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Indoor Air

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190279/building-dampness-and-mould-in-european-homes-in-relation-to-climate-building-characteristics-and-socio-economic-status-the-european-community-respiratory-health-survey-ecrhs-ii
#1
Dan Norbäck, Jan-Paul Zock, Estel Plana, Joachim Heinrich, Christina Tischer, Randi Jacobsen, Jordi Sunyer, Nino Künzli, Simona Villani, Mario Olivieri, Giuseppe Verlato, Argo Soon, Vivi Schlünssen, Maria Ingibjörg Gunnbjörnsdottir, Deborah Jarvis
We studied dampness and mould in homes in relation to climate, building characteristics and socioeconomic status (SES) across Europe, for 7127 homes in 22 centres. A subsample of 3118 homes were inspected. Multilevel analysis was applied, including age, gender, centre, SES, climate and building factors. Self-reported water damage (10%), damp spots (21%), and mould (16%) in past year were similar as observed data (19% dampness and 14% mould). Ambient temperature was associated with self-reported water damage (OR=1...
February 11, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190263/quantifying-the-size-resolved-dynamics-of-indoor-bioaerosol-transport-and-control
#2
Stephanie A Kunkel, Parham Azimi, Haoran Zhao, Benjamin C Stark, Brent Stephens
Understanding the bioaerosol dynamics of droplets and droplet nuclei emitted during respiratory activities is important for understanding how infectious diseases are transmitted and potentially controlled. To this end, we conducted experiments to quantify the size-resolved dynamics of indoor bioaerosol transport and control in an unoccupied apartment unit operating under four different HVAC particle filtration conditions. Two model organisms (Escherichia coli K12 and bacteriophage T4) were aerosolized under alternating low and high flow rates to roughly represent constant breathing and periodic coughing...
February 11, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187232/evaluating-the-performance-of-thermal-sensation-prediction-with-a-biophysical-model
#3
M Schweiker, Brm Kingma, A Wagner
Neutral thermal sensation is expected for a human body in heat balance in near steady-state thermal environments. The physiological thermoneutral zone (TNZ) is defined as the range of operative temperatures where the body can maintain such heat balance by actively adjusting body tissue insulation, but without regulatory increases in metabolic rate or sweating. These basic principles led to the hypothesis that thermal sensation relates to the operative temperature distance from the thermoneutral centroid (dTNZop )...
February 10, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170103/effectiveness-and-cost-of-reducing-particle-related-mortality-with-particle-filtration
#4
William J Fisk, Wanyu R Chan
This paper evaluates the mortality-related benefits and costs of improvements in particle filtration in U.S. homes and commercial buildings based on models with empirical inputs. The models account for time spent in various environments as well as activity levels and associated breathing rates. The scenarios evaluated include improvements in filter efficiencies in both forced air heating and cooling systems of homes and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems of workplaces as well as use of portable air cleaners in homes...
February 7, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161889/airborne-endotoxin-concentrations-in-indoor-and-outdoor-particulate-matter-and-their-predictors-in-an-urban-city
#5
Yoshiko Yoda, Kenji Tamura, Masayuki Shima
Endotoxins are an important biological component of particulate matter, and have been associated with adverse effects on human health. There have been some recent studies on airborne endotoxin concentrations. We collected fine (PM2.5 ) and coarse (PM10-2.5 ) particulate matter twice on weekdays and weekends each for 48 h, inside and outside 55 homes in an urban city in Japan. Endotoxin concentrations in both fractions were measured using the kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay. The relationships between endotoxin concentrations and household characteristics were evaluated for each fraction...
February 4, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141892/differential-effects-of-air-conditioning-type-on-residential-endotoxin-levels-in-a-semi-arid-climate
#6
James D Johnston, Bryce A Kruman, Morgan C Nelson, Ray M Merrill, Robert J Graul, Taylor G Hoybjerg, Steven C Tuttle, Sheldon J Myers, Ryan B Cook, K Scott Weber
Residential endotoxin exposure is associated with protective and pathogenic health outcomes. Evaporative coolers, an energy-efficient type of air conditioner used in dry climates, are a potential source of indoor endotoxins; however, this association is largely unstudied. We collected settled dust biannually from four locations in homes with evaporative coolers (n = 18) and central air conditioners (n = 22) in Utah County, Utah (USA), during winter (Jan - Apr) and summer (Aug - Sept), 2014. Dust samples (n = 281) were analyzed by the Limulus amebocyte lysate test...
January 31, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107558/predictors-of-summertime-heat-index-levels-in-new-york-city-apartments
#7
Ashlinn Quinn, Patrick Kinney, Jeffrey Shaman
BACKGROUND: During heat waves, fatal overexposure to heat most often occurs at home. It is not known how factors such as building size, floor level, and different types of air conditioning (AC) contribute to excess indoor heat. METHODS: We monitored indoor temperature and humidity in 36 apartments in New York City during summers 2014 and 2015, and used these values to calculate the indoor heat index (HI). We investigated the role of AC type and building-level factors on indoor HI using multilevel regression models...
January 20, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107552/reflections-on-the-history-of-indoor-air-science-focusing-on-the-last-50-years
#8
Jan Sundell
The scientific articles and Indoor Air conference publications of the indoor air sciences (IAS) during the last 50 years are summarized. In total 7524 presentations, from 79 countries, have been made at Indoor Air conferences held between 1978 (49 presentations) and 2014 (1049 presentations). In the Web of Science 26,992 articles on indoor air research (with the word "indoor" as a search term) have been found (as of 1 Jan 2016) of which 70% were published during the last 10 years. The modern scientific history started in the 1970s with a question: "did indoor air pose a threat to health as did outdoor air?" Soon it was recognized that indoor air is more important, from a health point of view, than outdoor air...
January 20, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054389/health-effects-of-laser-printer-emissions-a-controlled-exposure-study
#9
Stefan Karrasch, Myriam Simon, Britta Herbig, Jeanette Langner, Stefan Seeger, Angelika Kronseder, Stefan Peters, Gisela Dietrich-Gümperlein, Rudolf Schierl, Dennis Nowak, Rudolf A Jörres
Ultrafine particles emitted from laser printers are suspected to elicit adverse health effects. We performed 75-minute exposures to emissions of laser printing devices (LPDs) in a standardized, randomized, cross-over manner in 23 healthy subjects, 14 mild, stable asthmatics and 15 persons reporting symptoms associated with LPD emissions. Low level exposures (LLE) ranged at the particle background (3,000 cm(-3) ), high level exposures (HLE) at 100,000 cm(-3) . Examinations before and after exposures included spirometry, body plethysmography, transfer factors for CO and NO (TLCO, TLNO), bronchial and alveolar NO, cytokines in serum and nasal secretions (IL-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, IFNγ, TNFα), serum ECP, and IgE...
January 5, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009455/emission-rates-and-the-personal-cloud-effect-associated-with-particle-release-from-the-perihuman-environment
#10
Dusan Licina, Yilin Tian, William W Nazaroff
Inhalation exposure to elevated particulate matter levels is correlated with deleterious health and well-being outcomes. Despite growing evidence that identifies humans as sources of coarse airborne particles, the extent to which personal exposures are influenced by particle releases near occupants is unknown. In a controlled chamber, we monitored airborne total particle levels with high temporal and particle-size resolution for a range of simulated occupant activities. We also sampled directly from the subject's breathing zone to characterize exposures...
December 23, 2016: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005297/predicted-percentage-dissatisfied-with-ankle-draft
#11
Shichao Liu, Stefano Schiavon, Alan Kabanshi, William W Nazaroff
Draft is unwanted local convective cooling. The draft risk model of Fanger et al. (Energy and Buildings 12, 21-39, 1988) estimates the percentage of people dissatisfied with air movement due to overcooling at the neck. There is no model for predicting draft at ankles, which is more relevant to stratified air distribution systems such as underfloor air distribution (UFAD) and displacement ventilation (DV). We developed a model for predicted percentage dissatisfied with ankle draft (PPDAD ) based on laboratory experiments with 110 college students...
December 22, 2016: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005296/current-wheeze-asthma-respiratory-infections-and-rhinitis-among-adults-in-relation-to-inspection-data-and-indoor-measurements-in-single-family-houses-in-sweden-the-betsi-study
#12
Juan Wang, Karin Engvall, Greta Smedje, Håkan Nilsson, Dan Norbäck
In the Swedish BETSI study, a total of 1160 adults from 605 single-family houses answered a questionnaire on respiratory health. Building inspectors investigated the homes and measured temperature, air humidity, air exchange rate and wood moisture content (in attic and crawl space). Moisture load was calculated as the difference between indoor and outdoor absolute humidity. Totally 7.3% were smokers; 8.7% had doctor' diagnosed asthma; 11.2% current wheeze and 9.5% current asthma symptoms. Totally 50.3% had respiratory infections and 26...
December 22, 2016: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990700/biomass-fuel-smoke-exposure-was-associated-with-adverse-cardiac-remodeling-and-left-ventricular-dysfunction-in-peru
#13
Melissa S Burroughs Peña, Eric J Velazquez, Jose D Rivera, Fawaz Alenezi, Catherine Wong, Matthew Grigsby, Victor G Davila-Roman, Robert H Gilman, Jaime J Miranda, William Checkley
BACKGROUND: While household air pollution from biomass fuel combustion has been linked to cardiovascular disease, the effects on cardiac structure and function have not been well described. We sought to determine the association between biomass fuel smoke exposure and cardiac structure and function by transthoracic echocardiography. METHODS: We identified a random sample of urban and rural residents living in the high-altitude region of Puno, Peru. Daily biomass fuel use was self-reported...
December 19, 2016: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943451/chemical-kinetics-of-multiphase-reactions-between-ozone-and-human-skin-lipids-implications-for-indoor-air-quality-and-health-effects
#14
P S J Lakey, A Wisthaler, T Berkemeier, T Mikoviny, U Pöschl, M Shiraiwa
Ozone reacts with skin lipids such as squalene, generating an array of organic compounds, some of which can act as respiratory or skin irritants. Thus, it is important to quantify and predict the formation of these products under different conditions in indoor environments. We developed the kinetic multilayer model that explicitly resolves mass transport and chemical reactions at the skin and in the gas phase (KM-SUB-Skin). It can reproduce the concentrations of ozone and organic compounds in previous measurements and new experiments...
December 10, 2016: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917545/measured-performance-of-filtration-and-ventilation-systems-for-fine-and-ultrafine-particles-and-ozone-in-an-unoccupied-modern-california-house
#15
B C Singer, W W Delp, D R Black, I S Walker
This study evaluated nine ventilation and filtration systems in an unoccupied 2006 house located 250 m downwind of the I-80 freeway in Sacramento, California. Systems were evaluated for reducing indoor concentrations of outdoor particles in summer and fall/winter, ozone in summer, and particles from stir-fry cooking. Air exchange rate was measured continuously. Energy use was estimated for year-round operation in California. Exhaust ventilation without enhanced filtration provided indoor PM2.5 that was 70% lower than outdoors...
December 5, 2016: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229503/best-paper-awards
#16
EDITORIAL
W W Nazaroff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354176/development-and-evaluation-of-an-ultrasonic-personal-aerosol-sampler
#17
J Volckens, C Quinn, D Leith, J Mehaffy, C S Henry, D Miller-Lionberg
Assessing personal exposure to air pollution has long proven challenging due to technological limitations posed by the samplers themselves. Historically, wearable aerosol monitors have proven to be expensive, noisy, and burdensome. The objective of this work was to develop a new type of wearable monitor, an ultrasonic personal aerosol sampler (UPAS), to overcome many of the technological limitations in personal exposure assessment. The UPAS is a time-integrated monitor that features a novel micropump that is virtually silent during operation...
March 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025873/an-emerging-paradox-toward-a-better-understanding-of-the-potential-benefits-and-adversity-of-microbe-exposures-in-the-indoor-environment
#18
EDITORIAL
J Mensah-Attipoe, M Täubel, M Hernandez, M Pitkäranta, T Reponen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27008622/household-air-pollution-and-personal-exposure-to-nitrated-and-oxygenated-polycyclic-aromatics-pahs-in-rural-households-influence-of-household-cooking-energies
#19
Y Chen, W Du, G Shen, S Zhuo, X Zhu, H Shen, Y Huang, S Su, N Lin, L Pei, X Zheng, J Wu, Y Duan, X Wang, W Liu, M Wong, S Tao
Residential solid fuels are widely consumed in rural China, contributing to severe household air pollution for many products of incomplete combustion, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives. In this study, concentrations of nitrated and oxygenated PAH derivatives (nPAHs and oPAHs) for household and personal air were measured and analyzed for influencing factors like smoking and cooking energy type. Concentrations of nPAHs and oPAHs in kitchens were higher than those in living rooms and in outdoor air...
January 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27008502/real-time-transformation-of-outdoor-aerosol-components-upon-transport-indoors-measured-with-aerosol-mass-spectrometry
#20
A M Johnson, M S Waring, P F DeCarlo
Outdoor aerosols are transported indoors, where their component concentrations depend on aerosol size, physiochemical properties, indoor sources and losses, and cross-environment gradients of temperature and relative humidity. We explored these dependencies by measuring real-time outdoor and indoor non-refractory, submicron (PM1 ) aerosol component mass concentrations in a mixed-use laboratory space with an Aerodyne mini-aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and black carbon (BC) with an aethalometer. The median indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios were 0...
January 2017: Indoor Air
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