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Cell Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534483/5-methylcytosine-mediates-nuclear-export-of-mrna
#1
Dan Dominissini, Gideon Rechavi
5-methylcytosine was shown before to be an epitranscriptomic mark. Yang et al. now explored the unique topology of this mRNA modification, identified its writer and demonstrated its involvement in nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling mediated by a specific reader.
May 23, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524166/homology-mediated-end-joining-based-targeted-integration-using-crispr-cas9
#2
Xuan Yao, Xing Wang, Xinde Hu, Zhen Liu, Junlai Liu, Haibo Zhou, Xiaowen Shen, Yu Wei, Zijian Huang, Wenqin Ying, Yan Wang, Yan-Hong Nie, Chen-Chen Zhang, Sanlan Li, Leping Cheng, Qifang Wang, Yan Wu, Pengyu Huang, Qiang Sun, Linyu Shi, Hui Yang
Targeted integration of transgenes can be achieved by strategies based on homologous recombination (HR), microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) or non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The more generally used HR is inefficient for achieving gene integration in animal embryos and tissues, because it occurs only during cell division, although MMEJ and NHEJ can elevate the efficiency in some systems. Here we devise a homology-mediated end joining (HMEJ)-based strategy, using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated cleavage of both transgene donor vector that contains guide RNA target sites and ∼800 bp of homology arms, and the targeted genome...
May 19, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524165/molecular-assembly-of-rhodopsin-with-g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinases
#3
Yuanzheng He, Xiang Gao, Devrishi Goswami, Li Hou, Kuntal Pal, Yanting Yin, Gongpu Zhao, Oliver P Ernst, Patrick Griffin, Karsten Melcher, H Eric Xu
G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) play pivotal roles in desensitizing GPCR signaling but little is known about how GRKs recognize and phosphorylate GPCRs due to the technical difficulties in detecting the highly dynamic GPCR/GRK interaction. By combining a genetic approach with multiple biochemical assays, we identified the key determinants for the assembly of the prototypical GPCR rhodopsin with its kinase GRK1. Our work reveals that the regulatory G-protein signaling homology (RH) domain of GRKs is the primary binding site to GPCRs and an active conformation of the GRK1 kinase domain is required for efficient interaction with rhodopsin...
May 19, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524164/ripped-for-neuroinflammation
#4
Bart Tummers, Douglas R Green
Activation of the receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase (RIPK) 3 mediates an inflammatory type of cell death called necroptosis; in addition, RIPK3 has necroptosis-independent roles in inflammation, although these are not well defined. In a recent study published in Cell, Daniels and colleagues demonstrate that RIPK3 controls West Nile virus infection by promoting neuroinflammation in the central nervous system without affecting neuronal death.
May 19, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524163/dsdna-containing-exosomes-the-culprit-in-chemotherapy-induced-diarrhea
#5
Paul Kurywchak, Raghu Kalluri
Chemotherapy is a predominant strategy to treat cancer and is often associated with toxicities like severe diarrhea that puts patients at additional risk and can hinder treatment strategies. Lian et al. recently explored the immune-mediated mechanisms of Irinotecan-induced diarrhea in colorectal cancer and found that double-stranded DNA in small vesicles can launch inflammation pathways in immune cells through the cytosolic DNA sensor AIM2.
May 19, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508860/circular-rnas-coding-or-noncoding
#6
Tim Schneider, Albrecht Bindereif
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) were only recently discovered as a new class of noncoding RNAs, functionally still largely uncharacterized. Three publications that appeared concurrently in Cell Research and Molecular Cell provide initial evidence for certain endogenous circRNAs coding for proteins.
May 16, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497811/polar-bodies-are-efficient-donors-for-reconstruction-of-human-embryos-for-potential-mitochondrial-replacement-therapy
#7
Keliang Wu, Cuiqing Zhong, Tailai Chen, Xiaoyu Zhang, Wenrong Tao, Jingye Zhang, Hongchang Li, Han Zhao, Jinsong Li, Zi-Jiang Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497810/class-i-histone-deacetylases-are-major-histone-decrotonylases-evidence-for-critical-and-broad-function-of-histone-crotonylation-in-transcription
#8
Wei Wei, Xiaoguang Liu, Jiwei Chen, Shennan Gao, Lu Lu, Huifang Zhang, Guangjin Ding, Zhiqiang Wang, Zhongzhou Chen, Tieliu Shi, Jiwen Li, Jianjun Yu, Jiemin Wong
Recent studies on enzymes and reader proteins for histone crotonylation support a function of histone crotonylation in transcription. However, the enzyme(s) responsible for histone decrotonylation (HDCR) remains poorly defined. Moreover, it remains to be determined if histone crotonylation is physiologically significant and functionally distinct from or redundant to histone acetylation. Here we present evidence that class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) rather than sirtuin family deacetylases (SIRTs) are the major histone decrotonylases, and that histone crotonylation is as dynamic as histone acetylation in mammalian cells...
May 12, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497809/receptor-like-protein-elt1-promotes-brassinosteroid-signaling-through-interacting-with-and-suppressing-the-endocytosis-mediated-degradation-of-receptor-bri1
#9
Bao-Jun Yang, Wen-Hui Lin, Fang-Fang Fu, Zhi-Hong Xu, Hong-Wei Xue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497808/a-unique-deubiquitinase-that-deconjugates-phosphoribosyl-linked-protein-ubiquitination
#10
Jiazhang Qiu, Kaiwen Yu, Xiaowen Fei, Yao Liu, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Paul D Piehowski, Jared B Shaw, Kedar Puvar, Chittaranjan Das, Xiaoyun Liu, Zhao-Qing Luo
Ubiquitination regulates many aspects of host immunity and thus is a common target for infectious agents. Recent studies have revealed that members of the SidE effector family of the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila attack several small GTPases associated with the endoplasmic reticulum by a novel ubiquitination mechanism that does not require the E1 and E2 enzymes of the host ubiquitination machinery. In this case, ubiquitin is first activated by ADP-ribosylation at Arg42 by a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity; the intermediate is then cleaved by a phosphodiesterase activity also residing within SdeA, concomitant with the attachment of ubiquitin to serine residues of substrate proteins via a phosphoribosyl linker...
May 12, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485368/threading-an-elephant-through-the-eye-of-a-needle-where-are-platelets-made
#11
Ian Johnston, Vincent Hayes, Mortimer Poncz
There has been a long-standing controversy of whether megakaryocytes release platelets in the marrow or travel to the lungs and release platelets there. Using two-photon electron microscopy and orthotopic lung transplantation, Lefrançais et al. now document that platelet release occurs physiologically in the lungs of mice from extrapulmonary megakaryocytes and that this release accounts for ∼50% of total platelet production.
May 9, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452344/clonal-analysis-reveals-remarkable-functional-heterogeneity-during-hematopoietic-stem-cell-emergence
#12
Hui Ye, Xiaobo Wang, Zongcheng Li, Fan Zhou, Xianlong Li, Yanli Ni, Weijing Zhang, Fuchou Tang, Bing Liu, Yu Lan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429772/global-profiling-of-crotonylation-on-non-histone-proteins
#13
Weizhi Xu, Junhu Wan, Jun Zhan, Xueying Li, Huiying He, Zhaomei Shi, Hongquan Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429771/crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-editing-in-one-blastomere-of-two-cell-embryos-reveals-a-novel-tet3-function-in-regulating-neocortical-development
#14
Lingbo Wang, Min-Yin Li, Chao Qu, Wan-Ying Miao, Qi Yin, Jiaoyang Liao, Hua-Teng Cao, Min Huang, Kai Wang, Erwei Zuo, Guangdun Peng, Shu-Xin Zhang, Guodong Chen, Qing Li, Ke Tang, Qian Yu, Zhoujie Li, Catherine Cl Wong, Guoliang Xu, Naihe Jing, Xiang Yu, Jinsong Li
Studying the early function of essential genes is an important and challenging problem in developmental biology. Here, we established a method for rapidly inducing CRISPR-Cas9-mediated mutations in one blastomere of two-cell stage embryos, termed 2-cell embryo-CRISPR-Cas9 injection (2CC), to study the in vivo function of essential (or unknown) genes in founder chimeric mice. By injecting both Cre mRNA and CRISPR-Cas9 targeting the gene of interest into fluorescent reporter mice, the 2CC method can trace both wild-type and mutant cells at different developmental stages, offering internal control for phenotypic analyses of mutant cells...
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429770/neurons-secrete-mir-132-containing-exosomes-to-regulate-brain-vascular-integrity
#15
Bing Xu, Yu Zhang, Xu-Fei Du, Jia Li, Hua-Xing Zi, Ji-Wen Bu, Yong Yan, Hua Han, Jiu-Lin Du
Vascular integrity helps maintain brain microenvironment homeostasis, which is critical for the normal development and function of the central nervous system. It is known that neural cells can regulate brain vascular integrity. However, due to the high complexity of neurovascular interactions involved, understanding of the neural regulation of brain vascular integrity is still rudimentary. Using intact zebrafish larvae and cultured rodent brain cells, we find that neurons transfer miR-132, a highly conserved and neuron-enriched microRNA, via secreting exosomes to endothelial cells (ECs) to maintain brain vascular integrity...
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429769/gene-and-mutation-independent-therapy-via-crispr-cas9-mediated-cellular-reprogramming-in-rod-photoreceptors
#16
Jie Zhu, Chang Ming, Xin Fu, Yaou Duan, Duc Anh Hoang, Jeffrey Rutgard, Runze Zhang, Wenqiu Wang, Rui Hou, Daniel Zhang, Edward Zhang, Charlotte Zhang, Xiaoke Hao, Wenjun Xiong, Kang Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429768/reassembling-embryos-in-vitro-from-component-stem-cells
#17
Caroline Kubaczka, George Q Daley
Researchers at the University of Cambridge, UK have succeeded in reconstructing mouse embryos by combining pluripotent embryonic and multipotent trophoblast stem cells in a 3D scaffold; the study from the laboratory of Professor Zernicka-Goetz, recently published in Science, provides a break-through tool to probe early mammalian development outside the uterus. Achieving a similar feat with human cells might necessitate reconsideration of the 14-day rule as a limitation of such research.
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429767/love-laughs-at-locksmiths-ubiquitylation-of-p62-sequestosome-1-unlocks-its-autophagy-receptor-potential
#18
Owen Conway, Vladimir Kirkin
The multimodular adapter p62/sequestosome-1 plays prominent roles in physiology and disease by mediating cell signaling and cargo degradation. The work by Peng et al. published recently in Cell Research provides mechanistic insights into activation of its autophagy receptor function critical for maintaining cell homeostasis during various forms of stress.
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429766/beyond-growth-signaling-paneth-cells-metabolically-suppport-iscs
#19
Talya L Dayton, Hans Clevers
Single Lgr5 intestinal stem cells (ISCs) can be expanded in vitro into epithelial organoids or "mini-guts", self-organizing cellular structures that recreate the intestinal differentiation program; Paneth cells, which constitute the intestinal stem cell niche, secrete stem cell growth signals, and are thus essential for this process. In a recent paper published in Nature, Rodríguez-Colman et al. describe how Paneth cells may be supporting the metabolic state of ISCs.
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429765/repolarizing-macrophages-improves-breast-cancer-therapy
#20
Luca Cassetta, Jeffrey W Pollard
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) contribute to breast cancer progression and dissemination; TAM-targeting strategies aimed at their reprogramming show promising preclinical results. In a new report Guerriero and colleagues demonstrate that a novel HDAC Class IIa inhibitor, TMP195, can reprogram monocytes and macrophages in the tumor into cells able to sustain a robust CD8 T cell-mediated anti-tumoral immune response.
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
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