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Indoor Air

Yen-Chi Chen, Kuo-Pin Yu, Wen-Cheng Shao, Chao-Heng Tseng, Wen-Chi Pan
In this study, we evaluated the long-term antifungal effectiveness of 3 types of interior building materials (gypsum board (GB), cement board (CB) and softwood plywood (S-PW)) impregnated with thermally reduced silver nanoparticles supported by titanium dioxide (AgNPs/TiO2 ) under 95% relative humidity for four weeks. AgNPs/TiO2 was synthesized at two thermal reduction temperatures (TRTs, 120 and 200°C) with two different AgNP weight percentages (2 and 5 wt%). Four different silver loading levels (SLLs, 0...
December 11, 2017: Indoor Air
Ru Xiao, Jinhan Mo, Yinping Zhang, Dewen Gao
Formaldehyde is a common indoor pollutant that is an irritant and has been classified as carcinogen to humans. Adsorption technology is safe and stable and removes formaldehyde efficiently, but its short lifespan and low adsorption capacity limit its indoor application. To overcome these limitations, we propose an in-situ thermally regenerated air purifier (TRAP) which self-regenerates as needed. This purifier has four working modes: cleaning mode, regeneration mode, exhaust mode and outdoor air in-take mode, all of which are operated by valve switching...
November 23, 2017: Indoor Air
A K Mishra, A M van Ruitenbeek, M G L C Loomans, H S M Kort
This work examined window/door opening as means of bedroom ventilation and the consequent effect upon occupants' sleep, using data from 17 healthy volunteers. Bedroom CO2 level, temperature, and relative humidity were measured over 5 days, for two cases: open window or door (internal, bedroom door), and closed window and door. Participant filled questionnaires and sleep diary provided subjective measure of sleep quality. Actigraphy objectively monitored the participants during sleep. Additionally, a FlexSensor, placed under pillows of participants, detected movement during sleep...
November 21, 2017: Indoor Air
K Järvi, A Hyvärinen, M Täubel, A M Karvonen, M Turunen, K Jalkanen, R Patovirta, T Syrjänen, J Pirinen, H Salonen, A Nevalainen, J Pekkanen
There is no commonly approved approach to detect and quantify the health relevant microbial exposure in moisture damaged buildings. In 39 single-family homes with severe moisture damage, we studied whether concentrations of viable microbes in building material samples are associated with health among 71 adults and 68 children, assessed with symptoms questionnaires, exhaled NO and peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability. Symptoms were grouped into three scores: upper respiratory symptoms, lower respiratory symptoms and general symptoms...
November 19, 2017: Indoor Air
Tsz Wai Ng, Pui Ying Chan, Tsz Ting Chan, Haoxiang Wu, Ka Man Lai
One of the most notable indoor air quality problems is odour emission. This study investigated the potential contribution of skin squames to the production of ammonia (NH3 ) and volatile organic acids (VFAs) by seven bacteria isolated from air-cooling (AC) units with complaints of urine and body odours. Our previous study showed that keratinolytic activity is higher in AC units with odour complaints than those without. In the offices where these units are located, the most likely source of keratins is from human skin squames...
November 12, 2017: Indoor Air
Scott Pigg, Dan Cautley, Paul W Francisco
Residential energy efficiency retrofits continue to be common in the United States, especially through governmental and utility programs. Because of the potential for reduced air exchange, there have been concerns raised regarding the potential for negative impacts on health and safety of residents when air sealing occurs. To address this concern, a study was undertaken in 2009-2010 to evaluate the indoor air quality impacts of weatherization performed through the U.S. Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program...
November 6, 2017: Indoor Air
Gabriel Bekö, Glenn Morrison, Charles J Weschler, Holger M Koch, Claudia Pälmke, Tunga Salthammer, Tobias Schripp, Azin Eftekhari, Jørn Toftum, Geo Clausen
The current study aims to elucidate in greater detail the dermal uptake of nicotine from air or from nicotine-exposed clothes, which was demonstrated recently in a preliminary study. Six non-smoking participants were exposed to gaseous nicotine (between 236 and 304 μg/m(3) ) over 5 h while breathing clean air through a hood. Four of the participants wore only shorts and two wore a set of clean clothes. One week later, two of the bare-skinned participants were again exposed in the chamber, but they showered immediately after exposure instead of the following morning...
November 2, 2017: Indoor Air
Camille Dauchy, Nathalie Bautin, Saad Nseir, Gabriel Reboux, René Wintjens, Olivier Le Rouzic, Boualem Sendid, Eric Viscogliosi, Patrice Le Pape, Maiken Cavling Arendrup, Philippe Gosset, Stéphanie Fry, Emilie Fréalle
Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (ARAF) has been reported in COPD patients, but has not been specifically assessed so far. Here, we evaluated ARAF prevalence in azole-naïve COPD patients and their homes, and assessed whether CYP51A mutations were similar in clinical and environmental reservoirs. Sixty respiratory samples from 41 COPD patients with acute exacerbation, and environmental samples from 36 of these patient's homes were prospectively collected. A. fumigatus was detected in respiratory samples from 11/41 patients (27%) and in 15/36 domiciles (42%)...
October 30, 2017: Indoor Air
Fei Wang, Jing Wang, Yaru Li, Xu Han, Hua Hu, Caizheng Yu, Jing Yuan, Ping Yao, Xiaoping Miao, Sheng Wei, Youjie Wang, Weihong Chen, Yuan Liang, Huan Guo, Xiaomin Zhang, Handong Yang, Tangchun Wu, Meian He
Experimental and epidemiological studies indicated that ambient air pollution was positively associated with diabetes. Few studies investigated the associations between household air pollution, for example, daily cooking duration and diabetes or prediabetes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations of daily cooking duration with the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes among a middle-aged and elderly population. A total of 26,089 individuals (11,250 males and 14,839 females) derived from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study were included...
October 13, 2017: Indoor Air
Nicholas L Lam, Godfrey Muhwezi, Fred Isabirye, Kat Harrison, Ilse Ruiz-Mercado, Evans Amukoye, Tom Mokaya, Margaret Wambua, Michael N Bates
INTRODUCTION: Solar lamps are a clean and potentially cost-effective alternative to polluting kerosene lamps used by millions of families in developing countries. By how much solar lamps actually reduce exposure to pollutants, however, has not been examined. METHODS: Twenty households using mainly kerosene for lighting were enrolled through a secondary school in Busia County, Kenya. Personal PM2.5 and CO concentrations were measured on a school pupil and an adult in each household, before and after provision of three solar lamps...
October 13, 2017: Indoor Air
B Shezi, N Jafta, B Sartorius, R N Naidoo
In low-resource settings, there is a need to develop models that can address contributions of household and outdoor sources to population exposures. The aim of the study was to model indoor PM2.5 using household characteristics, activities, and outdoor sources. Households belonging to participants in the Mother and Child in the Environment (MACE) birth cohort, in Durban, South Africa, were randomly selected. A structured walk-through identified variables likely to generate PM2.5 . MiniVol samplers were used to monitor PM2...
October 6, 2017: Indoor Air
B Herbig, R A Jörres, R Schierl, M Simon, J Langner, S Seeger, D Nowak, S Karrasch
The possible impact of ultrafine particles from laser printers on human health is controversially discussed although there are persons reporting substantial symptoms in relation to these emissions. A randomized, single-blinded, cross-over experimental design with two exposure conditions (high-level and low-level exposure) was conducted with 23 healthy subjects, 14 subjects with mild asthma, and 15 persons reporting symptoms associated with laser printer emissions. To separate physiological and psychological effects, a secondary physiologically based categorization of susceptibility to particle effects was used...
September 28, 2017: Indoor Air
L Lan, X L Qian, Z W Lian, Y B Lin
The effects of local body cooling on thermal comfort and sleep quality in a hot environment were investigated in an experiment with 16 male subjects. Sleep quality was evaluated subjectively, using questionnaires completed in the morning, and objectively, by analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals that were continuously monitored during the sleeping period. Compared with no cooling, the largest improvement in thermal comfort and sleep quality was observed when the back and head (neck) were both cooled at a room temperature of 32°C...
September 28, 2017: Indoor Air
S Xiao, Y Li, M Sung, J Wei, Z Yang
Infections caused by the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are a serious health issue due to their prevalence and associated mortality. However, the transmission routes of the virus remain unclear, and thus, the current recommended control strategies are not evidence based. In this study, we investigated the transmission routes of MERS-CoV during the first nosocomial outbreak in the Republic of Korea in May 2015 using a multi-agent modeling framework. We identified seven hypothesized transmission modes based on the three main transmission routes (long-range airborne, close contact, and fomite)...
September 28, 2017: Indoor Air
Mickaël Derbez, Guillaume Wyart, Eline Le Ponner, Olivier Ramalho, Jacques Ribéron, Corinne Mandin
Worldwide, public policies are promoting energy-efficient buildings and accelerating the thermal renovation of existing buildings. The effects of these changes on the indoor air quality (IAQ) in these buildings remain insufficiently understood. In this context, a field study was conducted in 72 energy-efficient dwellings to describe the pollutants known to be associated with health concerns. Measured parameters included the concentrations of 19 volatile organic compounds and aldehydes, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM2...
September 28, 2017: Indoor Air
Maria Valkonen, Martin Täubel, Juha Pekkanen, Christina Tischer, Helena Rintala, Jan-Paul Zock, Lidia Casas, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Bertil Forsberg, Mathias Holm, Christer Janson, Isabelle Pin, Thorarinn Gislason, Debbie Jarvis, Joachim Heinrich, Anne Hyvärinen
BACKGROUND: Microbial exposures in homes of asthmatic adults have been rarely investigated; specificities and implications for respiratory health are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to investigate associations of microbial levels with asthma status, asthma symptoms, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and atopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mattress dust samples of 199 asthmatics and 198 control subjects from seven European countries participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II study were analysed for fungal and bacterial cell wall components and individual taxa...
September 27, 2017: Indoor Air
E Øya, Akj Afanou, N Malla, S Uhlig, E Rolen, I Skaar, A Straumfors, J O Winberg, B E Bang, P E Schwarze, W Eduard, J A Holme
Mold particles from Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor and Stachybotrys chartarum have been linked to respiratory-related diseases. Here we characterized X-ray-inactivated spores and hyphae fragments from these species by number of particles, morphology, and mycotoxin, β-glucan and protease content/activity. The pro-inflammatory properties of mold particles were examined in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and THP-1 monocytes and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1...
September 18, 2017: Indoor Air
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Indoor Air
G C Morrison, N Carslaw, M S Waring
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Indoor Air
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