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Free Radical Research

Do-Hee Kim, Hyo-Jin Yoon, Young-Nam Cha, Young-Joon Surh
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a subpopulation of transformed cells that possess intrinsic ability to undergo selfrenewal and differentiation, which drive tumour resistance and cancer recurrence. It has been reported that CSCs possess enhanced protection against oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species compared with nonstem-like cancer cells. In the present work, we investigated the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a representative antioxidant enzyme, on the stemness and selfrenewal of human breast CSCs...
September 21, 2018: Free Radical Research
Cheng-Di Chiu, You-Pen Chiu, Cheng-Li Lin, Hui-Ru Ji, Chiung-Chyi Shen, Hsu-Tung Lee, Chen Chang
Hyperglycaemia is associated with the poor outcome after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Acetazolamide (AZA), a kind of carbonic anhydrogenase (CA) inhibitor, its effectiveness in ICH had been reported. However, the connections between AZA and ICH, especially in hyperglycaemia condition had never been defined. In this study, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with vehicle or streptozotocin (STZ) to render them into normoglycaemic (NG) or hyperglycaemic (HG), respectively. Collagenase was then injected into the striatum...
September 21, 2018: Free Radical Research
Paul Ames, Tommaso Bucci, Mira Merashli, Marta Amaral, Alessia Arcaro, Fabrizio Gentile, Jaffar Nourooz-Zadeh, Jose DelgadoAlves
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem autoimmune disease: characterized from the clinical side by progressive vasculopathy and fibrosis of the skin and different organs and from the biochemical side by fibroblast deregulation with excessive production of collagen and increased expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4). The latter contributes to an overproduction of reactive oxygen species that via an autocrine loop maintains NOX4 in a state of activation. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are implicated in the origin and perpetuation of several clinical manifestations of SSc having vascular damage in common; attempts to dampen oxidative and nitrative stress via different agents with antioxidant properties have not translated into sustained clinical benefit...
September 18, 2018: Free Radical Research
Jun Ni, Wenbo Yang, Weifeng Shen, Ruiyan Zhang
It has been reported that heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1) induction attenuates neointimal thickening. Here we further investigated the potential mechanisms regulating this important pathological process. We revealed that histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) was induced following Hmox1 induction under 1% oxygen treatment and this induction was attenuated after the treatment of siRNA against Hmox1. Interestingly, this HDAC2 induction was dependent on Hmox1 protein as well as its enzymatic activity, and was regulated by carbon monoxide released from heme degradation...
September 13, 2018: Free Radical Research
Sojin Park, Ju-Won Jang, Eun-Yi Moon
Autoimmune rheumatic lesions are often characterised by the immune cell recruitment including B lymphocytes and the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which increase antioxidant gene transcription via nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) has a major role in the signal transmission of all haematopoietic lineage cells including B/T cells, mast cells, and macrophages. In this study, we investigated whether B cell survival is regulated by Nrf2 via ROS-mediated Syk activation in WiL2-NS human B lymphoblast cells...
September 11, 2018: Free Radical Research
Denise Lacerda, Vanessa Ortiz, Patrick Türck, Cristina Campos-Carraro, Alexsandra Zimmer, Rayane Teixeira, Sara Bianchi, Alexandre Luz de Castro, Paulo Cavalheiro Schenkel, Adriane Belló-Klein, Valquiria Linck Bassani, Alex Sander da Rosa Araujo
Oxidative stress alters signalling pathways for survival and cell death favouring the adverse remodelling of postmyocardial remnant cardiomyocytes, promoting functional impairment. The administration of pterostilbene (PTS), a phytophenol with antioxidant potential, can promote cardioprotection and represents a therapeutic alternative in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The present study aims to explore the effects of oral administration of PTS complexed with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin HPβCD (PTS:HPβCD complex) on the glutathione cycle, thiol protein activities and signalling pathways involving the protein kinase B (AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) proteins in the left ventricle (LV) of infarcted rats...
September 11, 2018: Free Radical Research
Jiaxin Zhang, Wei Zhang, Tao Zhang, Qingbiao Zhou, Jiangzheng Liu, Ying Liu, Deqin Kong, Weihua Yu, Rui Liu, Chunxu Hai
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical to the progression of several disease processes including carcinoma metastasis and organ fibrosis. Recent studies show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction have been associated with EMT. However, the role of mitochondria in the EMT process remains to be elucidated. Through the induction of EMT using TGF-β1, we demonstrated that mitochondrial functions were abnormal by increasing ROS production and reducing mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP content and mitochondrial complex protein expression...
September 11, 2018: Free Radical Research
Jiao-Li Liu, Qiao Xue, Chen-Guang Liu, Feng-Wu Bai, Satoshi Wada, Jin-Ye Wang
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by ultraviolet A (UVA) can be reduced by treating with antioxidants and photoprotective reagents. Here we reported a real-time chemiluminescence (CL) imaging method which was simple, non-invasive and sensitive to evaluate UVA-induced ROS generation and the efficacy of sunscreens and antioxidants in vivo. The in vitro experiments indicated that l-ascorbic acid, live SPSC01 yeast, and its intracellular metabolites can suppress the intensity of CL signals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which proved the good antioxidant ability of them...
September 11, 2018: Free Radical Research
Suphannee Chokchaiwong, Yung-Ting Kuo, Shih-Hsiang Lin, Yi-Ching Hsu, Sung-Po Hsu, Yu-Ting Liu, An-Je Chou, Shu-Huei Kao
Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD), an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder of fatty acid metabolism, is mostly caused by mutations in the ETFA, ETFB or ETFDH genes that result in dysfunctions in electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone dehydrogenase (ETFDH). In β-oxidation, fatty acids are processed to generate acyl-CoA, which is oxidised by flavin adenine dinucleotide and transfers an electron to ETF and, through ETFDH, to mitochondrial respiratory complex III to trigger ATP synthesis...
September 11, 2018: Free Radical Research
M V Soares, R L Puntel, D S Ávila
There is an increase in the number of studies indicating that a disturbance in iron homeostasis is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, in which oxidative stress plays an important role. Oxidative stress can be counteracted by bioactive molecules like the flavonoid resveratrol, which acts as scavenging agent, or by modulating enzymes and metabolic signalling pathways, thus depicting the neuroprotective potential. On the other hand, flavonoids, resveratrol included, have been reported to induce an increase in the reactive species production...
September 11, 2018: Free Radical Research
Panagiotis Korantzopoulos, Konstantinos Letsas, Nikolaos Fragakis, Gary Tse, Tong Liu
Atrial remodelling involves electrophysiological and structural abnormalities that promote the development and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation. Experimental and clinical data indicate that oxidative stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of atrial remodelling. The mechanistic links between atrial remodelling and oxidative stress are complex with several underlying diseases and conditions may affect these pathways. Therefore, the development of antioxidant interventions in this setting remains difficult...
September 10, 2018: Free Radical Research
June Lee, Jong-Su Kang, Le Ba Nam, Ok-Kyung Yoo, Young-Sam Keum
NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) regulates transcription of phase II cytoprotective enzymes to protect normal cells against oxidative stress. However, a high level of NRF2 offers a growth advantage, chemoresistance, and radioresistance in cancer. In the present study, we have identified convallatoxin as a novel inhibitor of NRF2/ARE. Suppression of NRF2 by convallatoxin was not transcriptionally mediated, but regulated at the level of proteolysis. Convallatoxin activated GSK-3β and suppression of NRF2 by convallatoxin required the Neh6 domain...
September 10, 2018: Free Radical Research
Eszter Nyúl, Mónika Kuzma, Mátyás Mayer, Sándor Lakatos, Attila Almási, Pál Perjési
Fenton-reaction initiated in vitro oxidation and in vivo oxidative biotransformation of salicylic acid was investigated by HPLC-UV-Vis method. By means of the developed high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method salicylic acid, catechol and all the possible monohydroxylated derivatives of salicylic acid can be separated. Fenton oxidations were performed in acidic medium (pH 3.0) with two reagent molar ratios: (1) salicylic acid: iron: hydrogen peroxide 1:3:1 and (2) 1:0.3:1. The incubation samples were analyzed at different time points of the reactions...
September 3, 2018: Free Radical Research
Said H Audi, Nina Friedly, Ranjan K Dash, Andreas M Beyer, Anne V Clough, Elizabeth R Jacobs
The objectives of this study were to develop a robust protocol for measuring the rate of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) production in isolated perfused rat lungs, as an index of oxidative stress, and to determine cellular sources of the measured H2 O2 using the extracellular probe Amplex red (AR). AR was added to recirculating perfusate in an isolated perfused rat lung. AR's highly fluorescent oxidation product resorufin was measured in the perfusate. Experiments were carried without and with rotenone (complex I inhibitor), thenoyltrifluoroacetone (complex II inhibitor), antimycin A (complex III inhibitor), potassium cyanide (complex IV inhibitor), or diohenylene iodonium (inhibitor of flavin-containing enzymes, eg NAD(P)H oxidase or NOX) added to the perfusate...
September 2, 2018: Free Radical Research
Juan Yi, Yan Yuan, Jifang Zheng, Nan Hu
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) shows antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic and cytoprotective effects in kidneys. Recently, H2 S has been reported to alleviate uranium-induced rat nephrotoxicity through oxidative stress and inflammatory response via Nrf2-NF-κB pathways. Here, the protective effect and molecular mechanism of H2 S on uranium-induced apoptosis were examined in normal rat kidney proximal cells (NRK-52E ) in vitro. The results indicate that NaHS (an H2 S donor) administration in uranium-intoxicated kidney cells ameliorated uranium-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, caspase-3-dependent apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress identified through several key markers including GRP78, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase-12...
August 21, 2018: Free Radical Research
Fang Dai, Fang Jin, Ying Long, Xiao-Ling Jin, Bo Zhou
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) produced from mitochondria has attracted much attention on account of its physiological and pathological functions. Therefore, monitoring mitochondrial H2 O2 levels in living cells is of great significance for understanding its functions. We report here a mitochondria-targeted H2 O2 probe, Mito-HP, which was designed based on the 1,8-naphthalimide fluorogen by incorporation of a triphenylphosphonium targeting group and a boronate-based molecule switch. The probe demonstrates desired properties such as high selectivity, "turn-on" fluorescence response, excellent water solubility and physiological pH-response along with low cytotoxicity...
August 21, 2018: Free Radical Research
Barry Halliwell
This letter discusses the various artefacts that can arise when ascorbate or other redox-active compounds are added to cell culture media.
August 19, 2018: Free Radical Research
Nur Fathiah Abdul Sani, Mohd Hanafi Ahmad Damanhuri, Ahmad Imran Zaydi Amir Hamzah, Zulzikry Hafiz Abu Bakar, Jen Kit Tan, Khairun Nain Nor Aripin, Mohd Dzulkhairi Mohd Rani, Nor Azila Noh, Nor Aripin Shamaan, Rosdinom Razali, Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof, Musalmah Mazlan, Suzana Makpol, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah
Aging is associated with increased oxidative stress accompanied by cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers and their possible relationship with cognitive performances during aging among the Malay population. About 160 healthy Malay adults aged between 28-79 years old were recruited around Selangor and Klang Valley. Cognitive function was assessed by Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA), forward digit span (FDS), backward digit span (BDS), digit symbol, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test immediate recalled [Rey auditory verbal learning test immediate recalled (RAVLT)(I)] and delayed recalled [RAVLT(D)], and visual reproduction immediate recalled (VR-I) and delayed recalled (VR-II)...
August 6, 2018: Free Radical Research
Maofeng Wang, Hean-Pat Saw, Fei-Fei Cui, Sheng-Yi Lin, Hao-Teng Chang, Cheng-Di Chiu
G72 has been characterized as a susceptibility gene that can have wide-ranging effects in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including schizophrenia and major depression. Indeed, its product, pLG72, is a potential serum biomarker for schizophrenia. Previous transcriptomic and biochemical studies have indicated that pLG72 may induce the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in cell damage. Here, we investigated the mechanism of pLG72 by transfecting a human U87 glioblastoma cell line with a G72 construct...
July 23, 2018: Free Radical Research
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