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Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Asif Nadeem, Muhammad Rizwan Ashraf, Maryam Javed, Tanveer Hussain, Muhammad Salman Tariq, Masroor Ellahi Babar
In 1993 miRNAs were discovered during a research on Caenorhabditis elegans conducted by Victor Ambros and Gary Ruvkun. The gene lin-4 that played important role in development in C. elgans was observed not encoding any protein but a very small RNA molecule of just 22 nucleotides. Main objective of this review is to highlight the significance of miRNAs in regulating the expression of many genes, which are either directly or indirectly involved in many diseases. One of the major causes of illness and death in developed countries of the world is cardiovascular disease...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Muhammad Umar Bhatti, Haseeb Amir Riaz, Bushra Tabassum, Nida Toufiq, Anwar Khan, Muhammad Tariq, Iqra Yousaf, Imtiaz Ahmad Sajid, Mariam Shahid, Maryam Zameer
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a disease infection mix, which is primarily because of 'deficient' immune system. Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV) makes the immune system susceptible to many infections by infiltrating it. Many researchers believe that HIV is a mutated form of Simian Immune-deficiency Virus (SIV). After being clinically discovered in 1981 in America, it is said to have caused 36 million deaths. Treatment of AIDS has been a 'burning ' issue ever since its discovery. There is no cure for AIDS! Although, Recombinant Transcriptase Inhibitors (RTis) are being considered a major treatment against HIV that can not only lessen the effect of HIV but also can prolong the life of HIV positive patients...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Nazima Batool, Muhammad Arshad, Fayyazul Hassan, Noshin Ilyas, Armghan Shahzad
Canola oil has been used in the Pakistan for the treatment of various diseases and skin infections. Oil was extracted with n-hexane from the seeds of canola (Brassica napus L.) and was evaluated for free fatty acid value. Four microorganisms namely; Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas originals, and Klebsiella pneumonia, has known to cause some infections treatable with these oils were investigated. The results showed that all oil shown inhibitory effects against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas originals but no inhibitory effects was found against Staphylococcus aureus...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Yi Luo, Hongxia Qin, Lin Zhao, Long Jin, Anan Jiang, Xuewei Li, Mingzhou Li, Xun Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Asifa Majeed, Amir Rashid, Birgit Helm
The high-affinity IgE receptor complex plays an essential part in allergic responses and involved in downstream signaling, released inflammatory mediators that cause allergic responses. The transmembrane region of the high-affinity IgE has a conserved motif (LFAVDTGL) where a polar aspartate (D194) is important for the ligand binding. This modeling study proposes novel potential binding sites between high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor α subunit (FcεRIα) and FcRγ and as a consequence, we propose a new model of FcεRIα and FcRγ interaction (T194) which can mediate downstream signaling in allergic response...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Muhammad Anwar Nawab Khan, Nurul Aida Md Rosly, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed, Nahlah Elkudssiah Ismail
The school students are of particular importance in the HIV/AIDS awareness policies at both local and international level. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge of the modes of HIV transmission among urban and rural public secondary school students in Malaysia. In this cross-sectional study, post local ethics approval, 600self-administered questionnaires were randomly disseminated to students in 6 different secondary schools and areas (i.e. 3 urban schools and 3 rural schools). Data were descriptively and inferentially analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS®), version 17...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Waseem Ahmed, Rafia Azmat, Shah Masaud Khan, M Safeer Khan, Abdul Qayyum, Ayaz Mehmood, Sami Ullah Khan, Ijaz Hussain
Adhatoda vasica and Calotropis procera species were investigated as a resource for new diverse pharmacological agents including B complex, individual total phenolic compounds and antioxidants for curing and treatments of many infectious diseases in human through advanced analytical methods. These plants are abundant in Khyber Pukhtoon Khawa, Pakistan as well as in all over the world and famous for their unique medicinal importance. These herbaceous species are so far used for animals curing while current exploration of these species showed that these species are a precious resource of various compounds which can be employed in the formation of different drugs...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Rafi Ullah, Jehan Bakht, Mohammad Shafi, Muhammad Raza Shah
The aim of the present study was to investigate bioactive compounds in different solvent extracted samples from the stem tissues of P. hydaspidis using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy techniques. GC-mass spectrum was compared with the data base of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) containing more than 62000 patterns of the mass spectrum. During matching with NIST library the match factor greater than 700 was considered only for better and pure results. The results revealed that different solvent extracted samples analyzed through GC-MS contained appreciable quantities of different bioactive molecules including antibiotics, fatty acids and protein which have important pharmacological significance...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Nausheen Alam, Rahila Ikram
Attenuation of methylphenidate-induced behavioral sensitization and cognitive tolerance by buspirone co-administration has been reported previously. Dopamine D2 -receptors are considered to be important in methylphenidate-induced sensitization. This study was designed to monitor the responsiveness of D2 receptors following long-term methylphenidate, buspirone and their co-administration in rats by the challenge dose of haloperidol. Effects of haloperidol challenge dose (1 mg/kg i.p.) were monitored after 6 weeks (till the behavioral sensitization produced) from oral repeated (twice a day for 6 week) administration of methylphenidate (2mg/kg/day), buspirone (10mg/kg/day) and their co-administration...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Li-Jia Liu, Xiu-Hua Hu, Li-Na Guo, Ru-Feng Wang, Qi-Tao Zhao
In order to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids, phenolic acids, and alkaloids from the flowers of Trollius chinensis, some representative compounds, namely, orientin, 2"-O-β-L-galactopyranosylorientin, vitexin, quercetin, isoquercetin, luteolin, veratric acid, proglobeflowery acid, trollioside, and trolline were selected to study their inhibitory effects against LPS-induced NO, IL-6, and TNF-β release in RAW264.7 cells. At the higher concentration, both phenolic acids and flavonoids inhibited the production of NO, whereas only phenolic acids showed this effect at the lower concentration...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Samia Imtiaz, Huma Ikram, Mazhar Ayaz, Muhammad Imran Qadir, Syed Aun Muhammad
Glycine is an important chemical mediator of nervous system that plays a vital role in memory and other neurological functions. Therefore, the effect of glycine on these traits must be studied to understand biological mechanisms of intricate neurological system. We investigated the effect of different doses of glycine on memory and behavior using 30 albino mice models (treated and control). After two weeks of glycine dosing, we performed light and dark activity and novel-object recognition (NOR) tests to assess the cognitive traits...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Falak Zeb, Mahpara Safdar, Sadia Fatima, Saleem Khan, Sahib Alam, Mumtaz Muhammad, Ayesha Syed, Fozia Habib, Hira Shakoor
Garlic and coriander play an obligatory role in the metabolism of lipids leading to the reduction of CVD development. We hypothesized that garlic, coriander and their mixture improves the lipid profile, BMI and blood pressure of CVD patients. Eighty patients were partitioned into 4 groups, each group consisting of twenty patients. The groups were randomly assigned to three supplements i.e. garlic powder (GP), coriander seed powder (CSP) and mixture (1:1 dry weight basis) of GP and CSP at a dose rate of 2 g/day...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Zubia Begum, Ishrat Younus, Husna Khan
The current study aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanolic extract of roots of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (HRS). The ethanolic extract was studied on tail flick test, acetic acid induced writhing test, tail immersion test, carrageenan induced paw edema test, formalin induced paw licking test and dextran induced paw edema test at different doses i.e. 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. The oral administration of Hibiscus extract respectively has been shown significant (p<0.05) dose dependent analgesic (prolongation of the reaction time) and anti-inflammatory (inhibition of edema) effects at all the treated and standard groups when compared with the control group...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani
The current research deals with estimation of the spectrophotometric analysis of some metals and phytochemical screening of the plant Digera muricata. The importance plant study arises from the fact that it has both medicinal and nutritional values. The plant were collected from Albaha mountains in Albaha area. The parts of the plant that were studied are stems and leaves. Spectrophotometric and proximate analysis showed that the percentage of moisture 7.24% and 7.12% for leaves and stems respectively, ash content 25...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Rasool Khan, Mohammed Mansour Quradha, Abdullah Qasem Saif, Jawad Ali, Abdur Rauf
Biological assays including; phytotoxicity, brine shrimp lethality, antileishmanial and insecticidal activities were carried out on crude methanolic extracts of stems and leaves of R. nervosus and their fraction namely; n-Hexane, CHCl3, EtOAc, and MeOH fractions. The highest significant phytotoxicty activity showed by chloroform, n-hexane fractions and crude extract of leaves, the growth regulation were (95%, 90% and 90%) respectively against Lemna minor, while ethyl acetate fraction and n-hexane fractions of stems displayed significant phytotoxicty (100% and 90%) respectively against Lemna minor at high dose (1000μg/ml)...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Saiqa Yousaf, Ghazala Kaukab, Hina Gul, Nauman Khalid, Rehana Kausar, Haroon Ahmed, Huma Ajab, Muhammad Gulfraz
Antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, cytotoxic, and anti-haemolytic activity of various rhizome extracts of Bergenia ciliata were evaluated in this study. The results showed inhibition of the growth of all selected bacterial and fungal strains in comparison with standard antibiotics. The antioxidant activities of Bergenia ciliata extracts were evaluated against DPPH, H2O2, ABTS, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power assays. The order of antioxidant activity of various extracts were methanol> ethanol>n-hexane> aqueous>chloroform...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Sobia Razzaq, Sana Hanif, Muhammad Ali Syed, Javed Iqbal, Syed Saeedul Hassan, Syed Atif Raza, Humayun Riaz, Farah Abid
The current study was designed to evaluate mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing metronidazole (MTZ) for local action aided by Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M (HPMC) and Carbopol 940® (CP) as mucoadhesive polymers with other ingredients like sodium starch glycolate (SSG), polyvinyl pyrollidone K30 (PVP) as disintegrant and binders respectively. Formulations (F1-F8) were prepared by direct compression method and characterized for different physicochemical parameters. Results showed that the average weight and friability were within USP limits...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Mahmood Hosseinzadeh Maleki, Maryam Mousavi, Toba Kazemi, Nahid Azdaki, Amir Rahmanian Sharifabad, Reyhane Hoshyar
Information on incidence and risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is rare in the Middle East. This study aims to compare Iranian candidates for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and healthy controls in terms of lipid profile, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), and atherosclerosis index (ASTI). The individuals recruited in this study were 135 CVD patients before CABG surgery and 135 healthy subjects matching in age with the cases. Lipid profiles of the two groups were analyzed with a commercial kit...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Ayesha Rauf, Haq Nawaz, Muhammad Aslam Shad
Effect of solvent polarity and extraction time on antioxidant properties of Brassica oleracea seeds was optimized by response surface methodology using central composite design. A significant linear negative effect of solvent polarity on total extractable components (TEC), total phenolic acids (TPA), linoleic acid reduction capacity (LARC) and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity (HRSC) and significant positive effect on iron chelating activity (ICA), reducing power (RP) and (DPPH RSC). Linear effect of solvent polarity on total antioxidant activity (TAOA) was also found to be positive but not significant...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Humerah Bano Shafiq, Uzma Amin, Sunil Nawaz
Oral cavity exhibits general health of the body and affects the quality of life. Poor hygienic conditions are associated with chronic and systemic diseases. There are almost 750 species of various microorganisms which exist in oral cavity and most of these are involved in oral diseases. Among these, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are the most common opportunistic pathogens. This study was conducted to find out the effects of various mouthwashes available in Pakistan, against oral pathogens. It was focused on the determination of most effective products through their antimicrobial activity using agar well diffusion and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) assays...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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