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Indoor Air

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646605/observations-and-impacts-of-bleach-washing-on-indoor-chlorine-chemistry
#1
J P S Wong, N Carslaw, R Zhao, S Zhou, J P D Abbatt
Ambient levels of chlorinated gases and aerosol components were measured by on-line chemical ionization and aerosol mass spectrometers after an indoor floor was repeatedly washed with a commercial bleach solution. Gaseous chlorine (Cl2 , 10's of ppbv) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl, 100's of ppbv) arise after floor washing, along with nitryl chloride (ClNO2 ), dichlorine monoxide (Cl2 O) and chloramines (NHCl2 , NCl3 ). Much higher mixing ratios would prevail in a room with lower and more commonly encountered air exchange rates than that observed in the study (12...
June 24, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613428/prenatal-and-postnatal-exposure-to-pet-ownership-and-lung-function-in-children-the-seven-northeastern-cities-study
#2
Li-Wen Hu, Zhengmin Qian, Shyamali C Dharmage, Echu Liu, Steven W Howard, Michael G Vaughn, Jennifer Perret, Caroline C Lodge, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Bo-Yi Yang, Shu-Li Xu, Chuan Zhang, Guang-Hui Dong
To evaluate the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to pet ownership and lung function in children, a cross-sectional study named Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study was conducted. In this study, children's lung function including the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured by spirometers, and pet ownership situations was collected by questionnaire. Analyzed by multiple logistic regression and generalized linear modeling, we found that for all subjects, pet exposure in the first 2 years of life was significantly associated with lung function impairment of FVC<85% predicted (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1...
June 14, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556503/occurrence-and-human-exposure-assessment-of-organophosphate-flame-retardants-opfrs-in-indoor-dust-from-various-microenvironments-of-the-rhine-main-region-germany
#3
Lingli Zhou, Marco Hiltscher, Wilhelm Püttmann
We analyzed organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in 74 indoor dust samples collected from seven microenvironments (building material markets, private cars, daycare centers, private homes, floor/carpet stores, offices, and schools) in the Rhine/Main region of Germany. Ten of 11 target OPFRs were ubiquitously detected, some with more than 97% detection frequency, including tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCIPP), tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBOEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and tris(isobutyl) phosphate (TIBP)...
May 29, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556424/growth-of-organic-films-on-indoor-surfaces
#4
Charles J Weschler, William W Nazaroff
We present a model for the growth of organic films on impermeable indoor surfaces. The model couples transport through a gas-side boundary layer adjacent to the surface with equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between the gas-phase and the surface film. Model predictions indicate that film growth would primarily be influenced by the gas-phase concentration of SVOCs with octanol-air partitioning (Koa ) values in the approximate range 10 ≤ log Koa ≤ 13. Within the relevant range, SVOCs with lower values will equilibrate with the surface film more rapidly...
May 29, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548238/a-quantitative-property-property-relationship-for-the-internal-diffusion-coefficients-of-organic-compounds-in-solid-materials
#5
Lei Huang, Peter Fantke, Alexi Ernstoff, Olivier Jolliet
Indoor releases of organic chemicals encapsulated in solid materials are major contributors to human exposures and are directly related to the internal diffusion coefficient in solid materials. Existing correlations to estimate the diffusion coefficient are only valid for a limited number of chemical-material combinations. This paper develops and evaluates a quantitative property-property relationship (QPPR) to predict diffusion coefficients for a wide range of organic chemicals and materials. We first compiled a training dataset of 1103 measured diffusion coefficients for 158 chemicals in 32 consolidated material types...
May 26, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493625/significant-oh-production-under-surface-cleaning-and-air-cleaning-conditions-impact-on-indoor-air-quality
#6
Nicola Carslaw, Louise Fletcher, Dwayne Heard, Trevor Ingham, Hannah Walker
We report measurements of hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO2 ) radicals made by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a computer classroom (i) in the absence of indoor activities (ii) during desk cleaning with a limonene-containing cleaner (iii) during operation of a commercially available 'air cleaning' device. In the unmanipulated environment, the one-minute averaged OH concentration remained close to or below the limit of detection (6.5 x 10(5) molecule cm(-3) ), whilst that of HO2 was 1.3 x 10(7) molecule cm(-3) ...
May 11, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474814/perceived-indoor-air-quality-and-its-relationship-to-air-pollutants-in-french-dwellings
#7
Sarka Langer, Olivier Ramalho, Eline Le Ponner, Mickaël Derbez, Severine Kirchner, Corinne Mandin
Perception of indoor air quality (PIAQ) was evaluated in a nationwide survey of 567 French dwellings, and this survey was combined with measurements of gaseous and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5 ) indoor air pollutants and indoor climate parameters. The perception was assessed on a nine-grade scale by both the occupants of the dwellings and the inspectors who performed the measurements. The occupants perceived the air quality in their homes as more pleasant than the inspectors. The inspectors perceived the air quality as more unpleasant in dwellings in which the residents smoked indoors...
May 5, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440000/human-symptom-responses-to-bioeffluents-short-chain-carbonyls-acids-and-long-chain-carbonyls-in-a-simulated-aircraft-cabin-environment
#8
Clifford P Weisel, Nancy Fiedler, Charles J Weschler, Pamela Ohman-Strickland, Krishnan R Mohan, Kathy McNeil, David Space
Occupants of aircraft have reported an array of symptoms related to general discomfort and irritation. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been suggested to contribute to the reported symptoms. VOCs are from products used, bioeffluents from people and ozone reaction products. Thirty-six healthy, young female subjects rated symptoms and environmental quality during an 8-hour exposure to groups of compounds often present in aircraft: 1) long chain carbonyls, 2) simulated bioeffluents, and 3) short chain carbonyls/organic acids...
April 25, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439983/a-method-for-assessing-the-performance-of-nanofiber-films-coated-on-window-screens-in-reducing-residential-exposures-to-pm2-5-of-outdoor-origin-in-beijing
#9
Shanshan Shi, Ye Bian, Li Zhang, Chun Chen
Recently, many nanofiber films have been developed for air filtration applications. These films exhibit high PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm) removal efficiency and relatively low air resistance. Thus, coating window screens with nanofiber films may be able to mitigate residential exposure to PM2.5 of outdoor origin. This study developed a method for assessing the performance of nanofiber window screens in reducing residential exposure to PM2.5 of outdoor origin in Beijing. The results show that the use of selected nanofiber window screens all the time throughout the year can reduce the mean value of the annual average indoor PM2...
April 25, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423205/the-impact-of-biogas-and-fuelwood-use-on-institutional-kitchen-air-quality-in-kampala-uganda
#10
Aleia Ingulli McCord, Sarah Adel Stefanos, Vianney Tumwesige, Dorothy Lsoto, Anna Hillstrom Meding, Angela Adong, James Jay Schauer, Rebecca Anne Larson
Experts have suggested that microscale biogas systems offer a source of renewable energy that improves indoor air quality, but such impacts have not been directly measured. This study documented cooking behaviors and measured 2.5 μm particulate matter (PM2.5 ), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) concentrations within 14 institutional kitchens in Kampala, Uganda that prepare meals using biogas (n=5), a mixture of biogas and fuelwood (n=3), and fuelwood (n=6). Small institutions (10-30 people) with biogas kitchens had 99% lower concentrations of PM2...
April 19, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401994/particulate-matter-chemical-component-concentrations-and-sources-in-settings-of-household-solid-fuel-use
#11
REVIEW
Matthew H Secrest, James J Schauer, Ellison Carter, Jill Baumgartner
Particulate matter (PM) air pollution derives from combustion and non-combustion sources and consists of various chemical species that may differentially impact human health and climate. Previous reviews of PM chemical component concentrations and sources focus on high-income urban settings, which likely differ from the low- and middle-income settings where solid fuel (i.e., coal, biomass) is commonly burned for cooking and heating. We aimed to summarize the concentrations of PM chemical components and their contributing sources in settings where solid fuel is burned...
April 12, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378912/a-comparison-between-tracer-gas-and-aerosol-particles-distribution-indoors-the-impact-of-ventilation-rate-interaction-of-airflows-and-presence-of-objects
#12
M Bivolarova, J Ondráček, A Melikov, V Ždímal
The study investigated the separate and combined effects of ventilation rate, free convection flow produced by a thermal manikin, and the presence of objects on the distribution of tracer gas and particles in indoor air. The concentration of aerosol particles and tracer gas was measured in a test room with mixing ventilation. Three layouts were arranged: an empty room, an office room with an occupant sitting in front of a table, and a single-bed hospital room. The room occupant was simulated by a thermal manikin...
April 5, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378908/the-effect-of-low-ventilation-rate-with-elevated-bioeffluent-concentration-on-work-performance-perceived-indoor-air-quality-and-health-symptoms
#13
H Maula, V Hongisto, V Naatula, A Haapakangas, H Koskela
The aim of this laboratory experiment was to study the effects of ventilation rate, and related changes in air quality, predominantly bioeffluents, on work performance, perceived indoor air quality, and health symptoms in a typical conditions of modern open-plan office with low material and equipment emissions. In Condition A, outdoor air flow rate of 28.2 l/s person (CO2 level 540 ppm) was applied and in Condition B, outdoor air flow rate was 2.3 l/s person (CO2 level 2260 ppm). CO2 concentration level was used as an indicator of bioeffluents...
April 5, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378907/advanced-buffer-materials-for-indoor-air-co2-control-in-commercial-buildings
#14
P E Rajan, A Krishnamurthy, G Morrison, F Rezaei
In this study, we evaluated solid sorbents for their ability to passively control indoor CO2 concentration in buildings or rooms with cyclic occupancy (eg, offices, bedrooms). Silica supported amines were identified as suitable candidates and systematically evaluated in the removal of CO2 from indoor air by equilibrium and dynamic techniques. In particular, sorbents with various amine loadings were synthesized using tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and a silane coupling agent 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS)...
April 5, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370571/investigation-of-inflammatory-and-allergic-responses-to-common-mold-species-results-from-in-vitro-experiments-from-a-mouse-model-of-asthma-and-from-a-group-of-asthmatic-patients
#15
Muriel Vincent, Pauline Percier, Sofie De Prins, Kris Huygen, Georges Potemberg, Eric Muraille, Marta Romano, Olivier Michel, Olivier Denis
Most studies on molds focus on A. alternata and A. fumigatus. Here we report on inflammatory and allergenic properties of more typical indoor species A. versicolor, P. chrysogenum, C. cladosporioïdes and C. sphaerospermum that were compared to A. alternata and A. fumigatus. In a mouse model, after intranasal instillation, A. alternaria, A. versicolor and C. sphaerospermum induced the early recruitment of neutrophils and the strong expression of inflammatory markers in the broncho-alveolar lavages fluids. A...
April 2, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370427/ventilation-rates-in-recently-constructed-us-school-classrooms
#16
Stuart Batterman, Feng-Chiao Su, Andrew Wald, Floyd Watkins, Christopher Godwin, Geoffrey Thun
Low ventilation rates (VRs) in schools have been associated with absenteeism, poorer academic performance, and teacher dissatisfaction. We measured VRs in 37 recently constructed or renovated and mechanically-ventilated U.S. schools, including LEED and EnergyStar-certified buildings, using CO2 and the steady-state, build-up, decay and transient mass balance methods. The transient mass balance method better matched conditions (specifically, changes in occupancy) and minimized biases seen in the other methods...
April 2, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631263/isiaq-academy-awards-2016
#17
EDITORIAL
T Salthammer, Y Li, R Corsi, K W Tham, P Wargocki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107558/predictors-of-summertime-heat-index-levels-in-new-york-city-apartments
#18
A Quinn, P Kinney, J Shaman
During heat waves, fatal overexposure to heat most often occurs at home. It is not known how factors such as building size, floor level, and different types of air conditioning (AC) contribute to excess indoor heat. We monitored indoor temperature and humidity in 36 apartments in New York City during summers 2014 and 2015 and used these values to calculate the indoor heat index (HI). We investigated the role of AC type and building-level factors on indoor HI using multilevel regression models. Thirty-four of 36 homes had AC...
July 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107552/reflections-on-the-history-of-indoor-air-science-focusing-on-the-last-50%C3%A2-years
#19
J Sundell
The scientific articles and Indoor Air conference publications of the indoor air sciences (IAS) during the last 50 years are summarized. In total 7524 presentations, from 79 countries, have been made at Indoor Air conferences held between 1978 (49 presentations) and 2014 (1049 presentations). In the Web of Science, 26 992 articles on indoor air research (with the word "indoor" as a search term) have been found (as of 1 Jan 2016) of which 70% were published during the last 10 years. The modern scientific history started in the 1970s with a question: "did indoor air pose a threat to health as did outdoor air?" Soon it was recognized that indoor air is more important, from a health point of view, than outdoor air...
July 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054389/health-effects-of-laser-printer-emissions-a-controlled-exposure-study
#20
S Karrasch, M Simon, B Herbig, J Langner, S Seeger, A Kronseder, S Peters, G Dietrich-Gümperlein, R Schierl, D Nowak, R A Jörres
Ultrafine particles emitted from laser printers are suspected to elicit adverse health effects. We performed 75-minute exposures to emissions of laser printing devices (LPDs) in a standardized, randomized, cross-over manner in 23 healthy subjects, 14 mild, stable asthmatics, and 15 persons reporting symptoms associated with LPD emissions. Low-level exposures (LLE) ranged at the particle background (3000 cm(-3) ) and high-level exposures (HLE) at 100 000 cm(-3) . Examinations before and after exposures included spirometry, body plethysmography, transfer factors for CO and NO (TLCO, TLNO), bronchial and alveolar NO, cytokines in serum and nasal secretions (IL-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, IFNγ, TNFα), serum ECP, and IgE...
July 2017: Indoor Air
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