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Phytopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430024/cacao-phylloplane-the-first-battlefield-against-moniliophthora-perniciosa-the-causal-agent-of-witches-broom-disease
#1
Dayanne Silva Monteiro Almeida, Karina Peres Gramacho, Thyago H Santana Cardoso, Fabienne Micheli, Fátima Cerqueira Alvim, Carlos Priminho Priminho Pirovani
The phylloplane is the first contact surface between Theobroma cacao and the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes witches' broom disease (WBD). We evaluated the index of short glandular trichomes (SGTs) in the cacao phylloplane and the effect of irrigation on the disease index of cacao genotypes with/without resistance to WBD, and identified proteins present in the phylloplane. The resistant and susceptible genotype CCN51 and Catongo presented a mean index of 1600 and 700 SGTs•cm-2, respectively...
April 21, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430023/harnessing-effector-triggered-immunity-for-durable-disease-resistance
#2
Meixiang Zhang, Gitta Coaker
Genetic control of plant diseases has traditionally included the deployment of single immune receptors with nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) domain architecture. These NLRs recognize corresponding pathogen effector proteins inside plant cells, resulting in effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Although ETI triggers robust resistance, deployment of single NLRs can be rapidly overcome by pathogen populations within a single or a few growing seasons. In order to generate more durable disease resistance against devastating plant pathogens, a multi-tiered strategy that incorporates stacked NLRs combined with other sources of disease resistance is necessary...
April 21, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430019/characterization-of-rph24-a-gene-conferring-adult-plant-resistance-to-puccinia-hordei-in-barley
#3
Laura A Ziems, Lee T Hickey, Gregory J Platz, Jerome D Franckowiak, Peter M Dracatos, Davinder Singh, Robert F Park
We identified Rph24 as a locus in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) controlling adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei. The locus was previously reported as a quantitative trait locus in barley line ND24260-1 and named qRphND. We crossed ND24260-1 to the leaf-rust-susceptible standard Gus and determined inheritance patterns in the progeny. For the comparative marker frequency analysis (MFA), resistant and susceptible tails of the F2 were genotyped with Diversity Arrays Technology genotyping-by-sequencing (DArT-Seq) markers...
April 21, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430018/characterization-of-canna-yellow-mottle-virus-in-a-new-host-alpinia-purpurata-in-hawaii
#4
Jingxin Zhang, Kishore K Dey, Birun Lin, Wayne B Borth, Michael J Melzer, Diane Sether, Yanan Wang, I-Chin Wang, Huifang Shen, Xiaoming Pu, Dayuan Sun, John S Hu
Canna yellow mottle virus (CaYMV) is an important badnavirus infecting Canna spp. worldwide. This is the first report of CaYMV in flowering ginger (Alpinia purpurata) in Hawaii, where it is associated with yellow mottling and necrosis of leaves, vein streaking, and stunted plants. We have sequenced CaYMV in A. purpurata (CaYMV-Ap) using a combination of next-generation sequencing and traditional Sanger sequencing techniques. The complete genome of CaYMV-Ap was 7,120 bp with an organization typical of other Badnavirus species...
April 21, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421913/type-vi-secretion-systems-of-erwinia-amylovora-contribute-to-bacterial-competition-virulence-and-exopolysaccharide-production
#5
Yanli Tian, Yuqiang Zhao, Linye Shi, Zhongli Cui, Baishi Hu, Youfu Zhao
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) plays a major role in mediating interbacterial competition and might contribute to virulence in plant pathogenic bacteria. However, the role of T6SS in Erwinia amylovora remains unknown. In this study, 33 deletion mutants within three T6SS clusters were generated in E. amylovora strain NCPPB1665. Our results showed that all 33 mutants displayed reduced antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli as compared with that of the wild-type (WT) strain, indicating that Erwinia amylovora T6SS are functional...
April 19, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414633/genome-wide-analysis-provides-evidence-on-the-genetic-relatedness-of-the-emergent-xylella-fastidiosa-genotype-in-italy-to-isolates-from-central-america
#6
Annalisa Giampetruzzi, Maria Saponari, Giuliana Loconsole, Donato Boscia, Vito Nicola Savino, Rodrigo Almeida, Stefania Zicca, Blanca Landa, Carlos Chacon Diaz, Pasquale Saldarelli
Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium recently introduced in Europe that is causing decline in olive trees in the South of Italy. Genetic studies have consistently shown that the bacterial genotype recovered from infected olive trees belongs to the sequence type ST53 within subspecies pauca. This genotype, ST53, has also been reported to occur in Costa Rica. The ancestry of ST53 was recently clarified, showing it contains alleles which are monophyletic with those of subsp. pauca in South America...
April 17, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414632/analysis-of-the-spatial-pattern-of-strawberry-angular-leaf-spot-in-california-nursery-production
#7
Christophe Gigot, William W Turechek, Neil McRoberts
In California, angular leaf spot (ALS) is a common disease in strawberry nursery production, and a major concern for nurseries wishing to export plants. As the spatial pattern of a disease can offer insight into pathogen source, mode of dissemination, and how current crop management practices affect epidemic development, an understanding of the spatial pattern of ALS would allow nursery growers to make informed decisions regarding disease management. Ninety seven field assessments of disease incidence were performed at different nursery locations in 2014 and 2015 to quantify ALS spatial pattern under commercial conditions...
April 17, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414631/rathayibacter-toxicus-other-rathayibacter-species-inducing-bacterial-head-blight-of-grasses-and-the-potential-for-livestock-poisonings
#8
Timothy D Murray, Brenda K Schroeder, William Schneider, Doug Luster, Aaron Sechler, Elizabeth E Rogers, Sergei Subbotin
Rathayibacter toxicus, a Select Agent in the United States, is one of six recognized species in the genus Rathayibacter and the best known due to its association with Annual Ryegrass Toxicity (ARGT), which occurs only in parts of Australia. The Rathayibacter species are unusual among phytopathogenic bacteria in that they are transmitted by anguinid seed gall nematodes and produce extracellular polysaccharides in infected plants resulting in bacteriosis diseases with common names such as yellow slime and bacterial head blight...
April 17, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414630/infection-courts-in-watermelon-plants-leading-to-seed-infestation-by-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-niveum
#9
Aparna Petkar, Pingsheng Ji
Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON) is a seed-transmitted disease that causes significant yield loss in watermelon production. The pathogen may infect watermelon seeds latently, which can be an important inoculum source and contribute to severe disease outbreak. However, information regarding infection courts of FON leading to infestation of watermelon seeds is limited. To determine how seeds in watermelon fruit can be infested by FON during the watermelon growing season, greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 where watermelon flowers and immature fruit were inoculated with FON...
April 17, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409526/the-impact-of-coat-protein-mediated-virus-resistance-in-applied-plant-pathology-and-basic-research
#10
John A Lindbo, Bryce W Falk
Worldwide, plant viruses cause serious reductions in marketable crop yield and in some cases even plant death. In most cases, the most effective way to control virus diseases is through genetically controlled resistance. However, developing virus-resistant (VR) crops through traditional breeding can take many years, and in some cases is not even possible. Because of this, the demonstration of the first VR transgenic plants in 1985 generated much attention. This seminal report served as an inflection point for research in both basic and applied plant pathology, the results of which have dramatically changed both basic research and in a few cases, commercial crop production...
April 14, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409525/rare-pyrenophora-teres-hybridization-events-revealed-by-development-of-sequence-specific-pcr-markers
#11
Barsha Poudel, Simon R Ellwood, Alison C Testa, Mark McLean, Mark W Sutherland, Anke Martin
Pyrenophora teres f. teres and P. teres f. maculata cause net form and spot form, respectively, of net blotch on barley (Hordeum vulgare). The two forms reproduce sexually, producing hybrids with genetic and pathogenic variability. Phenotypic identification of hybrids is challenging because lesions induced by hybrids on host plants resemble lesions induced by either P. teres f. teres or P. teres f. maculata. In this study, 12 sequence-specific polymerase chain reaction markers were developed based on expressed regions spread across the genome...
April 14, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402211/metabolomic-study-of-chardonnay-grapevines-double-stressed-with-esca-associated-fungi-and-drought
#12
Marta R M Lima, Antoinette F Machado, Walter D Gubler
Esca is a complex grapevine trunk disease associated with fungal infection of the xylem. However, the inconstancy of external symptoms and the ability of esca-associated fungi to inhabit grapevines without causing apparent disease suggests that abiotic factors might be involved in the disease. Water stress has been proposed to be one of the factors influencing esca symptom manifestation but the specific role played by water stress on esca development is unknown. We conducted a proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolomic study aiming at unveiling drought-induced modifications in xylem sap composition that could contribute to esca-related infection progression...
April 12, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402210/virulence-structure-within-populations-of-pseudoperonospora-cubensis-in-the-united-states
#13
Anna Thomas, Ignazio Carbone, Aleš Lebeda, Peter S Ojiambo
Cucurbit downy mildew (CDM), caused by the obligate oomycete Pseudoperonospora cubensis, has resurged around the world during the past three decades. A new pathotype or genetic recombinant of P. cubensis have been suggested as possible reasons for the resurgence of CDM in the United States in 2004. In total, 22 isolates collected between 2004 and 2014, mainly in the eastern United States, were tested for their compatibility with a set of 15 cucurbit host types. The virulence structure within these isolates was evaluated on a set of 12 differential genotypes from eight genera...
April 12, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398878/development-and-validation-of-a-taqman-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-specific-detection-and-quantification-of-fusarium-fujikuroi-in-rice-plants-and-seeds
#14
Greice Amaral Carneiro, Slavica Matic, Giuseppe Ortu, Angelo Garibaldi, Davide Spadaro, Maria Lodovica Gullino
Bakanae disease, which is caused by the seed-borne pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi, is found throughout the world on rice. A TaqMan real time PCR has been developed on the TEF 1-α gene to detect F. fujikuroi in different rice tissues. Three primer/probe sets were tested. The selected set produced an amplicon of 84 bp, and was specific for F. fujikuroi with respect for eight Fusarium species of rice and six other rice common pathogens. The assay was validated for specificity, selectivity, sensitivity, repeatability, and reproducibility...
April 11, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398877/serotonin-regulates-the-feeding-and-reproductive-behaviors-of-pratylenchus-penetrans
#15
Ziduan Han, Stephanie Boas, Nathan Schroeder
The success of all plant-parasitic nematodes is dependent on the completion of several complex behaviors. The lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans is an economically important parasite of a diverse range of plant hosts. Unlike the cyst and root-knot nematodes, P. penetrans moves both within and outside of the host roots and can feed from both locations. Adult females of P. penetrans require insemination by actively moving males for reproduction and can lay eggs both within and outside of the host roots. We do not have a complete understanding of the molecular basis for these behaviors...
April 11, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398876/citrus-leprosis-virus-n-a-new-dichorhavirus-causing-citrus-leprosis-disease
#16
Pedro Ramos-Gonzalez, Camila Chabi-Jesus, Orlene Guerra-Peraza, Aline D Tassi, Elliot Kitajima, Ricardo Harakava, Renato B Salaroli, Juliana Freitas-Astua
Citrus leprosis (CL) is a viral disease endemic to the Western Hemisphere that produces local-necrotic and -chlorotic lesions on leaves, branches and fruits and causes serious yield reduction in citrus orchards. Samples of sweet orange (Citrus × sinensis) trees showing CL symptoms were collected during a survey in non-commercial citrus areas in the southeast region of Brazil in 2013-2016. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of foliar lesions confirmed the presence of rod-like viral particles commonly associated with CL in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells...
April 11, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398875/vulnerability-of-barley-to-african-pathotypes-of-puccinia-graminis-f-sp-tritici-and-sources-of-resistance
#17
Brian Joel Steffenson, Austin Joel Case, Zacharias A Pretorius, Vicky Coetzee, Frederick Kloppers, Hao Zhou, Yuan Chai, Ruth Wanyera, Godwin Macharia, Bhavani Sridhar, Stefania Grando
The emergence of widely virulent pathotypes (e.g. TTKSK in the Ug99 race group) of the stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Africa threaten wheat production on a global scale. While intensive research efforts have been advanced to address this threat in wheat, few studies have been conducted on barley even though pathotypes like TTKSK are known to attack the crop. The main objectives of this study were to assess the vulnerability of barley to pathotype TTKSK and identify possible sources of resistance...
April 11, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398874/host-resistance-and-chemical-control-for-management-of-sclerotinia-stem-rot-of-soybean-in-ohio
#18
Jaqueline Huzar Novakowiski, Pierce A Paul, Anne Elizabeth Dorrance
Recent outbreaks of Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) of soybean in Ohio, along with new fungicides and cultivars with resistance to this disease, have led to a renewed interest in studies to update disease management guidelines. The effect of host resistance (MR, moderately resistant; MS, moderately susceptible) and chemical control on SSR and yield was evaluated in 12 environments from 2014 to 2016. The chemical treatments evaluated were an untreated check, four fungicides (boscalid, picoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and thiophanate-methyl) and one herbicide (lactofen) applied at soybean growth stage R1 (early flowering) alone or at R1 followed by a second application at R2 (full flowering)...
April 11, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398165/two-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-strains-recently-found-in-california-harbor-different-prophages
#19
Z Zheng, F Wu, L B Kumagai, M Polek, X Deng, J Chen
'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), an α-proteobacterium, is associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB; yellow shoot disease). In California, two cases of CLas have been detected in Los Angeles County, one in Hacienda Heights in 2012 and the other in San Gabriel in 2015. Although all infected trees were destroyed in compliance with a state mandate, citrus industry stakeholder concerns about HLB in California are high. Little is known about the biology of CLas, particularly the California strains, hindering effective HLB management efforts...
April 10, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398164/genetic-differentiation-of-the-wheat-leaf-rust-fungus-puccinia-triticina-in-pakistan-and-genetic-relationship-to-other-worldwide-populations
#20
J A Kolmer, J I Mirza, M Imtiaz, S J A Shah
Collections of Puccinia triticina, the wheat leaf rust pathogen, were obtained from Pakistan in 2008, 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2014. Collections were also obtained from Bhutan in 2013. Single uredinial isolates were derived and tested for virulence phenotype to 20 lines of Thatcher wheat that differ for single leaf rust resistance genes, and for molecular genotype with 23 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Twenty-four virulence phenotypes were described among the 89 isolates tested for virulence. None of the isolates had virulence to Thatcher lines with Lr9, Lr24, or Lr18...
April 10, 2017: Phytopathology
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