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Indoor Air

Clara M A Eichler, Jianping Cao, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, John C Little
Emission, transport, and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), which include plasticizers, flame retardants, pesticides, biocides, and oxidation products of volatile organic compounds, are influenced in part by their tendency to sorb to indoor surfaces. A thin organic film enhances this effect, because it acts as both an SVOC sink and source, thus potentially prolonging human exposure. Unfortunately, our ability to describe the initial formation and subsequent growth of organic films on indoor surfaces is limited...
November 1, 2018: Indoor Air
Xin Zhang, Dan Norbäck, Qiannan Fan, Xu Bai, Tian Li, Yinping Zhang, Baizhan Li, Zhuohui Zhao, Chen Huang, Qihong Deng, Chan Lu, Hua Qian, Xu Yang, Yuexia Sun, Jan Sundell, Juan Wang
We studied dampness and mould in China in relation to rhinitis, ocular, throat and dermal symptoms, headache and fatigue. A questionnaire study was performed in six cities including 36,541 randomized parents of young children. Seven self-reported signs of dampness were evaluated. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR). Totally 3.1% had weekly rhinitis, 2.8% eye, 4.1% throat and 4.8% skin symptoms, 3.0% headache and 13.9% fatigue. Overall, 6.3% of the homes had mould, 11...
October 31, 2018: Indoor Air
G Reboux, S Rocchi, A Laboissière, H Ammari, M Bochaton, G Gardin, J M Rame, L Millon
Different countries have tried to define guidelines to quantify what levels of fungi are considered as inappropriate for housings. This retrospective study analyzes indoor fungi by cultures of airborne samples from 1012 dwellings. Altogether, 908 patients suffering from rhinitis, conjunctivitis and asthma were compared to 104 controls free of allergies. Portuguese decree law n°118/2013 (PDL118), ANSES (a French environmental and health agency) recommendations, health regulations of Besançon University Hospital were applied to determine the rates of non-conforming dwellings, which were respectively 55...
October 27, 2018: Indoor Air
Jang-Young Lee, Pawel Wargocki, Yiong-Huak Chan, Liu Chen, Kwok-Wai Tham
Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) has become an important component of green building certification schemes. Whilst green buildings are expected to provide enhanced IEQ, higher occupant satisfaction, and less risks for occupant health when compared with non-green buildings, literature suggests inconsistent evidence due to diverse research design, small sample size, and weak statistical analysis. This study compared several outcomes pertinent to IEQ performance in green and non-green office buildings in Singapore...
October 27, 2018: Indoor Air
Yirui Liang, Chenyang Bi, Xinke Wang, Ying Xu
A mechanistic model that considers particle dynamics and their effects on surface emissions and sorptions was developed to predict the fate and transport of phthalates in indoor environments. A controlled case study was conducted in a test house to evaluate the model. The model-predicted evolving concentrations of benzyl butyl phthalate in indoor air and settled dust and on interior surfaces are in good agreement with measurements. Sensitivity analysis was performed to quantify the effects of parameter uncertainties on model predictions...
October 19, 2018: Indoor Air
Martin Möhlenkamp, Martin Schmidt, Mark Wesseling, Andreas Wick, Ingo Gores, Dirk Müller
The use of displacement ventilation for cooling environments is limited by the vertical temperature gradient. Current standards recommend a temperature difference of up to 3 K/m between the head and the feet. This paper reviews the scientific literature on the effect of vertical temperature gradients on thermal comfort and compares this to the results of our own experiments. Early experiments have demonstrated a high sensitivity of dissatisfied test subjects to changes in the temperature gradient between head and foot level...
October 19, 2018: Indoor Air
Toyib Olaniyan, Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie, Martin Röösli, Rajen Naidoo, Nino Künzil, Kees de Hoogh, Bhawoodien Parker, Joy Leaner, Mohamed Jeebhay
The health impact of indoor air pollution in informal settlement households has not been extensively studied in South Africa. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between asthma and common indoor exposures among schoolchildren from four informal settlements located in two municipalities in the Western Cape Province. A total of 590 children, aged 9 - 11 years, were recruited. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) questionnaire, was administered to caregivers. Pulmonary function assessment included spirometry and fractional-exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO)...
October 19, 2018: Indoor Air
Matias Tagle, Ajay Pillarisetti, Maria Teresa Hernandez, Karin Troncoso, Agnes Soares, Ricardo Torres, Aida Galeano, Pedro Oyola, John Balmes, Kirk R Smith
In Paraguay, 49% of the population depends on biomass (wood and charcoal) for cooking. Residential biomass burning is a major source of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) in and around the household environment. In July 2016, cross-sectional household air pollution sampling was conducted in 80 households in rural Paraguay. Time-integrated samples (24-h) of PM2.5 and continuous CO concentrations were measured in kitchens that used wood, charcoal, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or electricity to cook...
October 19, 2018: Indoor Air
Lei Huang, Olivier Jolliet
The material-air partition coefficient (Kma ) is a key parameter to estimate the release of chemicals incorporated in solid materials and resulting human exposures. Existing correlations to estimate Kma are applicable for a limited number of chemical-material combinations without considering the effect of temperature. The present study develops a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) to predict Kma for a large number of chemical-material combinations. We compiled a dataset of 991 measured Kma for 179 chemicals in 22 consolidated material types...
October 8, 2018: Indoor Air
Kathryn E R Dawe, Teles C Furlani, Shawn F Kowal, Tara F Kahan, Trevor C VandenBoer, Cora J Young
To improve our understanding of chlorine chemistry indoors, reactive chlorine species such as hydrogen chloride (HCl) must be analyzed using fast time-response measurement techniques. Although well studied outdoors, sources of HCl indoors are unknown. In this study, mixing ratios of gaseous HCl were measured at 0.5 Hz in the indoor environment using a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument. The CRDS measurement rate provides a major advance in observational capability compared to other established techniques...
October 4, 2018: Indoor Air
Huan Shu, Bo Ag Jönsson, Chris Gennings, Christian H Lindh, Eewa Nånberg, Carl-Gustaf Bornehag
Phthalates are used as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials and it is known that phthalates may migrate into the surrounding environment and then become a source for human uptake. The aim of the study was to investigate if residential PVC flooring was related to the urinary levels of phthalate metabolites determined in pregnant women. The data was from the Swedish SELMA study where sampling was conducted during the time period 2007-2010. Spot urine samples from 1,674 women at the end of the first trimester were analyzed for 14 metabolites from seven phthalates and one phthalate alternative...
September 21, 2018: Indoor Air
Bonnie N Young, Maggie L Clark, Sarah Rajkumar, Megan L Benka-Coker, Annette Bachand, Robert D Brook, Tracy L Nelson, John Volckens, Stephen J Reynolds, Christian L'Orange, Nicholas Good, Kirsten Koehler, Sebastian Africano, Anibal B Osorto Pinel, Jennifer L Peel
Growing evidence links household air pollution exposure from biomass cookstoves with elevated blood pressure. We assessed cross-sectional associations of 24-hour mean concentrations of personal and kitchen fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ), black carbon (BC), and stove type with blood pressure, adjusting for confounders, among 147 women using traditional or cleaner-burning Justa stoves in Honduras. We investigated effect modification by age and body mass index. Traditional stove users had mean (standard deviation) personal and kitchen 24-hour PM2...
September 8, 2018: Indoor Air
Jennifer Therkorn, David Drewry Iii, Thomas Pilholski, Kathryn Shaw-Saliba, Gregory Bova, Lisa L Maragakis, Brian Garibaldi, Lauren Sauer
Biocontainment units (BCUs) are facilities used to care for patients with highly infectious diseases. However, there is limited guidance on BCU protocols and design. This study presents the first investigation of how HVAC (heating, ventilation, air-conditioning) operating conditions influence the dissemination of fluorescent tracer particles released in a BCU. Test conditions included normal HVAC operation and exhaust failure resulting in loss of negative pressure. A suspension of optical brightener powder and water was nebulized to produce fluorescent particles simulating droplet nuclei (0...
September 7, 2018: Indoor Air
Nina Notman, Nicola Carslaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Indoor Air
Nan Zhang, Yuguo Li, Hong Huang
Fomites transmit infection. A key question is how surface contamination in a building is spread by human touch. Using video cameras, we collected more than 120 000 touch actions from 60 hours of high-resolution data on surface touch across five typical weekdays in a graduate student office. The students touched surfaces with one or both hands during 94.6% of the observed period. On average, each student made five touches per minute, with an average duration of 22 seconds per touch. High-touch and high-risk surfaces and people were identified...
November 2018: Indoor Air
Yi Yang, Huihui Zhang, Sunday Segbenu Nunayon, Vincent Chan, Alvin Ck Lai
A full-scale ventilation duct ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (in-duct UVGI) system was designed to investigate its disinfection efficacy on five airborne pathogens: Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with airflow Reynolds numbers from 4 × 104 to 8 × 104 . By varying the UV intensity, the susceptibility constants (Z-values) of the bacteria were experimentally determined to be 1.2, 1.0, 0.60, 0.39, and 0.37 m2 /J for S...
November 2018: Indoor Air
Yangyang Xie, Bin Zhao
Changes in the chemical constitution and sources of ambient PM2.5 following the infiltration of air into indoor environments were investigated. We collected PM2.5 samples from air inside and outside 31 rooms in Beijing residences during hazy episodes. We calculated the indoor-to-outdoor ratios and the correction (ki ) of each infiltration factor for each chemical component of PM2.5 to determine the effects of infiltrative behavior. The outdoor and indoor mass concentrations of PM2.5 during the sampling period were 70-460 and 10-315 μg/m3 , respectively...
November 2018: Indoor Air
Jennie Cox, Kelechi Isiugo, Patrick Ryan, Sergey A Grinshpun, Michael Yermakov, Colleen Desmond, Roman Jandarov, Stephen Vesper, James Ross, Steven Chillrud, Karen Dannemiller, Tiina Reponen
Outdoor traffic-related airborne particles can infiltrate a building and adversely affect the indoor air quality. Limited information is available on the effectiveness of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration of traffic-related particles. Here, we investigated the effectiveness of portable HEPA air cleaners in reducing indoor concentrations of traffic-related and other aerosols, including black carbon (BC), PM2.5 , ultraviolet absorbing particulate matter (UVPM) (a marker of tobacco smoke), and fungal spores...
November 2018: Indoor Air
Jose Ali Porras-Salazar, David P Wyon, Beatriz Piderit-Moreno, Sergio Contreras-Espinoza, Pawel Wargocki
A two-week-long intervention study was performed in two classrooms in an elementary school in Costa Rica. Split-cooling air-conditioning (AC) units were installed in both classrooms. During the first week, the air temperature was reduced in one classroom while in the other (placebo) classroom the fans were operated but no cooling was provided. During the second week, the conditions were exchanged to create a 2 × 2 crossover design in which each pupil was their own control. A total of 37 children performed tasks similar to school work and completed questionnaires reporting their thermal sensation and perceptions...
November 2018: Indoor Air
Marije Te Kulve, Luc Schlangen, Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt
Expanding the acceptable range of indoor temperatures allows to reduce building energy consumption and may be beneficial for health. Therefore, we explored whether light conditions can be used to influence thermal perception under various ambient temperatures. In two laboratory experiments, we tested the effect of the correlated color temperature of light (2700 K and 5800 K) and its intensity (5 and 1200 lux) on thermal perception. The light exposures were provided during cool, neutral, and warm thermal conditions...
November 2018: Indoor Air
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