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Indoor Air

A M Karvonen, C Tischer, P V Kirjavainen, M Roponen, A Hyvärinen, S Illi, K Mustonen, P I Pfefferle, H Renz, S Remes, B Schaub, E von Mutius, J Pekkanen
Cross-sectional studies have shown that exposure to indoor moisture damage and mold may be associated with subclinical inflammation. Our aim was to determine whether early age exposure to moisture damage or mold is prospectively associated with subclinical systemic inflammation or with immune responsiveness in later childhood. Home inspections were performed in children's homes in the first year of life. At age 6 years, subclinical systemic inflammation was measured by serum C-reactive protein(CRP) and blood leucocytes and immune responsiveness by ex vivo production of interleukin 1-beta(IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) in whole blood cultures without stimulation or after 24h stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin(PI), lipopolysaccharide(LPS) or peptidoglycan(PPG) in 251 to 270 children...
February 16, 2018: Indoor Air
Jian Hou, Huizhen Sun, Yun Zhou, Youjian Zhang, Wenjun Yin, Tian Xu, Juan Cheng, Weihong Chen, Jing Yuan
Diabetes is related to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), inflammation in the body and housing characters. However, associations of urinary monohydroxy-PAHs (OH-PAHs) or fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) with diabetes risk in relation to housing characters are unclear. In this study, 2645 individuals were drawn from the baseline survey of the Wuhan-Zhuhai Cohort Study. Associations of diabetes with urinary OH-PAHs or FeNO among cooking participants were estimated using logistics regression models...
February 14, 2018: Indoor Air
Dusan Licina, William W Nazaroff
Strong evidence suggests that clothing serves as a reservoir of chemical pollutants and particles, including bioaerosols, which may have health significance. However, little is known about the role that clothing may play as a transport vector for inhaled airborne particles. Here we contribute toward bridging the knowledge gap by conducting experiments to investigate clothing release fraction (CRF), determined as the size-dependent ratio of released to deposited particulate matter in the diameter range 0.5-10 μm...
February 14, 2018: Indoor Air
Conrad Voelker, Hayder Alsaad
This study aims to develop an approach to couple a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver to the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) thermal comfort model to accurately evaluate thermal comfort. The coupling was made using an iterative Java script to automatically transfer data for each individual segment of the human body back and forth between the CFD solver and the UCB model until reaching convergence defined by a stopping criterion. The location from which data are transferred to the UCB model was determined using a new approach based on the temperature difference between subsequent points on the temperature profile curve in the vicinity of the body surface...
February 2, 2018: Indoor Air
Marion Blocquet, Fangfang Guo, Maxence Mendez, Michael Ward, Sébastien Coudert, Sébastien Batut, Christophe Hecquet, Nadège Blond, Christa Fittschen, Coralie Schoemaecker
The characteristics of indoor light (intensity, spectral, spatial distribution) originating from outdoors have been studied using experimental and modeling tools. They are influenced by many parameters such as building location, meteorological conditions and the type of window. They have a direct impact on indoor air quality through a change in chemical processes by varying the photolysis rates of indoor pollutants. Transmittances of different windows have been measured and exhibit different wavelength cutoffs, thus influencing the potential of different species to be photolysed...
January 27, 2018: Indoor Air
Wei Dong, Lu Pan, Hongyu Li, Mark R Miller, Miranda Loh, Shaowei Wu, Junhui Xu, Xuan Yang, Jiao Shan, Yahong Chen, Furong Deng, Xinbiao Guo
Associations between size-fractionated indoor particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) and heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR) in elderly women remain unclear. Twenty-nine healthy elderly women were measured for 24-hour HRV/HR indices. Real-time size-fractionated indoor PM and BC were monitored on the same day and on the preceding day. Mixed-effects models were applied to investigate the associations between pollutants and HRV/HR indices. Increases in size-fractionated indoor PM were significantly associated with declines in power in the high frequency band (HF), power in the low frequency band (LF) and standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDNN)...
January 9, 2018: Indoor Air
M Kraft, S Sievering, L Grün, K Rauchfuss
Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from indoor air can lead to a significant increase in lower chlorinated congeners in human blood. Lower chlorinated congeners with short biological half-lives can exhibit an indirect genotoxic potential via their highly reactive metabolites. However, little is known about their occurrence in indoor air and, therefore, about the effects of possible exposure to these congeners. We analyzed all mono-, di- and trichlorinated biphenyls in the indoor air of 35 contaminated offices, as well as in the blood of the 35 individuals worked in these offices for a minimum of 2 years...
December 29, 2017: Indoor Air
Drew B Day, Jianbang Xiang, Jinhan Mo, Merlise A Clyde, Charles J Weschler, Feng Li, Jicheng Gong, Mingkei Chung, Yinping Zhang, Junfeng Jim Zhang
HEPA filtration in combination with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) can be a cost-effective approach to reducing indoor particulate exposure, but ESPs produce ozone. The health effect of combined ESP-HEPA filtration has not been examined. We conducted an intervention study in 89 volunteers. At baseline, the air handling units of offices and residences for all subjects were comprised of coarse, ESP, and HEPA filtration. During the 5-week long intervention, the subjects were split into two groups, one with just the ESP removed and the other with both the ESP and HEPA removed...
December 29, 2017: Indoor Air
Lindsay Jeanne Underhill, Maria Patricia Fabian, Kimberly Vermeer, Megan Sandel, Gary Adamkiewicz, Jessica H Leibler, Jonathan Ian Levy
Residential energy efficiency and ventilation retrofits (e.g., building weatherization, local exhaust ventilation, HVAC filtration) can influence indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant health, but these measures' impact varies by occupant activity. In this study, we used the multi-zone airflow and IAQ analysis program CONTAM to simulate the impacts of energy retrofits on indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2 in a low-income multifamily housing complex in Boston, Massachusetts (USA). We evaluated the differential impact of residential activities, such as low- and high-emission cooking, cigarette smoking, and window-opening, on IAQ across two seasons...
December 27, 2017: Indoor Air
Hao Lei, Yuguo Li, Shenglan Xiao, Chao-Hsin Lin, Sharon L Norris, Daniel Wei, Zhongmin Hu, Shengcheng Ji
Identifying the exact transmission route(s) of infectious diseases in indoor environments is a crucial step in developing effective intervention strategies. In this study, we proposed a comparative analysis approach and built a model to simulate outbreaks of three different inflight infections in a similar cabin environment, i.e., influenza A H1N1, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV), and norovirus. The simulation results seemed to suggest that the close contact route was probably the most significant route (contributes 70%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 67%-72%) in the inflight transmission of influenza A H1N1 transmission; as a result, passengers within two rows of the index case had a significantly higher infection risk than others in the outbreak (relative risk (RR): 13...
December 15, 2017: Indoor Air
Yen-Chi Chen, Kuo-Pin Yu, Wen-Cheng Shao, Chao-Heng Tseng, Wen-Chi Pan
In this study, we evaluated the long-term antifungal effectiveness of 3 types of interior building materials (gypsum board (GB), cement board (CB) and softwood plywood (S-PW)) impregnated with thermally reduced silver nanoparticles supported by titanium dioxide (AgNPs/TiO2 ) under 95% relative humidity for four weeks. AgNPs/TiO2 was synthesized at two thermal reduction temperatures (TRTs, 120 and 200°C) with two different AgNP weight percentages (2 and 5 wt%). Four different silver loading levels (SLLs, 0...
December 11, 2017: Indoor Air
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Indoor Air
William W Nazaroff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Indoor Air
William W Nazaroff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Indoor Air
A C K Lai, T F Tan, W S Li, D K M Ip
The flushing of toilets generates contaminated aerosols, the transmission of which may cause the spread of disease, particularly in the immunocompromised or the elderly. This study investigated the emission strength of three types of airborne bacteria, namely Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas alcaligenes, during toilet flushing in a custom-built toilet under a controlled environment. Flushing was activated by a flushometer operated at two pressure levels, 400 kPa (high pressure [HP]) and 200 kPa (low pressure [LP]), and by a water cistern tank placed 95 cm (high tank [HT]) and 46 cm (low tank [LT]) above the toilet seat...
January 2018: Indoor Air
Ru Xiao, Jinhan Mo, Yinping Zhang, Dewen Gao
Formaldehyde is a common indoor pollutant that is an irritant and has been classified as carcinogen to humans. Adsorption technology is safe and stable and removes formaldehyde efficiently, but its short lifespan and low adsorption capacity limit its indoor application. To overcome these limitations, we propose an in-situ thermally regenerated air purifier (TRAP) which self-regenerates as needed. This purifier has four working modes: cleaning mode, regeneration mode, exhaust mode and outdoor air in-take mode, all of which are operated by valve switching...
November 23, 2017: Indoor Air
A K Mishra, A M van Ruitenbeek, M G L C Loomans, H S M Kort
This work examined window/door opening as means of bedroom ventilation and the consequent effect upon occupants' sleep, using data from 17 healthy volunteers. Bedroom CO2 level, temperature, and relative humidity were measured over 5 days, for two cases: open window or door (internal, bedroom door), and closed window and door. Participant filled questionnaires and sleep diary provided subjective measure of sleep quality. Actigraphy objectively monitored the participants during sleep. Additionally, a FlexSensor, placed under pillows of participants, detected movement during sleep...
November 21, 2017: Indoor Air
K Järvi, A Hyvärinen, M Täubel, A M Karvonen, M Turunen, K Jalkanen, R Patovirta, T Syrjänen, J Pirinen, H Salonen, A Nevalainen, J Pekkanen
There is no commonly approved approach to detect and quantify the health relevant microbial exposure in moisture damaged buildings. In 39 single-family homes with severe moisture damage, we studied whether concentrations of viable microbes in building material samples are associated with health among 71 adults and 68 children, assessed with symptoms questionnaires, exhaled NO and peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability. Symptoms were grouped into three scores: upper respiratory symptoms, lower respiratory symptoms and general symptoms...
November 19, 2017: Indoor Air
Tsz Wai Ng, Pui Ying Chan, Tsz Ting Chan, Haoxiang Wu, Ka Man Lai
One of the most notable indoor air quality problems is odour emission. This study investigated the potential contribution of skin squames to the production of ammonia (NH3 ) and volatile organic acids (VFAs) by seven bacteria isolated from air-cooling (AC) units with complaints of urine and body odours. Our previous study showed that keratinolytic activity is higher in AC units with odour complaints than those without. In the offices where these units are located, the most likely source of keratins is from human skin squames...
November 12, 2017: Indoor Air
Scott Pigg, Dan Cautley, Paul W Francisco
Residential energy efficiency retrofits continue to be common in the United States, especially through governmental and utility programs. Because of the potential for reduced air exchange, there have been concerns raised regarding the potential for negative impacts on health and safety of residents when air sealing occurs. To address this concern, a study was undertaken in 2009-2010 to evaluate the indoor air quality impacts of weatherization performed through the U.S. Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program...
November 6, 2017: Indoor Air
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