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Cell Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621329/single-cell-multi-omics-sequencing-of-mouse-early-embryos-and-embryonic-stem-cells
#1
Fan Guo, Lin Li, Jingyun Li, Xinglong Wu, Boqiang Hu, Ping Zhu, Lu Wen, Fuchou Tang
Single-cell epigenome sequencing techniques have recently been developed. However, the combination of different layers of epigenome sequencing in an individual cell has not yet been achieved. Here, we developed a single-cell multi-omics sequencing technology (single-cell COOL-seq) that can analyze the chromatin state/nucleosome positioning, DNA methylation, copy number variation and ploidy simultaneously from the same individual mammalian cell. We used this method to analyze the reprogramming of the chromatin state and DNA methylation in mouse preimplantation embryos...
June 16, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621328/live-cell-screening-platform-identifies-ppar%C3%AE-as-a-regulator-of-cardiomyocyte-proliferation-and-cardiac-repair
#2
Ajit Magadum, Yishu Ding, Lan He, Teayoun Kim, Mohankrishna Dalvoy Vasudevarao, Qinqiang Long, Kevin Yang, Nadeera Wickramasinghe, Harsha V Renikunta, Nicole Dubois, Gilbert Weidinger, Qinglin Yang, Felix B Engel
Zebrafish can efficiently regenerate their heart through cardiomyocyte proliferation. In contrast, mammalian cardiomyocytes stop proliferating shortly after birth, limiting the regenerative capacity of the postnatal mammalian heart. Therefore, if the endogenous potential of postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferation could be enhanced, it could offer a promising future therapy for heart failure patients. Here, we set out to systematically identify small molecules triggering postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferation. By screening chemical compound libraries utilizing a Fucci-based system for assessing cell cycle stages, we identified carbacyclin as an inducer of postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferation...
June 16, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621327/dimeric-structure-of-the-uracil-proton-symporter-uraa-provides-mechanistic-insights-into-the-slc4-23-26-transporters
#3
Xinzhe Yu, Guanghui Yang, Chuangye Yan, Javier L Baylon, Jing Jiang, He Fan, Guifeng Lu, Kazuya Hasegawa, Hideo Okumura, Tingliang Wang, Emad Tajkhorshid, Shuo Li, Nieng Yan
The Escherichia coli uracil:proton symporter UraA is a prototypical member of the nucleobase/ascorbate transporter (NAT) or nucleobase/cation symporter 2 (NCS2) family, which corresponds to the human solute carrier family SLC23. UraA consists of 14 transmembrane segments (TMs) that are organized into two distinct domains, the core domain and the gate domain, a structural fold that is also shared by the SLC4 and SLC26 transporters. Here we present the crystal structure of UraA bound to uracil in an occluded state at 2...
June 16, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585534/one-step-generation-of-complete-gene-knockout-mice-and-monkeys-by-crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-editing-with-multiple-sgrnas
#4
Erwei Zuo, Yi-Jun Cai, Kui Li, Yu Wei, Bang-An Wang, Yidi Sun, Zhen Liu, Jiwei Liu, Xinde Hu, Wei Wei, Xiaona Huo, Linyu Shi, Cheng Tang, Dan Liang, Yan Wang, Yan-Hong Nie, Chen-Chen Zhang, Xuan Yao, Xing Wang, Changyang Zhou, Wenqin Ying, Qifang Wang, Ren-Chao Chen, Qi Shen, Guo-Liang Xu, Jinsong Li, Qiang Sun, Zhi-Qi Xiong, Hui Yang
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient gene-editing method, but the majority of gene-edited animals showed mosaicism, with editing occurring only in a portion of cells. Here we show that single gene or multiple genes can be completely knocked out in mouse and monkey embryos by zygotic injection of Cas9 mRNA and multiple adjacent single-guide RNAs (spaced 10-200 bp apart) that target only a single key exon of each gene. Phenotypic analysis of F0 mice following targeted deletion of eight genes on the Y chromosome individually demonstrated the robustness of this approach in generating knockout mice...
June 6, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574056/novel-ubiquitin-cleavage-the-dub-blade-goes-snicker-snack
#5
Judith A Ronau, Mark Hochstrasser
Recently, a Legionella pneumophila effector protein was shown to have an unprecedented ATP-independent ubiquitin ligase activity that couples phosphoribosylated ubiquitin (PR-Ub) to serine residues of host proteins. A new study published in Cell Research by Qiu et al. reveals that another Legionella effector protein, SidJ, catalyzes deubiquitination of PR-Ub by cleavage of the substrate-linked phosphodiester bond.
June 2, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574055/alternate-binding-modes-of-anti-crispr-viral-suppressors-acrf1-2-to-csy-surveillance-complex-revealed-by-cryo-em-structures
#6
Ruchao Peng, Ying Xu, Tengfei Zhu, Ningning Li, Jianxun Qi, Yan Chai, Min Wu, Xinzheng Zhang, Yi Shi, Peiyi Wang, Jiawei Wang, Ning Gao, George Fu Gao
Bacteriophages encode anti-CRISPR suppressors to counteract the CRISPR/Cas immunity of their bacterial hosts, thus facilitating their survival and replication. Previous studies have shown that two phage-encoded anti-CRISPR proteins, AcrF1 and AcrF2, suppress the type I-F CRISPR/Cas system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by preventing target DNA recognition by the Csy surveillance complex, but the precise underlying mechanism was unknown. Here we present the structure of AcrF1/2 bound to the Csy complex determined by cryo-EM single-particle reconstruction...
June 2, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524164/ripped-for-neuroinflammation
#7
Bart Tummers, Douglas R Green
Activation of the receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase (RIPK) 3 mediates an inflammatory type of cell death called necroptosis; in addition, RIPK3 has necroptosis-independent roles in inflammation, although these are not well defined. In a recent study published in Cell, Daniels and colleagues demonstrate that RIPK3 controls West Nile virus infection by promoting neuroinflammation in the central nervous system without affecting neuronal death.
May 19, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497811/polar-bodies-are-efficient-donors-for-reconstruction-of-human-embryos-for-potential-mitochondrial-replacement-therapy
#8
Keliang Wu, Cuiqing Zhong, Tailai Chen, Xiaoyu Zhang, Wenrong Tao, Jingye Zhang, Hongchang Li, Han Zhao, Jinsong Li, Zi-Jiang Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497810/class-i-histone-deacetylases-are-major-histone-decrotonylases-evidence-for-critical-and-broad-function-of-histone-crotonylation-in-transcription
#9
Wei Wei, Xiaoguang Liu, Jiwei Chen, Shennan Gao, Lu Lu, Huifang Zhang, Guangjin Ding, Zhiqiang Wang, Zhongzhou Chen, Tieliu Shi, Jiwen Li, Jianjun Yu, Jiemin Wong
Recent studies on enzymes and reader proteins for histone crotonylation support a function of histone crotonylation in transcription. However, the enzyme(s) responsible for histone decrotonylation (HDCR) remains poorly defined. Moreover, it remains to be determined if histone crotonylation is physiologically significant and functionally distinct from or redundant to histone acetylation. Here we present evidence that class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) rather than sirtuin family deacetylases (SIRTs) are the major histone decrotonylases, and that histone crotonylation is as dynamic as histone acetylation in mammalian cells...
May 12, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497809/receptor-like-protein-elt1-promotes-brassinosteroid-signaling-through-interacting-with-and-suppressing-the-endocytosis-mediated-degradation-of-receptor-bri1
#10
Bao-Jun Yang, Wen-Hui Lin, Fang-Fang Fu, Zhi-Hong Xu, Hong-Wei Xue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497808/a-unique-deubiquitinase-that-deconjugates-phosphoribosyl-linked-protein-ubiquitination
#11
Jiazhang Qiu, Kaiwen Yu, Xiaowen Fei, Yao Liu, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Paul D Piehowski, Jared B Shaw, Kedar Puvar, Chittaranjan Das, Xiaoyun Liu, Zhao-Qing Luo
Ubiquitination regulates many aspects of host immunity and thus is a common target for infectious agents. Recent studies have revealed that members of the SidE effector family of the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila attack several small GTPases associated with the endoplasmic reticulum by a novel ubiquitination mechanism that does not require the E1 and E2 enzymes of the host ubiquitination machinery. In this case, ubiquitin is first activated by ADP-ribosylation at Arg42 by a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity; the intermediate is then cleaved by a phosphodiesterase activity also residing within SdeA, concomitant with the attachment of ubiquitin to serine residues of substrate proteins via a phosphoribosyl linker...
May 12, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485368/threading-an-elephant-through-the-eye-of-a-needle-where-are-platelets-made
#12
Ian Johnston, Vincent Hayes, Mortimer Poncz
There has been a long-standing controversy of whether megakaryocytes release platelets in the marrow or travel to the lungs and release platelets there. Using two-photon electron microscopy and orthotopic lung transplantation, Lefrançais et al. now document that platelet release occurs physiologically in the lungs of mice from extrapulmonary megakaryocytes and that this release accounts for ∼50% of total platelet production.
May 9, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452344/clonal-analysis-reveals-remarkable-functional-heterogeneity-during-hematopoietic-stem-cell-emergence
#13
Hui Ye, Xiaobo Wang, Zongcheng Li, Fan Zhou, Xianlong Li, Yanli Ni, Weijing Zhang, Fuchou Tang, Bing Liu, Yu Lan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429772/global-profiling-of-crotonylation-on-non-histone-proteins
#14
Weizhi Xu, Junhu Wan, Jun Zhan, Xueying Li, Huiying He, Zhaomei Shi, Hongquan Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429770/neurons-secrete-mir-132-containing-exosomes-to-regulate-brain-vascular-integrity
#15
Bing Xu, Yu Zhang, Xu-Fei Du, Jia Li, Hua-Xing Zi, Ji-Wen Bu, Yong Yan, Hua Han, Jiu-Lin Du
Vascular integrity helps maintain brain microenvironment homeostasis, which is critical for the normal development and function of the central nervous system. It is known that neural cells can regulate brain vascular integrity. However, due to the high complexity of neurovascular interactions involved, understanding of the neural regulation of brain vascular integrity is still rudimentary. Using intact zebrafish larvae and cultured rodent brain cells, we find that neurons transfer miR-132, a highly conserved and neuron-enriched microRNA, via secreting exosomes to endothelial cells (ECs) to maintain brain vascular integrity...
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429768/reassembling-embryos-in-vitro-from-component-stem-cells
#16
Caroline Kubaczka, George Q Daley
Researchers at the University of Cambridge, UK have succeeded in reconstructing mouse embryos by combining pluripotent embryonic and multipotent trophoblast stem cells in a 3D scaffold; the study from the laboratory of Professor Zernicka-Goetz, recently published in Science, provides a break-through tool to probe early mammalian development outside the uterus. Achieving a similar feat with human cells might necessitate reconsideration of the 14-day rule as a limitation of such research.
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429767/love-laughs-at-locksmiths-ubiquitylation-of-p62-sequestosome-1-unlocks-its-autophagy-receptor-potential
#17
Owen Conway, Vladimir Kirkin
The multimodular adapter p62/sequestosome-1 plays prominent roles in physiology and disease by mediating cell signaling and cargo degradation. The work by Peng et al. published recently in Cell Research provides mechanistic insights into activation of its autophagy receptor function critical for maintaining cell homeostasis during various forms of stress.
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429766/beyond-growth-signaling-paneth-cells-metabolically-suppport-iscs
#18
Talya L Dayton, Hans Clevers
Single Lgr5 intestinal stem cells (ISCs) can be expanded in vitro into epithelial organoids or "mini-guts", self-organizing cellular structures that recreate the intestinal differentiation program; Paneth cells, which constitute the intestinal stem cell niche, secrete stem cell growth signals, and are thus essential for this process. In a recent paper published in Nature, Rodríguez-Colman et al. describe how Paneth cells may be supporting the metabolic state of ISCs.
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429765/repolarizing-macrophages-improves-breast-cancer-therapy
#19
Luca Cassetta, Jeffrey W Pollard
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) contribute to breast cancer progression and dissemination; TAM-targeting strategies aimed at their reprogramming show promising preclinical results. In a new report Guerriero and colleagues demonstrate that a novel HDAC Class IIa inhibitor, TMP195, can reprogram monocytes and macrophages in the tumor into cells able to sustain a robust CD8 T cell-mediated anti-tumoral immune response.
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418038/5-methylcytosine-promotes-mrna-export-nsun2-as-the-methyltransferase-and-alyref-as-an-m-5-c-reader
#20
Xin Yang, Ying Yang, Bao-Fa Sun, Yu-Sheng Chen, Jia-Wei Xu, Wei-Yi Lai, Ang Li, Xing Wang, Devi Prasad Bhattarai, Wen Xiao, Hui-Ying Sun, Qin Zhu, Hai-Li Ma, Samir Adhikari, Min Sun, Ya-Juan Hao, Bing Zhang, Chun-Min Huang, Niu Huang, Gui-Bin Jiang, Yong-Liang Zhao, Hai-Lin Wang, Ying-Pu Sun, Yun-Gui Yang
5-methylcytosine (m(5)C) is a post-transcriptional RNA modification identified in both stable and highly abundant tRNAs and rRNAs, and in mRNAs. However, its regulatory role in mRNA metabolism is still largely unknown. Here, we reveal that m(5)C modification is enriched in CG-rich regions and in regions immediately downstream of translation initiation sites and has conserved, tissue-specific and dynamic features across mammalian transcriptomes. Moreover, m(5)C formation in mRNAs is mainly catalyzed by the RNA methyltransferase NSUN2, and m(5)C is specifically recognized by the mRNA export adaptor ALYREF as shown by in vitro and in vivo studies...
April 18, 2017: Cell Research
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