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Sebastian Reznikov, María Amalia Chiesa, Esteban Mariano Pardo, Vicente De Lisi, Noelia Bogado, Victoria González, Fernando Ledesma, Eligio Natalio Morandi, Leonardo Daniel Ploper, Atilio Pedro Castagnaro
Charcoal rot, caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina, is an economically important disease of soybean (Glycine max) worldwide. Objectives of the present research were to (i) study the genetic and pathogenic diversity in a collection of M. phaseolina isolates from Argentina and Paraguay and (ii) develop an improved in vitro phenotyping method to evaluate disease response of soybean genotypes to M. phaseolina isolates. Cluster analysis showed no clear association among simple sequence repeats (SSR) profiles, year of collection, pathogenicity and geographical origin of the isolates from Argentina and Paraguay...
July 14, 2018: Phytopathology
Bruna Balen Forcelini, Seonghee Lee, Michelle Souza Oliveira, Natalia Peres
Colletotrichum species cause major diseases of strawberry and disease management depends on the species present. However, species identification based on symptoms and spore morphology is difficult. Therefore, development of molecular techniques for trustworthy and high-throughput identification of Colletotrichum species is vital for the accurate diagnosis. A High-Resolution Melting (HRM) assay was developed for simultaneous identification and differentiation of Colletotrichum species from fungal colonies or from symptomatic strawberry tissue...
July 11, 2018: Phytopathology
Jing Zheng, Xuliang Wang, Qian Li, Shu Yuan, Shiqing Wei, Xiyu Tian, Yun Huang, Wenming Wang, Hui Yang
The clubroot disease is an important disease on cruciferous crops caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae infections. The pathotypes have been classified based on the reactions of differential hosts. However, molecular markers of particular pathotypes for P. brassicae are limited. In this study, we find five genetic markers in association with different pathotypes. Different gene expression patterns among different pathotypes (P4, P7, P9 and P11) were assayed according to the transcriptome data. The assay indicated that molecular markers PBRA_007750 and PBRA_009348 could be used to distinguish P11 from P4, P7 and P9; PBRA_009348 and Novel342 could distinguish P9 from P4, P7 and P11; PBRA_008439 and Novel342 could represent a kind of P4...
July 11, 2018: Phytopathology
Tamieka Pearce, Jason Scott, Stacey Pilkington, Sarah Jane Pethybridge, Frank Stewart Hay
Tan spot, caused by Didymella tanaceti, is one of the most important foliar diseases affecting pyrethrum in Tasmania, Australia. Population dynamics including mating-type ratios and genetic diversity of D. tanaceti was characterized within four geographically separated fields in both late winter and spring in 2012. A set of ten microsatellite markers were developed and used to genotype 774 D. tanaceti isolates. Isolates were genotypically diverse with 123 multilocus genotypes (MLGs) identified across the four fields...
July 10, 2018: Phytopathology
Laura Morales, Thiago Pablo Marino, Anthony J Wenndt, Julia Quinn Fouts, James Holland, Rebecca Nelson
The fungus Fusarium verticillioides can infect maize ears, contaminating the grain with mycotoxins, including fumonisins. This global public health threat can be managed by breeding maize varieties that are resistant to colonization by F. verticillioides and by sorting grain after harvest to reduce fumonisin levels in food systems. Here we employed two F. verticillioides inoculation techniques representing distinct infection pathways to dissect ear symptomatology and morphological resistance mechanisms in a diverse panel of maize inbred lines...
July 10, 2018: Phytopathology
Wiphawee Leesutthiphonchai, Andrea L Vu, Audrey M V Ah-Fong, Howard S Judelson
The infamous oomycete Phytophthora infestans has been a persistent threat to potato and tomato production worldwide, causing the diseases known as late blight. This pathogen has proved to be remarkably adept at overcoming control strategies including host-based resistance and fungicides. This review describes the features of P. infestans that make it such a daunting challenge to agriculture. These include a stealthy lifestyle that helps P. infestans evade plant defenses, effectors that suppress host defenses and promote susceptibility, profuse sporulation with a short latent period that enables rapid dissemination, and a genome structure that promotes the adaptive evolution of P...
July 6, 2018: Phytopathology
Jianqiang Miao, Yuandong Chi, Dong Lin, Brett Tyler, Xi Li Liu
Oxathiapiprolin is a novel fungicide, that was recently registered in a number of countries to control plant-pathogenic oomycetes such as Phytophthora capsici. In our previous study, point mutations G770V and G839W in oxysterol binding protein-related protein-1 (ORP1) were detected in oxathiapiprolin-resistant P. capsici isolates. Here, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to verify the effects of these two point mutations on P. capsici phenotypes. Transformants containing heterozygous G770V and G839W mutations in PcORP1 showed high levels of oxathiapiprolin resistance...
July 6, 2018: Phytopathology
Chuan-Yu Hong, Jing-Lin Zheng, Tzu-Yi Chen, How-Ran Chao, Yi-Hsien Lin
Bacterial soft rot is a devastating disease affecting a variety of vegetable crops worldwide. One strategy for controlling this disease could be the ectopic expression of the plant ferredoxin-like protein (PFLP) gene. PFLP was previously shown to intensify Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI), an immune response triggered, for example, by the flagellin epitope flg22. To gain further insight into how PFLP intensifies PTI, flg22 was used as an elicitor in Arabidopsis thaliana...
July 5, 2018: Phytopathology
Linkun Wu, Jun Chen, Muhammad Umar Khan, Juanying Wang, Hongmiao Wu, Zhigang Xiao, Zhongyi Zhang, Wenxiong Lin
Consecutive monoculture of Rehmannia glutinosa in the same field leads to a severe decline in both quality and yield of tuberous roots, the most useful part in traditional Chinese medicine. Fungi are an important and diverse group of microorganisms in the soil ecosystem and play crucial roles towards soil health. In this study, high-throughput pyrosequencing of ITS2 rDNA amplicons was applied to gain insight into how consecutive monoculture practice influence and stimulate R. glutinosa rhizosphere and bulk soil fungal communities...
July 5, 2018: Phytopathology
Mariana Cicarelli Cia, Giselle Carvalho, Ricardo Antunes Azevedo, Claudia Barros Monteiro-Vitorello, Glaucia Mendes Souza, Milton Yutaka Nishiyama-Júnior, Carolina Gimiliani Lembke, Raphael S C A Faria, João Paulo Rodrigues Marques, Maeli Melotto, Luis Eduardo Aranha Camargo
Despite of the importance of ratoon stunting disease, little is known on the responses of sugarcane to its causal agent, the vascular bacterial endophyte Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli. The transcriptome and proteome of young plants of a susceptible cultivar with no symptoms of stunting but with relative low and high bacterial titers were compared at 30 and 60 days after inoculation. Increased bacterial titers were associated with alterations in the expression of 267 cDNAs and in the abundance of 150 proteins involved in plant growth, hormone metabolism, signal transduction and defense responses...
July 3, 2018: Phytopathology
Gareth N Hill, Robert Marshall Beresford, Katherine Evans
Botrytis bunch rot (BBR), caused by Botrytis cinerea, results in serious losses to wine-grape production in some seasons during the pre-harvest period. In order to predict seasons that are at risk from BBR, datasets consisting of 25 disease, weather and vine phenology variables were aggregated from 101 SiteYears across seven regions and nine growing seasons. Automated analyses were used to compare a range of statistical methods for their ability to predict BBR epidemics, including the Kruskal-Wallis test, logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and skill-scores...
July 3, 2018: Phytopathology
Megan E Hall, Gregory M Loeb, Lance Cadle-Davidson, Katherine Evans, Wayne F Wilcox
Sour rot, a disease affecting berries of cultivated Vitis spp. worldwide, has not been clearly defined. Reported symptoms of the disease include browning of the berry skin, oozing of disintegrated berry pulp and the smell of acetic acid, all in the presence of fruit flies (Drosophila spp.). We determined acetic acid concentrations in multiple collections of symptomatic berries; isolated and identified microbes from them; and inoculated commonly-isolated organisms into healthy berries with and without concurrent exposure to wild-type or axenic Drosophila melanogaster...
July 3, 2018: Phytopathology
Fabrício E Eustáquio Lanza, Weber Marti, Geraldo José Silva Junior, Franklin Behlau
During the development of a citrus fruit, many cycles of infection of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri may occur leading to the development of a range of characteristics of citrus canker lesions scattered across the fruit surface. This study aimed to determine whether the size of the lesions, their distance from the peduncle, and the number and time of appearance of the lesions on fruit of sweet orange were associated with premature fruit drop. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed a negative relationship between the fruit detachment force and the lesion diameter, the proximity of the nearest lesion to the peduncle and the number of lesions...
June 27, 2018: Phytopathology
Zhihui Xu, Jiyu Xie, Huihui Zhang, Dandan Wang, Qirong Shen, Ruifu Zhang
Bacillus velezensis SQR9 (former B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9) is a plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that promotes plant growth and health. The colonization of PGPR strains along plant roots is prerequisite for them to execute their specific functions. However, one problem of microbial introduction in practice is that the applied PGPR strains do not always successfully colonize the rhizosphere. In Bacillus spp., two-component signal transduction system (TCS) DegS/U regulates flagellar motility, biofilm formation and antibiotic production...
June 21, 2018: Phytopathology
Venance Colman Massawe, Alvina Hanif Rao, Ayaz Farzand, David Kibe Mburu, Sylvans Ochieng Ochola, Liming Wu, Hafiz Abdul Samad Tahir, Huijun Wu, Qin Gu, Xuewen Gao
To develop an effective biological agent to control S. sclerotiorum, three endophytic Bacillus spp. strains with high antagonistic activity were isolated from maize seeds and characterized. In vitro assays revealed that the Bacillus endophytes could produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that reduced sclerotial production, and inhibited mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum. Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that the selected strains produced sixteen detectable VOCs. Eight of the produced VOCs exhibited negative effects on S...
June 21, 2018: Phytopathology
Sanju Kunwar, Fanny Iriarte, Qiurong Fan, Eduardo Evaristo da Silva, Laura Ritchie, Nghi Song Nguyen, Joshua H Freeman, Robert E Stall, Jeffrey B Jones, Gerald V Minsavage, James Colee, Jay Scott, Gary E Vallad, Cyril Zipfel, Diana Horvath, Jack Westwood, Samuel Hutton, Mathews Lal Paret
Field trials were conducted at two locations in Florida to evaluate transgenic tomatoes expressing the EFR gene from Arabidopsis thaliana, the Bs2 gene from pepper, or both Bs2/EFR for managing bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas perforans. Expression of EFR or Bs2/EFR, in the susceptible genotype, Fla. 8000, significantly reduced bacterial wilt incidence (50-100%) and increased total yield (57-114%) relative to lines expressing only Bs2 or non-transformed Fla...
June 20, 2018: Phytopathology
Emilie D Tremblay, Marc-Olivier Duceppe, Jean A Berube, Troy Kimoto, Claude Lemieux, Guillaume J Bilodeau
Anthropogenic activities have a major impact on the global environment. Canada's natural resources are threatened by the spread of fungal pathogens, which is facilitated by agricultural practices and international trade. Fungi are introduced to new environments and sometimes become established, in which case they can cause disease outbreaks resulting in extensive forest decline. Here we describe how a nation-wide sample collection strategy coupled to Next-Generation sequencing (NGS) (i.e. metagenomics) can achieve fast and comprehensive screening for exotic invasive species...
June 20, 2018: Phytopathology
Vahid Omidvar, Sheshanka Dugyala, Feng Li, Susan Rottschaefer, Marisa Miller, Michael Ayliffe, Matthew James Moscou, Shahryar F Kianian, Melania Figueroa
Oat crown rust caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae is the most destructive foliar disease of cultivated oat. Characterization of genetic factors controlling resistance responses to Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae in non-host species could provide new resources for developing disease protection strategies in oat. We examined symptom development and fungal colonization levels of a collection of Brachypodium distachyon and B. hybridum accessions infected with three North American P. coronata f. sp. avenae isolates...
June 20, 2018: Phytopathology
Peter Abrahamian, Sujan Timilsina, Gerald V Minsavage, Sushmita Kc, Erica M Goss, Jeffrey B Jones, Gary E Vallad
Type III secretion system effectors contribute to pathogenicity through various mechanisms. Recent surveys showed an increasing prevalence of the type III secretion effector, avrBsT, among Xanthomonas perforans (Xp). We hypothesized that the acquisition of avrBsT has a fitness advantage for the pathogen. The contribution of avrBsT to fitness on tomato was evaluated based on disease severity, in planta growth, competition and recovery rates of wild-type (WT) and avrBsT mutant strains in greenhouse and field plants...
June 15, 2018: Phytopathology
Mingming Yang, Dmitri Mavrodi, Linda S Thomashow, David M Weller
2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG)-producing Pseudomonas spp. in the P. fluorescens complex are primarily responsible for a natural suppression of take-all of wheat known as take-all decline (TAD) in many fields in the USA. P. brassicacearum, the most common DAPG producer found in TAD soils in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA, has biocontrol, growth promoting and phytotoxic activities. In this study, we explored how the wheat cultivar affects the level of take-all suppression when grown in a TAD soil, and how cultivars respond to colonization by P...
June 15, 2018: Phytopathology
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