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Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271218/the-role-of-adjuvant-radiotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-papillary-tumors-of-the-pineal-region-some-general-considerations-and-a-case-report
#1
A Lancia, G Ingrosso, R Santoni
BACKGROUND: Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a recently defined tumor entity. Its clinical course is characterized by frequent local recurrence, and patients may experience the burden of symptoms due to the anatomical location of the growing mass. Guidelines for treatment protocols, and the role of radiotherapy are still being investigated. CASE: We report the case of a 27-year old woman who was referred to our department after she was diagnosed with PTPR and had undergone multiple surgical interventions...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271217/-cognitive-deficits-in-cancer-patients-with-haematological-malignancies
#2
M Mikulajová, V Boleková, K Surová
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are one of the most common adverse effects of chemotherapy (CHT). Previous reports suggest that this is due to the so-called chemo brain syndrome, the symptoms of which manifest mainly as impairments in executive functions, speed of information processing, memory, attention, and motor speed. However, empirical evidence for these manifestations is currently ambiguous. METHODS: The research group consisted of 26 cancer patients with haematological malignancies who had undergone chemotherapy treatment...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271216/-the-inclusion-of-a-gemcitabine-nab-paclitaxel-regimen-as-a-2nd-line-treatment-for-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-first-experience
#3
M Vočka, L Petruželka
INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The outcomes at all stages of the disease are the worst among patients with solid tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Analyses were conducted on 19 patients treated with gamcitabine + nab-paclitaxel for locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer as a second line treatment between October, 2014, and December, 2016, at Department of Oncology of First Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital in Prague...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271215/-the-impact-of-corticotherapy-on-the-diagnostic-yield-of-stereotactic-biopsy-in-patients-with-brain-lymphoma
#4
J Chrastina, M Hermanová, R Jančálek, V Feitová, D Hrabovský, Z Novák
Backround: Because of the dismal prognosis of untreated brain lymphoma early histological verification using stereobiopsy is decisive for patient with this disease. The study analysed the diagnostic yield of stereobiopsy in brain lymphoma patients with respect to prebiopsy corticosteroid administration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with brain lymphomas were identified in a group of 162 stereotactic biopsies (108 frame-based and 54 frameless) of patients harboring suspected brain tumor...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271214/-the-role-of-palliative-radiotherapy-in-bleeding-from-locally-advanced-gastrointestinal-tumors
#5
P Navrátilová, L Hynková, P Šlampa
BACKGROUND: Patients with locally advanced gastrointestinal tumors present with typical symptoms including pain, obstructive problems with passage disorders and bleeding. The last of them negatively affects their quality of life and is potentially lethal. Palliative radiotherapy is used in hemostatic indication to control bleeding from locally advanced or recurrent inoperable gastrointestinal tumors for many years. PURPOSE: This review summarizes information and available literature about mechanisms, efficiency and toxicity of palliative radiotherapy used in hemostatic indication, separately for each part of the digestive system...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271213/-milk-thistle-silybum-marianum-as-a-supportive-phytotherapeutic-agent-in-oncology
#6
Z Frassová, J Rudá-Kučerová
BACKGROUND: Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) has been traditionally used in medicine, particularly in the treatment of liver diseases. Today, it is used for the same purpose in evidence-based medicine (EBM). Its main active ingredient is a complex of flavonolignans, known as silymarin. Silymarin is used as a hepatoprotective agent, but its potential therapeutic use in oncology patients has drawn attention only recently. PURPOSE: The aim of this review is to provide comprehensive information on the potential therapeutic effects of milk thistle in oncology patients and potential indications for its use as a supportive therapy either as an anticarcinogenic agent or as an agent that attenuates the side effects of oncological treatments...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271212/-preoperative-axillary-lymph-node-marking-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#7
L Dostálek, P Šašková
BACKGROUND: Axillary dissection (AD) is an integral part of the surgical staging of breast cancer. This operation can be source of major long term complications, e. g., lymphedema. Reducing the radicality of these operations has been the subject of many clinical trials, especially those addressing the metastatic infiltration of axillary lymph nodes uncovered either by clinical staging or by sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy (when the clinical staging was negative). Exact clinical (mainly ultrasonographic) staging and marking of the lymph nodes detected by staging plays a key role in deciding the optimum clinical regimen...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271211/-molecular-pathogenesis-of-testicular-germ-cell-tumors
#8
V Bakardjieva-Mihaylova, K Škvárová Kramarzová, M Slámová, T Büchler, L Boublíková
BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most frequently diagnosed solid tumors in young men and their incidence has been increasing over the past decades. Several factors may combine and play a role in the TGCT etiology, including environmental factors and genetic predispositions at multiple genomic loci that affect both testicular germ cells and stromal cells, and their interactions within the testicular microenvironment. The pathogenesis of TGCT starts prenatally with primordial germ cell arrest, and further proceeds postnatally, giving rise to in situ germ cell neoplasia and, finally, to invasive TGCT with the characteristic 12p chromosome amplification...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271210/-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-do-we-know-all-of-it
#9
A Antoňáková Nemčíková, E Bednárovská
BACKGROUND: Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) represent a life-threatening complication. They are associated with high morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Cancer patients are at particular risk due to the nature of the disease and the therapy-associated immunodeficiency. Although the incidence of catheter-related infections decreased in the past decade, the mortality rate remains high at 12-25%. The incidence of CRBSI differs among patients. While the incidence in ICU patients across the Europe was reported to be 0...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239195/-immunotherapy-of-colorectal-and-anal-carcinoma
#10
J Tomášek, I Kiss
BACKGROUND: The lower part of the digestive tract includes the large intestine, rectum and anus. Treatment algorithms of cancers in these localities have significant differences in both early and advanced stages. The vast majority of metastatic cases are incurable. A few years ago, it was generally accepted that gastrointestinal tumors are poorly immunogenic and modern immunotherapy would not work in gastrointestinal cancers. The breakthrough has become the recognition of the mismatch repair system (MMR) that affects the microsatellite instability (MSI) and its role in the development of colorectal carcinoma (CRC)...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239194/-immunotherapy-of-renal-cell-carcinoma
#11
A Poprach, R Lakomý, T Büchler
Treatment of renal cell carcinoma is still palliative. Targeted therapy increases response rates and prolongs overall survival and progression-free survival compared with cytokines and chemotherapy. Checkpoint inhibitors constitute the up-date of therapeutic approaches, and anti-PD-1 antibody, one checkpoint inhibitor, is now well established as a second and/or third palliative treatment for patients with renal cell carcinoma. In this study, we present the latest data from current studies on cytokines, cancer vaccines, ipilimumab, and nivolumab...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239193/-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-upper-gastrointestinal-tract-tumors
#12
R Obermannova
Chemotherapy prolongs overall survival (OS) in esophageal (EC) and gastric cancer (GC). Unsatisfactory results of systemic therapy initiated a search for new treatment options. In metastatic disease, a number of targeted drugs were tested; however, several phase III studies assessing receptor tyrosin kinase-related signaling pathways, such as EGFR, MET/HGF or mTOR, failed. Trastuzumab remains the only targeted drug with a known molecular predictor, which extended the OS in metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma and adenocarcinoma of esophago-gastric junction...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239192/-combined-regimens-in-immunotherapy
#13
B Melichar, M Spisarová
The advent of immunotherapy has changed our concept of how to manage metastatic disease. With the exception of relatively rare tumors, the treatment of metastatic cancer is still considered as palliative, and in systemic treatment immunotherapy is often selected, considering better tolerance. Immunotherapy opens the perspective of a long-term, possibly durable, response, and, in contrast to other approaches to targeted therapy, is active across a spectrum of tumors. Combined regimens that increase the efficacy, given the context, are thus of importance...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239191/-advances-in-immunotherapy-of-malignant-melanoma
#14
I Krajsová
Development of immunotherapy has dramatically changed poor prognosis of metastatic malignant melanoma (MM). Inhibition of immune checkpoints represents a new effective treatment. Monoclonal antibodies against CTLA-4 ipilimumab and against PD-1 (programme death 1) nivolumab and pembrolizumab prolong progression free survival and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced metastatic MM. Both achieved significant improvement in relapse-free survival and OS also in adjuvant setting. It looks like the efficacy of the combined immunotherapy of ipilimumab with anti-PD-1 antibodies is superior to the monotherapy, but combined therapy is accompanied by higher toxicity...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239190/-comparison-of-recist-1-1-and-irecist-for-response-evaluation-in-solid-tumours
#15
Š Houdek, T Büchler, E Kindlová
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy is a relatively new and developing modality in oncological treatment, which may significantly improve treatment results for some patients with malignant tumors. With the increasing number of clinical trials, the demand for a suitable tool to assess and compare treatment responses is growing. Currently, the most common response assessment system for solid tumors is RECIST (response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) version 1.1. However, in immuno-oncology, a small percentage of patients manifest a new response pattern termed pseudoprogression, in which, after the initial increase in tumor burden or after the discovery of new lesions, a response or at least a prolonged stabilization of the disease can occur...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239189/-immunotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-lung-cancer
#16
O Fiala, O Šorejs, M Pešek, J Fínek
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer occupies the leading position of cancer incidence and mortality worldwide, including in the Czech Republic. Despite significant advances in systemic oncology treatments, lung cancer still has the worst prognosis, which is driving the need for innovative therapies and methods to treat this disease. Immunotherapy is a developing area of systemic oncology treatment, which has recently begun to be significantly applied to patients with lung carcinoma. The most useful type of immunotherapy currently employs checkpoint inhibitors, including CTLA-4 inhibitors (ipilimumab and tremelimumab) and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab)...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239188/-evaluation-of-inflammatory-cells-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-solid-tumors
#17
P Dundr, K Němejcová, M Bártů, R Matěj, Z Rohan, I Tichá
BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in tumorigenesis and the tumor-host relationship. An important part of the tumor microenvironment is inflammatory infiltration. Its evaluation in solid tumors has prognostic meaning and appears also to be predictive of outcome, which is particularly important for predicting responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, the methodology used to assess inflammatory infiltration is problematic, because it has been standardized only for certain types of tumors...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239187/-immunotherapy-for-bladder-cancer
#18
T Büchler
Urothelial carcinoma is the most common urological malignancy. Nonspecific immunotherapy using the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine has long been the mainstay for the treatment of high-risk superficial bladder carcinoma in an adjuvant setting after transurethral endoscopic resection. In metastatic disease, cisplatin-based chemotherapy remains the main therapeutic modality. In Europe, the standard second-line chemotherapy for patients with cisplatin-refractory tumours is vinflunine. Other systemic treatments with a lower level of evidence include paclitaxel and docetaxel...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031040/-treatment-refusal-in-pediatric-oncology
#19
A Špótová, K Husáková, A Hrašková, M Mikesková, J Puškáčová, S Hederová, M Jamárik, E Rabenseifertová, Z Jalovecká, A Kolenová, Z Šubová
BACKGROUND: Pediatric oncologists are often faced with situations in which parents or guardians refuse recommended treatment for curable childhood cancer. Deciding how to proceed in such situations is an ethical dilemma. The aim of this article is to consider optimal approaches when parents are strongly against oncological treatment, potentially compromising their childrens rights for health care and to the chance for cure. CASES: In this paper, we report two cases of treatment refusal from our department and the impact of such decisions on the children themselves...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031039/the-anti-apoptotic-mechanism-of-metformin-against-apoptosis-induced-by-ionizing-radiation-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#20
S Kolivand, E Motevaseli, M Cheki, A Mahmoudzadeh, A Shirazi, V Fait
BACKGROUND: In a previous article, we showed that metformin (MET) can reduce ionizing radiation (IR) induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, the anti-apoptotic mechanism of MET against IR remains unclear. The present study attempts to investigate the mechanism of action of MET in limiting X-ray induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mononuclear cells were treated with MET for 2 hours and irradiated with 6 MV X-rays...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
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