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Xue Qing, Wim Bert, Abraham Gamliel, Patricia Bucki, Svetlana Duvrinin, Tamar Alon, Sigal Braun Miyara
Root-lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus parasitize the roots of numerous plants and can cause severe damage and yield loss. Here, we report on a new species, Pratylenchus capsici n. sp., from the Arava rift, Israel, which was characterized by integrative methods, including detailed morphology, molecular phylogeny, population genetics and phylogeography. This species is widely spread across the Arava rift, causing significant infection in pepper (Capsicum annuum) roots and inhibiting plant growth. Both morphological and molecular species delimitation support the recovered species as a new species...
November 13, 2018: Phytopathology
Jinyun Li, Lei Li, Zhiqian Pang, Vladimir Kolbasov, Reza Ehsani, Erica Carter, Nian Wang
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as greening, is a destructive disease caused by the fastidious, phloem-colonizing bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter spp.; Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is the most prevalent of the species causing HLB. The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri) transmits Las. HLB is threatening citrus production worldwide, and there is no cure for infected trees. Management strategies targeting diseased trees at different stages of colonization by Las are needed for sustainable citrus production in HLB-endemic regions...
November 12, 2018: Phytopathology
Alice Delbianco, Ewelina Czwienczek, Marco Pautasso, Svetla Kozelska, Mario Monguidi, Giuseppe Stancanelli
Following a series of requests for scientific advice from the European Commission starting in 2013, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) conducted pest risk assessment and created a comprehensive Xylella fastidiosa host plant database. The last update of the database, published in September 2018, includes information on host plants of both X. fastidiosa and X. taiwanensis, together with details on botanical classification, infection conditions, geographic location, pathogen taxonomy including information on subspecies, strain and sequence type, detection techniques and tolerant/resistant response of the plant...
November 12, 2018: Phytopathology
Paulina Guzmán-Guzmán, María Daniela Porras-Troncoso, Vianey Olmedo-Monfil, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella
Because of the need to provide food for the growing population, agricultural activity is faced with the huge challenge of counteracting the negative effects generated by adverse environmental factors and diseases caused by pathogens on crops, while avoiding environmental pollution due to the excessive use of agrochemicals. The exploitation of biological systems that naturally increase plant vigor, preparing them against biotic and abiotic stressors that also promote their growth and productivity represents a useful and viable strategy to help face these challenges...
November 9, 2018: Phytopathology
Nan-Yi Wang, Megan M Dewdney
Citrus black spot caused by Phyllosticta citricarpa has been identified in Florida since 2010 and can reduce fruit yield and marketability. The conditions required for conidial germination have been poorly understood for P. citricarpa, limiting further biological studies. In this study, the effects of citrus juices, concentration, pH, various carbon and nitrogen sources, and environmental conditions were evaluated in vitro. All tested juices, especially 'Valencia' (> 85%, P < 0.05), favored germination and appressorium formation, whereas sterile water rarely stimulated germination (< 1%)...
November 9, 2018: Phytopathology
Anna Toljamo, Daniel Blande, Mustafa Ahmad Munawar, Sirpa Kärenlampi, Harri Kokko
The phytopathogen Phytophthora cactorum infects economically important herbaceous and woody plant species. The P. cactorum isolates differ in host-specificity; for example, strawberry crown rot is often caused by a specialized pathotype. Here we compared the transcriptomes of two P. cactorum isolates that differ in their virulence to garden strawberry (Pc407: high virulence; Pc440: low virulence). De novo transcriptome assembly and clustering of contigs resulted in 19 372 gene clusters. Two days after inoculation of Fragaria vesca roots, 3 995 genes were differently expressed between the P...
November 9, 2018: Phytopathology
Mariana Cicarelli Cia, Giselle de Carvalho, Ricardo Antunes Azevedo, Claudia Barros Monteiro-Vitorello, Glaucia Mendes Souza, Milton Yutaka Nishiyama-Junior, Carolina Gimiliani Lembke, Raphael Severo da Cunha Antunes de Faria, João Paulo Rodrigues Marques, Maeli Melotto, Luis Eduardo Aranha Camargo
Despite of the importance of ratoon stunting disease, little is known on the responses of sugarcane to its causal agent, the vascular bacterial endophyte Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli. The transcriptome and proteome of young plants of a susceptible cultivar with no symptoms of stunting but with relative low and high bacterial titers were compared at 30 and 60 days after inoculation. Increased bacterial titers were associated with alterations in the expression of 267 cDNAs and in the abundance of 150 proteins involved in plant growth, hormone metabolism, signal transduction and defense responses...
November 9, 2018: Phytopathology
Shujian Zhang, Mukesh Jain, Laura A Fleites, Patricia Rayside, Dean Gabriel
Xylella fastidiosa infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevines. The Type 1 multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux system is essential for pathogenicity and survival of bacterial pathogens in planta. X. fastidiosa, with a single MDR system, is significantly more vulnerable to inhibition by small molecule treatments than most bacterial pathogens that typically carry redundant MDR systems. A high throughput cell viability assay using a GFP-marked strain of X. fastidiosa Temecula 1 was developed to screen two Prestwick combinatorial small molecule libraries of FDA and EMA approved drugs and phytochemicals (1600 chemicals in total) for cell growth inhibition...
November 8, 2018: Phytopathology
Zhihui Xu, Jiyu Xie, Huihui Zhang, Dandan Wang, Qirong Shen, Ruifu Zhang
Bacillus velezensis SQR9 (former B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9) is a plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that promotes plant growth and health. The colonization of PGPR strains along plant roots is a prerequisite for them to execute their specific functions. However, one problem of microbial introduction in practice is that the applied PGPR strains do not always successfully colonize the rhizosphere. In Bacillus spp., two-component signal transduction system (TCS) DegS/U regulates flagellar motility, biofilm formation and antibiotic production...
November 8, 2018: Phytopathology
Jesús A Sánchez-Navarro, Christopher N Cooper, Vicente Pallás
The use of a unique riboprobe named polyprobe, carrying partial sequences of different plant viruses or viroids fused in tandem, has permitted the polyvalent detection of up to 10 different pathogens by using a nonradioactive molecular hybridization procedure. In the present analysis, we have developed a unique polyprobe with the capacity to detect all members of the genus Potyvirus, which we have named genus-probe. To do this, we have exploited the capacity of the molecular hybridization assay to cross-hybridize with related sequences by reducing the hybridization temperature...
November 8, 2018: Phytopathology
Bruna B Forcelini, Seonghee Lee, Michelle S Oliveira, Natalia A Peres
Colletotrichum spp. cause major diseases of strawberry and disease management depends on the species present. However, species identification based on symptoms and spore morphology is difficult. Therefore, development of molecular techniques for trustworthy and high-throughput identification of Colletotrichum spp. is vital for the accurate diagnosis. A high-resolution melting (HRM) assay was developed for simultaneous identification and differentiation of Colletotrichum spp. from fungal colonies or from symptomatic strawberry tissue...
November 5, 2018: Phytopathology
Jing Zheng, Xuliang Wang, Qian Li, Shu Yuan, Shiqing Wei, Xiyu Tian, Yun Huang, Wenming Wang, Hui Yang
Clubroot disease is an important disease on cruciferous crops caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae infections. The pathotypes have been classified based on the reactions of differential hosts. However, molecular markers of particular pathotypes for P. brassicae are limited. In this study, we found five genetic markers in association with different pathotypes. Different gene expression patterns among different pathotypes (P4, P7, P9, and P11) were assayed according to the transcriptome data. The assay indicated that molecular markers PBRA_007750 and PBRA_009348 could be used to distinguish P11 from P4, P7, and P9; PBRA_009348 and Novel342 could distinguish P9 from P4, P7, and P11; and PBRA_008439 and Novel342 could represent a kind of P4...
November 5, 2018: Phytopathology
Laura Morales, Thiago P Marino, Anthony J Wenndt, Julia Q Fouts, James B Holland, Rebecca J Nelson
The fungus Fusarium verticillioides can infect maize ears, contaminating the grain with mycotoxins, including fumonisins. This global public health threat can be managed by breeding maize varieties that are resistant to colonization by F. verticillioides and by sorting grain after harvest to reduce fumonisin levels in food systems. Here, we employed two F. verticillioides inoculation techniques representing distinct infection pathways to dissect ear symptomatology and morphological resistance mechanisms in a diverse panel of maize inbred lines...
November 5, 2018: Phytopathology
Chuan-Yu Hong, Jing-Lin Zheng, Tzu-Yi Chen, How-Ran Chao, Yi-Hsien Lin
Bacterial soft rot is a devastating disease affecting a variety of vegetable crops worldwide. One strategy for controlling this disease could be the ectopic expression of the plant ferredoxin-like protein (pflp) gene. PFLP was previously shown to intensify pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), an immune response triggered, for example, by the flagellin epitope flg22. To gain further insight into how PFLP intensifies PTI, flg22 was used as an elicitor in Arabidopsis thaliana. First, PFLP was confirmed to intensify the rapid generation of H2 O2 , callose deposition, and the hypersensitive response when coinfiltrated with flg22...
November 5, 2018: Phytopathology
Linkun Wu, Jun Chen, Muhammad Umar Khan, Juanying Wang, Hongmiao Wu, Zhigang Xiao, Zhongyi Zhang, Wenxiong Lin
Consecutive monoculture of Rehmannia glutinosa in the same field leads to a severe decline in both quality and yield of tuberous roots, the most useful part in traditional Chinese medicine. Fungi are an important and diverse group of microorganisms in the soil ecosystem and play crucial roles in soil health. In this study, high-throughput pyrosequencing of internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA amplicons was applied to gain insight into how consecutive monoculture practice influence and stimulate R. glutinosa rhizosphere and bulk soil fungal communities...
November 5, 2018: Phytopathology
Megan E Hall, Gregory M Loeb, Lance Cadle-Davidson, Katherine J Evans, Wayne F Wilcox
Sour rot, a disease affecting berries of cultivated Vitis spp. worldwide, has not been clearly defined. Reported symptoms of the disease include browning of the berry skin, oozing of disintegrated berry pulp, and the smell of acetic acid, all in the presence of fruit flies (Drosophila spp.). We determined acetic acid concentrations in multiple collections of symptomatic berries, isolated and identified microbes from them, and inoculated commonly isolated organisms into healthy berries with and without concurrent exposure to wild-type or axenic Drosophila melanogaster...
November 5, 2018: Phytopathology
Gerarda Beatriz Pinto da Silva, Camila Martini Zanella, José Antônio Martinelli, Márcia Soares Chaves, Colin W Hiebert, Brent D McCallum, Lesley Ann Boyd
Leaf rust, caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia triticina, is a major threat to wheat production in many wheat-growing regions of the world. The introduction of leaf rust resistance genes into elite wheat germplasm is the preferred method of disease control, being environmentally friendly and crucial to sustained wheat production. Consequently, there is considerable value in identifying and characterizing new sources of leaf rust resistance. While many major, qualitative leaf rust resistance genes have been identified in wheat, a growing number of valuable sources of quantitative resistance have been reported...
November 2, 2018: Phytopathology
Émilie D Tremblay, Marc-Olivier Duceppe, Jean A Bérubé, Troy Kimoto, Claude Lemieux, Guillaume J Bilodeau
Anthropogenic activities have a major impact on the global environment. Canada's natural resources are threatened by the spread of fungal pathogens, which is facilitated by agricultural practices and international trade. Fungi are introduced to new environments and sometimes become established, in which case they can cause disease outbreaks resulting in extensive forest decline. Here, we describe how a nationwide sample collection strategy coupled to next-generation sequencing (NGS) (i.e., metagenomics) can achieve fast and comprehensive screening for exotic invasive species...
November 2, 2018: Phytopathology
Jianqiang Miao, Yuandong Chi, Dong Lin, Brett M Tyler, Xili Liu
Oxathiapiprolin is a novel fungicide that was recently registered in a number of countries to control plant-pathogenic oomycetes such as Phytophthora capsici. In our previous study, point mutations G770V and G839W in oxysterol binding protein-related protein 1 (ORP1) were detected in oxathiapiprolin-resistant P. capsici isolates (PcORP1). Here, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to verify the effects of these two point mutations on P. capsici phenotypes. Transformants containing heterozygous G770V and G839W mutations in PcORP1 showed high levels of oxathiapiprolin resistance...
October 31, 2018: Phytopathology
Venance Colman Massawe, Alvina Hanif, Ayaz Farzand, David Kibe Mburu, Sylvans Ochieng Ochola, Liming Wu, Hafiz Abdul Samad Tahir, Qin Gu, Huijun Wu, Xuewen Gao
To develop an effective biological agent to control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, three endophytic Bacillus spp. strains with high antagonistic activity were isolated from maize seed and characterized. In vitro assays revealed that the Bacillus endophytes could produce volatile organic compounds (VOC) that reduced sclerotial production and inhibited mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the selected strains produced 16 detectable VOC. Eight of the produced VOC exhibited negative effects on S...
October 31, 2018: Phytopathology
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