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Indoor Air

A E Sain, J Zook, B M Davy, L C Marr, A M Dietrich
This study describes the size distribution and concentration of particles expelled by a portable, 3 L ultrasonic humidifier. The ultrasonic humidifier was filled with waters of varying mineral content and hardness. Aerosol size distributions were measured during 8 h of humidifier operation in a typical bedroom. Humidifiers produced approximately 1.22 ×10(10) to 2.50 ×10(10) airborne particles per milliliter of water consumed, resulting in airborne particle concentrations of 3.01 - 5.91×10(4) #/cm(3) , with modes ranging between 109 and 322 nm in diameter...
August 8, 2017: Indoor Air
Caroline Shorter, Julian Crane, Nevil Pierse, Phillipa Barnes, Janice Kang, Kristin Wickens, Jeroen Douwes, Thorsten Stanley, Martin Täubel, Anne Hyvärinen, Philippa Howden-Chapman
Evidence is accumulating that indoor dampness and mold are associated with the development of asthma. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. New Zealand has high rates of both asthma and indoor mold and is ideally placed to investigate this. We conducted an incident case control study involving 150 children with new-onset wheeze, aged between 1 and 7 years, each matched to two control children with no history of wheezing. Each participant's home was assessed for moisture damage, condensation and mold growth by researchers, an independent building assessor and parents...
August 4, 2017: Indoor Air
Che-Jung Chang, Shu-Fang Cheng, Pei-Ting Chang, Shih-Wei Tsai
To improve indoor air quality and to protect public health, Taiwan has enacted the 'Indoor Air Quality Act (IAQ Act)' in 2012. For the general public, the indoor air quality in hair salons is important because it is a popular location that people will often visit for hair treatments. However, only a few exposure assessments regarding air pollutants have previously been performed in hair salons. In order to assess the air quality of hairdressing environments in Taipei, ten hairdressing salons were included for a walk-through survey in this study...
August 4, 2017: Indoor Air
Marcus H Y Leung, Xinzhao Tong, Jimmy C K Tong, Patrick K H Lee
Currently, there is little information pertaining to the airborne bacterial communities of green buildings. In this case study, the air bacterial community of a zero carbon building (ZCB) in Hong Kong was characterized by targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Bacteria associated with the outdoor environment dominated the indoor airborne bacterial assemblage, with a modest contribution from bacteria associated with human skin. Differences in overall community diversity, membership, and composition associated with short (day-to-day) and long-term temporal properties were detected, which may have been driven by specific environmental genera and taxa...
August 2, 2017: Indoor Air
Glenn C Morrison, Helle V Andersen, Lars Gunnarsen, Deniz Varol, Erik Uhde, Barbara Kolarik
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of buildings continues to pose an exposure threat, even decades after their application in the form of caulks and other building materials. In this research, we investigate the ability of clothing to sorb PCBs from contaminated air and thereby influence exposure. The equilibrium concentration of PCB-28 and PCB-52 was quantified for nine used clothing fabrics exposed for 56 days to air in a Danish apartment contaminated with PCBs. Fabric materials included pure materials such as cotton and polyester, or blends of polyester, cotton, viscose/rayon and/or elastane...
August 2, 2017: Indoor Air
Eerika Finell, Tuija Seppälä
This paper explores subjective injustice experiences of individuals suffering from suspected or observed indoor air problems in their workplaces in two studies. We focus on injustice experiences because they influence how individuals cope with and recover from health problems. The first study reports associations between the perceived harmfulness of the indoor environment (i.e., mould/inadequate ventilation) and subjective injustice experiences in workplaces in a representative sample of Finnish working-aged people (N = 4633)...
July 25, 2017: Indoor Air
Fraser W Gaspar, Randy Maddalena, Jeffery Williams, Rosemary Castorina, Zhong-Min Wang, Kazukiyo Kumagai, Thomas E McKone, Asa Bradman
Although many U.S. children spend time in child care, little information exists on exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) in this environment, even though PM may be associated with asthma and other respiratory illness, which is a key concern for young children. To address this data gap, we measured ultrafine particles (UFP), PM2.5 , PM10 , and black carbon in 40 California child care facilities and examined associations with potential determinants. We also tested a low-cost optical particle measuring device (Dylos monitor)...
July 25, 2017: Indoor Air
Ching-Wen Chang, Meng-Hsuan Lin
Staphylococcus aureus may cause infections in humans from mild skin disorders to lethal pneumonia. Rapid and accurate monitoring of viable S. aureus is essential to characterize human exposure. This study evaluated quantitative PCR (qPCR) with propidium monoazide (PMA) to quantify S. aureus. The results showed comparable S. aureus counts between exclusively live cells and mixtures of live/dead cells by qPCR with 1.5 or 2.3 μg/mL PMA (P>0.05), illustrating the ability of PMA-qPCR to detect DNA exclusively from viable cells...
July 6, 2017: Indoor Air
William J Fisk
Based on a review of literature published in refereed archival journals, ventilation rates in classrooms often fall far short of the minimum ventilation rates specified in standards. There is compelling evidence, from both cross sectional and intervention studies, of an association of increased student performance with increased ventilation rates. There is evidence that reduced respiratory health effects and reduced student absence are associated with increased ventilation rates. Increasing ventilation rates in schools imposes energy costs and can increase HVAC system capital costs...
July 6, 2017: Indoor Air
A C K Lai, T F Tan, W S Li, D K M Ip
The flushing of toilets generates contaminated aerosols, the transmission of which may cause the spread of disease, particularly in the immunocompromised or the elderly. This study investigated the emission strength of three types of airborne bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas alcaligenes, during toilet flushing in a custom-built toilet under a controlled environment. Flushing was activated by a flushometer operated at two pressure levels, 400 kPa (high pressure [HP]) and 200 kPa (low pressure [LP]), and by a water cistern tank placed 95 cm (high tank [HT]) and 46 cm (low tank [LT]) above the toilet seat...
July 6, 2017: Indoor Air
Christof Stönner, Achim Edtbauer, Jonathan Williams
Human beings emit many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of both endogenous (internally produced) and exogenous (external source) origin. Here we present real world emission rates of volatile organic compounds from cinema audiences (50-230 people) as a function of time in multiple screenings of three films. The cinema location and film selection allowed high frequency measurement of human emitted VOCs within a room flushed at a known rate so that emissions rates could be calculated for both adults and children...
July 6, 2017: Indoor Air
J P S Wong, N Carslaw, R Zhao, S Zhou, J P D Abbatt
Ambient levels of chlorinated gases and aerosol components were measured by on-line chemical ionization and aerosol mass spectrometers after an indoor floor was repeatedly washed with a commercial bleach solution. Gaseous chlorine (Cl2 , 10's of ppbv) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl, 100's of ppbv) arise after floor washing, along with nitryl chloride (ClNO2 ), dichlorine monoxide (Cl2 O) and chloramines (NHCl2 , NCl3 ). Much higher mixing ratios would prevail in a room with lower and more commonly encountered air exchange rates than that observed in the study (12...
June 24, 2017: Indoor Air
Li-Wen Hu, Zhengmin Qian, Shyamali C Dharmage, Echu Liu, Steven W Howard, Michael G Vaughn, Jennifer Perret, Caroline C Lodge, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Bo-Yi Yang, Shu-Li Xu, Chuan Zhang, Guang-Hui Dong
To evaluate the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to pet ownership and lung function in children, a cross-sectional study named Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study was conducted. In this study, children's lung function including the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured by spirometers, and pet ownership situations was collected by questionnaire. Analyzed by multiple logistic regression and generalized linear modeling, we found that for all subjects, pet exposure in the first 2 years of life was significantly associated with lung function impairment of FVC<85% predicted (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1...
June 14, 2017: Indoor Air
Lingli Zhou, Marco Hiltscher, Wilhelm Püttmann
We analyzed organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in 74 indoor dust samples collected from seven microenvironments (building material markets, private cars, daycare centers, private homes, floor/carpet stores, offices, and schools) in the Rhine/Main region of Germany. Ten of 11 target OPFRs were ubiquitously detected, some with more than 97% detection frequency, including tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCIPP), tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBOEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and tris(isobutyl) phosphate (TIBP)...
May 29, 2017: Indoor Air
C J Weschler, W W Nazaroff
We present a model for the growth of organic films on impermeable indoor surfaces. The model couples transport through a gas-side boundary layer adjacent to the surface with equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between the gas phase and the surface film. Model predictions indicate that film growth would primarily be influenced by the gas-phase concentration of SVOCs with octanol-air partitioning (Koa ) values in the approximate range 10≤log Koa ≤13. Within the relevant range, SVOCs with lower values will equilibrate with the surface film more rapidly...
May 29, 2017: Indoor Air
Lei Huang, Peter Fantke, Alexi Ernstoff, Olivier Jolliet
Indoor releases of organic chemicals encapsulated in solid materials are major contributors to human exposures and are directly related to the internal diffusion coefficient in solid materials. Existing correlations to estimate the diffusion coefficient are only valid for a limited number of chemical-material combinations. This paper develops and evaluates a quantitative property-property relationship (QPPR) to predict diffusion coefficients for a wide range of organic chemicals and materials. We first compiled a training dataset of 1103 measured diffusion coefficients for 158 chemicals in 32 consolidated material types...
May 26, 2017: Indoor Air
T Salthammer, Y Li, R Corsi, K W Tham, P Wargocki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Indoor Air
A Quinn, P Kinney, J Shaman
During heat waves, fatal overexposure to heat most often occurs at home. It is not known how factors such as building size, floor level, and different types of air conditioning (AC) contribute to excess indoor heat. We monitored indoor temperature and humidity in 36 apartments in New York City during summers 2014 and 2015 and used these values to calculate the indoor heat index (HI). We investigated the role of AC type and building-level factors on indoor HI using multilevel regression models. Thirty-four of 36 homes had AC...
July 2017: Indoor Air
J Sundell
The scientific articles and Indoor Air conference publications of the indoor air sciences (IAS) during the last 50 years are summarized. In total 7524 presentations, from 79 countries, have been made at Indoor Air conferences held between 1978 (49 presentations) and 2014 (1049 presentations). In the Web of Science, 26 992 articles on indoor air research (with the word "indoor" as a search term) have been found (as of 1 Jan 2016) of which 70% were published during the last 10 years. The modern scientific history started in the 1970s with a question: "did indoor air pose a threat to health as did outdoor air?" Soon it was recognized that indoor air is more important, from a health point of view, than outdoor air...
July 2017: Indoor Air
S Karrasch, M Simon, B Herbig, J Langner, S Seeger, A Kronseder, S Peters, G Dietrich-Gümperlein, R Schierl, D Nowak, R A Jörres
Ultrafine particles emitted from laser printers are suspected to elicit adverse health effects. We performed 75-minute exposures to emissions of laser printing devices (LPDs) in a standardized, randomized, cross-over manner in 23 healthy subjects, 14 mild, stable asthmatics, and 15 persons reporting symptoms associated with LPD emissions. Low-level exposures (LLE) ranged at the particle background (3000 cm(-3) ) and high-level exposures (HLE) at 100 000 cm(-3) . Examinations before and after exposures included spirometry, body plethysmography, transfer factors for CO and NO (TLCO, TLNO), bronchial and alveolar NO, cytokines in serum and nasal secretions (IL-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, IFNγ, TNFα), serum ECP, and IgE...
July 2017: Indoor Air
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