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Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127225/task-switching-is-associated-with-temporal-delays-in-temnothorax-rugatulus-ants
#1
Gavin M Leighton, Daniel Charbonneau, Anna Dornhaus
The major evolutionary transitions often result in reorganization of biological systems, and a component of such reorganization is that individuals within the system specialize on performing certain tasks, resulting in a division of labor. Although the traditional benefit of division of labor is thought to be a gain in work efficiency, one alternative benefit of specialization is avoiding temporal delays associated with switching tasks. While models have demonstrated that costs of task switching can drive the evolution of division of labor, little empirical support exists for this hypothesis...
January 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127224/evolution-of-elaborate-parental-care-phenotypic-and-genetic-correlations-between-parent-and-offspring-traits
#2
Clare P Andrews, Loeske E B Kruuk, Per T Smiseth
The evolution of elaborate forms of parental care is an important topic in behavioral ecology, yet the factors shaping the evolution of complex suites of parental and offspring traits are poorly understood. Here, we use a multivariate quantitative genetic approach to study phenotypic and genetic correlations between parental and offspring traits in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. To this end, we recorded 2 prenatal traits (clutch size and egg size), 2 postnatal parental behaviors (direct care directed toward larvae and indirect care directed toward resource maintenance), 1 offspring behavior (begging), and 2 measures of breeding success (larval dispersal mass and number of dispersing larvae)...
January 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028379/exploration-is-dependent-on-reproductive-state-not-social-state-in-a-cooperatively-breeding-bird
#3
Hannah A Edwards, Hannah L Dugdale, David S Richardson, Jan Komdeur, Terry Burke
Personality is an intriguing phenomenon in populations because it constrains behavioral flexibility. One theory suggests that personality could be generated and maintained if dependent on asset protection. It is predicted that trade-offs with fitness expectations and survival probability encourage consistent behavioral differences among individuals (personality). Although not mutually exclusive, the social niche specialization hypothesis suggests that a group of individuals that repeatedly interact will develop personality to avoid costly social conflict...
November 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028378/the-benefits-of-being-toxic-to-deter-predators-depends-on-prey-body-size
#4
Karen E Smith, Christina G Halpin, Candy Rowe
Many prey have evolved toxins as a defense against predation. Those species that advertise their toxicity to would-be predators with conspicuous warning signals are known as "aposematic." Investment in toxicity by aposematically signaling prey is thought to underpin how aversive prey are to predators; increasing toxicity means that predators learn to avoid prey faster and attack them at lower rates. However, predators' foraging decisions on aposematic prey are determined not only by their toxicity, but also by their nutrient content: predators can trade-off the costs of ingesting toxin with the benefits of acquiring nutrients...
November 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028377/adult-helpers-increase-the-recruitment-of-closely-related-offspring-in-the-cooperatively-breeding-rifleman
#5
Stephanie A J Preston, James V Briskie, Ben J Hatchwell
Indirect fitness benefits gained through kin-selected helping are widely invoked to explain the evolution of cooperative breeding behavior in birds. However, the impact of helpers on productivity of helped broods can be difficult to determine if the effects are confounded by territory quality or if the benefit of helpers is apparent only in the long term. In riflemen Acanthisitta chloris, helping and group membership are effectively decoupled as adult helpers are individuals that have dispersed from their natal territory and live independently from breeders in "kin neighborhoods...
November 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656087/dazzle-camouflage-target-tracking-and-the-confusion-effect
#6
Benedict G Hogan, Innes C Cuthill, Nicholas E Scott-Samuel
The influence of coloration on the ecology and evolution of moving animals in groups is poorly understood. Animals in groups benefit from the "confusion effect," where predator attack success is reduced with increasing group size or density. This is thought to be due to a sensory bottleneck: an increase in the difficulty of tracking one object among many. Motion dazzle camouflage has been hypothesized to disrupt accurate perception of the trajectory or speed of an object or animal. The current study investigates the suggestion that dazzle camouflage may enhance the confusion effect...
September 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656086/sexually-selected-sentinels-evidence-of-a-role-for-intrasexual-competition-in-sentinel-behavior
#7
Lindsay A Walker, Jenny E York, Andrew J Young
Although the evolutionary mechanisms that favor investment in cooperative behaviors have long been a focus of research, comparatively few studies have considered the role that sexual selection may play. For example, evolutionary explanations for sentinel behavior (where 1 individual assumes an elevated position and scans the surroundings while other group members forage nearby) have traditionally focused on the inclusive fitness benefits arising from its effects on predation risk, while its potential role in defense against intrasexual competitors remains largely unexplored...
September 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656085/not-leaving-home-grandmothers-and-male-dispersal-in-a-duolocal-human-society
#8
Qiao-Qiao He, Jia-Jia Wu, Ting Ji, Yi Tao, Ruth Mace
Models suggest that dispersal patterns will influence age- and sex-dependent helping behavior in social species. Duolocal social systems (where neither sex disperses and mating is outside the group) are predicted to be associated with mothers favoring sons over daughters (because the latter are in reproductive competition with each other). Other models predict daughter-biased investment when benefits of wealth to sons are less than daughters. Here, we test whether sex-biased investment is occurring in the duolocal Mosuo of southwestern China...
September 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656084/imperfect-past-and-present-progressive-beak-color-reflects-early-life-and-adult-exposure-to-antigen
#9
Loren Merrill, Madeleine F Naylor, Jennifer L Grindstaff
Secondary sexual traits may convey information about individual condition. We assessed the capacity for immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) during the prenatal and early postnatal stages to impact beak color development and expression in captive zebra finches. In addition, we tested whether adult immune challenge impacted beak color, and if early-life experience was influential. Immune challenge with KLH early in life slowed development of red beak coloration, and males challenged with KLH as nestlings had reduced red coloration as adults...
September 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656083/maternal-age-at-maturation-underpins-contrasting-behavior-in-offspring
#10
Tim Burton, Grethe Robertsen, David C Stewart, Simon McKelvey, John D Armstrong, Neil B Metcalfe
In species where parental care occurs primarily via the provisioning of eggs, older females tend to produce larger offspring that have better fitness prospects. Remarkably however, a relationship between age of mother and fitness of offspring has also been reported independently of effects on offspring size suggesting that there may be other factors at play. Here, using experimental matings between wild Atlantic salmon that differed in their age at sexual maturation, we demonstrate distinct size-independent variation in the behavior of their offspring that was related to the maturation age of the mother (but not the father)...
September 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418755/wherever-i-may-roam-social-viscosity-and-kin-affiliation-in-a-wild-population-despite-natal-dispersal
#11
Ada M Grabowska-Zhang, Camilla A Hinde, Colin J Garroway, Ben C Sheldon
Dispersal affects the social contexts individuals experience by redistributing individuals in space, and the nature of social interactions can have important fitness consequences. During the vagrancy stage of natal dispersal, after an individual has left its natal site and before it has settled to breed, social affiliations might be predicted by opportunities to associate (e.g., distance in space and time between natal points of origin) or kin preferences. We investigated the social structure of a population of juvenile great tits (Parus major) and asked whether social affiliations during vagrancy were predicted by 1) the distance between natal nest-boxes, 2) synchrony in fledge dates, and 3) accounting for spatial and temporal predictors, whether siblings tended to stay together...
July 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418754/manipulating-carer-number-versus-brood-size-complementary-but-not-equivalent-ways-of-quantifying-carer-effects-on-offspring
#12
A L Liebl, L E Browning, A F Russell
Experiments designed to quantify the effects of increasing numbers of carers on levels of offspring care are rare in cooperative breeding systems, where offspring are reared by individuals additional to the breeding pair. This paucity might stem from disagreement over the most appropriate manipulations necessary to elucidate these effects. Here, we perform both carer removal and brood enhancement experiments to test the effects of numbers of carers and carer:offspring ratios on provisioning rates in the cooperatively breeding chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps)...
July 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418753/paroxetine-exposure-skews-litter-sex-ratios-in-mice-suggesting-a-trivers-willard-process
#13
Shannon Marie Gaukler, James Steven Ruff, Wayne K Potts
While conducting a toxicity assessment of the antidepressant paroxetine (Paxil®), in wild-derived mice (Mus musculus), we observed that exposed dams (P0) produced female biased litters (32:68 M:F). Though numerous experimental manipulations have induced sex ratio bias in mice, none have assessed the fitness of the offspring from these litters relative to controls. Here, we retrospectively analyze experimentally derived fitness data gathered for the purpose of toxicological assessment in light of 2 leading hypothesis (Trivers-Willard hypothesis [TWH] and cost of reproduction hypothesis [CRH]), seeking to test if this facultative sex ratio adjustment fits into an adaptive framework...
July 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418752/drivers-and-fitness-consequences-of-dispersive-migration-in-a-pelagic-seabird
#14
Annette L Fayet, Robin Freeman, Akiko Shoji, Dave Boyle, Holly L Kirk, Ben J Dean, Chris M Perrins, Tim Guilford
Animals can be flexible in their migration strategies, using several wintering sites or a variety of routes. The mechanisms promoting the development of these migratory patterns and their potential fitness consequences are poorly understood. Here, we address these questions by tracking the dispersive migration of a pelagic seabird, the Atlantic puffin Fratercula arctica, using over 100 complete migration tracks collected over 7 years, including repeated tracks of individuals for up to 6 consecutive years. Because puffins have high flight costs, dispersion may generate important variation in costs of migration...
July 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418751/feeding-habitat-quality-and-behavioral-trade-offs-in-chimpanzees-a-case-for-species-distribution-models
#15
Steffen Foerster, Ying Zhong, Lilian Pintea, Carson M Murray, Michael L Wilson, Deus C Mjungu, Anne E Pusey
The distribution and abundance of food resources are among the most important factors that influence animal behavioral strategies. Yet, spatial variation in feeding habitat quality is often difficult to assess with traditional methods that rely on extrapolation from plot survey data or remote sensing. Here, we show that maximum entropy species distribution modeling can be used to successfully predict small-scale variation in the distribution of 24 important plant food species for chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania...
July 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418750/variable-ecological-conditions-promote-male-helping-by-changing-banded-mongoose-group-composition
#16
Harry H Marshall, Jennifer L Sanderson, Francis Mwanghuya, Robert Businge, Solomon Kyabulima, Michelle C Hares, Emma Inzani, Gladys Kalema-Zikusoka, Kenneth Mwesige, Faye J Thompson, Emma I K Vitikainen, Michael A Cant
Ecological conditions are expected to have an important influence on individuals' investment in cooperative care. However, the nature of their effects is unclear: both favorable and unfavorable conditions have been found to promote helping behavior. Recent studies provide a possible explanation for these conflicting results by suggesting that increased ecological variability, rather than changes in mean conditions, promote cooperative care. However, no study has tested whether increased ecological variability promotes individual-level helping behavior or the mechanisms involved...
July 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27174599/comparing-pre-and-post-copulatory-mate-competition-using-social-network-analysis-in-wild-crickets
#17
David N Fisher, Rolando Rodríguez-Muñoz, Tom Tregenza
Sexual selection results from variation in success at multiple stages in the mating process, including competition before and after mating. The relationship between these forms of competition, such as whether they trade-off or reinforce one another, influences the role of sexual selection in evolution. However, the relationship between these 2 forms of competition is rarely quantified in the wild. We used video cameras to observe competition among male field crickets and their matings in the wild. We characterized pre- and post-copulatory competition as 2 networks of competing individuals...
May 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004016/internest-food-sharing-within-wood-ant-colonies-resource-redistribution-behavior-in-a-complex-system
#18
Samuel Ellis, Elva J H Robinson
Resource sharing is an important cooperative behavior in many animals. Sharing resources is particularly important in social insect societies, as division of labor often results in most individuals including, importantly, the reproductives, relying on other members of the colony to provide resources. Sharing resources between individuals is therefore fundamental to the success of social insects. Resource sharing is complicated if a colony inhabits several spatially separated nests, a nesting strategy common in many ant species...
March 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004015/-parasite-induced-aposematism-protects-entomopathogenic-nematode-parasites-against-invertebrate-enemies
#19
Rebecca S Jones, Andy Fenton, Michael P Speed
Aposematism is a well-known strategy in which prey defend themselves from predation by pairing defenses such as toxins, with warning signals that are often visually conspicuous color patterns. Here, we examine the possibility that aposematism can be induced in a host by colonies of infectious parasites in order to protect the parasites from the consequences of attacks on the host. Earlier studies show that avian predators are reluctant to feed on carcasses of host prey that are infected with the entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora...
March 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004014/an-experimental-conflict-of-interest-between-parasites-reveals-the-mechanism-of-host-manipulation
#20
Nina Hafer, Manfred Milinski
Parasites can increase their host's predation susceptibility. It is a long-standing puzzle, whether this is caused by host manipulation, an evolved strategy of the parasite, or by side effects due to, for example, the parasite consuming energy from its host thereby changing the host's trade-off between avoiding predation and foraging toward foraging. Here, we use sequential infection of three-spined sticklebacks with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus so that parasites have a conflict of interest over the direction of host manipulation...
March 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
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