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Indoor Air

Stefan Karrasch, Myriam Simon, Britta Herbig, Jeanette Langner, Stefan Seeger, Angelika Kronseder, Stefan Peters, Gisela Dietrich-Gümperlein, Rudolf Schierl, Dennis Nowak, Rudolf A Jörres
Ultrafine particles emitted from laser printers are suspected to elicit adverse health effects. We performed 75-minute exposures to emissions of laser printing devices (LPDs) in a standardized, randomized, cross-over manner in 23 healthy subjects, 14 mild, stable asthmatics and 15 persons reporting symptoms associated with LPD emissions. Low level exposures (LLE) ranged at the particle background (3,000 cm(-3) ), high level exposures (HLE) at 100,000 cm(-3) . Examinations before and after exposures included spirometry, body plethysmography, transfer factors for CO and NO (TLCO, TLNO), bronchial and alveolar NO, cytokines in serum and nasal secretions (IL-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, IFNγ, TNFα), serum ECP, and IgE...
January 5, 2017: Indoor Air
Dusan Licina, Yilin Tian, William W Nazaroff
Inhalation exposure to elevated particulate matter levels is correlated with deleterious health and well-being outcomes. Despite growing evidence that identifies humans as sources of coarse airborne particles, the extent to which personal exposures are influenced by particle releases near occupants is unknown. In a controlled chamber, we monitored airborne total particle levels with high temporal and particle-size resolution for a range of simulated occupant activities. We also sampled directly from the subject's breathing zone to characterize exposures...
December 23, 2016: Indoor Air
Shichao Liu, Stefano Schiavon, Alan Kabanshi, William W Nazaroff
Draft is unwanted local convective cooling. The draft risk model of Fanger et al. (Energy and Buildings 12, 21-39, 1988) estimates the percentage of people dissatisfied with air movement due to overcooling at the neck. There is no model for predicting draft at ankles, which is more relevant to stratified air distribution systems such as underfloor air distribution (UFAD) and displacement ventilation (DV). We developed a model for predicted percentage dissatisfied with ankle draft (PPDAD ) based on laboratory experiments with 110 college students...
December 22, 2016: Indoor Air
Juan Wang, Karin Engvall, Greta Smedje, Håkan Nilsson, Dan Norbäck
In the Swedish BETSI study, a total of 1160 adults from 605 single-family houses answered a questionnaire on respiratory health. Building inspectors investigated the homes and measured temperature, air humidity, air exchange rate and wood moisture content (in attic and crawl space). Moisture load was calculated as the difference between indoor and outdoor absolute humidity. Totally 7.3% were smokers; 8.7% had doctor' diagnosed asthma; 11.2% current wheeze and 9.5% current asthma symptoms. Totally 50.3% had respiratory infections and 26...
December 22, 2016: Indoor Air
Melissa S Burroughs Peña, Eric J Velazquez, Jose D Rivera, Fawaz Alenezi, Catherine Wong, Matthew Grigsby, Victor G Davila-Roman, Robert H Gilman, Jaime J Miranda, William Checkley
BACKGROUND: While household air pollution from biomass fuel combustion has been linked to cardiovascular disease, the effects on cardiac structure and function have not been well described. We sought to determine the association between biomass fuel smoke exposure and cardiac structure and function by transthoracic echocardiography. METHODS: We identified a random sample of urban and rural residents living in the high-altitude region of Puno, Peru. Daily biomass fuel use was self-reported...
December 19, 2016: Indoor Air
P S J Lakey, A Wisthaler, T Berkemeier, T Mikoviny, U Pöschl, M Shiraiwa
Ozone reacts with skin lipids such as squalene, generating an array of organic compounds, some of which can act as respiratory or skin irritants. Thus, it is important to quantify and predict the formation of these products under different conditions in indoor environments. We developed the kinetic multilayer model that explicitly resolves mass transport and chemical reactions at the skin and in the gas phase (KM-SUB-Skin). It can reproduce the concentrations of ozone and organic compounds in previous measurements and new experiments...
December 10, 2016: Indoor Air
B C Singer, W W Delp, D R Black, I S Walker
This study evaluated nine ventilation and filtration systems in an unoccupied 2006 house located 250 m downwind of the I-80 freeway in Sacramento, California. Systems were evaluated for reducing indoor concentrations of outdoor particles in summer and fall/winter, ozone in summer, and particles from stir-fry cooking. Air exchange rate was measured continuously. Energy use was estimated for year-round operation in California. Exhaust ventilation without enhanced filtration provided indoor PM2.5 that was 70% lower than outdoors...
December 5, 2016: Indoor Air
Alexandra-Cristina Paunescu, Michel Attoui, Souad Bouallala, Jordi Sunyer, Isabelle Momas
 This study aimed to measure in French children personal exposure concentrations of black carbon (BC) and ultrafine particles (UFP), and to quantify the contribution of different microenvironments (home, school, places of extra-curricular activities, transport) to their total exposure. It was conducted on 96 9-year-old children from the PARIS birth cohort. BC and UFP were continuously measured by portable devices (microAeth(®) AE51 and DiSCmini(®) ) for a minimum of 24 hours, while participating families simultaneously filled in a space-time-activity questionnaire...
November 22, 2016: Indoor Air
L S Pagani, F Lévesque-Seck, I Archambault, M Janosz
Young children exert little control over household tobacco smoke exposure, which is considered a developmental neurotoxicant. Using the Quebec Longitudinal Study birth cohort, we examine prospective associations between early childhood smoke exposure and later antisocial behavior. Parents of 1035 children reported on the presence of household smokers at seven follow-ups from ages 1.5 to 7.5. At age 12, children self-reported on five aspects of early antisocial dispositions. After adjusting for confounders, every standard deviation increase in household smoke exposure was prospectively associated with a 19% standard deviation unit increase in conduct problems (β=0...
November 20, 2016: Indoor Air
H-M Shin, T E McKone, D H Bennett
We present a screening-level exposure-assessment method which integrates exposure from all plausible exposure pathways as a result of indoor residential use of cleaning products. The exposure pathways we considered are (i) exposure to a user during product use via inhalation and dermal, (ii) exposure to chemical residues left on clothing, (iii) exposure to all occupants from the portion released indoors during use via inhalation and dermal, and (iv) exposure to the general population due to down-the-drain disposal via inhalation and ingestion...
November 17, 2016: Indoor Air
F A Berlanga, I Olmedo, M Ruiz de Adana
Human exhalation flow is a potential source of pathogens that can constitute a cross-infection risk to people in indoor environments. Thus, it is important to investigate the characteristics of this flow, its development, area of influence, and the diffusion of the exhaled contaminants. This paper uses phase-averaged particle image velocimetry together with a tracer gas (CO2 ) to study two different exhalation flows over time: the exhalation of an average male (test M) and an average female (test F), using a life-sized thermal manikin in a supine position...
November 17, 2016: Indoor Air
Y C Chen, W C Ho, Y H Yu
Incense burning is a popular cultural and religious practice, but whether exposure to incense smoke has effects on lung function is unclear. We investigated association between lung function and incense burning exposure and other household exposures in adolescents who participated in a mass asthma-screening program. Information on asthmatic status and associated factors was obtained from parent-completed questionnaires and student-completed video questionnaires. Approximately 10% of students received lung function examinations...
November 17, 2016: Indoor Air
G C Morrison, C J Weschler, G Bekö
In this research, we extend a model of transdermal uptake of phthalates to include a layer of clothing. When compared with experimental results, this model better estimates dermal uptake of diethylphthalate and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) than a previous model. The model predictions are consistent with the observation that previously exposed clothing can increase dermal uptake over that observed in bare-skin participants for the same exposure air concentrations. The model predicts that dermal uptake from clothing of DnBP is a substantial fraction of total uptake from all sources of exposure...
November 11, 2016: Indoor Air
J Mensah-Attipoe, M Täubel, M Hernandez, M Pitkäranta, T Reponen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Indoor Air
Y Chen, W Du, G Shen, S Zhuo, X Zhu, H Shen, Y Huang, S Su, N Lin, L Pei, X Zheng, J Wu, Y Duan, X Wang, W Liu, M Wong, S Tao
Residential solid fuels are widely consumed in rural China, contributing to severe household air pollution for many products of incomplete combustion, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives. In this study, concentrations of nitrated and oxygenated PAH derivatives (nPAHs and oPAHs) for household and personal air were measured and analyzed for influencing factors like smoking and cooking energy type. Concentrations of nPAHs and oPAHs in kitchens were higher than those in living rooms and in outdoor air...
January 2017: Indoor Air
A M Johnson, M S Waring, P F DeCarlo
Outdoor aerosols are transported indoors, where their component concentrations depend on aerosol size, physiochemical properties, indoor sources and losses, and cross-environment gradients of temperature and relative humidity. We explored these dependencies by measuring real-time outdoor and indoor non-refractory, submicron (PM1 ) aerosol component mass concentrations in a mixed-use laboratory space with an Aerodyne mini-aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and black carbon (BC) with an aethalometer. The median indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios were 0...
January 2017: Indoor Air
B Andersen, I Dosen, A M Lewinska, K F Nielsen
Gypsum wallboard is a popular building material, but is also very frequently overgrown by Stachybotrys chartarum after severe and/or undetected water damage. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Stachybotrys and other fungi frequently isolated from wet gypsum wallboard are already present in the panels directly from the factory. Surface-disinfected gypsum disks were wetted with sterile water, sealed, and incubated for 70 days. The results showed that Neosartorya hiratsukae (≡ Aspergillus hiratsukae) was the most dominant fungus on the gypsum wallboard followed by Chaetomium globosum and Stachybotrys chartarum...
January 2017: Indoor Air
L Liu, J Wei, Y Li, A Ooi
Understanding how respiratory droplets become droplet nuclei and their dispersion is essential for understanding the mechanisms and control of disease transmission via droplet-borne and airborne routes. A theoretical model was developed to estimate the size of droplet nuclei and their dispersion as a function of the ambient humidity and droplet composition. The model-predicted dried droplet nuclei size was 32% of the original diameter, which agrees with the maximum residue size in the classic study by Duguid, 1946, Edinburg Med...
January 2017: Indoor Air
F Zhang, R de Dear
As one of the most common strategies for managing peak electricity demand, direct load control (DLC) of air-conditioners involves cycling the compressors on and off at predetermined intervals. In university lecture theaters, the implementation of DLC induces temperature cycles which might compromise university students' learning performance. In these experiments, university students' learning performance, represented by four cognitive skills of memory, concentration, reasoning, and planning, was closely monitored under DLC-induced temperature cycles and control conditions simulated in a climate chamber...
January 2017: Indoor Air
H Zhao, B Stephens
Much of human exposure to particulate matter of outdoor origin occurs inside buildings, particularly in residences. The particle penetration factor through leaks in a building's exterior enclosure assembly is a key parameter that governs the infiltration of outdoor particles. However, experimental data for size-resolved particle penetration factors in real buildings, as well as penetration factors for fine particles less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) and ultrafine particles less than 100 nm (UFPs), remain limited, in part because of previous limitations in instrumentation and experimental methods...
January 2017: Indoor Air
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