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Indoor Air

Brett C Singer, William W Delp, Douglas R Black, Iain S Walker
This study evaluated nine ventilation and filtration systems in an unoccupied 2006 house located 250m downwind of the I-80 freeway in Sacramento, California. Systems were evaluated for reducing indoor concentrations of outdoor particles in summer and fall/winter, ozone in summer, and particles from stir-fry cooking. Air exchange rate was measured continuously. Energy use was estimated for year-round operation in California. Exhaust ventilation without enhanced filtration produced indoor PM2.5 that was 70% lower than outdoors...
December 5, 2016: Indoor Air
Alexandra-Cristina Paunescu, Michel Attoui, Souad Bouallala, Jordi Sunyer, Isabelle Momas
 This study aimed to measure in French children personal exposure concentrations of black carbon (BC) and ultrafine particles (UFP), and to quantify the contribution of different microenvironments (home, school, places of extra-curricular activities, transport) to their total exposure. It was conducted on 96 9-year-old children from the PARIS birth cohort. BC and UFP were continuously measured by portable devices (microAeth(®) AE51 and DiSCmini(®) ) for a minimum of 24 hours, while participating families simultaneously filled in a space-time-activity questionnaire...
November 22, 2016: Indoor Air
L S Pagani, F Lévesque-Seck, I Archambault, M Janosz
Young children exert little control over household tobacco smoke exposure, which is considered a developmental neurotoxicant. Using the Quebec Longitudinal Study birth cohort, we examine prospective associations between early childhood smoke exposure and later antisocial behavior. Parents of 1035 children reported on the presence of household smokers at seven follow-ups from ages 1.5 to 7.5. At age 12, children self-reported on five aspects of early antisocial dispositions. After adjusting for confounders, every standard deviation increase in household smoke exposure was prospectively associated with a 19% standard deviation unit increase in conduct problems (β=0...
November 20, 2016: Indoor Air
Hyeong-Moo Shin, Thomas E McKone, Deborah H Bennett
We present a screening-level exposure assessment method which integrates exposure from all plausible exposure pathways as a result of indoor residential use of cleaning products. The exposure pathways we considered are (1) exposure to a user during product use via inhalation and dermal, (2) exposure to chemical residues left on clothing, (3) exposure to all occupants from the portion released indoors during use via inhalation and dermal, and (4) exposure to the general population due to down-the-drain disposal via inhalation and ingestion...
November 17, 2016: Indoor Air
F A Berlanga, I Olmedo, M Ruiz de Adana
Human exhalation flow is a potential source of pathogens that can constitute a cross-infection risk to people in indoor environments. Thus, it is important to investigate the characteristics of this flow, its development, area of influence and the diffusion of the exhaled contaminants. This paper uses phase-averaged particle image velocimetry together with a tracer gas (CO2 ) to study two different exhalation flows over time: the exhalation of an average male (test M) and an average female (test F), using a life-sized thermal manikin in a supine position...
November 17, 2016: Indoor Air
Yi-Chun Chen, Wen-Chao Ho, Yang-Hao Yu
Incense burning is a popular cultural and religious practice, but whether exposure to incense smoke has effects on lung function is unclear. We investigated association between lung function and incense burning exposure and other household exposures in adolescents who participated in a mass asthma-screening program. Information on asthmatic status and associated factors was obtained from parent completed questionnaires and student-completed video questionnaires. Approximately 10% of students received lung-function examinations...
November 17, 2016: Indoor Air
Glenn Morrison, Charles J Weschler, Gabriel Bekö
In this research, we extend a model of transdermal uptake of phthalates to include a layer of clothing. When compared with experimental results, this model better estimates dermal uptake of diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) than a previous model. The model predictions are consistent with the observation that previously exposed clothing can increase dermal uptake over that observed in bare-skin participants for the same exposure air concentrations. The model predicts that dermal uptake from clothing of DnBP is a substantial fraction of total uptake from all sources of exposure...
November 11, 2016: Indoor Air
S Schiavon, B Yang, Y Donner, V W-C Chang, W W Nazaroff
In a warm and humid climate, increasing the temperature set point offers considerable energy benefits with low first costs. Elevated air movement generated by a personally controlled fan can compensate for the negative effects caused by an increased temperature set point. Fifty-six tropically acclimatized persons in common Singaporean office attire (0.7 clo) were exposed for 90 minutes to each of five conditions: 23, 26, and 29°C and in the latter two cases with and without occupant-controlled air movement...
October 18, 2016: Indoor Air
Guozhu Zhao, Guohua Yin, Arati A Inamdar, Jing Luo, Ning Zhang, Ill Yang, Brian Buckley, Joan W Bennett
Super Storm Sandy provided an opportunity to study filamentous fungi (molds) associated with winter storm damage. We collected 36 morphologically distinct fungal isolates from flooded buildings. By combining traditional morphological and cultural characters with an analysis of ITS sequences (the fungal DNA barcode), we identified 24 fungal species that belong to 8 genera: Penicillium (12 species), Fusarium (4 species), Aspergillus (3 species), Trichoderma (2 species), and one species each of Metarhizium, Mucor, Pestalotiopsis, and Umbelopsis...
October 17, 2016: Indoor Air
J Zhou, W Fang, Q Cao, L Yang, V W-C Chang, W W Nazaroff
Utilizing the ultraviolet light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) measurement technique as embodied in the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS-4A), we evaluated the fluorescent particle emissions associated with human shedding while walking in a chamber. The mean emission rates of supermicron (1-10 μm) fluorescent particles were in the range 6.8-7.5 million particles per person-h (~0.3 mg per person-h) across three participants, for conditions when the relative humidity was 60%-70% and no moisturizer was applied after showering...
October 17, 2016: Indoor Air
A Menzel, M Matiu, R Michaelis, S Jochner
Indoor pollen concentrations are an underestimated human health issue. In this study, we measured hourly indoor birch pollen concentrations on 8 days in April 2015 with portable pollen traps in five rooms of a university building at Freising, Germany. These data were compared to the respective outdoor values right in front of the rooms and to background pollen data. The rooms were characterized by different aspects and window ventilation schemes. Meteorological data were equally measured directly in front of the windows...
October 17, 2016: Indoor Air
Joanne B Emerson, Patricia B Keady, Nicholas Clements, Emily E Morgan, Jonathan Awerbuch, Shelly L Miller, Noah Fierer
Our homes are microbial habitats, and although the amounts and types of bacteria in indoor air have been shown to vary substantially across residences, temporal variability within homes has rarely been characterized. Here, we sought to quantify the temporal variability in the amounts and types of airborne bacteria in homes, and what factors drive this variability. We collected filter samples of indoor and outdoor air in 15 homes over one year (approximately 8 time points per home, 2 per season), and we used culture-independent DNA sequencing approaches to characterize bacterial community composition...
October 15, 2016: Indoor Air
J M Macher, M J Mendell, W Chen, K Kumagai
Subjective indicators of building dampness consistently have been linked to health, but they are, at best, semi-quantitative, and objective and quantitative assessments of dampness are also needed to study dampness-related health effects. Investigators can readily and non-destructively measure the "moisture content" (MC) of building materials with hand-held moisture meters. However, MC does not indicate the amount of the water in a material that is available to microorganisms for growth, that is, the "water activity (Aw )...
October 14, 2016: Indoor Air
E Darling, R L Corsi
Ozone reacts readily with many indoor materials, as well as with compounds in indoor air. These reactions lead to lower indoor than outdoor ozone concentrations when outdoor air is the major contributor to indoor ozone. However, the products of indoor ozone reactions may be irritating or harmful to building occupants. While active technologies exist to reduce indoor ozone concentrations (i.e, in-duct filtration using activated carbon), they can be cost-prohibitive for some and/or infeasible for dwellings that do not have heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems...
October 13, 2016: Indoor Air
P W Francisco, D E Jacobs, L Targos, S L Dixon, J Breysse, W Rose, S Cali
Ventilation standards, health, and indoor air quality have not been adequately examined for residential weatherization. This randomized trial showed how ASHRAE 62-1989 (n=39 houses) and ASHRAE 62.2-2010 (n=42 houses) influenced ventilation rates, moisture balance, indoor air quality, and self-reported physical and mental health outcomes. Average total airflow was nearly twice as high for ASHRAE 62.2-2010 (79 vs. 39 cfm). Volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and carbon dioxide were all significantly reduced for the newer standard and first-floor radon was marginally lower, but for the older standard, only formaldehyde significantly decreased...
October 6, 2016: Indoor Air
S Veselá, B R M Kingma, A J H Frijns
Local thermal sensation modeling gained importance due to developments in personalized and locally applied heating and cooling systems in office environments. The accuracy of these models depends on skin temperature prediction by thermophysiological models, which in turn rely on accurate environmental and personal input data. Environmental parameters are measured or prescribed, but personal factors such as clothing properties and metabolic rates have to be estimated. Data for estimating the overall values of clothing properties and metabolic rates are available in several papers and standards...
October 6, 2016: Indoor Air
X Triadó-Margarit, M Veillette, C Duchaine, M Talbot, F Amato, M C Minguillón, V Martins, E de Miguel, E O Casamayor, T Moreno
Subway systems worldwide transport more than 100 million people daily, therefore air quality on station platforms and inside trains is an important urban air pollution issue. We examined the microbiological composition and abundance in space and time of bioaerosols collected in the Barcelona subway system during a cold period. Quantitative PCR was used to quantify total bacteria, Aspergillus fumigatus, influenza A and B and rhinoviruses. Multitag 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to assess bacterial community composition and biodiversity...
September 30, 2016: Indoor Air
M J Mendell, K Kumagai
An important proportion of respiratory illness is considered attributable to residential dampness or mold (D/M). Developing health-protective D/M guidelines has been challenging, in part because unhealthy levels of indoor D/M cannot be defined using available microbiological measurements. This review paper explores reported multilevel, observation-based (eg visual or olfactory) D/M metrics for potential in defining unhealthy levels of residential D/M. For many of the 33 multilevel residential D/M metrics identified, health risks generally increased as observed D/M increased...
September 24, 2016: Indoor Air
Mei Ling Chua, Magdiel Inggrid Setyawati, Huaqiong Li, Yu Fang Crystal Hay, Subramaniam Gurusamy, Florence Teoh, David Tai Leong, Saji George
We investigated the physicochemical properties (size, shape, elemental composition, and endotoxin) of size resolved particulate matter (PM) collected from the indoor and corridor environments of classrooms. A comparative hazard profiling of these PM was conducted using human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC). Oxidative stress dependent cytotoxicity responses were assessed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and high content screening (HCS) and disruption of monolayer cell integrity was assessed using fluorescence microscopy and transwell assay...
September 23, 2016: Indoor Air
Tina Hoang, Rosemary Castorina, Fraser Gaspar, Randy Maddalena, Peggy L Jenkins, Qunfang Zoe Zhang, Thomas E McKone, Emilio Benfenati, Alex Y Shi, Asa Bradman
Little information exists about exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in early childhood education (ECE) environments. We measured 38 VOCs in single-day air samples collected in 2010-2011 from 34 ECE facilities serving California children and evaluated potential health risks. We also examined unknown peaks in the GC/MS chromatographs for indoor samples and identified 119 of these compounds using mass spectral libraries. VOCs found in cleaning and personal care products had the highest indoor concentrations (d-limonene and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane [D5] medians: 33...
September 22, 2016: Indoor Air
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