journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Indoor Air

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683164/optimization-of-pma-qpcr-for-staphylococcus-aureus-and-determination-of-viable-bacteria-in-indoor-air
#1
Ching-Wen Chang, Meng-Hsuan Lin
Staphylococcus aureus may cause infections in humans from mild skin disorders to lethal pneumonia. Rapid and accurate monitoring of viable S. aureus is essential to characterize human exposure. This study evaluated quantitative PCR (qPCR) with propidium monoazide (PMA) to quantify S. aureus. The results showed comparable S. aureus counts between exclusively live cells and mixtures of live/dead cells by qPCR with 1.5 or 2.3 μg/mL PMA (P>0.05), illustrating the ability of PMA-qPCR to detect DNA exclusively from viable cells...
July 6, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683161/the-ventilation-problem-in-schools-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
William J Fisk
Based on a review of literature published in refereed archival journals, ventilation rates in classrooms often fall far short of the minimum ventilation rates specified in standards. There is compelling evidence, from both cross sectional and intervention studies, of an association of increased student performance with increased ventilation rates. There is evidence that reduced respiratory health effects and reduced student absence are associated with increased ventilation rates. Increasing ventilation rates in schools imposes energy costs and can increase HVAC system capital costs...
July 6, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683156/emission-strength-of-airborne-pathogens-during-toilet-flushing
#3
A C K Lai, T F Tan, W S Li, D K M Ip
The flushing of toilets generates contaminated aerosols, the transmission of which may cause the spread of disease, particularly in the immunocompromised or the elderly. This study investigated the emission strength of three types of airborne bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas alcaligenes, during toilet flushing in a custom-built toilet under a controlled environment. Flushing was activated by a flushometer operated at two pressure levels, 400 kPa (high pressure [HP]) and 200 kPa (low pressure [LP]), and by a water cistern tank placed 95 cm (high tank [HT]) and 46 cm (low tank [LT]) above the toilet seat...
July 6, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683154/real-world-volatile-organic-compound-emission-rates-from-seated-adults-and-children-for-use-in-indoor-air-studies
#4
Christof Stönner, Achim Edtbauer, Jonathan Williams
Human beings emit many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of both endogenous (internally produced) and exogenous (external source) origin. Here we present real world emission rates of volatile organic compounds from cinema audiences (50-230 people) as a function of time in multiple screenings of three films. The cinema location and film selection allowed high frequency measurement of human emitted VOCs within a room flushed at a known rate so that emissions rates could be calculated for both adults and children...
July 6, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646605/observations-and-impacts-of-bleach-washing-on-indoor-chlorine-chemistry
#5
J P S Wong, N Carslaw, R Zhao, S Zhou, J P D Abbatt
Ambient levels of chlorinated gases and aerosol components were measured by on-line chemical ionization and aerosol mass spectrometers after an indoor floor was repeatedly washed with a commercial bleach solution. Gaseous chlorine (Cl2 , 10's of ppbv) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl, 100's of ppbv) arise after floor washing, along with nitryl chloride (ClNO2 ), dichlorine monoxide (Cl2 O) and chloramines (NHCl2 , NCl3 ). Much higher mixing ratios would prevail in a room with lower and more commonly encountered air exchange rates than that observed in the study (12...
June 24, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613428/prenatal-and-postnatal-exposure-to-pet-ownership-and-lung-function-in-children-the-seven-northeastern-cities-study
#6
Li-Wen Hu, Zhengmin Qian, Shyamali C Dharmage, Echu Liu, Steven W Howard, Michael G Vaughn, Jennifer Perret, Caroline C Lodge, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Bo-Yi Yang, Shu-Li Xu, Chuan Zhang, Guang-Hui Dong
To evaluate the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to pet ownership and lung function in children, a cross-sectional study named Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study was conducted. In this study, children's lung function including the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured by spirometers, and pet ownership situations was collected by questionnaire. Analyzed by multiple logistic regression and generalized linear modeling, we found that for all subjects, pet exposure in the first 2 years of life was significantly associated with lung function impairment of FVC<85% predicted (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1...
June 14, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556503/occurrence-and-human-exposure-assessment-of-organophosphate-flame-retardants-opfrs-in-indoor-dust-from-various-microenvironments-of-the-rhine-main-region-germany
#7
Lingli Zhou, Marco Hiltscher, Wilhelm Püttmann
We analyzed organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in 74 indoor dust samples collected from seven microenvironments (building material markets, private cars, daycare centers, private homes, floor/carpet stores, offices, and schools) in the Rhine/Main region of Germany. Ten of 11 target OPFRs were ubiquitously detected, some with more than 97% detection frequency, including tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCIPP), tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBOEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and tris(isobutyl) phosphate (TIBP)...
May 29, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556424/growth-of-organic-films-on-indoor-surfaces
#8
C J Weschler, W W Nazaroff
We present a model for the growth of organic films on impermeable indoor surfaces. The model couples transport through a gas-side boundary layer adjacent to the surface with equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between the gas phase and the surface film. Model predictions indicate that film growth would primarily be influenced by the gas-phase concentration of SVOCs with octanol-air partitioning (Koa ) values in the approximate range 10≤log Koa ≤13. Within the relevant range, SVOCs with lower values will equilibrate with the surface film more rapidly...
May 29, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548238/a-quantitative-property-property-relationship-for-the-internal-diffusion-coefficients-of-organic-compounds-in-solid-materials
#9
Lei Huang, Peter Fantke, Alexi Ernstoff, Olivier Jolliet
Indoor releases of organic chemicals encapsulated in solid materials are major contributors to human exposures and are directly related to the internal diffusion coefficient in solid materials. Existing correlations to estimate the diffusion coefficient are only valid for a limited number of chemical-material combinations. This paper develops and evaluates a quantitative property-property relationship (QPPR) to predict diffusion coefficients for a wide range of organic chemicals and materials. We first compiled a training dataset of 1103 measured diffusion coefficients for 158 chemicals in 32 consolidated material types...
May 26, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493625/significant-oh-production-under-surface-cleaning-and-air-cleaning-conditions-impact-on-indoor-air-quality
#10
Nicola Carslaw, Louise Fletcher, Dwayne Heard, Trevor Ingham, Hannah Walker
We report measurements of hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO2 ) radicals made by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a computer classroom (i) in the absence of indoor activities (ii) during desk cleaning with a limonene-containing cleaner (iii) during operation of a commercially available 'air cleaning' device. In the unmanipulated environment, the one-minute averaged OH concentration remained close to or below the limit of detection (6.5 x 10(5) molecule cm(-3) ), whilst that of HO2 was 1.3 x 10(7) molecule cm(-3) ...
May 11, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474814/perceived-indoor-air-quality-and-its-relationship-to-air-pollutants-in-french-dwellings
#11
Sarka Langer, Olivier Ramalho, Eline Le Ponner, Mickaël Derbez, Severine Kirchner, Corinne Mandin
Perception of indoor air quality (PIAQ) was evaluated in a nationwide survey of 567 French dwellings, and this survey was combined with measurements of gaseous and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5 ) indoor air pollutants and indoor climate parameters. The perception was assessed on a nine-grade scale by both the occupants of the dwellings and the inspectors who performed the measurements. The occupants perceived the air quality in their homes as more pleasant than the inspectors. The inspectors perceived the air quality as more unpleasant in dwellings in which the residents smoked indoors...
May 5, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631263/isiaq-academy-awards-2016
#12
EDITORIAL
T Salthammer, Y Li, R Corsi, K W Tham, P Wargocki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107558/predictors-of-summertime-heat-index-levels-in-new-york-city-apartments
#13
A Quinn, P Kinney, J Shaman
During heat waves, fatal overexposure to heat most often occurs at home. It is not known how factors such as building size, floor level, and different types of air conditioning (AC) contribute to excess indoor heat. We monitored indoor temperature and humidity in 36 apartments in New York City during summers 2014 and 2015 and used these values to calculate the indoor heat index (HI). We investigated the role of AC type and building-level factors on indoor HI using multilevel regression models. Thirty-four of 36 homes had AC...
July 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107552/reflections-on-the-history-of-indoor-air-science-focusing-on-the-last-50%C3%A2-years
#14
J Sundell
The scientific articles and Indoor Air conference publications of the indoor air sciences (IAS) during the last 50 years are summarized. In total 7524 presentations, from 79 countries, have been made at Indoor Air conferences held between 1978 (49 presentations) and 2014 (1049 presentations). In the Web of Science, 26 992 articles on indoor air research (with the word "indoor" as a search term) have been found (as of 1 Jan 2016) of which 70% were published during the last 10 years. The modern scientific history started in the 1970s with a question: "did indoor air pose a threat to health as did outdoor air?" Soon it was recognized that indoor air is more important, from a health point of view, than outdoor air...
July 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054389/health-effects-of-laser-printer-emissions-a-controlled-exposure-study
#15
S Karrasch, M Simon, B Herbig, J Langner, S Seeger, A Kronseder, S Peters, G Dietrich-Gümperlein, R Schierl, D Nowak, R A Jörres
Ultrafine particles emitted from laser printers are suspected to elicit adverse health effects. We performed 75-minute exposures to emissions of laser printing devices (LPDs) in a standardized, randomized, cross-over manner in 23 healthy subjects, 14 mild, stable asthmatics, and 15 persons reporting symptoms associated with LPD emissions. Low-level exposures (LLE) ranged at the particle background (3000 cm(-3) ) and high-level exposures (HLE) at 100 000 cm(-3) . Examinations before and after exposures included spirometry, body plethysmography, transfer factors for CO and NO (TLCO, TLNO), bronchial and alveolar NO, cytokines in serum and nasal secretions (IL-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, IFNγ, TNFα), serum ECP, and IgE...
July 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009455/emission-rates-and-the-personal-cloud-effect-associated-with-particle-release-from-the-perihuman-environment
#16
D Licina, Y Tian, W W Nazaroff
Inhalation exposure to elevated particulate matter levels is correlated with deleterious health and well-being outcomes. Despite growing evidence that identifies humans as sources of coarse airborne particles, the extent to which personal exposures are influenced by particle releases near occupants is unknown. In a controlled chamber, we monitored airborne total particle levels with high temporal and particle-size resolution for a range of simulated occupant activities. We also sampled directly from the subject's breathing zone to characterize exposures...
July 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005297/predicted-percentage-dissatisfied-with-ankle-draft
#17
S Liu, S Schiavon, A Kabanshi, W W Nazaroff
Draft is unwanted local convective cooling. The draft risk model of Fanger et al. (Energy and Buildings 12, 21-39, 1988) estimates the percentage of people dissatisfied with air movement due to overcooling at the neck. There is no model for predicting draft at ankles, which is more relevant to stratified air distribution systems such as underfloor air distribution (UFAD) and displacement ventilation (DV). We developed a model for predicted percentage dissatisfied with ankle draft (PPDAD ) based on laboratory experiments with 110 college students...
July 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005296/current-wheeze-asthma-respiratory-infections-and-rhinitis-among-adults-in-relation-to-inspection-data-and-indoor-measurements-in-single-family-houses-in-sweden-the-betsi-study
#18
J Wang, K Engvall, G Smedje, H Nilsson, D Norbäck
In the Swedish Building Energy, Technical Status and Indoor environment study, a total of 1160 adults from 605 single-family houses answered a questionnaire on respiratory health. Building inspectors investigated the homes and measured temperature, air humidity, air exchange rate, and wood moisture content (in attic and crawl space). Moisture load was calculated as the difference between indoor and outdoor absolute humidity. Totally, 7.3% were smokers, 8.7% had doctor' diagnosed asthma, 11.2% current wheeze, and 9...
July 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990700/biomass-fuel-smoke-exposure-was-associated-with-adverse-cardiac-remodeling-and-left-ventricular-dysfunction-in-peru
#19
M S Burroughs Peña, E J Velazquez, J D Rivera, F Alenezi, C Wong, M Grigsby, V G Davila-Roman, R H Gilman, J J Miranda, W Checkley
While household air pollution from biomass fuel combustion has been linked to cardiovascular disease, the effects on cardiac structure and function have not been well described. We sought to determine the association between biomass fuel smoke exposure and cardiac structure and function by transthoracic echocardiography. We identified a random sample of urban and rural residents living in the high-altitude region of Puno, Peru. Daily biomass fuel use was self-reported. Participants underwent transthoracic echocardiography...
July 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943451/chemical-kinetics-of-multiphase-reactions-between-ozone-and-human-skin-lipids-implications-for-indoor-air-quality-and-health-effects
#20
P S J Lakey, A Wisthaler, T Berkemeier, T Mikoviny, U Pöschl, M Shiraiwa
Ozone reacts with skin lipids such as squalene, generating an array of organic compounds, some of which can act as respiratory or skin irritants. Thus, it is important to quantify and predict the formation of these products under different conditions in indoor environments. We developed the kinetic multilayer model that explicitly resolves mass transport and chemical reactions at the skin and in the gas phase (KM-SUB-Skin). It can reproduce the concentrations of ozone and organic compounds in previous measurements and new experiments...
July 2017: Indoor Air
journal
journal
31657
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"