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Odile Carisse, Vanessa McNealis
Black seed disease (BSD) of strawberry is a sporadic disease caused by Mycosphaerella fragariae. Because little is known about potential crop losses or the weather conditions conducive to disease development, fungicides are generally not applied or are applied based on a pre-set schedule. Data collected from 2000 to 2011 representing 50 farm-years (total of 186 strawberry fields) were used to determine potential crop losses and to study the influence of weather on disease occurrence and development. First, logistic regression was used to model the relationship between occurrence of BSD and weather variables...
September 8, 2017: Phytopathology
Odile Carisse, Vanessa McNealis, Alissa Kriss
Botrytis fruit rot (BFR), one of the most important diseases of raspberry (Rubus spp.), is controlled primarily with fungicides. Despite the use of fungicides, crop losses due to BFR are high in most years. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between airborne inoculum, weather variables and BFR in order to improve the management of the disease as well as harvest and storage decisions. Crop losses, measured as the percentage of diseased berries during the harvest period, were monitored in unsprayed field plots at four sites in three successive years, together with meteorological data and the number of conidia in the air...
September 8, 2017: Phytopathology
A M Szyniszewska, C Busungu, S B Boni, R Shirima, H Bouwmeester, J P Legg
To improve understanding of the dynamics of the cassava mosaic disease (CMD) pandemic front, geospatial approaches were applied to the analysis of 3 years' data obtained from a 2-by-2° (approximately 222-by-222 km) area of northwestern Tanzania. In total, 80 farmers' fields were assessed in each of 2009, 2010, and 2011, with 20 evenly distributed fields per 1-by-1° quadrant. CMD-associated variables (CMD incidence, CMD severity, vector-borne CMD infection, and vector abundance) increased in magnitude from 2009 to 2010 but showed little change from 2010 to 2011...
September 8, 2017: Phytopathology
David H Gent, Paul Esker, Alissa Kriss
In null hypothesis testing, failure to reject a null hypothesis may have two potential interpretations. One interpretation is that the treatments being evaluated do not have a significant effect, and a correct conclusion was reached in the analysis. Alternatively, a treatment effect may have existed but the conclusion of the study was that there was none. This is termed a Type II error, which is most likely to occur when studies lack sufficient statistical power to detect a treatment effect. In basic terms, the power of a study is the ability to identify a true effect through a statistical test ...
September 6, 2017: Phytopathology
Patrik Inderbitzin, Judson Ward, Alexandra Barbella, Natalie Solares, Dmitriy Izyumin, Prabir Burman, Dan Chellemi, Krishna V Subbarao
Two naturally infested Verticillium wilt conducive soils from the Salinas Valley of coastal California were amended with disease-suppressive broccoli residue and/or crab meal amendments, and changes to the soil prokaryote community were monitored using Illumina sequencing of a 16S rRNA gene library generated from 160 bulk soil samples. The experiment was run in a greenhouse twice with eggplant as the Verticillium wilt susceptible host. Disease suppression, plant height, soil microsclerotia density and soil chitinase activity were assessed at the conclusion of each experiment...
September 6, 2017: Phytopathology
Dongdong Niu, Xin Zhang, Xiaoou Song, Zhihui Wang, Yanqiang Li, Lulu Qiao, Zhaoyun Wang, Junzhong Liu, Yiwen Deng, Zuhua He, Donglei Yang, Renyi Liu, Yangli Wang, Hongwei Zhao
Small RNA (sRNA) is a class of non-coding RNA that can silence the expression of target genes. In rice, the majority of characterized sRNAs are within the range of 21 to 24 nucleotide long, whose biogenesis and function are associated with a specific sets of components, such as Dicer-like (OsDCLs) and Argonaute proteins (OsAGOs). Rice sRNAs longer than 24 nt are occasionally reported, with biogenesis and functional mechanism uninvestigated, especially in a context of defense responses against pathogen infection...
September 6, 2017: Phytopathology
Congying Yuan, Meinan Wang, Daniel Z Skinner, Deven R See, Chongjing Xia, Xinhong Guo, Xianming Chen
Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the wheat stripe rust pathogen, is a dikaryotic, biotrophic, and macrocyclic fungus. Genetic study of Pst virulence was not possible until the recent discovery of Berberis spp. and Mahonia spp. as alternate hosts. To determine inheritance of virulence and map virulence genes, a segregating population of 119 isolates was developed by self-fertilizing Pst isolate 08-220 (race PSTv-11) on barberry leaves under controlled greenhouse conditions. The progeny isolates were phenotyped on a set of 29 wheat lines with single genes for race-specific resistance and genotyped with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, simple sequence repeat derived from secreted protein genes (SP-SNP), and SNP markers from genotyping- by-sequencing (GBS)...
September 6, 2017: Phytopathology
L Wen, C R Bowen, G L Hartman
Dispersal of urediniospores by wind is the primary means of spread for Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the cause of soybean rust. Our research focused on the short-distance movement of urediniospores from within the soybean canopy and up to 61 m from field-grown rust-infected soybean plants. Environmental variables were used to develop and compare models including the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression, zero-inflated Poisson/regular Poisson regression, random forest, and neural network to describe deposition of urediniospores collected in passive and active traps...
September 6, 2017: Phytopathology
Aardra Kachroo, Paul Vincelli, Pradeep Kachroo
Plants have evolved highly specific mechanisms to resist pathogens including preformed barriers and the induction of elaborate signaling pathways. Induced signaling requires recognition of the pathogen either via conserved pathogen-derived factors or specific pathogen-encoded proteins called effectors. Recognition of these factors by host encoded receptor proteins can result in the elicitation of different tiers of resistance at the site of pathogen infection. In addition, plants induce a type of systemic immunity which is effective at the whole plant level and protects against a broad spectrum of pathogens...
September 5, 2017: Phytopathology
Huan Jiang, Mengyi Jiang, Liuke Yang, Peiyan Yao, Lin Ma, Chunting Wang, Huan Wang, Gouliang Qian, Baishi Hu, Jiaqin Fan
Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum strain PccS1, a bacterial pathogen causing soft rot disease of Zantedeschia elliotiana (colored calla), was investigated for virulence genes induced by the host plant. Using a promoter-trap transposon (mariner), we obtained 500 transposon mutants showing kanamycin resistance dependent on extract of Z. elliotiana. One of these mutants, PM86, exhibited attenuated virulence on both Z. elliotiana and Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis. The growth of PM86 was also reduced in minimal medium (MM), and the reduction was restored by adding plant extract to the MM...
August 30, 2017: Phytopathology
József Fodor, Evelin Kámán-Tóth, Tamás Dankó, Ildikó Schwarczinger, Zoltán Bozsó, Miklos Pogany
Nicotiana benthamiana is a valuable model organism in plant biology research. This report describes its extended applicability in the field of molecular plant pathology by introducing a non-biotrophic fungal pathogen Cercospora nicotianae that can be conveniently used under laboratory conditions, consistently induces a necrotic leaf spot disease on Nicotiana benthamiana, and is specialized on solanaceous plants. Our inoculation studies showed that a filamentous fungal pathogen, Cercospora nicotianae more effectively colonizes N...
August 30, 2017: Phytopathology
Krishna D Puri, Suraj Gurung, Dylan P G Short, Z K Atallah, German Sandoya, R Michael Davis, Ryan J Hayes, Krishna V Subbarao
Understanding pathogen evolution over time is vital for plant breeding and deployment of host resistance. In the context of a soilborne pathogen, the potential of host-directed evolution of a Verticillium dahliae race 1 isolate and genotypic variation of V. dahliae associated with two major hosts (lettuce and tomato) were determined. In total, 427 isolates were recovered over 6 years from a resistance screening nursery infested with a single V. dahliae race 1 isolate. In a separate study, an additional 206 isolates representing 163 and 43 isolates from commercial lettuce and tomato fields, respectively, were collected...
August 30, 2017: Phytopathology
Joseph Roberts, Bangya Ma, Lane Tredway, Dave Ritchie, Jim Kerns
Bacterial etiolation and decline has developed into a widespread issue with creeping bentgrass [Agrostis stolonifera L. (CBG)] putting green turf. The condition is characterized by an abnormal elongation of turfgrass stems and leaves that in rare cases progresses into a rapid and widespread necrosis and decline. Recent reports have cited bacteria, Acidovorax avenae and Xanthomonas translucens, as causal agents; however, few cases exist where either bacterium were isolated in conjunction with turf exhibiting bacterial disease symptoms...
August 28, 2017: Phytopathology
Jianhui Wu, Qilin Wang, Liangsheng Xu, Xianming Chen, Bei Li, Jingmei Mu, Qingdong Zeng, Lili Huang, Dejun Han, Zhensheng Kang
Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat worldwide. Growing resistant cultivars is considered the best approach to manage this disease. In order to identify the resistance gene(s) in wheat line 03031-1-5 H62, which displayed high resistance to stripe rust at adult plant stage, a cross was made between 03031-1-5 H62 and susceptible cultivar Avocet S. The mapping population was tested with Chinese Pst race CYR32 through artificial inoculation in a field in Yangling, Shaanxi Province and in Tianshui, Gansu Province under natural infection...
August 23, 2017: Phytopathology
Amanda Saville, Melodi Charles, Suchitra Chavan, Miguel Munoz, Luis Gomez-Alpizar, Jean B Ristaino
Pseudocercospora fijiensis Deighton is the causal pathogen of black Sigatoka, a devastating disease of banana that can cause 20-80% yield loss in the absence of fungicides in bananas. The genetic structure of populations of P. fijiensis in Costa Rica was examined and compared to Honduran and global populations to better understand migration patterns and inform management strategies. One hundred and eighteen isolates of P. fijiensis collected from Costa Rica and Honduras from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed using multilocus genotyping of six loci and compared to a previously published global dataset of populations of P...
August 18, 2017: Phytopathology
Yue Lu, Robert L Bowden, Guorong Zhang, Xiangyang Xu, Allan K Fritz, Guihua Bai
CI13227 is a U.S. winter wheat line with adult-plant slow-rusting resistance that has been the subject of several studies on the characteristics and components of slow rusting. Previous genetic studies used different populations and approaches and came to different conclusions about the genetic basis of resistance in CI13227. To clarify the situation, a new doubled-haploid (DH) population of CI13227 × Lakin was produced and a linkage map was constructed using 5,570 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from wheat 90K SNP assays and 84 simple sequence repeat markers...
August 18, 2017: Phytopathology
Lichun Yan, Baishi Hu, Gong Chen, Mei Zhao, Ron R Walcott
Bacterial fruit blotch, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Acidovorax citrulli, is a serious economic threat to cucurbit crop production worldwide. A. citrulli strains can be divided into two genetically distinct groups, with group I strains infecting a range of cucurbit species and group II strains being predominantly associated with watermelon. Group I and II A. citrulli strains differ in their arsenal of type III secreted (T3S) effector proteins and we hypothesize that these effectors are critical for cucurbit host preference...
August 17, 2017: Phytopathology
Guisuibou Daimei, Harpreet Singh Raina, Pukhrambam Pushpa Devi, Gunjan Kumar Saurav, Perumal Renukadevi, Varagur Ganesan Malathi, Chinnaiah Senthilraja, Bikash Mandal, Raman Rajagopal
The effect of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) infection on the life history traits of its vector, Thrips palmi, and its feeding preference on GBNV-infected plants were studied. A significant difference was observed in the developmental period (first instar to adult) between the GBNV-infected and healthy thrips, wherein the developmental period of GBNV-infected thrips was decreased. However, there was no effect on the other parameters such as preadult mortality, adult longevity, and fecundity. Further investigation on a settling and feeding choice assay of T...
August 17, 2017: Phytopathology
Pietro A Rinaldi, Donatella Paffetti, Cecilia Comparini, Giovanni A L Broggini, Cesare Gessler, Laura Mugnai
Phyllosticta ampelicida causes black rot disease of Vitis spp. Genetic homogeneity of pathogen populations was investigated by analyzing the number of haplotypes present in infected samples from Europe and America. The fungus was identified from an analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1-ITS2 region, and partial sequences of β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. The analysis of nuclear microsatellites applied to strains from Vitis spp. confirmed the existence of a high degree of genetic variability in the fungal populations, revealed four subpopulations, and showed that strains from America are distinct from the European ones...
August 17, 2017: Phytopathology
Naeela Qureshi, Harbans Bariana, James A Kolmer, Hanif Miah, Urmil Bansal
Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is a constraint to durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) production, and landraces are reported to be an important source of resistance. Two Portuguese landraces (Aus26582 and Aus26579) showed resistance against durum-specific P. triticina races and were crossed with a susceptible landrace (Bansi) to develop recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. Monogenic segregation for leaf rust resistance was observed among both RIL populations. The underlying locus, temporarily named LrAW2, was mapped to the short arm of chromosome 6B in the Aus26582/Bansi population and five DArTseq markers cosegregated with LrAW2...
August 16, 2017: Phytopathology
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