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Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344737/the-125th-anniversary-of-the-his-bundle-discovery
#1
REVIEW
Georg H von Knorre
In 1893, Wilhelm His Jr. was the first to describe the AV (atrioventricular) bundle of the vertebrate heart, which now bears his name. Moreover, prior to the turn of the century, W. His Jr. had proved the function of the AV bundle by transection experiments in animals, and had interpreted Adams Stokes disease as heart block due to pathological changes within the bundle. In this way, he was ahead of his time. While clinical interest was limited to the bundle as the location of an AV block in the first half of the 125 years, it has gained attractiveness since then as a target of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures...
January 17, 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318371/proteomics-and-transcriptomics-in-atrial-fibrillation
#2
REVIEW
Marc Sühling, Carmen Wolke, Christian Scharf, Uwe Lendeckel
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common tachyarrhythmia. AF, due to substantial remodeling processes initiated in the atria, is a typically self-sustaining and progressive disease. Atrial remodeling has been intensively investigated at the molecular level in recent decades. Although the application of "omics" technologies has already significantly contributed to our current understanding of the pathophysiology of AF, the complexity of the latter and the large heterogeneity of AF patients remained a major limitation...
January 9, 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313142/opportunities-and-challenges-of-large-scale-screening-for-atrial-fibrillation
#3
REVIEW
Matthias Daniel Zink, Nikolaus Marx, Harry J G M Crijns, Ulrich Schotten
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia and is highly associated with stroke and cardiovascular morbidity. As many AF episodes remain subclinical (SCAF), large-scale AF screening is considered a desirable approach for the treatment and prevention of cardioembolic stroke. Newly available single-lead ECG devices have provided promising results in the diagnosis of SCAF and treatment by nonvitamin K antagonist drugs appears to be safe and effective. Nevertheless, a further gain in knowledge is needed to clarify the different types of AF...
January 8, 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313141/-annual-report-2015-of-the-german-cardiac-pacemaker-and-defibrillator-register-part-2-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillators-cardiac-pacemaker-working-group-at-the-iqtig-institute-for-quality-assurance-and-transparency-in-health-care
#4
REVIEW
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313140/-annual-report-2015-of-the-german-cardiac-pacemaker-and-defibrillator-register-part-1-pace-makers
#5
REVIEW
A Markewitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313139/report-on-the-ion-channel-symposium-organized-by-the-german-cardiac-society-working-group-on-cellular-electrophysiology-ag%C3%A2-18
#6
REVIEW
Niels Voigt, Fleur Mason, Dierk Thomas
To support scientific exchange and activity in the field of cardiac cellular electrophysiology, the German Cardiac Society Working Group on Cellular Electrophysiology (AG 18) established a two-day symposium to be held every 2 years. The second Ion Channel Symposium entitled "Göttingen Channels 2017-Of Benches and Beds" took place in Göttingen from September 22nd to 23rd under the auspices of the German Cardiac Society. A group of national and international experts presented scientific advances in cardiac electrophysiology and rhythmology...
January 8, 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305705/voltage-gated-and-stretch-activated-potassium-channels-in-the-human-heart-pathophysiological-and-clinical-significance
#7
REVIEW
Constanze Schmidt, Rémi Peyronnet
Ion channels are essential for electrical signaling and contractility in cardiomyocytes. Detailed knowledge about the molecular function and regulation of cardiac ion channels is crucial for understanding cardiac physiology and pathophysiology especially in the field of arrhythmias. This review aims at providing a general overview on the identity, functional characteristics, and roles of voltage-gated as well as stretch-activated potassium selective channels in the heart. In particular, we will highlight potential therapeutic targets as well as the emerging fields of future investigations...
January 5, 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305704/the-power-of-optogenetics-potential-in-cardiac-experimental-and-clinical-electrophysiology
#8
REVIEW
Franziska Schneider-Warme
Optogenetics is an emerging, interdisciplinary research area which combines genetic and optical technologies to steer and monitor specific biological processes. To this end, light-activated proteins, so-called optogenetic actuators, or fluorescent sensor proteins are genetically targeted to the cells of interest. Light activation can then be used to modulate or record cellular behaviour with high spatiotemporal precision. In cardiac research, optogenetic approaches have been used to unravel heterocellular electrotonic interactions, both in vitro and in situ...
January 5, 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305703/cardiac-ischemia-insights-from-computational-models
#9
REVIEW
Axel Loewe, Eike Moritz Wülfers, Gunnar Seemann
BACKGROUND: Complementary to clinical and experimental studies, computational cardiac modeling serves to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the cardiovascular system in order to analyze dysfunction, evaluate existing, and develop novel treatment strategies. OBJECTIVES: We describe the basics of multiscale computational modeling of cardiac electrophysiology from the molecular ion channel to the whole body scale. By modeling cardiac ischemia, we illustrate how in silico experiments can contribute to our understanding of how the pathophysiological mechanisms translate into changes observed in diagnostic tools such as the electrocardiogram (ECG)...
January 5, 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242981/a%C3%A2-new-look-at-the-heart-novel-imaging-techniques
#10
REVIEW
C M Johnston, A J Krafft, M F Russe, E A Rog-Zielinska
The development and successful implementation of cutting-edge imaging technologies to visualise cardiac anatomy and function is a key component of effective diagnostic efforts in cardiology. Here, we describe a number of recent exciting advances in the field of cardiology spanning from macro- to micro- to nano-scales of observation, including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, optical mapping, photoacoustic imaging, and electron tomography. The methodologies discussed are currently making the transition from scientific research to routine clinical use, albeit at different paces...
December 14, 2017: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234866/results-from-atrial-fibrillation-models-and-af-patients
#11
REVIEW
Alicja Bukowska, Matthias Hammwöhner, Domenico Corradi, Wisno Mahardhika, Andreas Goette
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cause of thromboembolic complications. The risk of suffering a thromboembolic complication depends on the accompanying cardiac risk factors and the patient's age. For patients who have an increased risk, which is now classified using the CHA2DS2-VASc score, initiation of long-term oral anticoagulation is the first-line treatment. In AF, thrombi arise in the left atrial appendage. The present review will summarize the basic pathophysiology of thrombogenesis in AF and will provide the molecular basis of a process called prothrombotic endocardial remodeling...
December 12, 2017: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234865/electromechanical-heterogeneity-in-the-heart-a%C3%A2-key-to-long-qt-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
F F Dressler, J Brado, K E Odening
In the healthy heart, physiological heterogeneities in structure and in electrical and mechanical activity are crucial for normal, efficient excitation and pumping. Alterations of heterogeneity have been linked to arrhythmogenesis in various cardiac disorders such as long QT syndrome (LQTS). This inherited arrhythmia disorder is caused by mutations in different ion channel genes and is characterized by (heterogeneously) prolonged cardiac repolarization and increased risk for ventricular tachycardia, syncope and sudden cardiac death...
December 12, 2017: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214349/ion-channels-as-part-of-macromolecular-multiprotein-complexes-clinical-significance
#13
REVIEW
Jordi Heijman, Dobromir Dobrev
Ion channels and Ca2+-handling proteins involved in the regulation of cardiac electrophysiology and contractility are organized in macromolecular multiprotein complexes. Recent molecular and cellular studies have significantly enhanced our understanding of the composition of these macromolecular complexes and have helped to elucidate their role in the dynamic regulation of ion channel function. Moreover, it has become clear that alterations in the composition of ion channel macromolecular complexes, for example, due to genetic mutations or acquired alterations in the expression of individual components, may lead to ion channel dysfunction and arrhythmogenesis...
December 6, 2017: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150698/surgical-techniques-for-left-atrial-appendage-exclusion
#14
REVIEW
Sacha P Salzberg, Maximilian Y Emmert, Etem Caliskan
The increasing prevalence of atrial fibrillation with the aging population and its associated major morbidity and mortality due to thromboembolic stroke have resulted in intensive research on stroke prevention or stroke risk reduction strategies. Several surgical techniques for left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion have evolved over the past decades. Surgeons have been using different techniques leading to highly variable and, in particular, poor data on outcomes. LAA closure is performed either as a concomitant procedure during open-heart surgery or as a stand-alone surgical procedure as part of minimally invasive (mini-thoracotomy or thoracoscopy) arrhythmia surgery...
November 17, 2017: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143099/-left-atrial-appendage-clusure-in-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation-clinical-evidence-2017
#15
REVIEW
Steffen Gloekler, Bajram Hajredini, Simon Rycerz, Sebastian Jäckle, Werner Jung
Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia with a prevalence of 1-2% and affects approximately 15-20% of all octogenarians. Patients are at increased risk of thromboembolic stroke, with an overall risk of 5% per year. Thrombi form almost exclusively in the left atrial appendage (LAA), a blind sac-like heterogeneous structure trabeculated by pectinate muscles. In the past five decades, life-long oral anticoagulation (OAC) with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) has been the state-of-the art treatment to prevent stroke and systemic embolism from thrombi in AF...
November 15, 2017: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138937/effects-of-propofol-sedation-on-pacing-thresholds-results-from-an-observational-cohort-study
#16
Jakob Lüker, Arian Sultan, Tobias Plenge, Samuel Lee, Jan-Hendrik van den Bruck, Daniel Steven
BACKGROUND: Propofol is one of the most commonly used intravenous anaesthetic drugs for surgical procedures. The use of propofol for sedation is also common practice during endoscopic procedures, electrophysiology studies, and ablation procedures, as well as pacemaker and defibrillator implantation. It was found that propofol alters the electrophysiologic properties of the heart and its conduction system. The effects of propofol on pacing thresholds are unknown and could have implications for pacemaker (PM) and defibrillator (ICD) implantation procedures, as well as sedation and anaesthesia in PM and ICD patients in general...
November 14, 2017: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101545/-recent-and-upcoming-randomized-trials-for-left-atrial-appendage-occlusion-need-for-a-definite-assessment-of-the-situation
#17
REVIEW
Carsten Skurk, Johannes Jakob Hartung, Ulf Landmesser
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia affecting more than 1.6 million patients in Germany. Based on demographic developments, an the number is expected to increase. Embolic strokes in AF patients are particularly severe, and individualized new oral anticoagulant (NOAC) therapy reduces the incidence of stroke in these patients by approximately 70%. Besides vitamin K antagonists, the NOACs rivaroxaban, dabigatran, apixaban, and edoxaban have been introduced into clinical practice; however, major bleeding still occurs at a rate of 2-3% per year...
November 3, 2017: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101544/anatomy-of-the-atria-a%C3%A2-road-map-to-the-left-atrial-appendage
#18
REVIEW
Umberto Barbero, Siew Yen Ho
The left atrial appendage (LAA) has received increasing attention in recent years because of thrombi formation in patients with atrial fibrillation, which increases the risk of stroke. In patients who have contraindications for long-term oral anticoagulation therapy, percutaneous procedures are used to occlude the LAA and there are now several devices available for implantation, both endocardially and epicardially. Despite the high-resolution imaging techniques on hand today, limitations remain in providing information about wall thickness and neighboring structures; therefore, in-depth knowledge of the normal atrial anatomy is mandatory when considering such interventions...
November 3, 2017: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080014/-available-transvenous-occluder-designs-and-implantation-techniques
#19
REVIEW
P Sick, T Lewalter
In this article, most of the present or available in the near future left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion devices are discussed in terms of structure of the devices and principle technique for implantation. Thus, the Watchman™ device from Boston, the Amulet™ device from Abbot, the Lambre™ device from Lifetech, the Occlutech® device from Occlutech®, and the WaveCrest® device from Biosense Webster (former Coherex) are discussed. The systems differ in terms of the concept of occlusion. Several devices consist of only one part (Watchman™ and Occlutech®) that is implanted in the body, ending up in the orifice of the LAA...
October 27, 2017: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071390/-current-indications-for-left-atrial-appendage-occlusion
#20
REVIEW
Clemens Jilek, Thorsten Lewalter
Among patients with atrial fibrillation, the bleeding risk is linked to the stroke risk. Left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion may reduce bleeding risk in high-risk patients. On the basis of a literature analysis and the Consensus Document of European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), the indications for a LAA occluder are clarified and a clear decision strategy for daily clinical practice is presented.
October 25, 2017: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
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