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Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656087/dazzle-camouflage-target-tracking-and-the-confusion-effect
#1
Benedict G Hogan, Innes C Cuthill, Nicholas E Scott-Samuel
The influence of coloration on the ecology and evolution of moving animals in groups is poorly understood. Animals in groups benefit from the "confusion effect," where predator attack success is reduced with increasing group size or density. This is thought to be due to a sensory bottleneck: an increase in the difficulty of tracking one object among many. Motion dazzle camouflage has been hypothesized to disrupt accurate perception of the trajectory or speed of an object or animal. The current study investigates the suggestion that dazzle camouflage may enhance the confusion effect...
September 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656086/sexually-selected-sentinels-evidence-of-a-role-for-intrasexual-competition-in-sentinel-behavior
#2
Lindsay A Walker, Jenny E York, Andrew J Young
Although the evolutionary mechanisms that favor investment in cooperative behaviors have long been a focus of research, comparatively few studies have considered the role that sexual selection may play. For example, evolutionary explanations for sentinel behavior (where 1 individual assumes an elevated position and scans the surroundings while other group members forage nearby) have traditionally focused on the inclusive fitness benefits arising from its effects on predation risk, while its potential role in defense against intrasexual competitors remains largely unexplored...
September 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656085/not-leaving-home-grandmothers-and-male-dispersal-in-a-duolocal-human-society
#3
Qiao-Qiao He, Jia-Jia Wu, Ting Ji, Yi Tao, Ruth Mace
Models suggest that dispersal patterns will influence age- and sex-dependent helping behavior in social species. Duolocal social systems (where neither sex disperses and mating is outside the group) are predicted to be associated with mothers favoring sons over daughters (because the latter are in reproductive competition with each other). Other models predict daughter-biased investment when benefits of wealth to sons are less than daughters. Here, we test whether sex-biased investment is occurring in the duolocal Mosuo of southwestern China...
September 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656084/imperfect-past-and-present-progressive-beak-color-reflects-early-life-and-adult-exposure-to-antigen
#4
Loren Merrill, Madeleine F Naylor, Jennifer L Grindstaff
Secondary sexual traits may convey information about individual condition. We assessed the capacity for immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) during the prenatal and early postnatal stages to impact beak color development and expression in captive zebra finches. In addition, we tested whether adult immune challenge impacted beak color, and if early-life experience was influential. Immune challenge with KLH early in life slowed development of red beak coloration, and males challenged with KLH as nestlings had reduced red coloration as adults...
September 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656083/maternal-age-at-maturation-underpins-contrasting-behavior-in-offspring
#5
Tim Burton, Grethe Robertsen, David C Stewart, Simon McKelvey, John D Armstrong, Neil B Metcalfe
In species where parental care occurs primarily via the provisioning of eggs, older females tend to produce larger offspring that have better fitness prospects. Remarkably however, a relationship between age of mother and fitness of offspring has also been reported independently of effects on offspring size suggesting that there may be other factors at play. Here, using experimental matings between wild Atlantic salmon that differed in their age at sexual maturation, we demonstrate distinct size-independent variation in the behavior of their offspring that was related to the maturation age of the mother (but not the father)...
September 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418755/wherever-i-may-roam-social-viscosity-and-kin-affiliation-in-a-wild-population-despite-natal-dispersal
#6
Ada M Grabowska-Zhang, Camilla A Hinde, Colin J Garroway, Ben C Sheldon
Dispersal affects the social contexts individuals experience by redistributing individuals in space, and the nature of social interactions can have important fitness consequences. During the vagrancy stage of natal dispersal, after an individual has left its natal site and before it has settled to breed, social affiliations might be predicted by opportunities to associate (e.g., distance in space and time between natal points of origin) or kin preferences. We investigated the social structure of a population of juvenile great tits (Parus major) and asked whether social affiliations during vagrancy were predicted by 1) the distance between natal nest-boxes, 2) synchrony in fledge dates, and 3) accounting for spatial and temporal predictors, whether siblings tended to stay together...
July 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418754/manipulating-carer-number-versus-brood-size-complementary-but-not-equivalent-ways-of-quantifying-carer-effects-on-offspring
#7
A L Liebl, L E Browning, A F Russell
Experiments designed to quantify the effects of increasing numbers of carers on levels of offspring care are rare in cooperative breeding systems, where offspring are reared by individuals additional to the breeding pair. This paucity might stem from disagreement over the most appropriate manipulations necessary to elucidate these effects. Here, we perform both carer removal and brood enhancement experiments to test the effects of numbers of carers and carer:offspring ratios on provisioning rates in the cooperatively breeding chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps)...
July 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418753/paroxetine-exposure-skews-litter-sex-ratios-in-mice-suggesting-a-trivers-willard-process
#8
Shannon Marie Gaukler, James Steven Ruff, Wayne K Potts
While conducting a toxicity assessment of the antidepressant paroxetine (Paxil®), in wild-derived mice (Mus musculus), we observed that exposed dams (P0) produced female biased litters (32:68 M:F). Though numerous experimental manipulations have induced sex ratio bias in mice, none have assessed the fitness of the offspring from these litters relative to controls. Here, we retrospectively analyze experimentally derived fitness data gathered for the purpose of toxicological assessment in light of 2 leading hypothesis (Trivers-Willard hypothesis [TWH] and cost of reproduction hypothesis [CRH]), seeking to test if this facultative sex ratio adjustment fits into an adaptive framework...
July 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418752/drivers-and-fitness-consequences-of-dispersive-migration-in-a-pelagic-seabird
#9
Annette L Fayet, Robin Freeman, Akiko Shoji, Dave Boyle, Holly L Kirk, Ben J Dean, Chris M Perrins, Tim Guilford
Animals can be flexible in their migration strategies, using several wintering sites or a variety of routes. The mechanisms promoting the development of these migratory patterns and their potential fitness consequences are poorly understood. Here, we address these questions by tracking the dispersive migration of a pelagic seabird, the Atlantic puffin Fratercula arctica, using over 100 complete migration tracks collected over 7 years, including repeated tracks of individuals for up to 6 consecutive years. Because puffins have high flight costs, dispersion may generate important variation in costs of migration...
July 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418751/feeding-habitat-quality-and-behavioral-trade-offs-in-chimpanzees-a-case-for-species-distribution-models
#10
Steffen Foerster, Ying Zhong, Lilian Pintea, Carson M Murray, Michael L Wilson, Deus C Mjungu, Anne E Pusey
The distribution and abundance of food resources are among the most important factors that influence animal behavioral strategies. Yet, spatial variation in feeding habitat quality is often difficult to assess with traditional methods that rely on extrapolation from plot survey data or remote sensing. Here, we show that maximum entropy species distribution modeling can be used to successfully predict small-scale variation in the distribution of 24 important plant food species for chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania...
July 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418750/variable-ecological-conditions-promote-male-helping-by-changing-banded-mongoose-group-composition
#11
Harry H Marshall, Jennifer L Sanderson, Francis Mwanghuya, Robert Businge, Solomon Kyabulima, Michelle C Hares, Emma Inzani, Gladys Kalema-Zikusoka, Kenneth Mwesige, Faye J Thompson, Emma I K Vitikainen, Michael A Cant
Ecological conditions are expected to have an important influence on individuals' investment in cooperative care. However, the nature of their effects is unclear: both favorable and unfavorable conditions have been found to promote helping behavior. Recent studies provide a possible explanation for these conflicting results by suggesting that increased ecological variability, rather than changes in mean conditions, promote cooperative care. However, no study has tested whether increased ecological variability promotes individual-level helping behavior or the mechanisms involved...
July 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27174599/comparing-pre-and-post-copulatory-mate-competition-using-social-network-analysis-in-wild-crickets
#12
David N Fisher, Rolando Rodríguez-Muñoz, Tom Tregenza
Sexual selection results from variation in success at multiple stages in the mating process, including competition before and after mating. The relationship between these forms of competition, such as whether they trade-off or reinforce one another, influences the role of sexual selection in evolution. However, the relationship between these 2 forms of competition is rarely quantified in the wild. We used video cameras to observe competition among male field crickets and their matings in the wild. We characterized pre- and post-copulatory competition as 2 networks of competing individuals...
May 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004016/internest-food-sharing-within-wood-ant-colonies-resource-redistribution-behavior-in-a-complex-system
#13
Samuel Ellis, Elva J H Robinson
Resource sharing is an important cooperative behavior in many animals. Sharing resources is particularly important in social insect societies, as division of labor often results in most individuals including, importantly, the reproductives, relying on other members of the colony to provide resources. Sharing resources between individuals is therefore fundamental to the success of social insects. Resource sharing is complicated if a colony inhabits several spatially separated nests, a nesting strategy common in many ant species...
March 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004015/-parasite-induced-aposematism-protects-entomopathogenic-nematode-parasites-against-invertebrate-enemies
#14
Rebecca S Jones, Andy Fenton, Michael P Speed
Aposematism is a well-known strategy in which prey defend themselves from predation by pairing defenses such as toxins, with warning signals that are often visually conspicuous color patterns. Here, we examine the possibility that aposematism can be induced in a host by colonies of infectious parasites in order to protect the parasites from the consequences of attacks on the host. Earlier studies show that avian predators are reluctant to feed on carcasses of host prey that are infected with the entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora...
March 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004014/an-experimental-conflict-of-interest-between-parasites-reveals-the-mechanism-of-host-manipulation
#15
Nina Hafer, Manfred Milinski
Parasites can increase their host's predation susceptibility. It is a long-standing puzzle, whether this is caused by host manipulation, an evolved strategy of the parasite, or by side effects due to, for example, the parasite consuming energy from its host thereby changing the host's trade-off between avoiding predation and foraging toward foraging. Here, we use sequential infection of three-spined sticklebacks with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus so that parasites have a conflict of interest over the direction of host manipulation...
March 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004013/a-lover-or-a-fighter-opposing-sexual-selection-pressures-on-men-s-vocal-pitch-and-facial-hair
#16
Tamsin K Saxton, Lauren L Mackey, Kristofor McCarty, Nick Neave
The traditional assumption within the research literature on human sexually dimorphic traits has been that many sex differences have arisen from intersexual selection. More recently, however, there has been a shift toward the idea that many male features, including male lower-pitched voices and male beard growth, might have arisen predominantly through intrasexual selection: that is, to serve the purpose of male-male competition instead of mate attraction. In this study, using a unique set of video stimuli, we measured people's perceptions of the dominance and attractiveness of men who differ both in terms of voice pitch (4 levels from lower to higher pitched) and beard growth (4 levels from clean shaven to a month's hair growth)...
March 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004012/temperature-can-shape-a-cline-in-polyandry-but-only-genetic-variation-can-sustain-it-over-time
#17
Michelle L Taylor, Tom A R Price, Alison Skeats, Nina Wedell
Multiple mating by females (polyandry) is a widespread behavior occurring in diverse taxa, species, and populations. Polyandry can also vary widely within species, and individual populations, so that both monandrous and polyandrous females occur together. Genetic differences can explain some of this intraspecific variation in polyandry, but environmental factors are also likely to play a role. One environmental factor that influences many fundamental biological processes is temperature. Higher temperatures have been shown to directly increase remating in laboratory studies of insects...
March 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004011/effect-of-competitive-cues-on-reproductive-morphology-and-behavioral-plasticity-in-male-fruitflies
#18
Amanda Bretman, Claudia Fricke, James D Westmancoat, Tracey Chapman
Phenotypic plasticity will be favored whenever there are significant fitness benefits of responding to environmental variation. The extent and nature of the plasticity that evolves depends on the rate of environmental fluctuations and the capacity to track and respond to that variability. Reproductive environments represent one arena in which changes can be rapid. The finding that males of many species show morphological, physiological, and behavioral plasticity in response to premating and postmating reproductive competition (RC) suggests that plasticity is broadly beneficial...
March 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26792973/social-pairing-of-seychelles-warblers-under-reduced-constraints-mhc-neutral-heterozygosity-and-age
#19
David J Wright, Lyanne Brouwer, Maria-Elena Mannarelli, Terry Burke, Jan Komdeur, David S Richardson
The prevalence and significance of precopulatory mate choice remains keenly debated. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a key role in vertebrate adaptive immunity, and variation at the MHC influences individual survival. Although MHC-dependent mate choice has been documented in certain species, many other studies find no such pattern. This may be, at least in part, because in natural systems constraints may reduce the choices available to individuals and prevent full expression of underlying preferences...
January 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26792972/short-term-and-delayed-effects-of-mother-death-on-calf-mortality-in-asian-elephants
#20
Mirkka Lahdenperä, Khyne U Mar, Virpi Lummaa
Long-lived, highly social species with prolonged offspring dependency can show long postreproductive periods. The Mother hypothesis proposes that a need for extended maternal care of offspring together with increased maternal mortality risk associated with old age select for such postreproductive survival, but tests in species with long postreproductive periods, other than humans and marine mammals, are lacking. Here, we investigate the Mother hypothesis with longitudinal data on Asian elephants from timber camps of Myanmar 1) to determine the costs of reproduction on female age-specific mortality risk within 1 year after calving and 2) to quantify the effects of mother loss on calf survival across development...
January 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
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