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Veterinary Dermatology

Dominique J Wiener, Onur Basak, Priyanca Asra, Kim E Boonekamp, Kai Kretzschmar, Angelos Papaspyropoulos, Hans Clevers
BACKGROUND: Perturbations of epidermal and follicular homeostasis have been attributed to a variety of skin diseases affecting dogs. The availability of an in vitro system to investigate these diseases is important to understand underlying pathomechanisms. OBJECTIVES: To establish an accurate and reliable in vitro 3D system of canine keratinocyte organoids to lay the basis for studying functional defects in interfollicular epidermis (IFE) and hair follicle (HF) morphogenesis, reconstitution and differentiation that lead to alopecic and epidermal diseases...
July 2, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Domenico Santoro
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an important component of cutaneous innate immunity. The amount of AMPs secreted in healthy and atopic patients is controversial. HYPOTHESES/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the antimicrobial effect of skin wash harvested from healthy and atopic dogs, the amount of AMPs (cBD3-like/cBD122, cCath, S100A8/9/12) present in the skin washes, and the correlation between AMP levels and severity of the clinical signs. ANIMALS: Fifteen healthy and 15 mildly atopic, privately owned dogs...
July 2, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Rosanna Marsella, Kim Ahrens
BACKGROUND: Dogs with atopic dermatitis are prone to sensitization to environmental allergens due to increased skin permeability; the effect of treatments on epicutaneous sensitizations is unknown. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate if oclacitinib (i) prevents new sensitizations and (ii) affects skin barrier function. ANIMALS: Atopic beagle dogs. METHODS: Aim 1. Ten dogs were randomly assigned to placebo or oclacitinib while exposed epicutaneously to a novel allergen...
June 21, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Erin E Aufox, Linda A Frank, Elizabeth R May, Stephen A Kania
BACKGROUND: Dermatophilus congolensis is a facultative anaerobic actinomycete that causes papular to exudative dermatitis with crusting in horses. This organism is frequently implicated as a cause of pastern dermatitis, but few data are available validating the organism's association with this disease. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate if D. congolensis is associated with pastern dermatitis in horses utilizing RT-qPCR. ANIMALS: Fifteen client-owned horses diagnosed with pastern dermatitis and eight client-owned unaffected control horses were utilized for this study...
June 21, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Vincenzo Miragliotta, Pier Luca Ricci, Francesco Albanese, Andrea Pirone, Danika Tognotti, Francesca Abramo
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid receptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) are gaining recognition as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of skin disorders. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of cannabinoid type 1 and 2 receptors (CBR1 and CBR2) and PPAR-α in feline skin and verify whether changes occur in the course of hypersensitivity dermatitis. ANIMALS: Twelve privately owned cats...
June 19, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Paweł Tumiłowicz, Agata Goliszewska, Jacek Arct, Katarzyna Pytkowska, Marcin Szczepanik
BACKGROUND: Morphological differences between mammalian hair types are useful for species distinction. Differences in animal hair structure are observed between species, whereas there may be breed differences within a species. HYPOTHESIS: Guard hair structure may vary between different dog breeds. ANIMALS: Hair samples were collected from 73 dogs of four breed types (wire-haired Dachshund, Labrador retriever, German shepherd dog and Yorkshire terrier)...
June 19, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Nina Fischer, Noémi Tarpataki, Federica Leidi, Ana Rostaher, Claude Favrot
BACKGROUND: Previously published studies evaluating a recombinant Der f 2-based immunotherapy have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of dogs experimentally and naturally sensitized to house dust mites (HDM). Der f 2 sensitization is thought to play a minor role in European atopic dogs sensitized to HDM. OBJECTIVE: The study evaluated the short-term efficacy of a recombinant Der f 2 product in the treatment of naturally sensitized atopic dogs in Switzerland and Hungary...
June 17, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Seulgi Bae, Taeho Oh
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the principal pathogen causing bacterial skin infections in dogs. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involving the combination of light and a topical photosensitizer is used to treat human skin infections. Although the antimicrobial effects of PDT have been demonstrated using in vivo and in vitro studies in humans, its effects on dogs and their pathogens are unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the in vitro efficacy of PDT over a 465-470 nm spectrum to kill S...
May 30, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Karen K Ho, Austin C Conley, Robert A Kennis, Terri L Hathcock, Dawn M Boothe, Amelia G White
BACKGROUND: Meticillin-resistant (MR) staphylococcal pyoderma in dogs has led to increased use of alternate antibiotics such as rifampicin (RFP). However, little information exists regarding its pharmacodynamics in MR Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and killing properties of RFP for canine Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates. METHODS: The MIC of RFP was determined using the ETEST® for 50 meticillin-susceptible (MS) and 50 MR S...
May 29, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Anna Puigdemont, Nicla Furiani, Michela De Lucia, Isaac Carrasco, Laura Ordeix, Dolors Fondevila, Laura Ramió-Lluch, Pilar Brazis
BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) in golden retrievers is due to a PNPLA1 gene mutation, which plays a role in epidermal lipid organization and metabolism. Topical therapies are used to reduce scaling; however, there are few published efficacy studies. OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy of topical treatment based on gluconolactone, a polyhydroxy acid with known beneficial effects on stratum corneum structure. ANIMALS: Sixteen golden retriever dogs with clinical signs of ARCI and PCR-confirmed PNPLA1 gene mutation...
May 22, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Keiji Teramoto, Ryota Asahina, Hidetaka Nishida, Hiroaki Kamishina, Sadatoshi Maeda
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that tight junctions are involved in the pathogenesis of canine atopic dermatitis (cAD). An in vitro skin model is needed to elucidate the specific role of tight junctions in cAD. A 3D epidermal equivalent model using canine progenitor epidermal keratinocytes (CPEK) has been established; the expression of tight junctions within this model is uncharacterized. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the expression of tight junctions in the 3D epidermal equivalent...
May 21, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Rikke Friis Larsen, Lene Boysen, Lisbeth Rem Jessen, Luca Guardabassi, Peter Damborg
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is genotypically diverse within the canine population and multiple strains may colonize individual dogs at any given time. If multiple strains with distinct antimicrobial resistance profiles are present in superficial bacterial folliculitis (SBF), sampling a single skin lesion for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) might be inadequate to select effective therapy. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To investigate S...
May 21, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Hock Siew Han, Charles Chen, Carlo Schievano, Chiara Noli
BACKGROUND: Canine screw-worm myiasis due to Cochliomyia hominivorax or Chrysomya bezziana has traditionally been treated with extra-label use of ivermectin. The larvicidal activities of nitenpyram and spinosad/milbemycin also have been described, but there have been no reports to describe the efficacy of isoxazolines such as afoxolaner. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of spinosad, spinosad/milbemycin, milbemycin, nitenpyram and afoxolaner for the treatment of canine screw-worm myiasis...
May 6, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Antonella Di Palma, Federico Leone, Francesco Albanese, Massimo Beccati
BACKGROUND: Dermanyssus gallinae is a major threat for the poultry industry; these mites also feed on the blood of many other birds, small mammals and potentially humans. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Three cats with dermatitis attributed to D. gallinae infestation. ANIMALS: Two 40-day-old kittens, living in a rural area, and one 7-year-old female indoor cat, were presented with a pruritic skin condition. METHODS: Mite specimens were collected from the cats and examined by light and scanning electron microscopy...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Erin E Aufox, Elizabeth R May, Linda A Frank, Stephen A Kania
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous adverse food reaction (CAFR) is diagnosed by performing an elimination diet trial utilizing prescription or home-cooked diets followed by provocative challenge. OBJECTIVES: To report findings of PCR analysis of a prescription vegetarian diet (RCV) for undeclared proteins of animal origin, as well as to describe its utilization for diagnosis and management of dogs suspected of having CAFR. ANIMALS: Three client-owned dogs...
April 24, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Noémi Tarpataki, Julianna Thuróczy, Nina Fischer, Sandrine Jacquenet, Ana Rostaher, Christelle Richard, Lena Zwickl, Thierry Olivry, Claude Favrot
BACKGROUND: Allergen-specific IgE serology is used for the determination of sensitization status in dogs with atopic dermatitis; the influence of the female reproductive cycle on the results of such methods has not been studied in dogs. OBJECTIVES: To compare the total and allergen-specific IgE of healthy bitches during anestrous, estrous and pregnancy. ANIMALS: Eight privately owned, healthy bitches. METHODS: Total and allergen-specific IgE levels were determined in eight bitches at three different time-points of their reproductive cycle: anestrous, estrous and pregnancy...
April 23, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Vanessa M Schmidt, Gina Pinchbeck, Tim Nuttall, Steve Shaw, K Marie McIntyre, Neil McEwan, Susan Dawson, Nicola J Williams
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are increasingly isolated from veterinary patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among canine mucosal staphylococci following routine antimicrobial treatment with cefalexin (CFX), clavulanate-amoxicillin (AC), cefovecin (CVN), clindamycin (CD) or a fluoroquinolone (FQ). ANIMALS: Mucosal swab samples (n = 463) were collected from 127 dogs pre-treatment, immediately, and at one- and three-months post-treatment...
June 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Elisa Maina, Irina Matricoti, Chiara Noli
BACKGROUND: Adverse food reaction (AFR) is diagnosed with a two month elimination diet (ED), followed by challenge with the original food. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate reactivity of selected EDs and performance of a Western blot serological test for the diagnosis of AFR. ANIMALS: Twenty five food reactive (FR) and 13 non food reactive (NFR) privately owned dogs. METHODS: Sera were tested for antibodies against hydrolyzed poultry feather (RCA), hydrolyzed soy (PHA), hydrolyzed fish (FUH), limited antigen horse and potato (THP), fresh horse meat and the offending food for each FR dog as documented by provocative challenge...
June 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Diana Di Mattia, Dolores Fondevila, Francesca Abramo, Alessandra Fondati
BACKGROUND: Head and neck ulcers in cats can arise from allergic and nonallergic disorders, including feline leishmaniosis (FeL). It is important to rule out this aetiological agent in regions that are endemic for canine leishmaniosis, because the drugs used to treat immune-mediated disorders of cats can be contraindicated in the setting of infection. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the skin of cats with ulcerative dermatitis of the head or neck for evidence of Leishmania infection using combined immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)...
June 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Rareş Căpitan, Carlo Schievano, Chiara Noli
BACKGROUND: Direct examination of the hair is a simple diagnostic test for the diagnosis of dermatophytosis; training is needed to use this test. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether use of modified Wright-Giemsa blue stain and/or photographic images of infected and uninfected hairs improved the user's ability to identify infected or uninfected hairs. ANIMALS: Ten cats with, and 10 cats without, dermatophytosis due to Microsporum canis (n = 20)...
April 17, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
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