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Phytopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791895/cluster-a-new-application-for-spatial-analysis-of-pixelated-data-for-epiphytotics
#1
Scot Nelson, Iulian Corcoja, Sarah Jane Pethybridge
Spatial analysis of epiphytotics is essential to develop and test hypotheses about pathogen ecology, disease dynamics, and to optimize plant disease management strategies. Data collection for spatial analysis requires substantial investment in time to depict patterns in various frames and hierarchies. We developed a new approach for spatial analysis of pixelated data in digital imagery and incorporated the method in a stand-alone desktop application called Cluster. The user isolates target entities (clusters) by designating up to 24 pixel colors as nontargets and moves a threshold slider to visualize the targets...
August 9, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786341/insights-into-the-etiology-of-polerovirus-induced-pepper-yellows-disease
#2
Leonidas Lotos, Antonio Olmos, Chrysoula Orfanidou, Konstantinos Efthimiou, Apostolos Avgelis, Nikolaos Katis, Varvara I Maliogka
The study of an emerging yellows disease of pepper crops (pepper yellows disease, PYD) in 2013 in Greece led to the identification of a polerovirus closely related to Pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV). Recovery of its full genome sequence by next generation sequencing of small interfering RNAs allowed its characterization as a new polerovirus species, which was provisionally named pepper yellows virus (PeYV). Further transmission experiments revealed its association with the disease. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis highlighted the common ancestry of the three poleroviruses [PeVYV, PeYV and pepper yellow leaf curl (PYLCV)] currently known to be associated with PYD, even though significant genetic differences were identified among them especially in the C-terminal part of P5 and the 3' non-coding region...
August 8, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777055/large-scale-atmospheric-dispersal-simulations-identify-likely-airborne-incursion-routes-of-wheat-stem-rust-into-ethiopia
#3
M Meyer, L Burgin, M C Hort, D P Hodson, C A Gilligan
In recent years, severe wheat stem rust epidemics hit Ethiopia, sub-Saharan Africa's largest wheat-producing country. These were caused by race TKTTF (Digalu race) of the pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, which, in Ethiopia, was first detected at the beginning of August 2012. We use the incursion of this new pathogen race as a case study to determine likely airborne origins of fungal spores on regional and continental scales by means of a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM). Two different techniques, LPDM simulations forward and backward in time, are compared...
August 4, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766401/evaluation-of-a-pomegranate-peel-extract-pge-as-alternative-mean-to-control-olive-anthracnose
#4
Sonia Pangallo, Maria Giulia Li Destri Nicosia, Giovanni Enrico Agosteo, Ahmed Abdelfattah, Flora Valeria Romeo, Santa O Cacciola, Paolo Rapisarda, Leonardo Schena
Olive anthracnose is caused by different species of Colletotrichum spp. and may be regarded as the most damaging disease of olive fruits worldwide, greatly affecting quality and quantity of the productions. A pomegranate peel extract (PGE) proved very effective in controlling the disease. The extract had a strong in vitro fungicidal activity against Colletotrichum acutatum sensu stricto, was very effective in both preventive and curative trials with artificially inoculated fruit, and induced resistance in treated olive tissues...
August 2, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762287/disease-resistance-to-multiple-fungal-and-oomycete-pathogens-evaluated-using-a-recombinant-inbred-line-population-in-pepper
#5
Rachel P Naegele, Leah L Granke, Jessica Fry, Theresa Hill, Hamid Ashrafi, Allen Van Deynze, Mary K Hausbeck
Incorporating disease resistance into cultivars is a primary focus of modern breeding programs. Resistance to pathogens is often introgressed from landrace or wild individuals with poor fruit quality into commercial-quality cultivars. Sites of multiple disease resistance (MDR) are regions or "hotspots" of the genome with closely linked genes for resistance to different pathogens that could enable rapid incorporation of resistance. An F2-derived F6 recombinant inbred line population from a cross between 'Criollo de Morelos 334' and 'Early Jalapeno' was evaluated in inoculated fruit studies for susceptibility to oomycete and fungal pathogens: Phytophthora capsici, P...
August 1, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504619/standard-area-diagrams-for-aiding-severity-estimation-scientometrics-pathosystems-and-methodological-trends-in-the-last-25-years
#6
Emerson M Del Ponte, Sarah J Pethybridge, Clive H Bock, Sami J Michereff, Franklin J Machado, Piérri Spolti
Standard area diagrams (SAD) have long been used as a tool to aid the estimation of plant disease severity, an essential variable in phytopathometry. Formal validation of SAD was not considered prior to the early 1990s, when considerable effort began to be invested developing SAD and assessing their value for improving accuracy of estimates of disease severity in many pathosystems. Peer-reviewed literature post-1990 was identified, selected, and cataloged in bibliographic software for further scrutiny and extraction of scientometric, pathosystem-related, and methodological-related data...
July 27, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745103/computer-vision-for-high-throughput-quantitative-phenotyping-a-case-study-of-grapevine-downy-mildew-sporulation-and-leaf-trichomes
#7
Konstantin Divilov, Tyr Wiesner-Hanks, Paola Barba, Lance Cadle-Davidson, Bruce I Reisch
Quantitative phenotyping of downy mildew sporulation is frequently used in plant breeding and genetic studies, as well as in studies focused on pathogen biology, such as chemical efficacy trials. In these scenarios, phenotyping a large number of genotypes or treatments can be advantageous, but is often limited by time and cost. We present a novel computational pipeline dedicated to estimating the percent area of downy mildew sporulation from images of inoculated grapevine leaf discs in a manner that is time and cost efficient...
July 26, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745102/inheritance-and-bulked-segregant-analysis-of-leaf-rust-and-stem-rust-resistance-in-durum-wheat-genotypes
#8
Meriem Aoun, James Kolmer, Matthew N Rouse, Shiaoman Chao, Worku Denbel Bulbula, Elias M Elias, Maricelis Acevedo
Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina (Pt) and stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) are important diseases of durum wheat. This study determined the inheritance and genomic locations of leaf rust resistance (Lr) genes to Pt-race BBBQJ and stem rust resistance (Sr genes to Pgt-race TTKSK in durum accessions. Eight leaf rust resistant genotypes were used to develop bi-parental populations. Accessions, PI 192051 and PI 534304 were also resistant to Pgt-race TTKSK. The resulting progenies were phenotyped for leaf rust and stem rust response at seedling stage...
July 26, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742460/resistance-genes-in-global-crop-breeding-networks
#9
Karen A Garrett, Kelsey F Andersen, Frank Asche, Robert Bowden, Greg Forbes, Peter Kulakow, Bo Zhou
Resistance genes are a major tool for managing crop diseases. The networks of crop breeders who exchange resistance genes and deploy them in varieties help to determine the global landscape of resistance and epidemics, an important system for maintaining food security. These networks function as a complex adaptive system, with associated strengths and vulnerabilities, and implications for policies to support resistance gene deployment strategies. Extensions of epidemic network analysis can be used to evaluate the multilayer agricultural networks that support and influence crop breeding networks...
July 25, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742459/identification-of-clusters-that-condition-resistance-to-anthracnose-in-the-common-bean-differential-cultivars-ab136-and-mdrk
#10
Ana Campa, Noemi Trabanco, Juan Jose Ferreira
The correct identification of the anthracnose resistance systems present in the common bean cultivars AB136 and MDRK is important because both are included in the set of 12 differential cultivars proposed for use in classifying the races of the anthracnose causal agent, Colletrotrichum lindemuthianum. In this work, the responses against seven C. lindemuthianum races were analyzed in a recombinant inbred line population derived from the cross AB136 x MDRK. A genetic linkage map of 100 molecular markers distributed across the 11 bean chromosomes was developed in this population to locate the gene or genes conferring resistance against each race, based on linkage analyses and chi-square tests of independence...
July 25, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742458/morphological-and-genetic-analyses-of-the-invasive-forest-pathogen-phytophthora-austrocedri-reveal-two-clonal-lineages-colonised-britain-and-argentina-from-a-common-ancestral-population
#11
Béatrice Henricot, Ana Pérez-Sierra, April Armstrong, Paul Sharp, Sarah Green
Phytophthora austrocedri is causing widespread mortality of Austrocedrus chilensis in Argentina and Juniperus communis in Britain. The pathogen has also been isolated from J. horizontalis in Germany. Isolates from Britain, Argentina and Germany are homothallic with no clear differences in the dimensions of sporangia, oogonia or oospores. Argentinian and German isolates grew faster than British isolates across a range of media and had a higher temperature tolerance although most isolates regardless of origin grew best at 15°C and all isolates were killed at 25°C...
July 25, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742457/epidemic-network-analysis-for-mitigation-of-invasive-pathogens-in-seed-systems-potato-in-ecuador
#12
Christopher Buddenhagen, John Hernandez Nopsa, Kelsey F Andersen, Jorge Andrade-Piedra, Greg Forbes, Peter Kromann, Sara Thomas-Sharma, Pilar Useche, Karen A Garrett
Seed systems have an important role in the distribution of high quality seed and improved varieties. The structure of seed networks also helps to determine the epidemiological risk for seedborne disease. We present a new method for evaluating the epidemiological role of nodes in seed networks, and apply it to a regional potato farmer consortium (CONPAPA) in Ecuador. We surveyed farmers to estimate the structure of networks of farmer seed tuber and ware potato transactions, and farmer information sources about pest and disease management...
July 25, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414632/analysis-of-the-spatial-pattern-of-strawberry-angular-leaf-spot-in-california-nursery-production
#13
Christophe Gigot, William Turechek, Neil McRoberts
In California, angular leaf spot (ALS) is a common disease in strawberry nursery production, and a major concern for nurseries wishing to export plants. As the spatial pattern of a disease can offer insight into pathogen source, mode of dissemination, and how current crop management practices affect epidemic development, an understanding of the spatial pattern of ALS would allow nursery growers to make informed decisions regarding disease management. Ninety-seven field assessments of disease incidence were performed at different nursery locations in 2014 and 2015 to quantify ALS spatial pattern under commercial conditions...
July 25, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730873/physiological-traits-determining-yield-tolerance-of-wheat-to-foliar-diseases
#14
Femke van den Berg, Neil Paveley, I J Bingham, Frank van den Bosch
Tolerance is defined as the ability of one cultivar to yield more than another cultivar, under similar disease severity. If both cultivars suffer an equal loss in healthy (green) leaf area duration (HAD) over the grain filling period due to disease presence, then the yield loss per unit HAD loss is smaller for a more tolerant cultivar. Little is understood of what physiological and developmental traits of cultivars determine disease tolerance. In this study we use a mathematical model of wheat to investigate the effect of a wide range of wheat phenotypes on tolerance...
July 21, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726578/a-framework-for-optimizing-phytosanitary-thresholds-in-seed-systems
#15
Robin Alan Choudhury, Karen A Garrett, Steven J Klosterman, Krishna V Subbarao, Neil McRoberts
Seedborne pathogens and pests limit production in many agricultural systems. Quarantine programs help prevent the introduction of exotic pathogens into a country, but few regulations directly apply to reducing the re-introduction and spread of endemic pathogens. Use of phytosanitary thresholds helps limit the movement of pathogen inoculum through seed, but the costs associated with rejected seed lots can be prohibitive for voluntary implementation of phytosanitary thresholds. In this paper, we outline a framework to optimize thresholds for seedborne pathogens, balancing the cost of rejected seed lots and benefit of reduced inoculum levels...
July 20, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723243/pathogenicity-of-nectriaceous-fungi-on-avocado-in-australia
#16
Louisamarie Parkinson, Roger Shivas, Elizabeth Dann
Black root rot is a severe disease of young avocado trees in Australia causing black necrotic roots, tree stunting, and leaf drop prior to tree death. Nectriaceous fungi (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales), are commonly isolated from symptomatic roots. This research tested the pathogenicity of 19 isolates from Calonectria, Cylindrocladiella, Dactylonectria, Gliocladiopsis and Ilyonectria, spp. collected from young avocado trees and other hosts. Glasshouse pathogenicity tests with avocado (Persea americana) cv. Reed seedlings confirmed that Calonectria ilicicola is a severe pathogen of avocado, causing stunting, wilting and seedling death within 5 weeks of inoculation...
July 19, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714353/spatial-analysis-of-temporal-changes-in-the-pandemic-of-severe-cassava-mosaic-disease-in-north-western-tanzania
#17
Anna Maria Szyniszewska, Constantine Busungu, Simon Boniface Boni, Rudolph Rufini Shirima, Hein Bouwmeester, James P Legg
To improve understanding of the dynamics of the cassava mosaic disease (CMD) pandemic front, geospatial approaches were applied to the analysis of three years' data obtained from a 2° by 2° (ca 222km by 222 km) area of north-western Tanzania. A total of 80 farmers' fields were assessed in each of 2009, 2010 and 2011, with 20 evenly-distributed fields per 1° by 1° quadrant. CMD-associated variables (CMD incidence, CMD severity, vector-borne CMD infection and vector abundance) increased in magnitude from 2009-2010, but showed little change from 2010-2011...
July 15, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703042/genome-wide-association-mapping-of-fusarium-head-blight-resistance-in-spring-wheat-lines-developed-in-the-pacific-northwest-and-cimmyt
#18
Rui Wang, Jianli Chen, James A Anderson, Junli Zhang, Weidong Zhao, Justin Wheeler, Natalie Klassen, Deven R See, Yanhong Dong
Fusarium head blight is a destructive disease of wheat in humid and semi-humid areas of the world. It has emerged in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in recent years because of changing climate and crop rotation practices. Our objectives in the present study were to identify and characterize QTL associated with FHB resistance in spring wheat lines developed in the PNW and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). A total of 170 spring wheat lines were evaluated in field and greenhouse trials in 2015 and 2016...
July 13, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703041/a-review-of-control-options-and-externalities-for-verticillium-wilts
#19
Christine L Carroll, Colin A Carter, Rachael E Goodhue, C-Y Cynthia Lin Lawell, Krishna V Subbarao
Plant pathogens migrate to new regions through human activities such as trade, where they may establish themselves and cause disease on agriculturally important crops. Verticillium wilt of lettuce, caused by Verticillium dahliae, is a soilborne fungus that was introduced to coastal California via infested spinach seeds. It has caused significant losses for lettuce growers. Once introduced, Verticillium wilt could be managed by fumigating with methyl bromide and chloropicrin, but this option is no longer available...
July 13, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697663/the-point-mutation-g461s-in-the-mfcyp51-gene-is-associated-with-tebuconazole-resistance-in-monilinia-fructicola-populations-in-brazil
#20
Paulo Santos Faria Lichtemberg, Yong Luo, Rafael G Morales, Juliana Marta Muehlmann Fischer, Themis J Michailides, Louise Larissa May De Mio
The ascomycete Monilinia fructicola is the causal agent of brown rot of stone fruits in Brazil, causing major pre- and post-harvest losses. For many years, the demethylation inhibitor fungicide tebuconazole has been used as the most effective active ingredient for controlling brown rot, and as a result, strains of M. fructicola resistant to this ingredient have emerged in many Brazilian States producing stone fruits. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism(s) associated with the resistance of M...
July 11, 2017: Phytopathology
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