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Free Radical Research

Suphannee Chokchaiwong, Yung-Ting Kuo, Shih-Hsiang Lin, Yi-Ching Hsu, Sung-Po Hsu, Yu-Ting Liu, An-Je Chou, Shu-Huei Kao
Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD), an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder of fatty acid metabolism, is mostly caused by mutations in the ETFA, ETFB or ETFDH genes that result in dysfunctions in electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone dehydrogenase (ETFDH). In β-oxidation, fatty acids are processed to generate acyl-CoA, which is oxidized by flavin adenine dinucleotide and transfers an electron to ETF and, through ETFDH, to mitochondrial respiratory complex III to trigger ATP synthesis...
July 13, 2018: Free Radical Research
Panagiotis Korantzopoulos, Konstantinos Letsas, Nikolaos Fragakis, Gary Tse, Tong Liu
Atrial remodeling involves electrophysiological and structural abnormalities that promote the development and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation. Experimental and clinical data indicate that oxidative stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of atrial remodeling. The mechanistic links between atrial remodeling and oxidative stress are complex with several underlying diseases and conditions may affect these pathways. Therefore, the development of antioxidant interventions in this setting remains difficult...
July 13, 2018: Free Radical Research
M V Soares, D S Ávila, R L Puntel
There are increasing studies indicating that a disturbance in iron homeostasis is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases in which oxidative stress plays an important role. To counteract oxidative stress, bioactive molecules as the flavonoid resveratrol can act as scavenger agents or by modulating enzymes and metabolic signaling pathways, thus depicting neuroprotective potential. On the other hand, flavonoids, resveratrol included, have been reported to induce increase in reactive species production...
July 11, 2018: Free Radical Research
June Lee, Jong-Su Kang, Le Ba Nam, Ok-Kyung Yoo, Young-Sam Keum
NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) regulates transcription of phase II cytoprotective enzymes to protect normal cells against oxidative stress. However, a high level of NRF2 offers a growth advantage, chemoresistance, and radioresistance in cancer. In the present study, we have identified convallatoxin as a novel inhibitor of NRF2/ARE suppression of NRF2 by convallatoxin was not transcriptionally mediated, but regulated at the level of proteolysis. Convallatoxin activated GSK-3β and suppression of NRF2 by convallatoxin required the Neh6 domain...
June 14, 2018: Free Radical Research
Yu-Ting Wu, Kun-Ting Chi, Yueh-Wen Lan, Jui-Chi Chan, Yi-Shing Ma, Yau-Huei Wei
Upregulation of mitochondrial function and oxidative metabolism is a hallmark in the differentiation of stem cells. However, the mechanism underlying the metabolic reprogramming and upregulation of mitochondrial function during the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is largely unclear. Sirt3 has emerged as a sensor in regulating mitochondrial function and antioxidant defense system in cellular response to energy demand or environmental stimuli, but its roles in stem cell differentiation has not been fully understood...
June 14, 2018: Free Radical Research
Nilotpal Banerjee, Sumi Mukhopadhyay
Redox homeostasis is necessary for maintenance of living systems. Chikungunya viral infection manifests into joint inflammation and debilitating polyarthralgia affecting the life style of the patient badly. The disease pathophysiology is poorly understood and there is a lack of targeted therapeutics. The pathogenic role of free radicals in arthritis is well established. This study aims for the first time to evaluate the status of several standard oxidative stress markers and their correlation in Chikungunya patients suffering with polyarthralgia...
June 14, 2018: Free Radical Research
Roohi Jeelani, Charalampos Chatzicharalampous, Hamid-Reza Kohan-Ghadr, Awoniyi Awonuga, Narendra Joshi, Robert T Morris, Husam M Abu-Soud
Recent studies have revealed that acrolein, a commonly found toxin and a potent metabolite of cyclophosphamide (CTX), can cause deterioration of mouse oocyte quality through a mechanism involving the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We extend these studies to evaluate the effects of acrolein, in varying concentrations, on the oocyte mitochondrial membrane and oocyte apoptosis and its effect on embryo development in vitro. Metaphase II mouse oocytes were exposed for 45 min to acrolein and CTX (10 & 25 µM) and mitochondrial dysfunction, a major source of ROS overproduction, was evaluated by the 5,5,6,6-tetrachloro-1,1,3,3-tetraethyl-β-benzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-10) Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay...
June 11, 2018: Free Radical Research
Miduo Tan, Anshang Wu, Ni Liao, Min Liu, Qiong Guo, Jiansheng Yi, Taoli Wang, Yan Huang, Bo Qiu, Wei Zhou
Autophagy modulation is a potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer, and a previous study indicated that metformin exhibits significant anticarcinogenic activity. However, the ability of metformin to induce autophagy and its role in breast cancer cell death remains unclear. In this study, we exposed MCF-7 cells to different concentrations of metformin (2.5, 5 and 10 mM) for 48 h, and metformin induced significant apoptosis in the MCF-7 cells. The expression levels of CL-PARP and the ratio of BAX to BCL-2 were significantly increased...
June 4, 2018: Free Radical Research
Yung-Ting Kuo, Jhong-Huei Jheng, Mei-Chen Lo, Wei-Lu Chen, Shyang-Guang Wang, Horng-Mo Lee
Iron or oxygen regulates the stability of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). We investigated whether ferrous glycinate would affect HIF-1α accumulation, aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial energy metabolism in human A549 lung cancer cells. Incubation of A549 cells with ferrous glycinate decreased the protein levels of HIF-1α, which was abrogated by proteosome inhibitor, or prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor. The addition of ferrous glycinate decreased protein levels of glucose transporter-1, hexokinase-2, and lactate dehydrogenase A, and decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 (PDK-1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) phosphorylation in A549 cells...
June 4, 2018: Free Radical Research
Alessandra das Graças Fedoce, Frederico Ferreira, Robert G Bota, Vicent Bonet-Costa, Patrick Y Sun, Kelvin J A Davies
Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in the USA affecting 18% of the population. The cause(s) of anxiety disorders is/are not completely clear, and research in the neurobiology of anxiety at the molecular level is still rather limited. Although mounting clinical and preclinical evidence now indicates that oxidative stress may be a major component of anxiety pathology, whether oxidative stress is the cause or consequence remains elusive. Studies conducted over the past few years suggest that anxiety disorders may be characterised by lowered antioxidant defences and increased oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids...
June 4, 2018: Free Radical Research
Hsiu-Chuan Yen, Chih-Lung Lin, Bing-Shian Chen, Chih-Wei Chen, Kuo-Chen Wei, Mei-Lin Yang, Jee-Ching Hsu, Yung-Hsing Hsu
Malignant astrocytoma is the most commonly occurring brain tumor in humans. Oxidative stress is implicated in the development of cancers. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) was found to exert tumor suppressive effect in basic research, but increased SOD2 protein level was associated with higher aggressiveness of human astrocytomas. However, studies reporting alterations of antioxidant enzymes in human astrocytomas often employed less accurate methods or included different types of tumors. Here we analyzed the mRNA levels, activities, and protein levels of primary antioxidant enzymes in control brain tissues and various grades of astrocytomas obtained from 40 patients...
June 3, 2018: Free Radical Research
Li Guo, Yiming Zhao, Dingxin Liu, Zhichao Liu, Chen Chen, Ruobing Xu, Miao Tian, Xiaohua Wang, Hailan Chen, Michael G Kong
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) generated by cold atmospheric-pressure plasma could damage genomic DNA, although the precise types of these DNA damage induced by plasma are poorly characterized. Understanding plasma-induced DNA damage will help to elucidate the biological effect of plasma and guide the application of plasma in ROS-based therapy. In this study, it was shown that ROS and RNS generated by physical plasma could efficiently induce DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) in bacteria, yeast, and human cells...
May 28, 2018: Free Radical Research
Farjam Goudarzi, Adel Mohammadalipour, Majid Bahabadi, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Arash Sarveazad, Iraj Khodadadi
Common protocols for chondrogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are generally expensive and time-consuming and, so far, have not successfully recreated pure chondrocytes. We hypothesise that a low level of H2 O2 may induce differentiation of ADSCs into chondrocytes in a shorter incubation time and relatively lower cost. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the effectiveness of H2 O2 -containing or free medium in the induction of ADSCs to chondrocytes. ADSCs were isolated from the lipoaspirate of four healthy females and evaluated by immunophenotyping for their CD90, CD73, CD44, CD34, and CD45 cell surface markers...
May 22, 2018: Free Radical Research
Carlo Dani, Chiara Poggi, Simone Pratesi
Hyperbilirubinemia is the most frequent clinical problem neonatologists must deal with during the newborn period. It has been suggested that bilirubin is involved in the balance between antioxidant and pro-oxidant agents due to its antioxidant properties. However, the relevance of these effects in vivo in term and preterm infants is still debated. We performed a literature review of studies that investigated the association between total serum bilirubin (TSB) and oxidative stress in newborn infants. We found that studies in term infants give contradictory results, while studies in preterm infants suggest that the TSB increase is associated with an oxidative stress increase due to concurrent factors other than bilirubin level, such as heme oxygenase (HO) activity...
May 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
Xiaoling Liu, Xinyu Long, Weiwei Liu, Guodong Yao, Yeli Zhao, Toshihiko Hayashi, Shunji Hattori, Hitomi Fujisaki, Takaaki Ogura, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Satoshi Onodera, Masayuki Yamato, Takashi Ikejima
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate in various cell responses in association with cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and death. Extracellular matrix (ECM) serves as cellular microenvironments for many kinds of cells, affecting cell activities. However, whether or not ECM influences cellular ROS levels has not been well studied. In this study, cells are cultured on collagen I molecule-coated (mol. coated) dishes and collagen I fibrous gel-covered (gel) dishes to explore their influence on cell behaviors...
May 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
Tomohisa Takagi, Yuji Naito, Makoto Tanaka, Katsura Mizushima, Chihiro Ushiroda, Yuki Toyokawa, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Masahide Hamaguchi, Osamu Handa, Yoshito Itoh
Recent studies have identified carbon monoxide (CO) as a potential therapeutic molecule for the treatment of inflammatory diseases including intestinal inflammation. In the present study, we explored the efficacy and the mechanisms of action of CO-releasing molecule (CORM)-A1 in T-cell transfer induced colitis model in mice. In addition, the impact of CORM-A1 on the T helper (Th) cell differentiation was evaluated using naïve CD4+ T cells isolated from the spleens in Balb/c mice. The results showed that CORM-A1 conferred protection against the development of intestinal inflammation and attenuated Th17 cell differentiation...
May 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
Giancarlo Aldini, Alessandra Altomare, Giovanna Baron, Giulio Vistoli, Marina Carini, Luisa Borsani, Francesco Sergio
The main molecular mechanisms explaining the well-established antioxidant and reducing activity of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the N-acetyl derivative of the natural amino acid l-cysteine, are summarised and critically reviewed. The antioxidant effect is due to the ability of NAC to act as a reduced glutathione (GSH) precursor; GSH is a well-known direct antioxidant and a substrate of several antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, in some conditions where a significant depletion of endogenous Cys and GSH occurs, NAC can act as a direct antioxidant for some oxidant species such as NO2 and HOX...
May 9, 2018: Free Radical Research
Wei Wang, Dongdong Chen, Xiaopei Zhang, Liu, Yingying Cheng, Fafu Shen
Plant respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs), which are also named nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOXs), are the homologs of mammalian phagocyte gp91phox . As a unique among other reactive oxygen species (ROS) production mechanisms in plants, NADPH oxidases can integrate different signal transduction pathways, such as calcium, protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, nitric oxide, and lipid messengers. Coupling with genetic studies, the ability of plant NADPH oxidases to integrate different signal transduction pathways with ROS production demonstrates their involvement in many important biological processes in cells, such as morphogenesis and development, and stress responses...
May 7, 2018: Free Radical Research
Shinya Akatsuka, Guang Hua Li, Shinya Toyokuni
Evolution of the species and carcinogenesis are similar in that genomic alterations are the key events. Oxidative stress derived from various etiologies is one of the major causes of carcinogenesis by inducing mutations in the genome. Persistent oxidative stress in the renal proximal tubules through Fenton reaction catalysed by ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) generates renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in mice and rats. Here, in order to observe the species difference in oxidative stress-induced carcinogenesis and to obtain an insight regarding the characteristics of each species, we compared the genomic alterations using array-based comparative genome hybridisation among RCCs in Mutyh knockout/wild-type mice (C57BL/6 background) induced by Fe-NTA, RCCs in F1 hybrids of Brown-Norway/Fischer-344 wild-type rats and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC)/papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) of humans...
May 7, 2018: Free Radical Research
Xiaoyu Su, Longfei Xin, Zhuo Li, Huifang Zheng, Jun Mao, Qinghua Yang
To determine the role of melatonin in aging maize seeds ( Zea mays L.), we investigated the physiological characteristics and performance analysis of the transcriptome after applying melatonin to maize seeds as a response to aging. In this study, we demonstrated that applying exogenous melatonin alleviated aging-induced oxidative damage, improved the activity of aging seeds, promoted growth of the germ and radical, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity and reduced membrane lipid peroxidation. In addition, transcriptome sequencing revealed that various metabolic processes were induced by exogenous melatonin application in aging maize seeds, including hormone signal transduction, cellular processes, carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolites, and amino acid metabolism...
May 3, 2018: Free Radical Research
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