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X Li, Z P Xiang, W Q Chen, Q L Huang, T G Liu, Q Li, S F Zhong, M Zhang, J W Guo, L Lei, P G Luo
Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a destructive disease in wheat. A population consisting of 229 F2 and F2:3 plants derived from the cross PI 672538 × L661 was used to evaluate the reactions to FHB. The FHB resistance data distribution in the F2 population indicates that some quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were controlling the FHB resistance in PI 672538. We further detected two major QTLs (Qfhs-2B, Qfhs-3B) from analysis of the resistance data and the PCR-amplified results using WinQTLCart 2...
October 18, 2016: Phytopathology
Sowmya R Ramachandran, Chuntao Yin, Joanna Kud, Kiwamu Tanaka, Aaron K Mahoney, Fangming Xiao, Scot H Hulbert
Fungi that cause cereal rust diseases (genus Puccinia) are important pathogens of wheat globally. Upon infection, the fungus secretes a number of effector proteins. Although a large repository of putative effectors has been predicted using bioinformatic pipelines, the lack of available high-throughput effector screening systems has limited functional studies on these proteins. In this study, we mined the available transcriptomes of Puccinia graminis and P. striiformis to look for potential effectors that suppress host hypersensitive response (HR)...
October 18, 2016: Phytopathology
Robert Marshall Beresford, Joy Lorraine Tyson, Warwick Ralph Henshall
A weather-based disease prediction model for bacterial canker of kiwifruit (known worldwide as Psa; Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3) was developed using a new mechanistic scheme for bacterial disease forecasters, the multiplication and dispersal concept. Bacterial multiplication is estimated from a temperature function, the M index, accumulated from hourly air temperature over 3 days for hours when the leaf canopy is wet. Rainfall provides free water to move inoculum to infection sites and the daily risk indicator, the R index, is the 3-day accumulation of the M index, output on days with total rainfall > 1 mm; otherwise R is zero...
October 17, 2016: Phytopathology
Xiayan Pan, Jian Wu, Shu Xu, Yabing Duan, Zhou Mingguo
Rice bacterial leaf blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), and rice bacterial leaf streak, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), are major diseases of rice. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) is a natural product that is isolated from Pseudomonas spp. and is used to control many important rice diseases in China. We previously reported that PCA disturbs the redox balance, which results in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Xoo. In this study, we found that PCA significantly up-regulated the transcript levels of catB and katE, which encode catalases, and that PCA-sensitivity was reduced when Xoo and Xoc were cultured with exogenous catalase...
October 17, 2016: Phytopathology
Joseph M Cicero, Tonja W Fisher, Jawwad A Qureshi, Philip A Stansly, Judith K Brown
Previous studies have shown that the fastidious bacterial plant pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (CLso) is transmitted circulatively and propagatively by the potato psyllid (PoP) Bactericera cockerelli. In this study, the temporal and spatial interrelationships between CLso PoP were investigated by scanning electron microscopy of the digestive system of PoP immature and adult instars and salivary glands of adults post CLso ingestion. CLso biofilms were not detectable on the outer midgut surface of the first and second instars; however, for third to fifth instars and teneral and mature adults, biofilms were observed in increasing numbers in each successive developmental stage...
October 17, 2016: Phytopathology
Boris A Vinatzer, Alexandra J Weisberg, Caroline L Monteil, Haitham A Elmarakeby, Samuel K Sheppard, Lenwood S Heath
Taxonomy of plant pathogenic bacteria is challenging because pathogens of different crops often belong to the same named species but current taxonomy does not provide names for bacteria below the subspecies level. The introduction of the host range-based pathovar system in the 1980s provided a temporary solution to this problem but has many limitations. The affordability of genome sequencing now provides the opportunity for developing a new genome-based taxonomic framework. We already proposed to name individual bacterial isolates based on pairwise genome similarity...
October 14, 2016: Phytopathology
Kuo-Szu Chiang, Clive H Bock, I-Hsuan Lee, Moussa El Jarroudi, Philippe Delfosse
The effect of rater bias and assessment method on hypothesis testing was studied for representative experimental designs for plant disease assessment using balanced and unbalanced data sets. Data sets with the same number of replicate estimates for each of two treatments are termed "balanced" and those with unequal numbers of replicate estimates are termed "unbalanced". The three assessment methods considered were nearest percent estimates (NPEs), an amended 10% incremental scale, and the Horsfall-Barratt (H-B) scale...
October 14, 2016: Phytopathology
R A Choudhury, S T Koike, A D Fox, A Anchieta, K V Subbarao, S J Klosterman, N McRoberts
Downy mildew is the most devastating disease threatening sustainable spinach production, particularly in the organic sector. The disease is caused by the biotrophic oomycete pathogen Peronospora effusa, and the disease results in yellow lesions that render the crop unmarketable. In this study, the levels of DNA from airborne spores of P. effusa were assessed near a field of susceptible plants in Salinas, CA during the winter months of 2013-14 and 2014/15 using rotating-arm impaction spore-trap samplers that were assessed with a species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay...
October 14, 2016: Phytopathology
Giovanni Onesti, Elisa Gonzalez-Dominguez, Vittorio Rossi
Black rot, caused by the fungus Guignardia bidwellii, is a polycyclic disease affecting grape leaves and berries. In environmentally controlled experiments and in a 3-year field study, the effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) were assessed on the following growth parameters of G. bidwellii: (i) formation of pycnidia and cirri in grape leaf lesions; (ii) production and germination of conidia; and (iii) length of the period between lesion appearance and pycnidia production. Pycnidia were produced between 5 and 35°C and at 90 to 100% RH, but more pycnidia were produced between 20 and 30°C...
October 11, 2016: Phytopathology
Wei Li, Yingpeng Guo, Aixiang Zhang, Huaigu Chen
Sharp eyespot on wheat is caused by Rhizoctonia cerealis anastomosis group D subgroup I (AG-DI) and is an economically important stem-base disease of wheat in temperate regions worldwide. However, the understanding about the field population structure of R. cerealis is limited. In this study, the genetic structure of four wheat-infecting populations in China was investigated using six microsatellite markers characterized from the transcriptome data of R. cerealis AG-DI. A total of 173 unique genotypes were identified among 235 fungal isolates...
October 11, 2016: Phytopathology
R R Burlakoti, S Gyawali, S Chao, K P Smith, R D Horsley, B Cooper, G J Muehlbauer, S M Neate
Pyrenophora teres f. maculata, the causal agent of spot form of net blotch (SFNB), is an emerging pathogen of barley in the United States and Australia. Compared with net form of net blotch (NFNB), less is known in the U.S. Upper Midwest barley breeding programs about host resistance and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with SFNB in breeding lines. The main objective of this study was to identify QTL associated with SFNB resistance in the Upper Midwest two-rowed and six-rowed barley breeding programs using a genome-wide association study approach...
October 11, 2016: Phytopathology
R Ryan McNally, Carol A Ishimaru, Dean K Malvick
Goss's leaf blight and wilt of maize (corn) is a significant and reemerging disease caused by the bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis. Despite its importance, molecular tools for diagnosing and studying this disease remain limited. We report the identification of CMN_01184 as a novel gene target and its use in conventional PCR (cPCR) and SYBR green-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for specific detection and quantification of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis. The cPCR and qPCR assays based on primers targeting CMN_01184 specifically amplified only C...
October 11, 2016: Phytopathology
Gustavo M Silva, Ricardo M Souza, Lichun Yan, Rui S Júnior, Flavio H V Medeiros, Ron R Walcott
Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), caused by the seedborne bacterium Acidovorax citrulli, is an economically important threat to cucurbitaceous crops worldwide. Since the first report of BFB in Brazil in 1990, outbreaks have occurred sporadically on watermelon and, more frequently, on melon, resulting in significant yield losses. At present, the genetic diversity and the population structure of A. citrulli strains in Brazil remain unclear. A collection of 74 A. citrulli strains isolated from naturally infected tissues of different cucurbit hosts in Brazil between 2000 and 2014 and 18 A...
October 7, 2016: Phytopathology
Meng-Jun Hu, Kerik D Cox, Guido Schnabel
Previous research has shown that Botrytis cinerea isolates with resistance to multiple chemical classes of fungicides exist in eastern strawberry fields. In this study, the fungicide resistance profiles of 2,130 isolates from flowers of commercial strawberry fields located in multiple states was determined over four consecutive strawberry production seasons. Producers were asked to alternate single-site fungicides that were considered low risk in their specific location based on resistance monitoring results in their fields...
October 7, 2016: Phytopathology
Colin W Hiebert, Matthew N Rouse, Jayaveeramuthu Nirmala, Tom Fetch
Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.(Pgt), is a destructive disease of wheat that can be controlled by deploying effective stem rust resistance (Sr) genes. Highly virulent races of Pgt in Africa have been detected and characterized. These include race TRTTF and the Ug99 group of races such as TTKSK. Several Canadian and United States spring wheat cultivars, including the widely grown Canadian cultivar 'Harvest', are resistant to TRTTF. However, the genetic basis of resistance to TRTTF in Canadian and United States spring wheat cultivars is unknown...
October 5, 2016: Phytopathology
James T Tambong, Renlin Xu, Fouad Daayf, Stephan Brière, Guillaume J Bilodeau, Raymond Tropiano, Allison Hartke, Lana M Reid, Morgan Cott, Tammy Cote, Irina Agarkova
The reemergence of the Goss's bacterial wilt and blight disease in corn in the United States and Canada has prompted investigative research to better understand the genome organization. In this study, we generated a draft genome sequence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis strain DOAB 395 and performed genome and proteome analysis of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis strains isolated in 2014 (DOAB 397 and DOAB 395) compared with the type strain, NCPPB 2581 (isolated over 40 years ago). The proteomes of strains DOAB 395 and DOAB 397 exhibited a 99...
October 4, 2016: Phytopathology
Jiahuai Hu, Nian Wang
Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) or greening is a devastating bacterial disease that has destroyed millions of trees and is associated with phloem-residing 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las) in Florida. In this study, we evaluated the spatiotemporal dynamics of oxytetracycline in planta and its control effect against HLB via trunk injection. Las-infected 'Hamlin' sweet orange trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo rootstock at the early stage of decline were treated with oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC) using trunk injection with varying number of injection ports...
October 3, 2016: Phytopathology
Maher Al Rwahnih, Olufemi J Alabi, Nathaniel M Westrick, Deborah Golino, Adib Rowhani
A novel virus was detected in grapevines by Illumina sequencing during the screening of two table grape (Vitis vinifera) accessions, cvs. Black Beet and Nagano Purple, from South Korea. The monopartite circular ssDNA genome sequence was subsequently confirmed by rolling cycle amplification, cloning and Sanger sequencing. Complete viral genomic sequences from both accessions ranging in length from 2,903 to 2,907 nucleotides contained the conserved nonanucleotide sequence TAATATT↓AC and other motifs typical of the family Geminiviridae...
September 27, 2016: Phytopathology
Wanwan He, Nengyan Fang, Ruisen Wang, Yunyu Wu, Guoying Zeng, Changhong Guan, Hao Chen, Ji Huang, Jianfei Wang, Yongmei Bao, Hongsheng Zhang
Heikezijing, a japonica rice landrace from Taihu region of China, exhibited broad-spectrum resistance to more than 300 isolates of the blast (Magnaporthe oryzae). In our previous research, we fine mapped a broad-spectrum resistance gene Pi-hk1 in chromosome 11. In this research, 2010-9(G1), one of the predominant race of the blast in Taihu Lake region of China, was inoculated into 162 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and two parents Heikezijing and Suyunuo for mapping the resistance-blast quantitative trait loci (QTLs)...
September 27, 2016: Phytopathology
Mumta Chhetri, Harbans Bariana, Pakeerathan Kandiah, Urmil Bansal
The quantitative trait loci QYr.sun-3BS and QYr.sun-4DL were identified in the W195/BTSS recombinant inbred line (RIL) population in a previous study. QYr.sun-3BS explained 34 to 59% phenotypic variation in stripe rust response. We evaluated parental genotypes at different growth stages and temperature regimes to detect the critical stage for expression of QYr.sun-3BS. W195 expressed low infection type (IT) ;1C at the fourth leaf stage, when incubated at 21 ± 2°C and the alternate parent BTSS was susceptible (IT 3(+))...
September 26, 2016: Phytopathology
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