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Rong He, Liu Pu, Jia Bing, Shi-Zhou Xue, Xiao-Jie Wang, Jia-Yong Hu, Yosef Ai Shoffe, Giorgio M Balestra, Lorenzo Gallipoli, Angelo Mazzaglia, Zhu Li-Wu
Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) causes kiwifruit bacterial canker (KBC), with a severe infection of the kiwifruit plant resulting in heavy economic losses. Little is known regarding the biodiversity and genetic variation of populations of Psa in China. A collection of 269 strains of Psa were identified from 300 isolates obtained from eight sampling sites in five provinces in China. The profiles of 50 strains of Psa and one strain of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum (Psaf) were characterized by Rep-, IS50-P, and RAPD-PCR...
September 18, 2018: Phytopathology
Nelson Arno Arno Wulff, Camila Giacomo Fassini, Viviani Vieira Marques, Elaine Cristina Martins, Daniela Aparecida Bononi Coletti, Diva do Carmo Teixeira, Marcio Martinello Sanches, Joseph M Bové
When Huanglongbing (HLB) was found in Brazil in 2004, 'Candidatus Liberibacter americanus' (Lam) was infecting most of the trees while 'Ca. L. asiaticus' (Las) was present in minor proportion. Currently, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is the predominant bacterium associated with HLB in citrus trees in São Paulo (SP) and Minas Gerais (MG) States, the major citrus growing regions in Brazil. A phytoplasma from 16Sr group IX was associated with HLB symptoms in Brazil in 2007, in plants free of Liberibacter. In this report, HLB-samples testing negative for Las, Lam and 16SrIX phytoplasma, were infected with 16SrIII phytoplasmas...
September 18, 2018: Phytopathology
Paola Daniela Fontana, Nicolás Tomasini, Cecilia Alejandra Fontana, Valentina Di Pauli, Pier Sandro Cocconcelli, Graciela Margarita Vignolo, Sergio Miguel Salazar
Acidovorax species cause a wide range of economically important diseases in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, including sugarcane, corn, rice, oats, millet, foxtail watermelon and orchids. In Argentina, the red stripe disease of sugarcane caused by A. avenae affects 30% of the milling stems with important economic losses. To explore the genetic diversity of this bacterium associated with red stripe in Argentina, MLST was applied. This study included 15 local strains isolated from four different sugarcane planting regions and selected after RAPD analysis and reference strains of A...
September 18, 2018: Phytopathology
Gerarda Beatriz Pinto da Silva, Camila Martini Zanella, José Antônio Martinelli, Marcia Soares Chaves, Colin W Hiebert, Brent McCallum, Lesley Boyd
Leaf rust, caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia triticina, is a major threat to wheat production in many wheat growing regions of the world. The introduction of leaf rust resistance genes into elite wheat germplasm is the preferred method of disease control, being environmentally friendly and crucial to sustained wheat production. Consequently, there is considerable value in identifying and characterizing new sources of leaf rust resistance. While many major, qualitative leaf rust resistance genes have been identified in wheat, a growing number of valuable sources of quantitative resistance have been reported...
September 13, 2018: Phytopathology
Amanda Lynne Strayer-Scherer, Jeffrey B Jones, Mathews Lal Paret
Bacterial spot of tomato is caused by Xanthomonas gardneri, X. euvesicatoria, X. perforans, and X. vesicatoria. Current diagnostic methods for the pathogens are not in-field assays. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is ideal for in-field detection assays because it is an isothermal technique that is rapid and more tolerant to inhibitors compared to PCR. Hence, novel RPA probes and primers were designed to amplify regions of the hrcN gene of X. gardneri, X. euvesicatoria, and X. perforans. The X. gardneri RPA is specific to X...
September 13, 2018: Phytopathology
Gabriel Madoglio Favara, Daiana Bampi, Juan Pablo Edwards Molina, Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende
Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) and tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) are among the major viruses that affect tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) development and yield in Brazil. ToSRV and ToCV are transmitted in a persistent circulative and semi-persistent manner, respectively, by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), considered the main vector of these viruses. In this study, the kinetics of systemic invasion and the latent and incubation periods of ToSRV and ToCV were evaluated in singly- and doubly-infected tomato plants...
September 11, 2018: Phytopathology
Shizhen Wang, Soichiro Asuke, Trinh Thi Phuong Vy, Yoshihiro Inoue, Izumi Chuma, Joe Win, Kenji Kato, Yukio Tosa
The wheat blast fungus (Triticum pathotype of Pyricularia oryzae) first arose in Brazil in 1985 and has recently spread to Asia. Resistance genes against this new pathogen are very rare in common wheat populations. We screened 520 local landraces of common wheat collected worldwide with Br48, a Triticum isolate collected in Brazil, and found a highly resistant, unique accession, GR119. When F2 seedlings derived from a cross between GR119 and Chinese Spring (CS, susceptible control) were inoculated with Br48, resistant and susceptible seedlings segregated in a 15:1 ratio, suggesting that GR119 carries two resistance genes...
September 11, 2018: Phytopathology
Geraldine LE Mire, Ali Siah, Brice Marolleau, Matthieu Gaucher, Claude Maumené, Yves Brostaux, Sébastien Massart, Marie-Noëlle Brisset, M Haissam Jijakli
Wheat crops are constantly challenged by the pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici responsible for Septoria tritici Blotch (STB) disease. The present study reports the identification of five biocontrol compounds (λ-carrageenan, CpG-ODN, glycine betaine, Spirulina platensis and ergosterol) for the protection of wheat against STB in order to offer new alternative tools to farmers for sustainable crop protection. Screening of elicitors of wheat defenses was carried out through a succession of experiments: biocidal in vitro tests enabled to check for any fungicidal activities; glasshouse experiments allowed to determine the efficacy of a given compound in protecting wheat against STB; qRT-PCR biomolecular tests investigated the relative expression of 23 defense genes in treated versus untreated plants...
August 30, 2018: Phytopathology
Fernando Matias Romero, Franco Rubén Rossi, Andrés Gárriz, Pedro Carrasco, Oscar Adolfo Ruíz
Endophytic bacteria colonize inner plant tissues and thrive at the apoplast, which is considered its main reservoir. Since this niche is the place where the main molecular events take place between beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms, the aim of this work was to characterize culturable endophytic bacteria from apoplastic fluids obtained from field-grown canola leaves and analyse their potential for biological control of diseases caused by Xanthomonas campestris, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Leptosphaeria maculans...
August 29, 2018: Phytopathology
Parama Sikdar, Mark Mazzola, Chang-Lin Xiao
Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis is the cause of speck rot of apple and leaf blight of Pacific madrone in Washington State. In total, 314 isolates were collected from apple production areas in eastern Washington and Pacific madrone in western Washington. Using eight microsatellite markers designed in this study, 58 unique multilocus haplotypes were identified. Only one of the haplotypes was shared between the apple and Pacific madrone populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed no genetic differentiation between the apple and Pacific madrone populations...
August 29, 2018: Phytopathology
Zheng Zheng, Jianchi Chen, Xiaoling Deng
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly destructive disease currently threatening citrus production worldwide. In China, the disease is exclusively associated with "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" (CLas), a nonculturable proteobacterium. HLB was observed in Guangdong of China over a hundred years ago. Researchers and citrus growers have been battling with the disease through vigorous research and exercised various control practices. Much of the early works were not well-known outside China. This review is aimed to fill-in gaps of historical information by reviewing selected literature records...
August 29, 2018: Phytopathology
Isabel Leal, Marie-Josée Bergeron, Nicolas Feau, Clement Kin Ming Tsui, Brett Foord, Kevin Pellow, Richard Hamelin, Rona Sturrock
Coniferiporia sulphurascens is a facultative fungal pathogen that causes laminated root rot (LRR) in commercially important coniferous species worldwide. This fungus spreads primarily by way of vegetative mycelium transferring at points of contact between infected and healthy roots. Successful intervention to control LRR requires a better understanding of the population structure and genetic variability of C. sulphurascens. In this study, we investigated the population genetic structure and origin of C. sulphurascens populations in western North America and eastern Eurasia collected from multiple coniferous hosts...
August 26, 2018: Phytopathology
Franco Ferilli, Giuseppe Stancanelli, Jens Patrick Linge, Maria Rosaria Mannino
The European Food Safety Authority has established a horizon scanning exercise for plant pests by automated monitoring of open-source media. The news sources are screened using the publicly accessible MEDISYS (Medical Information System) platform of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. Here, we report the example of monitoring for Xylella fastidiosa, a highly polyphagous plant pathogenic bacterium. Since its first occurrence in Europe, news sources have reported findings and latest developments...
August 24, 2018: Phytopathology
Ke Yang, Wentao Shen, Ye Li, Zengping Li, Weiguo Miao, Aiming Wang, Hongguang Cui
Areca palm (Areca catechu L.), one of the two most important commercial crops in Hainan, China, has been severely damaged by a variety of pathogens and insects. Here, we report a new disease, tentatively referred to as areca palm necrotic ringspot disease (ANRSD), which is highly epidemic in the main growing regions in Hainan. Transmission electron microscopy observation and small RNA deep sequencing revealed the existence of a viral agent of the family Potyviridae in a diseased areca palm plant (XC1). The new virus was tentatively named areca palm necrotic ringspot virus (ANRSV)...
August 22, 2018: Phytopathology
Chengyong He, Ke Duan, Liqing Zhang, Ling Zhang, Lili Song, Jing Yang, Xiaohua Zou, Yanxiu Wang, Qinghua Gao
The fungus Colletotrichum fructicola (a species of C. gloeosporioides complex) causes devastating anthracnose in strawberry. Like other species of the genus Colletotrichum, it employs a composite strategy including both the biotrophic and necrotrophic processes for pathogenesis. Host-derived hormones are central regulators of immunity, among which salicylic acid (SA) is the core defense one against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens. However, the manner and timing of pathogen manipulation of SA are largely elusive in strawberry...
August 21, 2018: Phytopathology
Patrick Ian Bennett, Ian Alastair Hood, Jeffrey Kyle Stone
Swiss needle cast is a foliar disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) that results in premature foliage loss and reduced growth. The causal fungus, Nothophaeocryptopus gaeumannii, was first detected in New Zealand in 1959 and spread throughout the North and South Islands over the following decades. The contemporary genetic structure of the N. gaeumannii population in New Zealand was assessed by analyzing 468 multilocus SSR genotypes (MLGs) from 2,085 N. gaeumannii isolates collected from 32 sites in in the North and South Islands...
August 21, 2018: Phytopathology
José Antonio Gutiérrez Barranquero, Francisco M Cazorla, Juan A Torés, Antonio de Vicente
Bacterial apical necrosis of mango trees, a disease elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, is a primary limiting factor of the mango crop production in the Mediterranean region. In this study, a collection of bacterial isolates associated with necrotic symptoms in mango trees similar to those produced by bacterial apical necrosis disease were isolated over 5 consecutive years in orchards from the Canary Islands. The bacterial isolates were characterized and identified as Pantoea agglomerans. Pathogenicity tests conducted on onion bulbs and mango plants confirmed that P...
August 13, 2018: Phytopathology
Ruiqi Zhang, Ravi Prakash Singh, Morten Lillemo, Xinyao He, Mandeep S Randhawa, Julio Huerta-Espino, Pawan Kumar Singh, Zhikang Li, Caixia Lan
Stripe rust is a major disease constraint of wheat production worldwide. Resistance to stripe rust was analyzed using 131 F6 RILs derived from a cross between synthetic derived wheat line Soru#1 and wheat cultivar Naxos. The phenotype was evaluated in Mexico and Norway at both seedling and adult plant stages. Linkage groups were constructed based on 90K SNP, STS and SSR markers. Two major resistance loci conferred by Soru#1 were detected and located on chromosomes 1BL and 4DS. The 1BL QTL explained 15.8-40...
August 2, 2018: Phytopathology
Rodger Belisle, Brandon McKee, W Hao, Margaret Crowley, Mary Lu Arpaia, Timothy D Miles, James E Adaskaveg, Patricia Manosalva
Phytophthora cinnamomi, the causal agent of Phytophthora Root Rot (PRR), is the most destructive disease of avocado worldwide. A previous study identified two genetically distinct clades of A2 mating type avocado isolates in California, however the phenotypic variation among them was not assessed. This study described the phenotype of a subset of isolates from these groups regarding growth rate, growth temperature, virulence, and fungicide sensitivity. Isolates corresponding to the A2 clade I group exhibited higher mycelial growth rate and sensitivity to higher temperatures than other isolates...
August 2, 2018: Phytopathology
Jin-Li Li, Fuxing Zhu, Jianhong Li
Histidine kinases (HKs) are implicated in virulence, vegetative mycelial growth, as well as osmotic and oxidative responses in pathogenic fungi. Our previous work showed that transcriptional levels of the group III HK gene Sshk are higher in dimethachlone field-resistant isolates of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum compared with sensitive isolates. However, it is not clear whether the overexpression of Sshk is the major mechanism for resistance to dimethachlone. In this study, we constructed Sshk silencing and overexpression vectors and assessed dimethachlone resistance levels, virulence, mycelial growth and sensitivity to osmotic stress for the Sshk-silenced and overexpression transformants...
August 2, 2018: Phytopathology
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