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Free Radical Research

Ashleigh Craig, Catharina M C Mels, Ruan Kruger
Early cardiovascular disease (CVD) onset can be inflicted by familial cardiovascular and lifestyle risk factors. We aimed to compare phenotypic characteristics and explore associations between oxidative stress and vascular function in boys stratified by maternal cardiovascular and lifestyle risk. We included 40 Black and 41 White boys (ages 6-8 years), along with the biological mother of each child. The study population was divided into two groups (nonmaternal risk vs. maternal risk) according to maternal risk predetermined by their selfreported cardiovascular and lifestyle risk factors...
January 19, 2018: Free Radical Research
Andrew J Ghio, Martin Case, Joleen M Soukup
Heme oxygenase (HO) is an essential, rate-limiting protein which catalyzes the breakdown of heme to iron, carbon monoxide (CO), and biliverdin. The alpha methene bridge of the heme is eliminated as CO which can be measured as blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). Using blood concentrations of COHb as a measure reflecting HO activity, we tested the postulate that the activity of HO changes with exercise. Ten healthy, nonsmoking volunteers (5 females and 5 males with a mean age ± standard deviation of 25.7 ± 3...
January 17, 2018: Free Radical Research
Antonija Perović, Sandra Sobočanec, Sanja Dabelić, Tihomir Balog, Jerka Dumić
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of scuba diving on oxidative damage markers in erythrocytes and plasma, antioxidant system in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) gene expressions in recreational divers after a winter nondive period (at least 5 months). For that purpose, 17 male recreational divers performed an immersion at a depth of 30 m for 30 min. Blood samples were collected immediately before and after diving, 3 and 6 h after diving...
January 15, 2018: Free Radical Research
Salen Kuresepi, Bertrand Vileno, Philippe Turek, Jean-Pierre Lepoittevin, Elena Giménez-Arnau
The first step in the development of skin sensitisation to a chemical, and in the elicitation of further allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), is the binding of the allergen to skin proteins after penetrating into the epidermis. The so-formed antigenic adduct is then recognised by the immune system as foreign to the body. Sensitising organic hydroperoxides derived from autoxidation of natural terpenes are believed to form antigens through radical-mediated mechanisms, although this has not yet been established...
January 15, 2018: Free Radical Research
Julie Kengen, Jean-Philippe Deglasse, Marie-Aline Neveu, Lionel Mignion, Céline Desmet, Florian Gourgue, Jean-Christophe Jonas, Bernard Gallez, Bénédicte F Jordan
The ability of certain cancer cells to maintain a highly reduced intracellular environment is correlated with aggressiveness and drug resistance. Since the gluthathione (GSH) and thioredoxin (TRX) systems cooperate to a tight regulation of ROS in cell physiology, and to a stimulation of tumor initiation and progression, modulation of the GSH and TRX pathways are emerging as new potential targets in cancer. In vivo methods to assess changes in tumor redox status are critically needed to assess the relevance of redox-targeted agents...
January 10, 2018: Free Radical Research
Ken-Ichiro Matsumoto, James B Mitchell, Murali C Krishna
In vivo decay rates of a nitroxyl contrast agent were estimated by a MR redox imaging (MRRI) technique and compared with the decay rates obtained by the electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPRS) and imaging (EPRI). MRRI is a dynamic imaging technique employing T1-weighted pulse sequence, which can visualize a nitroxyl-induced enhancement of signal intensity by T1-weighted contrast. EPR techniques can directly measure the paramagnetic nitroxyl radical. Both the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tumor-bearing and normal legs of a female C3H mouse were scanned by T1-weighted SPGR sequence at 4...
January 10, 2018: Free Radical Research
Bruna R B Gomes, Marina Firmino, Jardeson S Jorge, Maria L O Ferreira, Thays M Rodovalho, Simone N Weis, Gloria E P Souza, Paulo C Morais, Marcelo V Sousa, Paulo E N Souza, Fabiane H Veiga-Souza
Fever is a regulated increase in body temperature and a component of the acute-phase response, triggered mainly after the invasion of pathogens in the body. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated during the physiological and pathological processes, and can act as both signaling molecules as well as promoters of oxidative stress. Male Wistar rats, pretreated with oral doses of acetaminophen, celecoxib, dipyrone, or ibuprofen 30 min before an intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or sterile saline injection, showed a reduced febrile response in all animals tested...
January 8, 2018: Free Radical Research
I Verrastro, K Tveen-Jensen, C M Spickett, A R Pitt
Oxidation by reactive species can cause changes in protein function and affect cell signaling pathways. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a negative regulator of the PI3K/AKT pathway and is known to be inhibited by oxidation, but its oxidation by the myeloperoxidase-derived oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl) has not previously been investigated. PTEN-GST was treated with HOCl:protein ratios from 15:1 to 300:1. Decreases in PTEN phosphatase activity were observed at treatment ratios of 60:1 and higher, which correlated with the loss of the intact protein band and appearance of high molecular weight aggregates in SDS-PAGE...
January 3, 2018: Free Radical Research
Ting-Bin Yan, Ci Li, Guang-Jun Jiao, Wen-Liang Wu, Hai-Chun Liu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-138 in osteoporosis and its underlying mechanism. METHODS: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to induce osteoporotic injury of osteoblasts. The cell viability and apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells was assessed using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The cell transfection was carried out to modulate the expression levels of miR-138 and TIMP-1 in MC3T3-E1 cells. Luciferase reporter gene assay was performed to determine the interaction between miR-138 and TIMP-1 3'UTR...
January 2, 2018: Free Radical Research
Maikho Thoh, Raghavendra S Patwardhan, Das Tomi Nath, Sharma Deepak, S K Sandur
Monocytes are recruited to injured tissue sites and differentiate into tissue macrophages or dendritic cells to protect against pathogens and repair the damaged tissues. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) is a well-known stimulus commonly used for differentiation of monocytes into macrophage-like cells (MɸLC). Here, we report the effect of Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) on PMA induced U937 differentiation into MɸLC. Treatment of U937 cells with PMA for 3 days and resting for 4 days increased the size of cytoplasm as compared nucleus and exposure to CAP before addition of PMA led to further increase in cytoplasm indicating the ability of CAP to modulate the differentiation of monocytes...
January 2, 2018: Free Radical Research
Mark A Rosenfeld, Alexandra D Vasilyeva, Lyubov V Yurina, Anna V Bychkova
Proteins represent extremely susceptible targets for oxidants. Oxidative modifications of proteins may bring about violation of their structure and functionality. It implies that the structures of proteins are not infallible in terms of their antioxidant defence. The protection mechanisms in preventing oxidative damages for proteins within cells are mainly related to a large variety of antioxidant enzymatic systems. In contrast, plasma proteins are scarcely protected by these systems, so the mechanism that provides their functioning in the conditions of generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) seems to be much more complicated...
December 28, 2017: Free Radical Research
Adrián Aicardo, Mauricio Mastrogiovanni, Adriana Cassina, Rafael Radi
The reactions of proteins with biologically-relevant oxidants have been widely studied, although most of the work has been performed in diluted homogenous solutions conditions that differ from those in intracellular environments. Cellular compartments represent highly crowded milieu in which high concentrations of biomolecules are present, unspecific intermolecular interactions promoted and physicochemical properties of constituents modified. In this work, we propose that the high concentration at which proteins are present inside cells, favors radical oxidative reactions between polypeptides which propagate in an oxygen-dependent process similar to membrane lipid peroxidation...
December 27, 2017: Free Radical Research
Hua Wei, Xiangfeng Cong
The coordination of metabolic shift with genetic circuits is critical to cell specification, but the metabolic mechanisms that drive cardiac development are largely unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is not only the byproduct of mitochondrial metabolism, but play a critical role in signaling cascade of cardiac development as a second messenger. Various levels of ROS appear differential and even oppose effect on selfrenewal and cardiac differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) at each stage of differentiation...
December 19, 2017: Free Radical Research
Benjamen Nforneh, Adonis M Bovell, Kurt Warncke
The B12 (adenosylcobalamin)-dependent ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EAL) is a product of the ethanolamine utilisation (eut) gene cluster, that is involved in human gut microbiome homeostasis and in disease conditions caused by pathogenic strains of Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Toward elucidation of the molecular basis of EAL catalysis, and its intracellular trafficking and targeting to the Eut biomicrocompartment (BMC), we have applied electron spin-labelling and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to wild-type (wt) EAL from Salmonella typhimurium, by using the sulphydryl-specific, 4-maleimido-TEMPO (4MT) spin label...
December 18, 2017: Free Radical Research
Ajaswrata Dutta, Manju Lata Gupta, Savita Verma
Intestinal injury is inevitable during exposure to high radiation doses and is a common side effect observed during abdominal/pelvic radiotherapy. Yet no radiation countermeasures are available for gastrointestine (GI) injury management. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of podophyllotoxin and rutin in combination (G-003M) on ionizing radiation induced GI injury. We prophylactically administered G-003M to C57BL/6J mice exposed to 9-Gy total body radiation (TBI) and assessed for morphological changes, loss in absorption, fluid retention, biochemical alterations, immunohistochemical analysis to study cPARP, caspase-3, PCNA expression and TUNEL staining...
December 17, 2017: Free Radical Research
Andriy Cherkas, Kamelija Zarkovic, Ana Čipak, Morana Jaganjac, Lidija Milković, Orest Abrahamovych, Ostap Yatskevych, Georg Waeg, Olha Yelisyeyeva, Neven Zarkovic
Helicobacter pylori-induced oxidative stress in gastric mucosa (GM) is a milieu for the development of chronic gastritis, duodenal peptic ulcer (DPU), gastric cancer and a number of extragastric diseases. Because our previous study revealed the accumulation of the protein adducts of lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) in GM, which persists after eradication of H. pylori, the aim of the study was to test whether Amaranth oil supplementation in addition to standard anti-Helicobacter treatment could prevent such accumulation of HNE in GM in H...
December 17, 2017: Free Radical Research
Sahara Rai, Alimul Chowdhury, Renate L E P Reniers, Stephen J Wood, Samuel J E Lucas, Sarah Aldred
The brain is highly susceptible to oxidative stress due to its high metabolic demand. Increased oxidative stress and depletion of glutathione (GSH) are observed with aging and many neurological diseases. Exercise training has the potential to reduce oxidative stress in the brain. In this study, nine healthy sedentary males (aged 25 ± 4 years) undertook a bout of continuous moderate intensity exercise and a high-intensity interval (HII) exercise bout on separate days. GSH concentration in the anterior cingulate was assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in four participants, before and after exercise...
December 13, 2017: Free Radical Research
Yuri Sakai, Tohru Yamamori, Yoji Yoshikawa, Tomoki Bo, Motofumi Suzuki, Kumiko Yamamoto, Tetsuro Ago, Osamu Inanami
Excessive DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation (IR) to normal tissue cells is known to trigger cellular senescence, a process termed stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). SIPS is often accompanied by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and this is reported to be important for the initiation and maintenance of SIPS. However, the source of ROS during SIPS after IR and their significance in radiation-induced normal tissue damage remain elusive. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the NADPH oxidase (NOX) family of proteins mediates ROS production in SIPS-induced cells after IR and plays a role in SIPS-associated biological events...
December 12, 2017: Free Radical Research
Xiyun Bian, Tianming Teng, Huanhuan Zhao, Jiangyu Qin, Zhen Qiao, Yuemin Sun, Zhiqiang Liun, Zhelong Xu
Zinc plays a role in autophagy and protects cardiac cells from ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study aimed to test if zinc can induce mitophagy leading to attenuation of mitochondrial superoxide generation in the setting of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in cardiac cells. H9c2 cells were subjected to 4 h hypoxia followed by 2 h reoxygenation. Under normoxic conditions, treatments of cells with ZnCl2 increased both the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and GFP-LC3 puncta, implying that zinc induces autophagy. Further experiments showed that endogenous zinc is required for the autophagy induced by starvation and rapamycin...
December 7, 2017: Free Radical Research
Sirinart Kumfu, Juthamas Khamseekaew, Siripong Palee, Somdet Srichairatanakool, Suthat Fucharoen, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
Many recent studies have shown that antioxidant compounds decrease cardiac oxidative stress, decrease cardiac iron deposition and improve cardiac dysfunction in iron-overload induced cardiomyopathy in animal models. Interestingly, a therapy including the combination of the iron chelator deferiprone (DFP) plus the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to significantly decrease oxidative stress and restore heart and brain function in iron-overloaded rats. However, the cardioprotective effects of this combined DFP and NAC treatment in thalassemic mice has not been investigated...
December 5, 2017: Free Radical Research
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