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Cell Research

Marie Vetizou, Giorgio Trinchieri
After the initial success of cancer immunotherapy using immune checkpoint blockers, the challenge is to understand why only a minority of patients respond to the therapy and to increase the rate of response. Three recent papers now report that the gut microbiota modulates the response to anti-PD1 therapy in patients with epithelial cancers or melanoma.
January 16, 2018: Cell Research
Chao Zhang, Weiwei Yi, Fei Li, Xufei Du, Hu Wang, Ping Wu, Chao Peng, Man Luo, Wen Hua, Catherine Cl Wong, James J Lee, Wen Li, Zhihua Chen, Songmin Ying, Zhenyu Ju, Huahao Shen
Eosinophils (Eos) have been long considered as end-stage effector cells in the hierarchical hematopoietic system. Numerous lines of evidence have suggested that Eos are multifunctional leukocytes with respect to the initiation, propagation and regulation of various inflammatory or immune reactions, especially in allergic diseases. Recent studies have shown that Eos are also required for maintenance of bone marrow plasma cells and differentiation of B cells. However, it remains unclear whether Eos contributes to regulation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis...
January 12, 2018: Cell Research
Xihan Li, Zheng Fu, Hongwei Liang, Yanbo Wang, Xian Qi, Meng Ding, Xinlei Sun, Zhen Zhou, Ying Huang, Hongwei Gu, Limin Li, Xi Chen, Donghai Li, Quan Zhao, Fenyong Liu, Hua Wang, Jin Wang, Ke Zen, Chen-Yu Zhang
Infection of H5N1 influenza virus causes the highest mortality among all influenza viruses. The mechanisms underlying such high viral pathogenicity are incompletely understood. Here, we report that the H5N1 influenza virus encodes a microRNA-like small RNA, miR-HA-3p, which is processed from a stem loop-containing viral RNA precursor by Argonaute 2, and plays a role in enhancing cytokine production during H5N1 infection. Mechanistic study shows that miR-HA-3p targets poly(rC)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2) and suppresses its expression...
January 12, 2018: Cell Research
Meng Duan, Junfeng Hao, Sijia Cui, Daniel L Worthley, Shu Zhang, Zhichao Wang, Jieyi Shi, Longzi Liu, Xiaoying Wang, Aiwu Ke, Ya Cao, Ruibin Xi, Xiaoming Zhang, Jian Zhou, Jia Fan, Chong Li, Qiang Gao
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a cancer of substantial morphologic, genetic and phenotypic diversity. Yet we do not understand the relationship between intratumor heterogeneity and the associated morphologic/histological characteristics of the tumor. Using single-cell whole-genome sequencing to profile 96 tumor cells (30-36 each) and 15 normal liver cells (5 each), collected from three male patients with HBV-associated HCC, we confirmed that copy number variations occur early in hepatocarcinogenesis but thereafter remain relatively stable throughout tumor progression...
January 12, 2018: Cell Research
Yiqiang Cui, Yuyu Niu, Jiankui Zhou, Yongchang Chen, Yiwei Cheng, Shangang Li, Zongyong Ai, Chu Chu, Hong Wang, Bo Zheng, Xuejin Chen, Jiahao Sha, Xuejiang Guo, Xingxu Huang, Weizhi Ji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2018: Cell Research
Xuan Yao, Zhen Liu, Xing Wang, Yan Wang, Yan-Hong Nie, Liang Lai, Ruilin Sun, Linyu Shi, Qiang Sun, Hui Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2018: Cell Research
Jasmine Jacob-Hirsch, Eran Eyal, Binyamin A Knisbacher, Jonathan Roth, Karen Cesarkas, Chen Dor, Sarit Farage-Barhom, Vered Kunik, Amos J Simon, Moran Gal, Michal Yalon, Sharon Moshitch-Moshkovitz, Rick Tearle, Shlomi Constantini, Erez Y Levanon, Ninette Amariglio, Gideon Rechavi
Neural progenitor cells undergo somatic retrotransposition events, mainly involving L1 elements, which can be potentially deleterious. Here, we analyze the whole genomes of 20 brain samples and 80 non-brain samples, and characterized the retrotransposition landscape of patients affected by a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders including Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, ataxia-telangiectasia and autism. We report that the number of retrotranspositions in brain tissues is higher than that observed in non-brain samples and even higher in pathologic vs normal brains...
January 12, 2018: Cell Research
Jian Yan, Shi-An A Chen, Andrea Local, Tristin Liu, Yunjiang Qiu, Kristel M Dorighi, Sebastian Preissl, Chloe M Rivera, Chaochen Wang, Zhen Ye, Kai Ge, Ming Hu, Joanna Wysocka, Bing Ren
Long-range chromatin interactions between enhancers and promoters are essential for transcription of many developmentally controlled genes in mammals and other metazoans. Currently, the exact mechanisms that connect distal enhancers to their specific target promoters remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we show that the enhancer-specific histone H3 lysine 4 monomethylation (H3K4me1) and the histone methyltransferases MLL3 and MLL4 (MLL3/4) play an active role in this process. We demonstrate that in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells, MLL3/4-dependent deposition of H3K4me1 at enhancers correlates with increased levels of chromatin interactions, whereas loss of this histone modification leads to reduced levels of chromatin interactions and defects in gene activation during differentiation...
January 9, 2018: Cell Research
Liman Zhang, Hao Wu
Activation of the NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasomes initiates inflammatory responses against bacterial invasion. Two recent reports described the cryo-EM structure of the flagellin/NAIP5 complex, providing important insights into the mechanism of bacterial sensing by innate immunity.
January 9, 2018: Cell Research
Jiyu Tong, Guangchao Cao, Ting Zhang, Esen Sefik, Maria Carolina Amezcua Vesely, James P Broughton, Shu Zhu, Huabin Li, Bin Li, Lei Chen, Howard Y Chang, Bing Su, Richard A Flavell, Hua-Bing Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Cell Research
Qinhui Rao, Mengjie Liu, Yuan Tian, Zihan Wu, Yuhan Hao, Lei Song, Zhaoyu Qin, Chen Ding, Hong-Wei Wang, Jiawei Wang, Yanhui Xu
ATR (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related) protein kinase and ATRIP (ATR-interacting protein) form a complex and play a critical role in response to replication stress and DNA damage. Here, we determined the cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structure of the human ATR-ATRIP complex at 4.7 Å resolution and built an atomic model of the C-terminal catalytic core of ATR (residues 1 521-2 644) at 3.9 Å resolution. The complex adopts a hollow "heart" shape, consisting of two ATR monomers in distinct conformations...
December 22, 2017: Cell Research
Jia-Bin Li, Yun-Kun Qi, Qiao-Qiao He, Hua-Song Ai, San-Ling Liu, Jia-Xing Wang, Ji-Shen Zheng, Lei Liu, Changlin Tian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: Cell Research
Paolo Ettore Porporato, Nicoletta Filigheddu, José Manuel Bravo-San Pedro, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi
Glycolysis has long been considered as the major metabolic process for energy production and anabolic growth in cancer cells. Although such a view has been instrumental for the development of powerful imaging tools that are still used in the clinics, it is now clear that mitochondria play a key role in oncogenesis. Besides exerting central bioenergetic functions, mitochondria provide indeed building blocks for tumor anabolism, control redox and calcium homeostasis, participate in transcriptional regulation, and govern cell death...
December 8, 2017: Cell Research
Hao Xu, Dan R Littman
Activation of STAT3-coupled receptors along with TGF-β signaling are fundamental for Th17 cell differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. A recent paper shows that TGF-β signaling relieves SKI-mediated transcriptional repression of Rorc, the key regulator of the Th17 program.
December 8, 2017: Cell Research
Lili Wang, Markus Müschen
B cells undergo stringent selection in germinal centers (GCs) for expression of high-affinity antibodies, however, mechanisms of negative selection of low-affinity B cell clones remain elusive. A new study by Michel Nussenzweig's group published in Science leverages a new reporter system that marks pre-apoptotic GC B cells to dissect microanatomic regions of GCs and their role in affinity maturation.
December 1, 2017: Cell Research
Kanta Subbarao
Avian influenza A H7N9 viruses that emerged in China in 2013 have reappeared each year, causing more than 1 600 severe human infections. As these viruses have evolved in nature, they have gained some and can gain additional virulence determinants that enhance their risk for humans, underlining the urgent need to control and eradicate H7N9 viruses in China.
December 1, 2017: Cell Research
Marah C Runtsch, Luke Aj O'Neill
Long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators of cellular processes, but few have been functionally characterized in host-pathogen interactions. A recent report in Science demonstrates a mechanistic role for a novel lncRNA in directly binding an essential metabolic enzyme, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT2); this interaction benefits viral replication via alteration of host metabolism.
December 1, 2017: Cell Research
Francesca S Gazzaniga, Dennis L Kasper
Wild mice are genetically similar to laboratory mice, but have a distinct gut microbiota that protects from disease.
December 1, 2017: Cell Research
He Huang, Zhouqing Luo, Shankang Qi, Jing Huang, Peng Xu, Xiuxuan Wang, Li Gao, Fangyi Li, Jian Wang, Wenhui Zhao, Wei Gu, Zhucheng Chen, Lunzhi Dai, Junbiao Dai, Yingming Zhao
Short-chain fatty acids and their corresponding acyl-CoAs sit at the crossroads of metabolic pathways and play important roles in diverse cellular processes. They are also precursors for protein post-translational lysine acylation modifications. A noteworthy example is the newly identified lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation (Khib) that is derived from 2-hydroxyisobutyrate and 2-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA. Histone Khib has been shown to be associated with active gene expression in spermatogenic cells. However, the key elements that regulate this post-translational lysine acylation pathway remain unknown...
December 1, 2017: Cell Research
Marie-Joseph Giraud-Panis, Jing Ye, Eric Gilson
Two articles in Cell Research focus on the structure-function relationships in the shelterin complex that binds to telomeres and is essential for their stability and functions. These studies concerning both mammalian and Schizosaccharomyces pombe proteins reveal unexpected structural conservation of a motif called TRFH (Telomeric Repeat Factors Homology) domain between several subunits in these complexes, providing a rationale for further dissection of the role of telomeres in chromosome stability, aging and cancer, and encouraging us to revisit the evolution of telomere proteins...
December 1, 2017: Cell Research
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