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Veterinary Dermatology

Seulgi Bae, Kijung Kim, Taeho Oh
BACKGROUND: Canine atopic dermatitis (cAD) is associated with an imbalance between multiple T lymphocytes and cytokines. Ex vivo boosted immune cell (EBIC) therapy is the sequential administration of ex vivo cultured and activated lymphocytes to patients to improve immune function. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study aimed to assess the safety of EBIC therapy and demonstrate its efficacy as a novel treatment for cAD. ANIMALS: Ten dogs with AD. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The phenotypes of the immune cells before and after ex vivo culture were analysed by flow cytometry...
September 18, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Dario d'Ovidio, Emilio Noviello, Domenico Santoro
BACKGROUND: Exotic companion mammals are popular pets worldwide. They are a potential source of zoonotic infections transmissible to their owners. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and zoonotic risks of tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti) in exotic companion mammals in Italy. ANIMALS: The records of 782 exotic pet mammals seen in multiple veterinary clinics (n = 20), pet shops (n = 10) and private breeders (n = 2) around Naples (Italy) were searched...
September 6, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Anette Loeffler, Desiree Herrick, Serena Allen, Janet D Littlewood
BACKGROUND: Allergic pruritus and urticaria in the horse are challenging for veterinarians and owners; little is known about their long-term management. OBJECTIVES: To summarize intradermal allergen test results (IDT), and to assess owners' perceptions of skin disease and the effects of medical treatment and management changes in their atopic horses over time. ANIMALS: Eighty two horses with atopic dermatitis in southeastern England between 2006 and 2011...
September 3, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Stephanie B Abrams, Guy N Brock, Marilly Palettas, Michelle L Bolner, Tricia Moore-Sowers, Greg A Plunkett, Lynette K Cole, Sandra F Diaz, Gwendolen Lorch
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available for dogs on threshold concentrations (TCs), and the protein composition of common allergenic extracts produced by different manufacturers. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To characterize the protein heterogeneity of tree, grass, weed and mite allergens from different lots of allergenic extracts, and to determine intradermal TCs for healthy dogs using extracts from two manufacturers. ANIMALS: Twenty five privately owned, clinically healthy dogs and ten purpose-bred beagle dogs...
September 3, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Miho Ikeuchi, Ryota Asahina, Hidetaka Nishida, Hiroaki Kamishina, Katsuya Kitoh, Hiroki Sakai, Sadatoshi Maeda
BACKGROUND: In canine epitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (ECTCL), neoplastic cells cause skin lesions and potentially metastasize to lymph nodes, blood and other organs. Murine models are potentially valuable for elucidating the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulation of ECTCL cell migration. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To describe a phenotype of mice xenografted with canine ECTCL cells (EO-1 cells). ANIMALS: Four NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid /J (NOD SCID) mice were used...
August 30, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Clarissa P Souza, Jennifer R Schissler, Elena T Contreras, Steven W Dow, Leone S Hopkins, Jonathan W Coy, Rod A W Rosychuk, Jennifer R Hawley, Michael R Lappin
BACKGROUND: Juvenile onset generalized demodicosis (JOGD) is thought to occur due to immunological abnormalities and is over-represented in pit bull terrier-type dogs. ANIMALS: Twelve pit bull terrier-type dogs with JOGD and 12 age-matched healthy pit bull terrier-type dogs. OBJECTIVE: To investigate immunological differences between age-matched healthy and JOGD pit bull terrier-type dogs by flow cytometry, multiplex, molecular and serological assays...
August 23, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Clarissa P Souza, Rod A W Rosychuk, Elena T Contreras, Jennifer R Schissler, Andrew C Simpson
BACKGROUND: Lokivetmab neutralizes IL-31, a cytokine that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) in dogs. OBJECTIVE: To review experience of one year of treatment with lokivetmab for the control of pruritus in dogs with allergic dermatitis. ANIMALS: Eighty dogs diagnosed with AD, ten with concurrent adverse food reaction and AD and 45 with allergic dermatitis of undetermined cause. Three dogs were lost to follow- up...
August 23, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
José-Luis González, Vicente Zalve, Enrique Fernández-Caldas, Bárbara Cases, José-Luis Subiza, Miguel Casanovas
BACKGROUND: Polymerized allergoids coupled to nonoxidized mannan (PM-allergoids) are novel allergen preparations used for immunotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate PM-allergoids as an alternative immunotherapy for dogs with canine atopic dermatitis (cAD) associated with serological responses to Dermatophagoides farinae allergens. ANIMALS: Sixteen dogs with history and clinical signs of cAD; positive on serum allergen specific IgE testing to D...
October 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Irina Matricoti, Chiara Noli
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of adverse food reaction (AFR) is based on an eight week elimination diet (ED) and is confirmed by relapse upon re-challenge with the previously fed diet. Hydrolysed EDs are commonly used for this purpose. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a commercially available hydrolysed fish protein and rice starch ED for the diagnosis of AFR. ANIMALS: Fifty nonseasonally pruritic dogs. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Pruritus was assessed with a Visual Analog Scale, lesions with the Canine Atopic Dermatitis Lesions Index and quality of life with a validated questionnaire on days 0 and 56...
October 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Maria K Ierace, Michael S Canfield, Jeanine Peters-Kennedy, Curtis W Kane
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most commonly reported neoplasm of the nasal planum and treatment is focused on localized disease. Rostral maxillectomy and/or nasal planectomy are considered standard of care for excision of nasal planum SCC; however, the cosmetic outcome of these procedures can be deemed unacceptable by many pet owners. OBJECTIVES: The study aim was to evaluate the efficacy of combination carbon dioxide (CO2 ) laser surgery and cryosurgery as a palliative treatment modality in dogs with nasal SCCs...
October 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Alicia N Webb Milum, Craig E Griffin, Kacie S Blessing
BACKGROUND: English bulldogs (EBDs) are considered to commonly show signs of pododermatitis and gastrointestinal (GI) disease. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To describe a population of presumed healthy EBDs: (i) evaluate dogs according to published criteria for health, (ii) describe paw lesions, if present, (iii) report pruritic behaviours and GI signs and compare to normal values, (iv) report pedal cytological findings, and (v) determine correlation between lesions, cytological results and pruritic behaviours...
October 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Nellie Choi, Heather D Edginton, Craig E Griffin, John C Angus
BACKGROUND: Canine otitis externa is a common disease. Cytological evaluation of otic exudate is a useful diagnostic test to direct and monitor treatment for otitis externa. One method of collecting ear cytological specimens utilizes a cotton-tipped swab inserted into the vertical ear canal. A proposed alternative method is to aspirate exudate from the deep horizontal canal using a rubber tube. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To compare cytological findings between two different collection techniques by evaluating the numbers of bacteria, Malassezia yeast and inflammatory cells...
October 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Christine L Cain, Stephen D Cole, Charles W Bradley Ii, Michael S Canfield, Elizabeth A Mauldin
BACKGROUND: The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is an emerging cause of opportunistic infections. Deep pyoderma associated with Bcc infection has been reported previously in dogs receiving ciclosporin. OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical and histopathological features of four additional cases of Bcc dermatitis in dogs, one of which progressed to septicaemia. ANIMALS: Four dogs with a skin culture yielding growth of Bcc and skin biopsies for histopathological investigation...
October 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Jacobo Giner, Jessica Bailey, Carles Juan-Sallés, Kellye Joiner, Esther Gisela Martínez-Romero, Seth Oster
BACKGROUND: Dermatophytic pseudomycetoma is an atypical form of dermatophytosis where the infection is located in the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissues. Although rare, it is most commonly associated with Microsporum canis or Trichophyton sp. It has been reported in cats, dogs and horses. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical and pathological findings of dermatophytic pseudomycetoma caused by M. canis and Trichophyton sp. in two domestic ferrets. ANIMALS: Two pet ferrets (Mustela putorius furo)...
October 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Juraj Korbelik, Ameet Singh, Joyce Rousseau, J Scott Weese
BACKGROUND: Otitis externa is a common multifactorial disease with a prevalence in dogs as high as 10-20%. In humans, the diversity of the cutaneous mycobiota appears to increase in diseased states, whereas one canine study identified a decrease in diversity of the cutaneous mycobiota in atopic dogs compared to healthy individuals. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To describe the otic mycobiota in dogs with otitis externa compared to healthy dogs. ANIMALS: Samples were collected from six dogs with clinical and cytological evidence of otitis externa and five clinically normal dogs...
October 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Jerome Ngo, Bernard Taminiau, Papa Aboulaye Fall, Georges Daube, Jacques Fontaine
BACKGROUND: The canine skin microbiota has been evaluated using relatively new microbiological techniques; studies have shown a difference in the composition of bacterial populations between healthy dogs and those with canine atopic dermatitis (cAD). However, little has been reported concerning the ear canal microbiota despite the fact that otitis externa is a common problem in dogs with cAD. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The study evaluated the ear canal microbiota of healthy dogs and atopic dogs without clinical signs of otitis...
October 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Emmanuel J Bensignor, Lionel J Fabriès
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of controlled studies evaluating the efficacy of topical nonsteroidal agents for the treatment of canine atopic dermatitis (cAD). HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical efficacy of a commercial foam product (mousse), previously demonstrated to be effective in cAD (Foam A) with a foam/mousse containing components from plant extracts (Foam B). ANIMALS: Eight client-owned dogs with nonseasonal mild/moderate cAD...
October 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Hock Siew Han, Peik Yean Toh, Hock Binn Yoong, Hooi Meng Loh, Lee Lee Tan, Yin Yin Ng
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous screw-worm myiasis in companion animals either due to the New World screw-worm, Cochliomyia hominivorax or the Old World screw-worm, Chrysomya bezziana, has been reported particularly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Although treatment of screw-worm myiasis in dogs has been described, few studies have been conducted regarding its clinical and epidemiological aspects in companion animals. OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical and epidemiological aspects of canine and feline screw-worm myiasis...
October 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Austin W Richman, Craig E Griffin
BACKGROUND: Dobermann dogs are predisposed to colour dilution alopecia and follicular dysplasia. Limited information is available regarding the trichographic features of normal canine hair shafts, including those from Dobermanns, with no studies of inter-observer agreement for canine trichographic features. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the trichographic features of normal black Dobermann hair shafts evaluating the following variables; gross appearance, primary versus secondary hairs, colour change, tip structure, curling, twisting, bending, cuticle changes (breaks, compression, loss or abnormal overlapping), fractures and variations in hair diameter...
October 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Dominique J Wiener, Onur Basak, Priyanca Asra, Kim E Boonekamp, Kai Kretzschmar, Angelos Papaspyropoulos, Hans Clevers
BACKGROUND: Perturbations of epidermal and follicular homeostasis have been attributed to a variety of skin diseases affecting dogs. The availability of an in vitro system to investigate these diseases is important to understand underlying pathomechanisms. OBJECTIVES: To establish an accurate and reliable in vitro 3D system of canine keratinocyte organoids to lay the basis for studying functional defects in interfollicular epidermis (IFE) and hair follicle (HF) morphogenesis, reconstitution and differentiation that lead to alopecic and epidermal diseases...
October 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
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