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Mingxia Zhao, Guomei Wang, Yueqiang Leng, Humphrey Wanjugi, Pinggen Xi, Mike Grosz, Mohamed Mergoum, Shaobin Zhong
ND2710 is a hard red spring wheat line with a very high level of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB). It was selected from the progeny of a cross between ND2603 (an advanced breeding line derived from the Sumai 3/Wheaton cross) and Grandin (a spring wheat cultivar). The FHB resistance of ND2710 is presumably derived from Sumai 3 since the other parents Grandin and Wheaton are very susceptible to FHB. To identify and map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FHB resistance in ND2710, we developed a mapping population consisting of 233 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross between ND2710 and the spring wheat cultivar 'Bobwhite'...
March 21, 2018: Phytopathology
Louise-Marie Dandurand, Jean Bertrand Contina, Guy R Knudsen
The potato cyst nematode (PCN), Globodera pallida, is a globally regulated and quarantine potato pest. It was detected for the first time in the U.S. in the state of Idaho in 2006. A spatial analysis was performed to: (i) understand the spatial arrangement of PCN infested fields in southern Idaho using spatial point pattern analysis; and (ii) evaluate the potential threat of PCN for entry to new areas using spatial interpolation techniques. Data point locations, cyst numbers and egg viability values for each infested field were collected by USDA-APHIS during 2006-2014...
March 13, 2018: Phytopathology
Carlos German Lemus-Minor, Carmen Cañizares-Nolasco, Maria D D García-Pedrajas, Encarnación Pérez-Artés
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi virus 1 (FodV1) was detected in isolate Fod 116 (Fod 116V+ ) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Fod), reaching such a high accumulation level that it was clearly visible after agarose gel electrophoresis of total DNA extracts. FodV1 consists of four double-stranded RNA segments, that correspond to a new mycovirus in the Chrysoviridae family. We obtained an isolate of Fod 116 (Fod 116V- ) with only a residual level of FodV1 RNA accumulation by single-conidia selection. Compared to the Fod 116V- , isolate Fod 116V+ showed significant phenotypic alterations in vegetative growth and virulence...
March 8, 2018: Phytopathology
Eric Verdin, Armelle Marais, Catherine Wipf-Scheibel, Chantal Faure, Brigitte Pelletier, Perrine David, Laurence Svanella-Dumas, Clement Poisblaud, Herve' Lecoq, Thierry Candresse
An emerging systemic necrosis disease of corn salad was first observed in the Nantes region of France in the late 2000's. Classical virology and high-throughput sequencing approaches demonstrated that the disease is associated with four different necroviruses, tobacco necrosis virus A (TNVA), tobacco necrosis virus D (TNVD), olive mild mosaic virus (OMMV) and a novel recombinant Alphanecrovirus for which the name corn salad necrosis virus (CSNV) is proposed. Satellite tobacco necrosis virus (STNV) was also frequently observed...
February 28, 2018: Phytopathology
Derek W Barchenger, Zong-Ming Sheu, Sanjeet Kumar, Shih-Wen Lin, Rishi R Burlakoti, Paul W Bosland
Peppers (Capsicum sp.) are an increasingly important crop because of their use as a vegetable, spice, and food colorant. The oomycete Phytophthora capsici is one of the most devastating pathogens to pepper production worldwide, causing more than $100 million in losses annually. Developing cultivars resistant to P. capsici is challenging because of the many physiological races that exist and new races that are continuously evolving. This problem is confounded by the lack of a universal system of race characterization...
February 27, 2018: Phytopathology
Y M Ananda Y Bandara, Dilooshi K Weerasooriya, Sanzhen Liu, Christopher R Little
The cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) secreted by necrotrophs are important virulence factors. Although not unequivocally demonstrated, it has been suggested that necrotrophs induce hosts to cooperate in disease development through manipulation of host CWDEs. The necrotrophic fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. (MP), causes charcoal rot disease in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. An RNA-seq experiment was conducted to investigate the behavior of sorghum CWDEs encoding genes after MP inoculation. Results revealed MP's ability to significantly up-regulate pectin methylesterase-, polygalacturonase-, cellulase-, endoglucanase-, and glycosyl hydrolase-encoding genes in a charcoal rot susceptible sorghum genotype (Tx7000), but not in a resistant genotype (SC599)...
February 21, 2018: Phytopathology
Eduardo Chagas Silva, Pramuditha L Abhayawardhana, Anatoliy V Lygin, Clark L Robertson, Mei Liu, Zhijun Liu, Raymond W Schneider
Although previous research showed that the purple symptom of Cercospora leaf blight (CLB) is associated with lower biomass of Cercospora cf. flagellaris and lower concentrations of cercosporin, a reactive oxygen species producer, as compared to blighted leaves, the hypothesis that the purple symptom is a plant reaction to the pathogen has never been tested. In this study, we demonstrated that high levels of coumestrol (COU) were associated with purple symptoms of CLB and that COU has strong antioxidant activity...
February 16, 2018: Phytopathology
N Singh, T Phukan, P L Sharma, K Kabyashree, A Barman, R Kumar, R V Sonti, S Genin, S K Ray
In this study, we report Ralstonia solanacearum pathogenicity in the early stages of tomato seedlings by an innovative root inoculation method. Pathogenicity assays were performed under gnotobiotic conditions in microfuge tubes by employing only 6- to 7-day-old tomato seedlings for root inoculation. Tomato seedlings inoculated by this method exhibited the wilted symptom within 48 h and the virulence assay can be completed in 2 weeks. Colonization of the wilted seedlings by R. solanacearum was confirmed by using gus staining as well as fluorescence microscopy...
February 15, 2018: Phytopathology
Marin Ježić, Jelena Mlinarec, Rosemary Vuković, Zorana Katanić, Ljiljana Krstin, Lucija Nuskern, Igor Poljak, Marilena Idžojtić, Mirta Tkalec, Mirna Curkovic-Perica
Invasive species, especially plant pathogens have a potential to completely eradicate native plant species and remodel landscapes. Tripartite interaction among sweet chestnut, Castanea sativa, chestnut blight-causing invasive fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, and a hyperparasitic virus, Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirus 1 (CHV1) were studied in two populations. The number of different vegetative compatibility (vc) types of C. parasitica more than doubled over the ten years, while the hypovirulence incidence dropped in one population, and slightly increased in the other one...
February 14, 2018: Phytopathology
Kamyar Aram, David M Rizzo
Phytophthora spp. are regularly recovered from streams but their ecology in aquatic environments is not well understood. Phytophthora ramorum, invasive in California forests, persists in streams at times when sporulation in the canopy is absent, suggesting that it reproduces in the water. Streams are also inhabited by resident, clade 6 Phytophthora spp., believed to be primarily saprotrophic. We conducted experiments to determine if differences of trophic specialization exist between these two taxa, and investigated how this may affect their survival and competition on stream leaf litter...
February 14, 2018: Phytopathology
Luz Marcela Yepes, Elizabeth J Cieniewicz, Björn Krenz, Heather McLane, Jeremy R Thompson, Keith L Perry, Marc Fuchs
Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) has a monopartite single-stranded DNA genome and is the type species of the genus Grablovirus in the family Geminiviridae. To address the etiological role of GRBV in the recently recognized red blotch disease of grapevine, infectious GRBV clones were engineered from the genome of each of the two previously identified phylogenetic clades for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated inoculations of tissue culture-grown Vitis spp. plants. Following agroinoculation and one or two dormancy cycles, systemic GRBV infection was detected by multiplex PCR in V...
February 13, 2018: Phytopathology
Leilani Sumabat, Robert C Kemerait, Marin Talbot Brewer
Corynespora cassiicola is a ubiquitous fungus causing emerging plant diseases worldwide, including target spot of cotton, soybean, and tomato, which have rapidly increased in incidence and severity throughout the southeastern United States. The objectives of this study were to understand the causes for the emerging target spot epidemics in the U.S. by comparing phylogenetic relationships of isolates from cotton, tomato, soybean, and other crop plants and ornamental hosts, and through the determination of the host range of isolates from emerging populations...
February 13, 2018: Phytopathology
Jared Paul Jensen, Augustine Q Beeman, Zach L Njus, Upender Kalwa, Santosh Pandey, Gregory L Tylka
Two new in vitro methods were developed to analyze plant-parasitic nematode behavior, at the population and the individual organism levels, through time-lapse image analysis. The first method employed a high-resolution flatbed scanner to monitor the movement of a population of nematodes over a 24-hour period at 25°C. The second method tracked multiple motion parameters of individual nematodes on a microscopic scale, using a high-speed camera. Changes in movement and motion of second-stage juveniles (J2s) of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, were measured after exposure to a serial dilution of abamectin (0...
February 2, 2018: Phytopathology
Boris Xavier Camiletti, Juan Moral, Claudia Mariana Asensio, Ada Karina Torrico, Enrique Ivan Lucini, María de la Paz Giménez-Pecci, Themis J Michailides
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a highly valuable crop in Argentina, frequently contaminated with the mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus. Biocontrol products formulated with atoxigenic (non-toxic) strains of this fungal species are well-known as an effective method to reduce this contamination. In the present study, 83 A. flavus isolates from two maize regions of Argentina were characterized and evaluated for their ability to produce or lack of producing mycotoxins in order to select atoxigenic strains to be used as potential biocontrol agents (BCA)...
January 31, 2018: Phytopathology
Fumiaki Funahashi, Jennifer Parke
Research on solarization efficacy has examined the critical temperature and minimum exposure time to inactivate soilborne pathogens. Most mathematical models focus on survival of inoculum subjected to a constant heat regime rather than an intermittent heat regime that better simulates field conditions. To develop a more accurate predictive model, we conducted controlled lab experiments with rhododendron leaf disks infested with Phytophthora ramorum and P. pini. Focused in vitro experiments with P. ramorum showed significantly longer survival of inoculum exposed to intermittent vs...
January 31, 2018: Phytopathology
Wenwen Fang, Cuicui Liu, Haiwang Zhang, Han Xu, Si Zhou, Kexing Fang, Wensheng Zhao, You-Liang Peng
A set of differential isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae is needed for the postulation of blast resistance genes in numerous rice varieties and breeding materials. In this study, the pathotypes of 1377 M. oryzae isolates from different regions of China were determined by inoculating detached rice leaves of 24 monogenic lines. Among them, 25 isolates were selected as differential isolates based on the following characteristics: had distinct responses on the monogenic lines, contained the minimum number of avirulence genes, was stable in pathogenicity and conidiation during consecutive culture, was consistent colony growth rate, and together could differentiate combinations of the 24 major blast resistance genes...
January 31, 2018: Phytopathology
Tao Chen, Kai Bi, Yanli Zhao, Xueliang Lyu, Zhixiao Gao, Ying Zhao, Yanping Fu, Jiasen Cheng, Jiatao Xie, Daohong Jiang
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play a central role in cellular growth, proliferation and survival. MAPK cascade genes have been extensively investigated in model plants, mammals, yeast and fungi, but are not characterized in Plasmodiophora brassicae, which causes clubroot disease in cruciferous plants. Here, we identified 7 PbMAPK, 3 PbMAPKK and 9 PbMAPKKK genes in the P. brassicae genome. Transcriptional profiling analysis demonstrated that several MAPK, MAPKK and MAPKKK genes were preferentially expressed in three different zoosporic stages...
January 30, 2018: Phytopathology
Carolyn Young, Clive Bock, Nikki Charlton, Chakradhar Mattupalli, Nick D Krom, Joanna K Bowen, Matt David Templeton, Kim Plummer, Bruce W Wood
Venturia effusa (syn. Fusicladium effusum), causal agent of pecan scab, is the most prevalent pathogen of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) causing severe yield losses in the southeastern U.S.A. Venturia effusa is currently known only by its asexual (conidial) stage. However, the degree and distribution of genetic diversity observed within and among populations of V. effusa are typical of a sexually reproducing fungal pathogen, and comparable to other Dothideomycetes with a known sexual stage, including the closely related apple scab pathogen, V...
January 30, 2018: Phytopathology
James A Elderfield, Fran Lopez Ruiz, Frank van den Bosch, Nik J Cunniffe
Whether fungicide resistance management is optimised by spraying chemicals with different modes of action as a mixture (i.e. simultaneously) or in alternation (i.e. sequentially) has been studied by experimenters and modellers for decades. However results have been inconclusive. We use previously-parameterised and validated mathematical models of wheat septoria leaf blotch and grapevine powdery mildew to test which tactic provides better resistance management, using the total yield before resistance causes disease control to become economically-ineffective ("lifetime yield") to measure effectiveness...
January 29, 2018: Phytopathology
Xuefei Wang, Dean A Glawe, Elizabeth K Kramer, David M Weller, Patricia Ann Okubara
Native yeasts are of increasing interest to researchers, grape growers, and vintners because of their potential for biocontrol activity, and their contributions to the aroma, flavor and mouthfeel qualities of wines. To assess biocontrol activity, we tested 11 yeasts from Washington vineyards, representing isolates of Candida saitoana, Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus, for ability to colonize 'Thompson Seedless' grape berries, inhibit the growth of Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and suppress disease symptoms on isolated berries...
January 15, 2018: Phytopathology
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