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Indoor Air

Anu Mikkonen, Tao Li, Mari Vesala, Jatta Saarenheimo, Viivi Ahonen, Sirpa Kärenlampi, James D Blande, Marja Tiirola, Arja Tervahauta
Botanical air filtration is a promising technology for reducing indoor air contaminants, but the underlying mechanisms need better understanding. Here, we made a set of chamber fumigation experiments of up to 16 weeks duration, to study the filtration efficiencies for seven volatile organic compounds (VOCs; decane, toluene, 2-ethylhexanol, α-pinene, octane, benzene, xylene) and to monitor microbial dynamics in simulated green wall systems. Biofiltration functioned on sub-ppm VOC levels without concentration-dependence...
May 6, 2018: Indoor Air
Ju-Hyeong Park, Michael Sulyok, Angela R Lemons, Brett J Green, Jean M Cox-Ganser
Recent developments in molecular and chemical methods have enabled the analysis of fungal DNA and secondary metabolites, often produced during fungal growth, in environmental samples. We compared three fungal analytical methods by analyzing floor dust samples collected from an office building for fungi using viable culture, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, and secondary metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Of the 32 metabolites identified, 29 had a potential link to fungi with levels ranging from 0...
May 4, 2018: Indoor Air
Joseph Ndika, Hille Suojalehto, Martin Täubel, Maili Lehto, Kirsi Karvala, Paula Pallasaho, Jukka Sund, Petri Auvinen, Kati Järvi, Juha Pekkanen, Pia Kinaret, Dario Greco, Anne Hyvärinen, Harri Alenius
Upper and lower respiratory symptoms and asthma are adverse health effects associated with moisture-damaged buildings. Quantitative measures to detect adverse health effects related to exposure to dampness and mold are needed. Here, we investigate differences in gene expression between occupants of moisture-damaged and reference buildings. Moisture-damaged (N=11) and control (N=5) buildings were evaluated for dampness and mold by trained inspectors. The transcriptomics cohort consisted of nasal brushings and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 86 teachers, with/without self-perceived respiratory symptoms...
May 4, 2018: Indoor Air
James M Starr, Stephen E Graham, Weiwei Li, Anthony A Gemma, Marsha K Morgan
Pyrethroids are a class of neurotoxic insecticides and some studies have used single-time wiping of hard surface flooring to estimate indoor pyrethroid concentrations. Considering that human activities may affect concentrations, knowledge of temporal variability is needed to reduce the uncertainty of exposure estimates that are calculated using wipe sampling of pyrethroids in occupied housing. During weeks one, two, and six of a six-week study, two wipe samples of hard surface kitchen flooring were collected in each of 50 occupied residences and used to estimate the temporal variability of eight pyrethroids and six pyrethroid degradation products...
May 4, 2018: Indoor Air
William J Fisk
This paper reviews studies of the relationships between ventilation rates (VRs) in homes and occupant health, primarily respiratory health. Five cross-sectional studies, seven case-control studies, and eight intervention studies met inclusion criteria. Nearly all studies controlled for a range of potential confounders and most intervention studies included placebo conditions. Just over half of studies reported one or more statistically significant (SS) health benefits of increased VRs. Wheeze was most clearly associated with VR...
April 28, 2018: Indoor Air
Antonio Neri, Christina McNaughton, Behnoosh Momin, Mary Puckett, M Shayne Gallaway
Radon exposure is the second leading risk factor for lung cancer among smokers and the leading risk factor among non-smokers. Radon concentrated in lower levels of homes/buildings can be reduced if found, thus lowering lung cancer risk. The objective of this study was to measure radon knowledge in diverse populations, with varying radon-related laws, to inform radon-related cancer control practices and activities. A survey was mailed to 3,000 homebuyers who purchased single-family homes; 995 responses (33%) were received...
April 28, 2018: Indoor Air
B C Singer, W W Delp
The ability to inexpensively monitor PM2.5 to identify sources and enable controls would advance residential indoor air quality (IAQ) management. Consumer IAQ monitors incorporating low-cost optical particle sensors and connections with smart home platforms could provide this service if they reliably detect PM2.5 in homes. In this study, particles from typical residential sources were generated in a 120 m3 laboratory and time-concentration profiles were measured with 7 consumer monitors (2-3 units each), 2 research monitors (Thermo pDR-1500, MetOne BT-645), a Grimm Mini Wide-Range Aerosol Spectrometer (GRM), and a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance with Filter Dynamic Measurement System (FDMS), a Federal Equivalent Method for PM2...
April 23, 2018: Indoor Air
Z T Ai, A K Melikov
This paper reviews past studies of airborne transmission between occupants in indoor environments, focusing on the spread of expiratory droplet nuclei from mouth/nose to mouth/nose for non-specific diseases. Special attention is paid to summarizing what is known about the influential factors, the inappropriate simplifications of the thermofluid boundary conditions of thermal manikins, the challenges facing the available experimental techniques, and the limitations of available evaluation methods. Secondary issues are highlighted and some new ways to improve our understanding of airborne transmission indoors are provided...
April 23, 2018: Indoor Air
Adams Rackes, Tom Ben-David, Michael S Waring
This article presents an outcome-based ventilation (OBV) framework, which combines competing ventilation impacts into a monetized loss function ($/occ/h) used to inform ventilation rate decisions. The OBV framework, developed for U.S. offices, considers six outcomes of increasing ventilation: profitable outcomes realized from improvements in occupant work performance and sick-leave absenteeism; health outcomes from occupant exposure to outdoor fine particles and ozone; and energy outcomes from electricity and natural gas usage...
April 23, 2018: Indoor Air
Mark J Mendell, Janet M Macher, Kazukiyo Kumagai
It has not yet been possible to quantify dose-related health risks attributable to indoor dampness or mold (D/M), to support the setting of health-related limits for D/M. An overlooked target for assessing D/M is moisture in building materials, the critical factor allowing microbial growth. A search for studies of quantified building moisture and occupant health effects identified three eligible studies. Two studies assessed associations between measured wall moisture content and respiratory health in the UK...
April 23, 2018: Indoor Air
Yingjun Liu, Pawel K Misztal, Jianyin Xiong, Yilin Tian, Caleb Arata, William W Nazaroff, Allen H Goldstein
Building ventilation rates and indoor airflow conditions influence occupants' exposure to indoor air pollutants. By making time- and space-resolved measurement of three inert tracers steadily released in a single-family house in California for eight weeks in summer and five weeks in winter, the present study quantifies the air change rate of the living zone with 2-h time resolution; estimates airflow rates between the living zone, attic, and crawlspace; and characterizes mixing of air in the split-level living space...
April 17, 2018: Indoor Air
Yilin Tian, Yingjun Liu, Pawel K Misztal, Jianyin Xiong, Caleb M Arata, Allen H Goldstein, William W Nazaroff
Residences represent an important site for bioaerosol exposure. We studied bioaerosol concentrations, emissions, and exposures in a single-family residence in northern California with two occupants using real-time instrumentation during two monitoring campaigns (eight weeks during August-October 2016 and five weeks during January-March 2017). Time- and size-resolved fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) and total airborne particles were measured in real time in the kitchen using an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS)...
April 6, 2018: Indoor Air
Charity Garland, Carlos F Gould, David Pennise
Burning solid fuels to fulfill daily household energy needs results in chronic exposure to household air pollution (HAP), which is among the world's greatest health risks. This paper presents the results of a cross-sectional study of cookstove usage, fuel consumption, and indoor PM2.5 concentrations in rural and urban Honduran homes cooking with the Envirofit HM-5000 metal plancha stove (n=32) as compared to control households using baseline cooking technologies (n=33). Temperature-based stove usage measurements showed high HM-5000 acceptance, with significant displacement of the traditional cookstoves at both the urban (99%, p<0...
March 25, 2018: Indoor Air
B Hegarty, K C Dannemiller, J Peccia
Dampness and visible mold growth in homes are associated with negative human health outcomes, but causal relationships between fungal exposure and health are not well established. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dampness in buildings impacts fungal community gene expression and how, in turn, gene expression may modulate human health impacts. A metatranscriptomic study was performed on house dust fungal communities to investigate the expression of genes and metabolic processes in chamber experiments at water activity levels of 0...
March 3, 2018: Indoor Air
I Gümperlein, E Fischer, G Dietrich-Gümperlein, S Karrasch, D Nowak, R A Jörres, R Schierl
3D printers are increasingly run at home. Nanoparticle emissions from those printers have been reported, which raises the question whether adverse health effects from ultrafine particles (UFP) can be elicited by 3D printers. We exposed 26 healthy adults in a single-blinded, randomized, cross-over design to emissions of a desktop 3D printer using fused deposition modeling (FDM) for 1 hour (high UFP-emitting acrylonitrile butadiene styrene [ABS] vs low-emitting polylactic acid [PLA]). Before and after exposures, cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, INF-γ) and ECP in nasal secretions, exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), urinary 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-iso PGF2α ), and self-reported symptoms were assessed...
March 3, 2018: Indoor Air
Glenn Morrison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Indoor Air
A M Karvonen, C Tischer, P V Kirjavainen, M Roponen, A Hyvärinen, S Illi, K Mustonen, P I Pfefferle, H Renz, S Remes, B Schaub, E von Mutius, J Pekkanen
Cross-sectional studies have shown that exposure to indoor moisture damage and mold may be associated with subclinical inflammation. Our aim was to determine whether early age exposure to moisture damage or mold is prospectively associated with subclinical systemic inflammation or with immune responsiveness in later childhood. Home inspections were performed in children's homes in the first year of life. At age 6 years, subclinical systemic inflammation was measured by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and blood leukocytes and immune responsiveness by ex vivo production of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in whole blood cultures without stimulation or after 24 hours stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin (PI), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or peptidoglycan (PPG) in 251-270 children...
May 2018: Indoor Air
J Hou, H Sun, Y Zhou, Y Zhang, W Yin, T Xu, J Cheng, W Chen, J Yuan
Diabetes is related to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), inflammation in the body, and housing characters. However, associations of urinary monohydroxy-PAHs (OH-PAHs) or fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) with diabetes risk in relation to housing characters are unclear. In this study, 2645 individuals were drawn from the baseline survey of the Wuhan-Zhuhai Cohort Study. Associations of diabetes with urinary OH-PAHs or FeNO among cooking participants were estimated using logistic regression models...
May 2018: Indoor Air
D Licina, W W Nazaroff
Strong evidence suggests that clothing serves as a reservoir of chemical pollutants and particles, including bioaerosols, which may have health significance. However, little is known about the role that clothing may play as a transport vector for inhaled airborne particles. Here, we contribute toward bridging the knowledge gap by conducting experiments to investigate clothing release fraction (CRF), determined as the size-dependent ratio of released to deposited particulate matter in the diameter range 0.5-10 μm...
May 2018: Indoor Air
C Voelker, H Alsaad
This study aims to develop an approach to couple a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver to the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) thermal comfort model to accurately evaluate thermal comfort. The coupling was made using an iterative JavaScript to automatically transfer data for each individual segment of the human body back and forth between the CFD solver and the UCB model until reaching convergence defined by a stopping criterion. The location from which data are transferred to the UCB model was determined using a new approach based on the temperature difference between subsequent points on the temperature profile curve in the vicinity of the body surface...
May 2018: Indoor Air
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