannose PTS and glucokinase are supposedly unable to grow on glucose as the sole carbon source (Curtis SJ, Epstein W. J Bacteriol 1975;122:1189-1199). We report that W ptsG manZ glk (ALS1406) grows slowly on glucose in media containing glucose with a second carbon source: ALS1406 metabolizes glucose after that other carbon source, including arabinose, fructose, glycerol, succinate or xylose, is exhausted. Galactose is an exception to this rule, as ALS1406 simultaneously consumes both galactose and glucose...
June 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640741/an-endophytic-fusarium-sp-isolated-from-monarda-citriodora-produces-the-industrially-important-plant-like-volatile-organic-compound-hexanal
#20
Meenu Katoch, Kushal Bindu, Shipra Phull, M K Verma
An endophytic fungus, MC_25L, has been isolated from the leaves of MonardacitriodoraCerv. ex Lag., a medicinal and aromatic herb from the northwestern Himalayas. It produces a fruity fragrance while growing on potato dextrose agar, suggesting that it is producing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The endophyte inhibited the growth of plant pathogens such asSclerotiniasp. and Aspergillusflavus by virtue of VOCs. Identification of MC_25L based on morphological and microscopic features, as well as ITS-based rDNA sequence analysis, revealed that it is a Fusariumsp...
June 22, 2017: Microbiology
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