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Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846727/-current-progresses-in-developing-pet-radiopharmaceuticals-for-patients-in-the-czech-republic
#1
J Adam, R Demlová, Z Řehák
BACKGROUND: In Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute (MMCI), there is a long-running intensive joint effort of the RECAMO project and commercial entities, involving mainly clinical evaluations of state-of-the-art PET radiopharmaceuticals leading to their future availability for Czech physicians and their patients. Recently, the PET tracers [11C]methionine and [18F]fluorocholine, among others, were developed in this cooperation, both of them tracers with high importance for oncologic positron emission tomography diagnostics...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846726/-new-technologies-for-in-vivo-cancer-diagnostics
#2
L Hernychova, D Coufalová, E Michalova, R Nenutil, B Vojtěšek
BACKGROUND: The treatment of oncological diseases is based on the combination of surgery, representing the key step for the removal of the tumor tissue, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy. However, the surgery is often accompanied by issue of determining the boundaries of the tumor. Prior the operation, the surgeon has information on preoperative findings, which indicate the location and extent of the tumor, but does not specify a clear boundary between the tumor and healthy tissue...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846725/-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-from-immunobiology-to-immunotherapy
#3
O Bílek, L Bohovicová, R Demlová, A Poprach, R Lakomý, L Zdražilová-Dubská
BACKGROUND: The treatment of early or locally advanced stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is based on surgical resection or radiotherapy. Metastatic disease is always incurable, treatment is palliative, systemic based on chemotherapy or target therapy. NSCLC is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and new therapeutic approaches are needed. Based on the emerging data on the role of immune system in shaping of tumor outbreak and outcome, immunotherapy is currently in the center of interest of cancer research and therapy of solid cancers including NSCLC...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846724/-the-role-of-pd-1-pd-l1-signaling-pathway-in-antitumor-immune-response
#4
P Zatloukalová, M Pjechová, S Babčanová, T R Hupp, B Vojtěšek
BACKGROUND: Correct function of the immune system depends on close cooperation between stimulation and inhibition signals, which protect an organism from outside microorganisms and other agents, but also protects healthy tissues against possible self-destructing attacks of the immune system. However, the inhibitory mechanisms can be abused by cancer cells that evade immune responses and, in fact, they help develop cancer. Therefore, one of the characteristics of cancer cells is the ability to evade immune recognition...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846723/-novel-approaches-in-dna-methylation-studies-ms-hrm-analysis-and-electrochemistry
#5
M Bartošík, E Ondroušková
Cytosine methylation in DNA is an epigenetic mechanism regulating gene expression and plays a vital role in cell differentiation or proliferation. Tumor cells often exhibit aberrant DNA methylation, e.g. hypermethylation of tumor suppressor gene promoters. New methods, capable of determining methylation status of specific DNA sequences, are thus being developed. Among them, MS-HRM (methylation-specific high resolution melting) and electrochemistry offer relatively inexpensive instrumentation, fast assay times and possibility of screening multiple samples/DNA regions simultaneously...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846722/-utilization-of-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-in-biopharmaceutical-industry
#6
D Coufalová, B Vojtěšek, L Hernychova
BACKGROUND: The development of biopharmaceutics is the fastest growing segment of the present pharmaceutical industry. The analysis of proteins therapeutics is a challenging task due to their large size and complexity of spatial structure. Any changes in the primary, secondary, tertiary or quaternary protein structure can have huge impact on their function, efficiency and toxicity. Mass spectrometry proved itself to be a powerful tool for analysis of primary protein structure (amino acid sequence) and thanks to the development of new techniques in last years it is able to analyse higher order protein structures...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846721/-building-mass-spectrometry-spectral-libraries-of-human-cancer-cell-lines
#7
J Faktor, P Bouchal
BACKGROUND: Cancer research often focuses on protein quantification in model cancer cell lines and cancer tissues. SWATH (sequential windowed acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra), the state of the art method, enables the quantification of all proteins included in spectral library. Spectral library contains fragmentation patterns of each detectable protein in a sample. Thorough spectral library preparation will improve quantitation of low abundant proteins which usually play an important role in cancer...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846720/-molecular-mechanisms-of-carcinogenesis-of-epithelial-ovarian-cancers
#8
Z Müllerová, T Müller, K Křivánková, B Vojtěšek, P Müller
BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian carcinomas are one of the most common causes of death among gynecologic malignancies in the Czech population. This group of tumors is characterized by considerable heterogeneity in terms of its pathogenesis and response to therapy. It is questionable whether advances in the elucidation of molecular pathogenesis of various types of epithelial ovarian carcinomas can contribute to application of personalized targeted therapy. AIMS: This work aims to summarize current knowledge on carcinogenesis and molecular basis of epithelial ovarian cancers and point out their potential applications in clinical practice...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846719/-impact-of-hsp90-inhibition-on-viability-and-cell-cycle-in-relation-to-p53-status
#9
M Pastorek, P Müller, B Vojtěšek
BACKGROUND: Chaperone system inhibition is a recent promising strategy for cancer treatment that exploits increased metabolic needs required for rapid proliferation as well as higher level of proteotoxic stress in neoplastic cells. Chaperone HSP90 plays a key role in proper folding of many de novo synthesized proteins, so-called clients, including tumor suppressor p53 which is commonly mutated in majority of cancers. Aim of this work was therefore to understand the impact of HSP90 inhibition by NVP-AUY922 on breast cancer cell lines with wild-type and mutated p53...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846718/-rab-proteins-intracellular-transport-and-cancer
#10
R Černochová, M Nekulová, J Holčaková
BACKGROUND: Rab proteins are small monomeric enzymes which belong to the large Ras protein superfamily and allow hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to guanosine (GDP). Up to now more than 60 proteins have been described that act primarily as regulators of intracellular transport. Rab GTPases are mostly located at the intracellular membranes, where they provide connections to motor proteins and to the cytoskeleton and control various steps of the traffic pathways including the formation and movement of vesicles or membrane fusion controlling secretion, endocytosis, recycling and degradation of proteins...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846717/-endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperones-at-the-tumor-cell-surface-and-in-the-extracellular-space
#11
V Brychtová, B Vojtěšek
BACKGROUND: Endoplasmic reticulum chaperones are stress induced proteins capable of translocation into cytosol, cell membrane or extracellular space. The chaperones are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum particularly under endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions, while their constitutive extracellular expression was found in many cancers. Cell surface or extracellular endoplasmic reticulum chaperones take up distinct functions compared to their endoplasmic reticulum resident variants because they act like multifunctional receptors and thus affect cell signaling and proliferation...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846716/-mechanisms-of-protein-homeostasis-regulation-in-cancer-development
#12
F Trčka, P Müller, B Vojtěšek
BACKGROUND: The proteome of eukaryotic cells represents a complex system. Its components are exposed to various intrinsic and extrinsic stresses. Therefore, the function of the cellular proteome is dependent on the existence of compensatory mechanisms balancing the inner protein homeostasis - proteostasis. These mechanisms involve the network of molecular chaperones and transcriptional program regulating their expression. The process of cancerogenesis is accompanied by significant changes in the intracellular milieu of cancer cells - temperature, pH, availability of nutrients...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846715/-multistep-process-of-establishing-carcinoma-metastases
#13
E Ondroušková, L Sommerová, R Hrstka
BACKGROUND: Dissemination of cancer cells from the primary tumor and establishment of therapy-resistant distant metastases is the most common cause of human cancer deaths. The primary tumor consists of a heterogeneous population of cancer cells that have to overcome activity of the immune system, insufficient delivery of nutrients and oxygen, chemotherapy, radiotherapy etc. that lead to the selection of resistant and plastic cancer cells. Another selection pressure during metastatic spread gives rise to resistant subpopulations of cells, capable of surviving and proliferating in the hostile microenvironment of distant tissues...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846714/-cancer-cells-as-dynamic-system-molecular-and-phenotypic-changes-during-tumor-formation-progression-and-dissemination
#14
L Sommerová, E Ondroušková, R Hrstka
Dynamic, punctual and perfectly coordinated cellular response to internal and external stimuli is a crucial prerequisite for adaptation of mammalian cells to all changes that occur during cellular development under physiological conditions. Hijacking this ability is characteristic for tumor cells that are capable to adapt to unfavorable conditions which contribute to the formation and development of cancer during the process of tumor formation and progression. By changing key mechanisms, malignant cells can avoid cell death and thus allow development and spread of the tumor...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739319/sentinel-lymph-node-in-thin-and-thick-melanoma
#15
L Roncati, F Piscioli, T Pusiol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739318/-hyperthermic-isolated-limb-perfusion-combined-with-tasonermin-a-perfusion-leakage-monitoring-technique
#16
J Trnka, M Špaček, V Šírová, P Mitáš, G Hodková, J Kubinyi, R Špunda, J Lindner
BACKGROUND: Hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion is used to treat irresectable extremity malignancies. It is based on the following principle - the perfusion of the extremity is isolated from systemic circulation and connected to an extra-corporal circuit via which a very high concentration of a chemotherapeutic agent is administered into the blood compartment of the extremity. In some cases, treatment efficiency can be improved using tasonermin (a TNF-α agent). By itself, tasonermin can cause severe health complications in patients if leakage into systemic circulation results in a level that exceeds the maximally tolerated dose...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739317/malignant-mesothelioma-of-the-tunica-vaginalis-testis-a-clinicopathologic-analysis-of-two-cases-with-a-review-of-the-literature
#17
B Mrinakova, K Kajo, M Ondrusova, J Simo, D Ondrus
Paratesticular malignant mesothelioma is an extremely rare type of mesothelioma with only a limited number of reported cases. Its clinical differentiation is challenging, and its diagnosis is almost exclusively accidental. The major risk factor is exposure to asbestos, typically with a long latency between exposure and diagnosis. The current study presents the clinical data of two patients diagnosed with paratesticular malignant mesothelioma. We evaluated a large spectrum of risk factors in the patients histories...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739316/-multimodal-therapy-of-recurrent-malignant-schwannoma
#18
O Kalita, K Cwiertka, D Vrána, M Vaverka, L Tučková, M Megová
BACKGROUND: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor schwannoma (MPNST), also known as malignant schwannoma, is a very rare tumor accounting for only 2% of all sarcomas. The prognosis is relatively poor, with a 5-year survival rate of 46-69%. The treatment of MPNST has not been standardized yet. Mainstay treatment is radical resection. Oncological adjuvant or neoadjuvant treatment has equivocal indications with unclear effects. CASE: The case report presents a 55-year-old patient who showed resistance in the medial-ventral area of the left lower limb...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739315/-expression-of-atp-binding-cassette-proteins-pgp-mrp1-and-mrp3-in-malignant-and-benign-ovarian-lesions
#19
I Sedláková, J Laco, J Tošner, J Špaček
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to compare the expression of PgP (P-glycoprotein), MRP1 (multidrug related protein), and MRP3 in ovarian cancer patients, patients with benign ovarian tumors, and healthy women, and to evaluate the correlation between the expression of ATP-binding cassette proteins Pgp, MRP1, and MRP3 with stage, grade, and histological type. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tissue specimens from 212 women who underwent surgery at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at University Hospital Hradec Králové were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for Pgp, MRP1, and MRP3...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739314/the-impact-of-high-protein-nutritional-support-on-clinical-outcomes-and-treatment-costs-of-patients-with-colorectal-cancer
#20
V Maňásek, K Bezděk, A Foltys, K Klos, J Smitka, D Smehlik
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high protein oral nutrition support (ONS) on clinical outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The secondary aim was to compare the cost of treatment and length of stay (LoS) for CRC patients taking high protein ONS vs. patients on conventional nutritional support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on adult patients with CRC undergoing colorectal surgery. Informed consent was obtained before the study...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
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