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Indoor Air

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440000/human-symptom-responses-to-bioeffluents-short-chain-carbonyls-acids-and-long-chain-carbonyls-in-a-simulated-aircraft-cabin-environment
#1
Clifford P Weisel, Nancy Fiedler, Charles J Weschler, Pamela Ohman-Strickland, Krishnan R Mohan, Kathy McNeil, David Space
Occupants of aircraft have reported an array of symptoms related to general discomfort and irritation. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been suggested to contribute to the reported symptoms. VOCs are from products used, bioeffluents from people and ozone reaction products. Thirty-six healthy, young female subjects rated symptoms and environmental quality during an 8-hour exposure to groups of compounds often present in aircraft: 1) long chain carbonyls, 2) simulated bioeffluents, and 3) short chain carbonyls/organic acids...
April 25, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439983/a-method-for-assessing-the-performance-of-nanofiber-films-coated-on-window-screens-in-reducing-residential-exposures-to-pm2-5-of-outdoor-origin-in-beijing
#2
Shanshan Shi, Ye Bian, Li Zhang, Chun Chen
Recently, many nanofiber films have been developed for air filtration applications. These films exhibit high PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm) removal efficiency and relatively low air resistance. Thus, coating window screens with nanofiber films may be able to mitigate residential exposure to PM2.5 of outdoor origin. This study developed a method for assessing the performance of nanofiber window screens in reducing residential exposure to PM2.5 of outdoor origin in Beijing. The results show that the use of selected nanofiber window screens all the time throughout the year can reduce the mean value of the annual average indoor PM2...
April 25, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423205/the-impact-of-biogas-and-fuelwood-use-on-institutional-kitchen-air-quality-in-kampala-uganda
#3
Aleia Ingulli McCord, Sarah Adel Stefanos, Vianney Tumwesige, Dorothy Lsoto, Anna Hillstrom Meding, Angela Adong, James Jay Schauer, Rebecca Anne Larson
Experts have suggested that microscale biogas systems offer a source of renewable energy that improves indoor air quality, but such impacts have not been directly measured. This study documented cooking behaviors and measured 2.5 μm particulate matter (PM2.5 ), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) concentrations within 14 institutional kitchens in Kampala, Uganda that prepare meals using biogas (n=5), a mixture of biogas and fuelwood (n=3), and fuelwood (n=6). Small institutions (10-30 people) with biogas kitchens had 99% lower concentrations of PM2...
April 19, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401994/particulate-matter-chemical-component-concentrations-and-sources-in-settings-of-household-solid-fuel-use
#4
REVIEW
Matthew H Secrest, James J Schauer, Ellison Carter, Jill Baumgartner
Particulate matter (PM) air pollution derives from combustion and non-combustion sources and consists of various chemical species that may differentially impact human health and climate. Previous reviews of PM chemical component concentrations and sources focus on high-income urban settings, which likely differ from the low- and middle-income settings where solid fuel (i.e., coal, biomass) is commonly burned for cooking and heating. We aimed to summarize the concentrations of PM chemical components and their contributing sources in settings where solid fuel is burned...
April 12, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378912/a-comparison-between-tracer-gas-and-aerosol-particles-distribution-indoors-the-impact-of-ventilation-rate-interaction-of-airflows-and-presence-of-objects
#5
Mariya Bivolarova, Jakub Ondráček, Arsen Melikov, Vladimir Zdimal
The study investigated the separate and combined effects of ventilation rate, free convection flow produced by a thermal manikin, and the presence of objects on the distribution of tracer gas and particles in indoor air. The concentration of aerosol particles and tracer gas was measured in a test room with mixing ventilation. Three layouts were arranged: an empty room, an office room with an occupant sitting in front of a table, and a single-bed hospital room. The room occupant was simulated by a thermal manikin...
April 5, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378908/the-effect-of-low-ventilation-rate-with-elevated-bioeffluent-concentration-on-work-performance-perceived-indoor-air-quality-and-health-symptoms
#6
Henna Maula, Valtteri Hongisto, Viivi Naatula, Annu Haapakangas, Hannu Koskela
The aim of this laboratory experiment was to study the effects of ventilation rate, and related changes in air quality, predominantly bioeffluents, on work performance, perceived indoor air quality and health symptoms in a typical conditions of modern open-plan office with low material and equipment emissions. In Condition A, outdoor air flow rate of 28.2 l/s person (CO2 level 540 ppm) was applied and in Condition B, outdoor air flow rate was 2.3 l/s person (CO2 level 2260 ppm). CO2 concentration level was used as an indicator of bioeffluents...
April 5, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378907/advanced-buffer-materials-for-indoor-air-co2-control-in-commercial-buildings
#7
Pavithra Ethi Rajan, Anirudh Krishnamurthy, Glenn Morrison, Fateme Rezaei
In this study, we evaluated solid sorbents for their ability to passively control indoor CO2 concentration in buildings or rooms with cyclic occupancy (e.g. offices, bedrooms). Silica supported amines were identified as suitable candidates and systematically evaluated in the removal of CO2 from indoor air by equilibrium and dynamic techniques. In particular, sorbents with various amine loadings were synthesized using tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI), and a silane coupling agent 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS)...
April 5, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370571/investigation-of-inflammatory-and-allergic-responses-to-common-mold-species-results-from-in-vitro-experiments-from-a-mouse-model-of-asthma-and-from-a-group-of-asthmatic-patients
#8
Muriel Vincent, Pauline Percier, Sofie De Prins, Kris Huygen, Georges Potemberg, Eric Muraille, Marta Romano, Olivier Michel, Olivier Denis
Most studies on molds focus on A. alternata and A. fumigatus. Here we report on inflammatory and allergenic properties of more typical indoor species A. versicolor, P. chrysogenum, C. cladosporioïdes and C. sphaerospermum that were compared to A. alternata and A. fumigatus. In a mouse model, after intranasal instillation, A. alternaria, A. versicolor and C. sphaerospermum induced the early recruitment of neutrophils and the strong expression of inflammatory markers in the broncho-alveolar lavages fluids. A...
April 2, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370427/ventilation-rates-in-recently-constructed-us-school-classrooms
#9
Stuart Batterman, Feng-Chiao Su, Andrew Wald, Floyd Watkins, Christopher Godwin, Geoffrey Thun
Low ventilation rates (VRs) in schools have been associated with absenteeism, poorer academic performance, and teacher dissatisfaction. We measured VRs in 37 recently constructed or renovated and mechanically-ventilated U.S. schools, including LEED and EnergyStar-certified buildings, using CO2 and the steady-state, build-up, decay and transient mass balance methods. The transient mass balance method better matched conditions (specifically, changes in occupancy) and minimized biases seen in the other methods...
April 2, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321937/ultrafine-particles-and-black-carbon-personal-exposures-in-asthmatic-and-non-asthmatic-children-at-school-age
#10
Pau Pañella, Maribel Casas, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Raquel Garcia-Esteban, Oliver Robinson, Antònia Valentín, John Gulliver, Isabelle Momas, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Martine Vrijheid, Jordi Sunyer
Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure during childhood is associated with asthma; however, the contribution of the different TRAP pollutants in each microenvironment (home, school, transportation, others) in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children is unknown. Daily (24 h) personal black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP), and alveolar lung deposited surface area (LDSA) individual exposure measurements were obtained from 100 children (29 past and 21 current asthmatics, 50 non-asthmatics) aged 9±0.7 years from the INMA-Sabadell cohort (Catalonia, Spain)...
March 20, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321932/carbon-dioxide-generation-rates-for-building-occupants
#11
Andrew Persily, Lilian de Jonge
Indoor carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentrations have been used for decades to characterize building ventilation and indoor air quality. Many of these applications require rates of CO2 generation from the building occupants, which are currently based on approaches and data that are several decades old. However, CO2 generation rates can be derived from well-established concepts within the fields of human metabolism and exercise physiology, which relate these rates to body size and composition, diet and levels of physical activity...
March 20, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303615/rare-earth-elements-and-select-actinoids-in-the-canadian-house-dust-study
#12
Pat E Rasmussen, Christine Levesque, Marc Chénier, H David Gardner
Nationally representative baseline data are presented for rare earth elements (REE), plus thorium (Th) and uranium (U) in house dust sampled from 1025 urban homes, in units of concentrations (μg g(-1) ), loadings (μg m(-2) ) and loading rates (ng m(-2) day(-1) ). Spearman rank correlations indicate that, in addition to outdoor sources, consumer products and building materials can influence indoor dust concentrations of REE, Th and U. Correlations (p <0.01) with numbers of occupants, dogs and cats suggest soil track-in...
March 17, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303606/sources-and-dynamics-of-fluorescent-particles-in-hospitals
#13
Marcelo Luiz Pereira, Luke D Knibbs, Congrong He, Piotr Grzybowski, Graham R Johnson, J Alex Huffman, Scott C Bell, Claire E Wainwright, Darlan Lauricio Matte, Fabio Hech Dominski, Alexandro Andrade, Lidia Morawska
Fluorescent particles can be markers of bioaerosols, and are therefore relevant to nosocomial infections. To date, little research has focused on fluorescent particles in occupied indoor environments, particularly hospitals. In this study, we aimed to determine the spatial and temporal variation of fluorescent particles in two large hospitals in Brisbane, Australia (one for adults and one for children). We used an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS) to identify fluorescent particle sources, as well as their contribution to total particle concentrations...
March 17, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303599/impact-of-surface-ozone-interactions-on-indoor-air-chemistry-a-modelling-study
#14
Magdalena Kruza, Alastair C Lewis, Glenn Morrison, Nicola Carslaw
An INdoor air Detailed Chemical Model (INDCM) was developed to investigate the impact of ozone reactions with indoor surfaces (including occupants), on indoor air chemistry in simulated apartments subject to ambient air pollution. The results are consistent with experimental studies showing that approximately 80% of ozone indoors is lost through deposition to surfaces. The human body removes ozone most effectively from indoor air per square meter of surface, but the most significant surfaces for C6 -C10 aldehyde formation are soft furniture and painted walls owing to their large internal surfaces...
March 17, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267233/kerosene-lighting-contributes-to-household-air-pollution-in-rural-uganda
#15
D Muyanja, J G Allen, J Vallarino, L Valeri, B Kakuhikire, D R Bangsberg, D C Christiani, A C Tsai, P S Lai
The literature on the contribution of kerosene lighting to indoor air particulate concentrations is sparse. In rural Uganda, kitchens are almost universally located outside the main home, and kerosene is often used for lighting. In this study, we obtained longitudinal measures of particulate matter 2.5 microns or smaller in size (PM2.5 ) from living rooms and kitchens of 88 households in rural Uganda. Linear mixed effects models with a random intercept for household were used to test the hypotheses that primary reported lighting source and kitchen location (indoor vs...
March 7, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267226/analyzing-symptom-data-in-indoor-air-questionnaires-for-primary-schools
#16
Sari Ung-Lanki, Jussi Lampi, Juha Pekkanen
Questionnaires on symptoms and perceived quality of indoor environment are used to assess indoor environment problems, but mainly among adults. The aim of this article is to explore best ways to analyze and report such symptom data, as part of a project to develop a parent-administered indoor air questionnaire for primary school pupils. Indoor air questionnaire with 25 questions on child's symptoms in the last 4 weeks was sent to parents in 5 primary schools with indoor air problems and in 5 control schools...
March 7, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190279/building-dampness-and-mould-in-european-homes-in-relation-to-climate-building-characteristics-and-socio-economic-status-the-european-community-respiratory-health-survey-ecrhs-ii
#17
Dan Norbäck, Jan-Paul Zock, Estel Plana, Joachim Heinrich, Christina Tischer, Randi Jacobsen, Jordi Sunyer, Nino Künzli, Simona Villani, Mario Olivieri, Giuseppe Verlato, Argo Soon, Vivi Schlünssen, Maria Ingibjörg Gunnbjörnsdottir, Deborah Jarvis
We studied dampness and mould in homes in relation to climate, building characteristics and socioeconomic status (SES) across Europe, for 7127 homes in 22 centres. A subsample of 3118 homes were inspected. Multilevel analysis was applied, including age, gender, centre, SES, climate and building factors. Self-reported water damage (10%), damp spots (21%), and mould (16%) in past year were similar as observed data (19% dampness and 14% mould). Ambient temperature was associated with self-reported water damage (OR=1...
February 11, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190263/quantifying-the-size-resolved-dynamics-of-indoor-bioaerosol-transport-and-control
#18
Stephanie A Kunkel, Parham Azimi, Haoran Zhao, Benjamin C Stark, Brent Stephens
Understanding the bioaerosol dynamics of droplets and droplet nuclei emitted during respiratory activities is important for understanding how infectious diseases are transmitted and potentially controlled. To this end, we conducted experiments to quantify the size-resolved dynamics of indoor bioaerosol transport and control in an unoccupied apartment unit operating under four different HVAC particle filtration conditions. Two model organisms (Escherichia coli K12 and bacteriophage T4) were aerosolized under alternating low and high flow rates to roughly represent constant breathing and periodic coughing...
February 11, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187232/evaluating-the-performance-of-thermal-sensation-prediction-with-a-biophysical-model
#19
M Schweiker, Brm Kingma, A Wagner
Neutral thermal sensation is expected for a human body in heat balance in near steady-state thermal environments. The physiological thermoneutral zone (TNZ) is defined as the range of operative temperatures where the body can maintain such heat balance by actively adjusting body tissue insulation, but without regulatory increases in metabolic rate or sweating. These basic principles led to the hypothesis that thermal sensation relates to the operative temperature distance from the thermoneutral centroid (dTNZop )...
February 10, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170103/effectiveness-and-cost-of-reducing-particle-related-mortality-with-particle-filtration
#20
William J Fisk, Wanyu R Chan
This paper evaluates the mortality-related benefits and costs of improvements in particle filtration in U.S. homes and commercial buildings based on models with empirical inputs. The models account for time spent in various environments as well as activity levels and associated breathing rates. The scenarios evaluated include improvements in filter efficiencies in both forced air heating and cooling systems of homes and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems of workplaces as well as use of portable air cleaners in homes...
February 7, 2017: Indoor Air
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