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Cell Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186082/both-sides-of-the-same-coin-rac1-alternative-splicing-by-egf-signaling
#1
Xiang-Dong Fu
EGF, a well-studied mitogen for cancer cells, is revealed to induce an E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptor SPSB1, which recruits the Elongin B/C-Collin complex to trigger ubiquitylation of the negative splicing regulator hnRNP A1. This event is synergized with EGF-activated SR proteins to alter alternative splicing of a key small GTPase Rac1 to enhance cell migration, highlighting converging EGF signals on both negative and positive splicing regulators to jointly promote a key cancer pathway.
February 10, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186081/gaba-signaling-a-route-to-new-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-in-type-1-diabetes
#2
Guy A Rutter
An ability to convert between pancreatic islet cell types may provide a new approach to replace insulin-secreting β cells destroyed by autoimmune attack in Type 1 diabetes. Two papers, which have recently appeared in Cell, describe how this might be achieved.
February 10, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139645/visualization-of-aging-associated-chromatin-alterations-with-an-engineered-tale-system
#3
Ruotong Ren, Liping Deng, Yanhong Xue, Keiichiro Suzuki, Weiqi Zhang, Yang Yu, Jun Wu, Liang Sun, Xiaojun Gong, Huiqin Luan, Fan Yang, Zhenyu Ju, Xiaoqing Ren, Si Wang, Hong Tang, Lingling Geng, Weizhou Zhang, Jian Li, Jie Qiao, Tao Xu, Jing Qu, Guang-Hui Liu
Visualization of specific genomic loci in live cells is a prerequisite for the investigation of dynamic changes in chromatin architecture during diverse biological processes, such as cellular aging. However, current precision genomic imaging methods are hampered by the lack of fluorescent probes with high specificity and signal-to-noise contrast. We find that conventional transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) tend to form protein aggregates, thereby compromising their performance in imaging applications...
January 31, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128194/a-molecular-roadmap-for-induced-multi-lineage-trans-differentiation-of-fibroblasts-by-chemical-combinations
#4
Xiaoping Han, Hao Yu, Daosheng Huang, Yang Xu, Assieh Saadatpour, Xia Li, Lengmei Wang, Jie Yu, Luca Pinello, Shujing Lai, Mengmeng Jiang, Xueying Tian, Fen Zhang, Yanhong Cen, Yuko Fujiwara, Wei Zhu, Bin Zhou, Tianhua Zhou, Hongwei Ouyang, Jianan Wang, Guo-Cheng Yuan, Shumin Duan, Stuart H Orkin, Guoji Guo
Recent advances have demonstrated the power of small molecules in promoting cellular reprogramming. Yet, the full potential of such chemicals in cell fate manipulation and the underlying mechanisms require further characterization. Through functional screening assays, we find that mouse embryonic fibroblast cells can be induced to trans-differentiate into a wide range of somatic lineages simultaneously by treatment with a combination of four chemicals. Genomic analysis of the process indicates activation of multi-lineage modules and relaxation of epigenetic silencing programs...
January 27, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117345/a-non-viral-crispr-cas9-delivery-system-for-therapeutic-gene-targeting-in-vivo
#5
Chao Jiang, Miao Mei, Bin Li, Xiurui Zhu, Wenhong Zu, Yujie Tian, Qiannan Wang, Yong Guo, Yizhou Dong, Xu Tan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106077/mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-in-tight-skin-mice-identifies-mir-151-5p-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-systemic-sclerosis
#6
Chider Chen, Dandan Wang, Alireza Moshaverinia, Dawei Liu, Xiaoxing Kou, Wenjing Yu, Ruili Yang, Lingyun Sun, Songtao Shi
Systemic sclerosis (SSc), an autoimmune disease, may cause significant osteopenia due to activation of the IL4Rα/mTOR pathway. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation (MSCT) can ameliorate immune disorders in SSc via inducing immune tolerance. However, it is unknown whether MSCT rescues osteopenia phenotype in SSc. Here we show that MSCT can effectively ameliorate osteopenia in SSc mice by rescuing impaired lineage differentiation of the recipient bone marrow MSCs. Mechanistically, we show that donor MSCs transfer miR-151-5p to the recipient bone marrow MSCs in SSc mice to inhibit IL4Rα expression, thus downregulating mTOR pathway activation to enhance osteogenic differentiation and reduce adipogenic differentiation...
January 20, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106076/cytoplasmic-m-6-a-reader-ythdf3-promotes-mrna-translation
#7
Ang Li, Yu-Sheng Chen, Xiao-Li Ping, Xin Yang, Wen Xiao, Ying Yang, Hui-Ying Sun, Qin Zhu, Poonam Baidya, Xing Wang, Devi Prasad Bhattarai, Yong-Liang Zhao, Bao-Fa Sun, Yun-Gui Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106075/phosphatidylinositol-3-4-bisphosphate-regulates-neurite-initiation-and-dendrite-morphogenesis-via-actin-aggregation
#8
Shu-Xin Zhang, Li-Hui Duan, Shun-Ji He, Gui-Feng Zhuang, Xiang Yu
Neurite initiation is critical for neuronal morphogenesis and early neural circuit development. Recent studies showed that local actin aggregation underneath the cell membrane determined the site of neurite initiation. An immediately arising question is what signaling mechanism initiated actin aggregation. Here we demonstrate that local clustering of phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2), a phospholipid with relatively few known signaling functions, is necessary and sufficient for aggregating actin and promoting neuritogenesis...
January 20, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106074/simultaneous-enhancement-of-cellular-and-humoral-immunity-by-the-high-salt-formulation-of-al-oh-3-adjuvant
#9
Min Luo, Bin Shao, Jia-Yun Yu, Ting Liu, Xiao Liang, Lian Lu, Ting-Hong Ye, Zhi-Yao He, Heng-Yi Xiao, Xia-Wei Wei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106073/high-resolution-cryo-em-structure-of-the-proteasome-in-complex-with-adp-alfx
#10
Zhanyu Ding, Zhenglin Fu, Cong Xu, Yifan Wang, Yanxing Wang, Junrui Li, Liangliang Kong, Jinhuan Chen, Na Li, Rongguang Zhang, Yao Cong
The 26S proteasome is an ATP-dependent dynamic 2.5 MDa protease that regulates numerous essential cellular functions through degradation of ubiquitinated substrates. Here we present a near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM map of the S. cerevisiae 26S proteasome in complex with ADP-AlFx. Our biochemical and structural data reveal that the proteasome-ADP-AlFx is in an activated state, displaying a distinct conformational configuration especially in the AAA-ATPase motor region. Noteworthy, this map demonstrates an asymmetric nucleotide binding pattern with four consecutive AAA-ATPase subunits bound with nucleotide...
January 20, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106072/ythdf3-facilitates-translation-and-decay-of-n-6-methyladenosine-modified-rna
#11
Hailing Shi, Xiao Wang, Zhike Lu, Boxuan S Zhao, Honghui Ma, Phillip J Hsu, Chuan He
N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most abundant internal modification in eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and plays important roles in cell differentiation and tissue development. It regulates multiple steps throughout the RNA life cycle including RNA processing, translation, and decay, via the recognition by selective binding proteins. In the cytoplasm, m(6)A binding protein YTHDF1 facilitates translation of m(6)A-modified mRNAs, and YTHDF2 accelerates the decay of m(6)A-modified transcripts. The biological function of YTHDF3, another cytoplasmic m(6)A binder of the YTH (YT521-B homology) domain family, remains unknown...
January 20, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084332/macrophagic-cd146-promotes-foam-cell-formation-and-retention-during-atherosclerosis
#12
Yongting Luo, Hongxia Duan, Yining Qian, Liqun Feng, Zhenzhen Wu, Fei Wang, Jing Feng, Dongling Yang, Zhihai Qin, Xiyun Yan
The persistence of cholesterol-engorged macrophages (foam cells) in the artery wall fuels the development of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism that regulates the formation of macrophage foam cells and impedes their emigration out of inflamed plaques is still elusive. Here, we report that adhesion receptor CD146 controls the formation of macrophage foam cells and their retention within the plaque during atherosclerosis exacerbation. CD146 is expressed on the macrophages in human and mouse atheroma and can be upregulated by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)...
January 13, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084331/cryo-em-structure-of-nma111p-a-unique-htra-protease-composed-of-two-protease-domains-and-four-pdz-domains
#13
Li Zhang, Xiaojing Wang, Fenghui Fan, Hong-Wei Wang, Jiawei Wang, Xueming Li, Sen-Fang Sui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084330/crispr-control-of-virulence-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#14
Blake Wiedenheft, Joseph Bondy-Denomy
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated genes (cas) are essential components of an adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and archaea from viral infection. Now a recent paper published in Cell Research suggests that the Type I-F immune system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa may also be involved in post-transcriptional regulation of virulence.
January 13, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084329/spsb1-mediated-hnrnp-a1-ubiquitylation-regulates-alternative-splicing-and-cell-migration-in-egf-signaling
#15
Feng Wang, Xing Fu, Peng Chen, Ping Wu, Xiaojuan Fan, Na Li, Hong Zhu, Ting-Ting Jia, Hongbin Ji, Zefeng Wang, Catherine C L Wong, Ronggui Hu, Jingyi Hui
Extracellular signals have been shown to impact on alternative pre-mRNA splicing; however, the molecular mechanisms and biological significance of signal-induced splicing regulation remain largely unknown. Here, we report that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces splicing changes through ubiquitylation of a well-known splicing regulator, hnRNP A1. EGF signaling upregulates an E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase adaptor, SPRY domain-containing SOCS box protein 1 (SPSB1), which recruits Elongin B/C-Cullin complexes to conjugate lysine 29-linked polyUb chains onto hnRNP A1...
January 13, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084328/painting-a-specific-chromosome-with-crispr-cas9-for-live-cell-imaging
#16
Yuexin Zhou, Ping Wang, Feng Tian, Ge Gao, Lei Huang, Wensheng Wei, X Sunney Xie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072404/autophagic-membrane-delivery-through-atg9
#17
Yuchen Feng, Daniel J Klionsky
One of the key questions regarding macroautophagy/autophagy is the mechanism through which the transmembrane protein ATG9 functions in delivering membrane to the expanding phagophore, the sequestering compartment that matures into an autophagosome. In a recent study, Zhou et al. identified a novel mechanism that regulates ATG9 trafficking from the plasma membrane and trans-Golgi network, which involves two conserved sorting signals required for ATG9 interaction with the AP1/2 adaptor complex and phosphorylation of ATG9 at Tyr8 by SRC kinase and at Ser14 by ULK1 for proper function during basal and starvation-induced autophagy...
January 10, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059067/viral-effector-protein-manipulates-host-hormone-signaling-to-attract-insect-vectors
#18
Dewei Wu, Tiancong Qi, Wan-Xiang Li, Haixia Tian, Hua Gao, Jiaojiao Wang, Jin Ge, Ruifeng Yao, Chunmei Ren, Xian-Bing Wang, Yule Liu, Le Kang, Shou-Wei Ding, Daoxin Xie
Some plant and animal pathogens can manipulate their hosts to cause them to release odors that are attractive to the pathogens' arthropod vectors. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is largely unexplored, and the specific effectors the pathogens employ as well as the pathways within the hosts they target are currently unknown. Here we reveal that the aphid-borne cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) employs its 2b protein, a well-characterized viral suppressor of host RNA interference (VSR), to target the host's jasmonate (JA) hormone pathway, thus acting as a viral inducer of host attractiveness to insect vectors (VIA)...
January 6, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059066/shhtl7-is-a-non-canonical-receptor-for-strigolactones-in-root-parasitic-weeds
#19
Ruifeng Yao, Fei Wang, Zhenhua Ming, Xiaoxi Du, Li Chen, Yupei Wang, Wenhao Zhang, Haiteng Deng, Daoxin Xie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035139/mitochondrial-pkm2-regulates-oxidative-stress-induced-apoptosis-by-stabilizing-bcl2
#20
Ji Liang, Ruixiu Cao, Xiongjun Wang, Yajuan Zhang, Pan Wang, Hong Gao, Chen Li, Fan Yang, Rong Zeng, Ping Wei, Dawei Li, Wenfeng Li, Weiwei Yang
Pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2) catalyzes the last step of glycolysis and plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation. Recent studies have reported that PKM2 also regulates apoptosis. However, the mechanisms underlying such a role of PKM2 remain elusive. Here we show that PKM2 translocates to mitochondria under oxidative stress. In the mitochondria, PKM2 interacts with and phosphorylates Bcl2 at threonine (T) 69. This phosphorylation prevents the binding of Cul3-based E3 ligase to Bcl2 and subsequent degradation of Bcl2...
December 30, 2016: Cell Research
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