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Xuefei Wang, Dean A Glawe, Elizabeth K Kramer, David M Weller, Patricia Ann Okubara
Native yeasts are of increasing interest to researchers, grape growers, and vintners because of their potential for biocontrol activity, and their contributions to the aroma, flavor and mouthfeel qualities of wines. To assess biocontrol activity, we tested 11 yeasts from Washington vineyards, representing isolates of Candida saitoana, Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus, for ability to colonize 'Thompson Seedless' grape berries, inhibit the growth of Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and suppress disease symptoms on isolated berries...
January 15, 2018: Phytopathology
Bianca L Barrantes-Infante, Brenda K Schroeder, Sergei A Subbotin, Timothy D Murray
The dropseed gall-forming nematode, Afrina sporoboliae sp. n., is described from seed galls of Sporobolus cryptandrus (Poaceae: Chloridoideae: Sporobolinae) collected in Idaho, USA. This is the third report of an Afrina species in North America and the first report of this genus in a natural plant population on this continent. Morphological, morphometric, and molecular analyses placed this nematode in genus Afrina and demonstrated that it differs from Af. hyparrheniae and Af. spermophaga by having longer body and stylet lengths for females and males, and from Af...
January 12, 2018: Phytopathology
Kibrom Abreha, Åsa Lankinen, Laura Masini, Sofia Hydbom, Erik Andreasson
To understand the contribution of wild Solanum species to the epidemiology of potato late blight in Sweden, we characterized the resistance of the three putative alternative hosts; Solanum physalifolium, S. nigrum, and S. dulcamara to Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight. The pathogen sporulated in all ten investigated S. physalifolium genotypes, suggesting susceptibility (S phenotype). Field-grown S. physalifolium was naturally infected but could regrow, though highly infected genotypes were smaller at the end of the season...
January 12, 2018: Phytopathology
Mark L Double, Andrew M Jarosz, Dennis W Fulbright, Anita Davelos Baines, William Lloyd MacDonald
Hypovirus-infected Cryphonectria parasitica strains were introduced in a large stand of American chestnut (> 4000 individuals) in western Wisconsin (USA) to evaluate whether hypoviruses can serve as biological control agents. They were deployed by treating cankers from 1992-1997 and again from 2004-2014. After 17 years of hypovirus introductions within an area of the stand with the longest history of disease, isolation of hypovirus-infected strains increased from 55% in 1994 to 86% in 2014 from cankers that were treated...
January 10, 2018: Phytopathology
Vahideh Rafiei, Ziaeddin Banihashemi, Laura S Bautista-Jalon, María Del Mar Jiménez-Gasco, Gillian Turgeon, Michael G Milgroom
Verticillium dahliae is a plant pathogenic fungus that reproduces asexually and its population structure is highly clonal. In the present study, 78 V. dahliae isolates from Iran were genotyped for mating type, SNPs and microsatellites to assign them to clonal lineages and to determine population genetic structure in Iran. The mating type of all isolates was MAT1-2. Based on neighbor-joining analysis and minimum spanning networks constructed from SNPs and microsatellite genotypes, all but four isolates were assigned to lineage 2B824; four isolates were assigned to lineage 4B...
January 10, 2018: Phytopathology
Yi He, Xu Zhang, Yu Zhang, Dawood Ahmad, Lei Wu, Peng Jiang, Hongxiang Ma Ma
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a destructive fungal disease in wheat worldwide. Efforts have been carried out to combat this disease, and the PFT (pore-forming toxin-like) gene at the quantitative trait locus (QTL) Fhb1 was isolated and found to confer resistance to FHB in Sumai 3. In this study, we characterized PFT in 348 wheat accessions. Four haplotypes of PFT were identified. The wild haplotype of PFT had higher resistance than other haplotypes and explained 13.8% of phenotypic variation in FHB resistance by association analysis...
January 9, 2018: Phytopathology
Junyan Feng, Meinan Wang, Deven R See, Shiaoman Chao, You-Liang Zheng, Xianming Chen
Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease of wheat worldwide. Exploring new resistance genes is essential for breeding resistant wheat cultivars. PI 182103, a spring wheat landrace originally from Pakistan, has shown a high level of resistance to stripe rust in fields for many years, but genes for resistance to stripe rust in the variety have not been studied. To map the resistance gene(s) in PI 182103, 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from a cross with Avocet Susceptible (AvS)...
January 5, 2018: Phytopathology
Hehe Wang, Christine McTavish, William W Turechek
Xanthomonas fragariae causes angular leaf spot of strawberry, an important disease in strawberry growing regions worldwide. To better understand how X. fragariae multiplies and moves in strawberry plants, a GFP-labelled strain was constructed and used to monitor the pathogen's presence in leaf, petiole, and crown tissue with fluorescence microscopy following natural and wound inoculation in three strawberry cultivars. Taqman PCR was used to quantify bacterial densities in these same tissues regardless of the presence of GFP signal...
January 3, 2018: Phytopathology
Christopher A Bell, Howard J Atkinson, Alan C Andrade, Hoa X Nguyen, I Gede Swibawa, Catherine Lilley, James McCarthy, Peter Urwin
Coffee yields are adversely affected by plant-parasitic nematodes and the pathogens are largely under-reported because a simple and reliable identification method is not available. We describe a PCR-based approach to rapidly detect and quantify the major Pratylenchus and Meloidogyne nematode species that are capable of parasitising coffee. The procedure was applied to soil samples obtained from a number of coffee farms in Brazil, Vietnam and Indonesia to assess the prevalence of these species associated both with coffee (Coffea arabica and C...
January 1, 2018: Phytopathology
Mark W Jones, Bryan W Penning, Tiffany M Jamann, Jeff C Glaubitz, Cinta Romay, Edward S Buckler, Margaret Redinbaugh
The recent rapid emergence of maize lethal necrosis (MLN), caused by coinfection of maize with maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and a second virus usually from the family Potyviridae, is causing extensive losses for farmers in East Africa, Southeast Asia and South America. Although the genetic basis of resistance to potyviruses is well understood in maize, little was known about resistance to MCMV. The responses of five maize inbred lines (KS23-5, KS23-6, N211, DR and Oh1VI) to inoculation with MCMV, sugarcane mosaic virus and MLN were characterized...
December 29, 2017: Phytopathology
Congli Wang, Mauricio Ulloa, Tra Duong, Philip A Roberts
Fusarium wilt, caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV), is a vascular disease of cotton (Gossypium spp.). FOV race 1 (FOV1) causes major plant injury and yield loss in G. hirsutum cultivars with co-infection with root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), while FOV race 4 (FOV4) causes plant damage without nematode co-infection in G. hirsutum and in G. barbadense cultivars . QTL analysis of the interspecific cross G. barbadense Pima S-7 × G. hirsutum Acala NemX revealed separate multiple loci determining resistance to FOV1 and FOV4, confirming that race-specificity occurs in FOV...
December 27, 2017: Phytopathology
Rouja Haghdoust, Davinder Singh, Diana P Garnica, Robert F Park, Peter M Dracatos
Barley is a host to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei (Psh), and is an intermediate or near nonhost to the formae speciales adapted to wheat [f. sp. tritici (Pst)] and to barley grass [f. sp. pseudo-hordei (Psph)]. The genetic basis of resistance to these forms of P. striiformis is not well understood. Accordingly, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was developed using a P. striiformis-susceptible accession (Biosaline-19) and the immune cultivar Pompadour. We investigated the genetic basis of resistance to four diverse P...
December 22, 2017: Phytopathology
Timothy James Waller, Jennifer Vaiciunas, Chris Constantelos, Peter V Oudemans
Blueberry anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum fioriniae, is a pre- and post-harvest disease of cultivated highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). During disease development the pathogen undergoes several lifestyle changes during host colonization, including epiphytic, quiescent, and necrotrophic phases. It is not clear, however, what if any host signals alter the pattern of colonization during the initial epiphytic phase and infection. This research investigated the role of blueberry floral extracts (FE) on fungal development...
December 21, 2017: Phytopathology
Qing Wang, Beiqi Shao, Fayaz Imamrasul Shaikh, Wolfgang- Friedt, Sven Gottwald
Fusarium graminearum is a major pathogen of wheat causing Fusarium head blight (FHB). Its ability to colonize wheat via seedling root infection has been reported recently. Our previous study on Fusarium root rot (FRR) has disclosed histological characteristics of pathogenesis and pathogen defense that mirror processes of spike infection. Therefore, it would be interesting to understand whether genes relevant for FHB resistance are induced in roots. The concept of similar-acting defense mechanisms provides a basis for research at broad Fusarium resistance in crop plants...
December 19, 2017: Phytopathology
Chuong Nguyen Ngo, Kathryn Susan Braithwaite, David Bass, Anthony Young, Barry J Croft
Chlorotic streak is a global disease of commercial sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids). The disease is transmitted by wet soil, water, as well as in diseased planting material. Although first recognized almost 90 years ago and despite significant research effort, the identity of the causal agent has been elusive. Metagenomic high throughput sequencing (HTS) facilitated the discovery of novel protistan ribosomal and nuclear genes in chlorotic streak-infected sugarcane. These sequences suggest a possible causal agent belonging to the order Cercomonadida (Rhizaria, phylum Cercozoa)...
December 19, 2017: Phytopathology
Panpan Su, Wei Zhi Song, Guichun Wu, Yancun Zhao, Yuqiang Zhang, Bo Wang, Guoliang Qian, Zheng Qing Fu, Fenquan Liu
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) is a X. oryzae pathovar that causes bacterial leaf streak in rice. In this study, we performed functional characterization of a nine-gene his operon in Xoc. Sequence analysis indicates that this operon is highly conserved in Xanthomonas spp. Auxotrophic assays confirmed that the his operon was involved in histidine biosynthesis. We found that two genes within this operon -trpR and hisB- were required for virulence and bacterial growth in planta. Further research revealed that trpR and hisB play different roles in Xoc...
December 19, 2017: Phytopathology
Daniel Schlatter, Ian Burke, Timothy Carl Paulitz
The successional dynamics of root-colonizing microbes are hypothesized to be critical to displacing fungal pathogens that can proliferate after the use of some herbicides. Applications of glyphosate in particular, which compromises the plant defense system by interfering with the production of aromatic amino acids, is thought to promote a buildup of root pathogens and can result in a 'greenbridge' between weeds or volunteers and crop hosts. By planting two to three weeks after spraying, growers can avoid most negative impacts of the greenbridge by allowing pathogen populations to decline, but with the added cost of delayed planting dates...
December 19, 2017: Phytopathology
Enrico Biondi, Alan Zamorano, Ernesto Vega, Stefano Ardizzi, Davide Sitta, Roberto De Salvador, Reinaldo Campos-Vargas, Claudio Meneses, Set Pérez, Assunta Bertaccini, Nicola Fiore
Kiwifruit bleeding sap samples, collected in Italian and Chilean orchards from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants, were evaluated for the presence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the causal agent of bacterial canker. The saps were sampled during the spring of both hemispheres, before the bud sprouting, during the optimal time window for the collection of an adequate volume of sample for the early detection of the pathogen, preliminarily by molecular assays, and then, through its direct isolation and identification...
December 14, 2017: Phytopathology
Mamadou Lamine Fall, John F Boyse, Dechun Wang, Jamie F Willbur, Damon Smith, Martin I Chilvers
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a significant threat to soybean production worldwide. In this study, an epidemiological approach was used to examine 11 years of historical data from a soybean management performance trial in order to advance our understanding of Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) development and to identify environmental predictors of SSR epidemics and associated yield losses. Recursive partitioning analysis suggested that average air temperature and total precipitation in July were the most significant variables associated with disease severity...
December 12, 2017: Phytopathology
Peri Ann Tobias, David Guest, Carsten Külheim, Robert F Park
Austropuccinia psidii, causal agent of myrtle rust, was discovered in Australia in 2010 and has since become established on a wide range of species within the Myrtaceae. Syzygium luehmannii, endemic to Australia, is an increasingly valuable berry crop. Plants were screened for responses to A. psidii inoculation and specific resistance, in the form of localised necrosis, was determined in 29% of individuals. To understand the molecular basis underlying this response, mRNA was sequenced from leaf samples taken pre-inoculation, and at 24 and 48 hours post inoculation, from four resistant and four susceptible plants...
December 12, 2017: Phytopathology
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