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Nicholas Read, Robert Howlett, Margaret C M Smith
Actinomycete bacteria use polyprenol phosphate mannose as a lipid-linked sugar donor for extra-cytoplasmic glycosyl transferases that transfer mannose to cell envelope polymers, including glycoproteins and glycolipids. Strains of Streptomyces coelicolor with mutations in the gene ppm1, encoding polyprenol phosphate mannose synthase, and in pmt, encoding a protein O-mannosyltransferase, are resistant to phage ϕC31 and have greatly increased susceptibility to some antibiotics, including vancomycin. In this work, second-site suppressors of the vancomycin susceptibility were isolated...
January 11, 2019: Microbiology
Inoka P Menikpurage, Daniela Barraza, Ady B Meléndez, Sierra Strebe, Paola E Mera
Vitamin B12 is one of the most complex biomolecules in nature. Since few organisms can synthesize B12de novo, most bacteria utilize highly sensitive and specialized transporters to scavenge B12 and its precursors. In Gram-negative bacteria, BtuB is the outer membrane TonB-dependent receptor for B12. In the fresh water bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, btuB is among the most highly expressed genes. In this study, we characterized the function of BtuB in C. crescentus and unveiled a potential new function of this receptor involved in cellular fitness...
January 10, 2019: Microbiology
Sylvia Oetermann, Rense Jongsma, Anna Coenen, Jeanne Keller, Alexander Steinbüchel
Gordonia polyisoprenivorans VH2 harbours two latex clearing proteins, which are responsible for the cleavage of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) into oligoisoprenes, thereby allowing growth in presence of, e.g. natural rubber. A gene coding for a putative regulator of the TetR-family (lcpRVH2) is located 131 bp upstream of lcp1VH2. We heterologously expressed lcpRVH2 in Escherichia coli, and purified and characterized the protein with respect to its ability to bind to the operator region of lcp1VH2. LcpRVH2 forms a dimer in its native state...
January 10, 2019: Microbiology
Kyle D Buchan, Simon J Foster, Stephen A Renshaw
Staphylococcus aureus has colonized humans for at least 10 000 years, and today inhabits roughly a third of the population. In addition, S. aureus is a major pathogen that is responsible for a significant disease burden, ranging in severity from mild skin and soft-tissue infections to life-threatening endocarditis and necrotizing pneumonia, with treatment often hampered by resistance to commonly available antibiotics. Underpinning its versatility as a pathogen is its ability to evade the innate immune system...
January 9, 2019: Microbiology
Shunya Suzuki, Kenji Yokota, Shizunobu Igimi, Akinobu Kajikawa
Previous studies have suggested that some Lactobacillus S-layer proteins could modulate immune responses. Primary structures of the S-layer proteins are variable, and their immunological differences are poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the immunological properties of eight distinct S-layer proteins from different Lactobacillus species. We found that removal of the S-layer proteins from the cell surface reduced the immunological activities of Lactobacillus cells in THP-1 cells. Furthermore, the purified S-layer proteins induced the production of IL-12 p40, although their immunological activities varied between the different S-layer proteins...
January 8, 2019: Microbiology
Kazuto Nosaka, Ryosuke Uchiyama, Kyo Tadano, Yurina Endo, Maria Hayashi, Hiroyuki Konno, Hitomi Mimuro
Helicobacter pylori lacks the genes involved in the de novo synthesis of thiamin, and is therefore a thiamin auxotroph. The PnuT transporter, a member of the Pnu transporter family, mediates the uptake of thiamin across the membrane. In the genome of H. pylori, the pnuT gene is clustered with the thiamin pyrophosphokinase gene thi80. In this study, we found that [3 H]thiamin is incorporated into the H. pylori SS1 strain via facilitated diffusion with a Km value of 28 µM. The incorporation of radioactive thiamin was inhibited to some extent by 2-methyl-4-amino-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine or pyrithiamine, but was largely unaffected by thiamin phosphate or thiamin pyrophosphate...
January 8, 2019: Microbiology
Jason E Heindl, Daniel Crosby, Sukhdev Brar, John F Pinto, Tiyan Singletary, Daniel Merenich, Justin L Eagan, Aaron M Buechlein, Eric L Bruger, Christopher M Waters, Clay Fuqua
A core regulatory pathway that directs developmental transitions and cellular asymmetries in Agrobacterium tumefaciens involves two overlapping, integrated phosphorelays. One of these phosphorelays putatively includes four histidine sensor kinase homologues, DivJ, PleC, PdhS1 and PdhS2, and two response regulators, DivK and PleD. In several different alphaproteobacteria, this pathway influences a conserved downstream phosphorelay that ultimately controls the phosphorylation state of the CtrA master response regulator...
January 8, 2019: Microbiology
Christina N Krute, Miranda J Ridder, Nichole A Seawell, Jeffrey L Bose
The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces saturated fatty acids, but can incorporate both exogenous saturated and unsaturated fatty acids into its lipid membrane. S. aureus encounters unsaturated fatty acids in the host skin where they serve as an innate immune defence due to their toxicity. Previously, we identified a fatty acid kinase in S. aureus that is necessary for the utilization of exogenous fatty acids. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of fatty acids on mutants deficient in the exogenous fatty acid utilization machinery...
December 19, 2018: Microbiology
Magdalena K Stoeva, John D Coates
Microbial sulfate reduction (SR) by sulfate-reducing micro-organisms (SRM) is a primary environmental mechanism of anaerobic organic matter mineralization, and as such influences carbon and sulfur cycling in many natural and engineered environments. In industrial systems, SR results in the generation of hydrogen sulfide, a toxic, corrosive gas with adverse human health effects and significant economic and environmental consequences. Therefore, there has been considerable interest in developing strategies for mitigating hydrogen sulfide production, and several specific inhibitors of SRM have been identified and characterized...
December 17, 2018: Microbiology
Mubin Kazi, Kanchan Ajbani, Jeffrey A Tornheim, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
Drug-resistance due to AmpC β-lactamases represents a growing problem worldwide. In this study, a previously collected sample of 108 cefoxitin-resistant clinical isolates was assessed for AmpC β-lactamase production through routine phenotypic testing and double-disc cefoxitin/cloxcallin (DD-CC), cefoxitin/phenylboronic acid (CDT-PBA) and AmpC disc tests. The same isolates were characterized by a novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction molecular assay to detect the presence of blaACT, blaDHA, blaCIT, blaFOX, blaMIR and blaMOX...
December 13, 2018: Microbiology
Yuliia Sehin, Oksana Koshla, Yuriy Dacyuk, Ruoxia Zhao, Robert Ross, Maksym Myronovskyi, Patrick A Limbach, Andriy Luzhetskyy, Suzanne Walker, Victor Fedorenko, Bohdan Ostash
Streptomyces ghanaensis ATCC14672 is remarkable for its production of phosphoglycolipid compounds, moenomycins, which serve as a blueprint for the development of a novel class of antibiotics based on inhibition of peptidoglycan glycosyltransferases. Here we employed mariner transposon (Tn) mutagenesis to find new regulatory genes essential for moenomycin production. We generated a library of 3000 mutants which were screened for altered antibiotic activity. Our focus centred on a single mutant, HIM5, which accumulated lower amounts of moenomycin and was impaired in morphogenesis as compared to the parental strain...
December 13, 2018: Microbiology
Alexandra Faulds-Pain, Helen Alexandra Shaw, Vanessa Sofia Terra, Steven Kellner, Susan L Brockmeier, Brendan W Wren
The porcine pathogen Streptococcus suis colonizes the upper respiratory tracts of pigs, potentially causing septicaemia, meningitis and death, thus placing a severe burden on the agricultural industry worldwide. It is also a zoonotic pathogen that is known to cause systemic infections and meningitis in humans. Understanding how S. suis colonizes and interacts with its hosts is relevant for future strategies of drug and vaccine development. As with other Gram-positive bacteria, S. suis utilizes enzymes known as sortases to attach specific proteins bearing cell wall sorting signals to its surface, where they can play a role in host-pathogen interactions...
December 13, 2018: Microbiology
Shi-Qi An, Yi-Chen Ding, Franziska Faber, Laura Hobley, Joana Sá-Pessoa
The fifth Young Microbiologists Symposium was held in Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland, in late August 2018. The symposium, focused on 'Microbe signalling, organization and pathogenesis', attracted 121 microbiologists from 15 countries. The meeting allowed junior scientists to present their work to a broad audience, and was supported by the European Molecular Biology Organization, the Federation of European Microbiological Societies, the Society of Applied Microbiology, the Biochemical Society and the Microbiology Society...
December 6, 2018: Microbiology
Tanya Parish, Mark Harris, Norman Fry, Kalai Mathee, Martha E Trujillo, Stephen Bentley, Nicholas Thomson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: Microbiology
Tanja Narancic, Kevin E O'Connor
The strength, flexibility and light weight of traditional oil-derived plastics make them ideal materials for a large number of applications, including packaging, medical devices, building, transportation, etc. However, the majority of produced plastics are single-use plastics, which, coupled with a throw-away culture, leads to the accumulation of plastic waste and pollution, as well as the loss of a valuable resource. In this review we discuss the advances and possibilities in the biotransformation and biodegradation of oil-based plastics...
November 30, 2018: Microbiology
Hey-Min Kim, Anthony Waters, Matthew E Turner, Kelly C Rice, Sang-Joon Ahn
The Streptococcus mutans Cid/Lrg system represents an ideal model for studying this organism's ability to withstand various stressors encountered in the oral cavity. The lrg and cid operons display distinct and opposite patterns of expression in response to growth phase and glucose levels, suggesting that the activity and regulation of these proteins must be tightly coordinated in the cell and closely associated with metabolic pathways of the organism. Here, we demonstrate that expression of the cid and lrg operons is directly mediated by a global transcriptional regulator CcpA in response to glucose levels...
November 26, 2018: Microbiology
Sarah L Sutrina, Stacey Callender, TerrieAnne Grazette, Petrina Scantlebury, Shaka O'Neal, Kiara Thomas, Danielle C Harris, Marilaine Mota-Meira
Escherichia coli strain 15 (ATCC 9723) formed robust biofilms of two distinct forms on glass tubes. In rich, low-osmolarity medium, the biofilms were restricted to the air/liquid interface, resulting in rings attached to the glass. As it was not evident that these biofilms extended across the liquid surface, we termed them 'ring' rather than 'pellicle' biofilms. In minimal medium supplemented with a non-fermentable substrate as the carbon/energy source, we observed either robust ring biofilms or little biofilm of any type, depending on the substrate...
November 22, 2018: Microbiology
Camilla Godlee, Ondrej Cerny, Charlotte H Durkin, David W Holden
Effector proteins of type three secretion systems (T3SS) often require cytosolic chaperones for their stabilization, to interact with the secretion machinery and to enable effector delivery into host cells. We found that deletion of srcA, previously shown to encode a chaperone for the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) T3SS effectors SseL and PipB2, prevented the reduction of mature Major Histocompatibility Complex class II (mMHCII) from the surface of antigen-presenting cells during Salmonella infection...
November 20, 2018: Microbiology
Pallabi Basu, Rupak K Bhadra
Expression of cholera toxin (CT), the principal virulence factor of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae, is positively modulated by the RNA polymerase binding unusual transcription factor DksA (DksAVc) of the stringent response pathway. Here we report that even though CT (encoded by the genes ctxAB) production is downregulated in the V. cholerae ΔdksA (ΔdksAVc) mutant, the expression of the ctxA gene as well as the genes encoding different virulence regulators, namely, AphA, TcpP and ToxT, were also upregulated...
November 16, 2018: Microbiology
Alejandra R Díaz, Lucia Porrini, Diego de Mendoza, María C Mansilla
Two component systems, composed of a receptor histidine kinase and a cytoplasmic response regulator, regulate pivotal cellular processes in microorganisms. Here we describe a new screening procedure for the identification of amino acids that are crucial for the functioning of DesK, a prototypic thermosensor histidine kinase from Bacillus subtilis. This experimental strategy involves random mutagenesis of the membrane sensor domain of the DesK coding sequence, followed by the use of a detection procedure based on changes in the colony morphogenesis that take place during the sporulation programme of B...
November 15, 2018: Microbiology
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