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Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769794/social-interactions-predict-genetic-diversification-an-experimental-manipulation-in-shorebirds
#1
Charles Cunningham, Jorge E Parra, Lucy Coals, Marcela Beltrán, Sama Zefania, Tamás Székely
Mating strategy and social behavior influence gene flow and hence affect levels of genetic differentiation and potentially speciation. Previous genetic analyses of closely related plovers Charadrius spp. found strikingly different population genetic structure in Madagascar: Kittlitz's plovers are spatially homogenous whereas white-fronted plovers have well segregated and geographically distinct populations. Here, we test the hypotheses that Kittlitz's plovers are spatially interconnected and have extensive social interactions that facilitate gene flow, whereas white-fronted plovers are spatially discrete and have limited social interactions...
May 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769793/a-marker-of-biological-ageing-predicts-adult-risk-preference-in-european-starlings-sturnus-vulgaris
#2
Clare Andrews, Daniel Nettle, Sophie Reichert, Tom Bedford, Pat Monaghan, Melissa Bateson
Why are some individuals more prone to gamble than others? Animals often show preferences between 2 foraging options with the same mean reward but different degrees of variability in the reward, and such risk preferences vary between individuals. Previous attempts to explain variation in risk preference have focused on energy budgets, but with limited empirical support. Here, we consider whether biological ageing, which affects mortality and residual reproductive value, predicts risk preference. We studied a cohort of European starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ) in which we had previously measured developmental erythrocyte telomere attrition, an established integrative biomarker of biological ageing...
May 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769792/social-and-ecological-drivers-of-reproductive-seasonality-in-geladas
#3
Elizabeth Tinsley Johnson, Noah Snyder-Mackler, Amy Lu, Thore J Bergman, Jacinta C Beehner
Many nonseasonally breeding mammals demonstrate some degree of synchrony in births, which is generally associated with ecological factors that mediate fecundity. However, disruptive social events, such as alpha male replacements, also have the potential to affect the timing of female reproduction. Here, we examined reproductive seasonality in a wild population of geladas ( Theropithecus gelada ) living at high altitudes in an afro-alpine ecosystem in Ethiopia. Using 9 years of demographic data (2006-2014), we determined that, while females gave birth year-round, a seasonal peak in births coincided with peak green grass availability (their staple food source)...
May 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622935/temporal-migration-patterns-and-mating-tactics-influence-size-assortative-mating-in-rana-temporaria
#4
Carolin Dittrich, Ariel Rodríguez, Ori Segev, Sanja Drakulić, Heike Feldhaar, Miguel Vences, Mark-Oliver Rödel
Assortative mating is a common pattern in sexually reproducing species, but the mechanisms leading to assortment remain poorly understood. By using the European common frog ( Rana temporaria ) as a model, we aim to understand the mechanisms leading to size-assortative mating in amphibians. With data from natural populations collected over several years, we first show a consistent pattern of size-assortative mating across our 2 study populations. We subsequently ask if assortative mating may be explained by mate availability due to temporal segregation of migrating individuals with specific sizes...
March 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622934/joint-care-can-outweigh-costs-of-nonkin-competition-in-communal-breeders
#5
Kat Bebbington, Eleanor A Fairfield, Lewis G Spurgin, Sjouke A Kingma, Hannah Dugdale, Jan Komdeur, David S Richardson
Competition between offspring can greatly influence offspring fitness and parental investment decisions, especially in communal breeders where unrelated competitors have less incentive to concede resources. Given the potential for escalated conflict, it remains unclear what mechanisms facilitate the evolution of communal breeding among unrelated females. Resolving this question requires simultaneous consideration of offspring in noncommunal and communal nurseries, but such comparisons are missing. In the Seychelles warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis, we compare nestling pairs from communal nests (2 mothers) and noncommunal nests (1 mother) with singleton nestlings...
January 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622933/parental-investment-in-tibetan-populations-does-not-reflect-stated-cultural-norms
#6
Juan Du, Ruth Mace
In this paper, we examined both stated norms of sex preference and actual sex-biases in parental investment in a Tibetan pastoralist society. We collected detailed demographic data on infant mortality, infant feeding, the length of interbirth intervals, and a decision when giving gifts, to examine sex-biased parental investment. Our results indicate a mismatch between self-reported son preference and measures of actual parental investment that favor daughters. We interpret this female-biased parental investment as a possible response to daughters generating more economic resources...
January 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622932/selfish-partners-resource-partitioning-in-male-coalitions-of-asiatic-lions
#7
Stotra Chakrabarti, Yadvendradev V Jhala
Behavioral plasticity within species is adaptive which directs survival traits to take multiple pathways under varying conditions. Male-male cooperation is an evolutionary strategy often exhibiting an array of alternatives between and within species. African male lions coalesce to safeguard territories and mate acquisition. Unique to these coalitions is lack of strict hierarchies between partners, who have similar resource securities possibly because of many mating opportunities within large female groups. Skewed mating and feeding rights have only been documented in large coalitions where males were related...
November 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622931/a-case-for-considering-individual-variation-in-diel-activity-patterns
#8
Anne G Hertel, Jon E Swenson, Richard Bischof
There is a growing recognition of the role of individual variation in patterns emerging at higher levels of biological organization. Despite the importance of the temporal configuration of ecological processes and patterns, intraspecific individual variation in diel activity patterns is almost never accounted for in behavioral studies at the population level. We used individual-based monitoring data from 98 GPS-collared brown bears in Scandinavia to estimate diel activity patterns before the fall hunting season...
November 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622930/cognition-personality-and-stress-in-budgerigars-melopsittacus-undulatus
#9
Angela Medina-García, Jodie M Jawor, Timothy F Wright
To study the fitness effects of individual variation in cognitive traits, it is paramount to understand whether traits such as personality and physiological stress influence cognitive performance. We first tested whether budgerigars showed both consistent personalities and cognitive performance across time and tasks. We tested object and food neophobia, and exploratory behavior. We measured cognitive performance in habituation, ability to solve foraging problems, spatial memory, and seed discrimination tasks...
November 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622929/is-male-rhesus-macaque-facial-coloration-under-intrasexual-selection
#10
Megan Petersdorf, Constance Dubuc, Alexander V Georgiev, Sandra Winters, James P Higham
Exaggerated male traits can evolve under intra- or intersexual selection, but it remains less clear how often both mechanisms act together on trait evolution. While the males of many anthropoid primate species exhibit colorful signals that appear to be badges of status under intrasexual selection, the red facial coloration of male rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) appears to have evolved primarily under intersexual selection and female mate choice. Nonetheless, experiments show that red color is salient to males, raising the question of whether the signal may also be under intrasexual selection...
November 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622928/marginal-predation-do-encounter-or-confusion-effects-explain-the-targeting-of-prey-group-edges
#11
Callum Duffield, Christos C Ioannou
Marginal predation, also known as the edge effect, occurs when aggregations of prey are preferentially targeted on their periphery by predators and has long been established in many taxa. Two main processes have been used to explain this phenomenon, the confusion effect and the encounter rate between predators and prey group edges. However, it is unknown at what size a prey group needs to be before marginal predation is detectable and to what extent each mechanism drives the effect. We conducted 2 experiments using groups of virtual prey being preyed upon by 3-spined sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ) to address these questions...
September 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622927/camouflaging-moving-objects-crypsis-and-masquerade
#12
Joanna R Hall, Roland Baddeley, Nicholas E Scott-Samuel, Adam J Shohet, Innes C Cuthill
Motion is generally assumed to "break" camouflage. However, although camouflage cannot conceal a group of moving animals, it may impair a predator's ability to single one out for attack, even if that discrimination is not based on a color difference. Here, we use a computer-based task in which humans had to detect the odd one out among moving objects, with "oddity" based on shape. All objects were either patterned or plain, and either matched the background or not. We show that there are advantages of matching both group-mates and the background...
September 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622926/allopreening-in-birds-is-associated-with-parental-cooperation-over-offspring-care-and-stable-pair-bonds-across-years
#13
Elspeth Kenny, Tim R Birkhead, Jonathan P Green
Individuals of many species form bonds with their breeding partners, yet the mechanisms maintaining these bonds are poorly understood. In birds, allopreening is a conspicuous feature of interactions between breeding partners and has been hypothesized to play a role in strengthening and maintaining pair bonds within and across breeding attempts. Many avian species, however, do not allopreen and the relationship between allopreening and pair bonding across species remains unexplored. In a comparative analysis of allopreening and pair bond behavior, we found that allopreening between breeding partners was more common among species where parents cooperate to rear offspring...
July 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622925/cut-your-losses-self-amputation-of-injured-limbs-increases-survival
#14
Zachary Emberts, Christine W Miller, Daniel Kiehl, Colette M St Mary
Autotomy, self-induced limb loss, is an extreme trait observed throughout the animal kingdom; lizards drop their tails, crickets release their legs, and crabs drop their claws. These repeated evolutionary origins suggest that autotomy is adaptive. Yet, we do not have a firm understanding of the selective pressures that promote and maintain this extreme trait. Although multiple adaptive hypotheses exist, research has generally focused on autotomy's adaptive value as a form of predator escape. However, autotomy could also be selected to reduce the cost of an injured limb, which we investigate here...
July 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622924/mate-choice-in-sticklebacks-reveals-that-immunogenes-can-drive-ecological-speciation
#15
Demetra Andreou, Christophe Eizaguirre, Thomas Boehm, Manfred Milinski
Adaptation to ecologically contrasting niches can lead to the formation of new species. Theoretically, this process of ecological speciation can be driven by pleiotropic "magic traits" that genetically link natural and sexual selection. To qualify as a true magic trait, the pleiotropic function of a gene must be reflected in biologically relevant mechanisms underlying both local adaptation and mate choice. The immune genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contribute to parasite resistance and also play a major role in sexual selection...
July 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622923/avoiding-the-misuse-of-blup-in-behavioural-ecology
#16
Thomas M Houslay, Alastair J Wilson
Having recognized that variation around the population-level "Golden Mean" of labile traits contains biologically meaningful information, behavioural ecologists have focused increasingly on exploring the causes and consequences of individual variation in behaviour. These are exciting new directions for the field, assisted in no small part by the adoption of mixed-effects modelling techniques that enable the partitioning of among- and within-individual behavioural variation. It has become commonplace to extract predictions of individual random effects from such models for use in subsequent analyses (for example, between a personality trait and other individual traits such as cognition, physiology, or fitness-related measures)...
July 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622922/specialists-and-generalists-coexist-within-a-population-of-spider-hunting-mud-dauber-wasps
#17
Erin C Powell, Lisa A Taylor
Individual foraging specialization describes the phenomenon where conspecifics within a population of generalists exhibit differences in foraging behavior, each specializing on different prey types. Individual specialization is widespread in animals, yet is understudied in invertebrates, despite potential impacts to food web and population dynamics . Sceliphron caementarium (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) is an excellent system to examine individual specialization. Females of these mud dauber wasps capture and paralyze spiders which they store in mud nests to provision their offspring...
May 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622921/repeatable-and-heritable-behavioural-variation-in-a-wild-cooperative-breeder
#18
Hannah A Edwards, Terry Burke, Hannah L Dugdale
Quantifying consistent differences in behaviour among individuals is vital to understanding the ecological and evolutionary significance of animal personality. To quantify personality, the phenotypic variation of a behavioural trait is partitioned to assess how it varies among individuals, which is also known as repeatability. If pedigree data are available, the phenotypic variation can then be further partitioned to estimate the additive genetic variance and heritability. Assessing the repeatability and heritability of personality traits therefore allows for a better understanding of what natural selection can act upon, enabling evolution...
May 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622920/relative-advantages-of-dichromatic-and-trichromatic-color-vision-in-camouflage-breaking
#19
Jolyon Troscianko, Jared Wilson-Aggarwal, David Griffiths, Claire N Spottiswoode, Martin Stevens
There is huge diversity in visual systems and color discrimination abilities, thought to stem from an animal's ecology and life history. Many primate species maintain a polymorphism in color vision, whereby most individuals are dichromats but some females are trichromats, implying that selection sometimes favors dichromatic vision. Detecting camouflaged prey is thought to be a task where dichromatic individuals could have an advantage. However, previous work either has not been able to disentangle camouflage detection from other ecological or social explanations, or did not use biologically relevant cryptic stimuli to test this hypothesis under controlled conditions...
March 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622919/environmental-heterogeneity-and-population-differences-in-blue-tits-personality-traits
#20
Gabrielle Dubuc-Messier, Denis Réale, Philippe Perret, Anne Charmantier
Environmental heterogeneity can result in spatial variation in selection pressures that can produce local adaptations. The pace-of-life syndrome hypothesis predicts that habitat-specific selective pressures will favor the coevolution of personality, physiological, and life-history phenotypes. Few studies so far have compared these traits simultaneously across different ecological conditions. In this study, we compared 3 personality traits (handling aggression, exploration speed in a novel environment, and nest defense behavior) and 1 physiological trait (heart rate during manual restraint) across 3 Corsican blue tit ( Cyanistes caeruleus ) populations...
March 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
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