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Indoor Air

Fei Wang, Jing Wang, Yaru Li, Xu Han, Hua Hu, Caizheng Yu, Jing Yuan, Ping Yao, Xiaoping Miao, Sheng Wei, Youjie Wang, Weihong Chen, Yuan Liang, Huan Guo, Xiaomin Zhang, Handong Yang, Tangchun Wu, Meian He
Experimental and epidemiological studies indicated that ambient air pollution was positively associated with diabetes. Few studies investigated the associations between household air pollution, for example, daily cooking duration and diabetes or prediabetes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations of daily cooking duration with the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes among a middle-aged and elderly population. A total of 26,089 individuals (11,250 males and 14,839 females) derived from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study were included...
October 13, 2017: Indoor Air
Nicholas L Lam, Godfrey Muhwezi, Fred Isabirye, Kat Harrison, Ilse Ruiz-Mercado, Evans Amukoye, Tom Mokaya, Margaret Wambua, Michael N Bates
INTRODUCTION: Solar lamps are a clean and potentially cost-effective alternative to polluting kerosene lamps used by millions of families in developing countries. By how much solar lamps actually reduce exposure to pollutants, however, has not been examined. METHODS: Twenty households using mainly kerosene for lighting were enrolled through a secondary school in Busia County, Kenya. Personal PM2.5 and CO concentrations were measured on a school pupil and an adult in each household, before and after provision of three solar lamps...
October 13, 2017: Indoor Air
Busisiwe Shezi, Nkosana Jafta, Benn Sartorius, Rajen N Naidoo
BACKGROUND: In low resource settings there is a need to develop models that can address contributions of household and outdoor sources to population exposures. The aim of the study was to model indoor PM2.5 using household characteristics, activities and outdoor sources. METHODS: Households belonging to participants in the Mother and Child in the Environment (MACE) birth cohort, in Durban, South Africa, were randomly selected. A structured walkthrough identified variables likely to generate PM2...
October 6, 2017: Indoor Air
Britta Herbig, Rudolf A Jörres, Rudolf Schierl, Myriam Simon, Jeanette Langner, Stefan Seeger, Dennis Nowak, Stefan Karrasch
The possible impact of ultrafine particles from laser printers on human health is controversially discussed although there are persons reporting substantial symptoms in relation to these emissions. A randomized, single-blinded, cross-over experimental design with two exposure conditions (high-level and low-level exposure) was conducted with 23 healthy subjects, 14 subjects with mild asthma, and 15 persons reporting symptoms associated with laser printer emissions. To separate physiological and psychological effects a secondary physiologically-based categorization of susceptibility to particle effects was used...
September 28, 2017: Indoor Air
L Lan, X L Qian, Z W Lian, Y B Lin
The effects of local body cooling on thermal comfort and sleep quality in a hot environment were investigated in an experiment with 16 male subjects. Sleep quality was evaluated subjectively, using questionnaires completed in the morning, and objectively, by analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals that were continuously monitored during the sleeping period. Compared with no cooling, the largest improvement in thermal comfort and sleep quality was observed when the back and head (neck) were both cooled at a room temperature of 32°C...
September 28, 2017: Indoor Air
Shenglan Xiao, Yuguo Li, Minki Sung, Jianjian Wei, Zifeng Yang
Infections caused by the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are a serious health issue due to their prevalence and associated mortality. However, the transmission routes of the virus remain unclear and thus the current recommended control strategies are not evidence based. In this study, we investigated the transmission routes of MERS-CoV during the first nosocomial outbreak in the Republic of Korea in May 2015 using a multi-agent modelling framework. We identified seven hypothesised transmission modes based on the three main transmission routes (long-range airborne, close contact and fomite)...
September 28, 2017: Indoor Air
Mickaël Derbez, Guillaume Wyart, Eline Le Ponner, Olivier Ramalho, Jacques Ribéron, Corinne Mandin
Worldwide, public policies are promoting energy-efficient buildings and accelerating the thermal renovation of existing buildings. The effects of these changes on the indoor air quality (IAQ) in these buildings remain insufficiently understood. In this context, a field study was conducted in 72 energy-efficient dwellings to describe the pollutants known to be associated with health concerns. Measured parameters included the concentrations of 19 volatile organic compounds and aldehydes, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM2...
September 28, 2017: Indoor Air
Maria Valkonen, Martin Täubel, Juha Pekkanen, Christina Tischer, Helena Rintala, Jan-Paul Zock, Lidia Casas, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Bertil Forsberg, Mathias Holm, Christer Janson, Isabelle Pin, Thorarinn Gislason, Debbie Jarvis, Joachim Heinrich, Anne Hyvärinen
BACKGROUND: Microbial exposures in homes of asthmatic adults have been rarely investigated; specificities and implications for respiratory health are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to investigate associations of microbial levels with asthma status, asthma symptoms, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and atopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mattress dust samples of 199 asthmatics and 198 control subjects from seven European countries participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II study were analysed for fungal and bacterial cell wall components and individual taxa...
September 27, 2017: Indoor Air
E Øya, Akj Afanou, N Malla, S Uhlig, E Rolen, I Skaar, A Straumfors, J O Winberg, B E Bang, P E Schwarze, W Eduard, J A Holme
Mold particles from Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor and Stachybotrys chartarum have been linked to respiratory-related diseases. Here we characterized X-ray-inactivated spores and hyphae fragments from these species by number of particles, morphology, and mycotoxin, β-glucan and protease content/activity. The pro-inflammatory properties of mold particles were examined in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and THP-1 monocytes and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1...
September 18, 2017: Indoor Air
Wanyu R Chan, Jennifer M Logue, Xining Wu, Neil E Klepeis, William J Fisk, Federico Noris, Brett C Singer
PM2.5 exposure is associated with significant health risk. Exposures in homes derive from both outdoor and indoor sources, with emissions occurring primarily in discrete events. Data on emission event magnitudes and schedules are needed to support simulation-based studies of exposures and mitigations. This study applied an identification and characterization algorithm to quantify time-resolved PM2.5 emission events from data collected during 224 days of monitoring in 18 California apartments with low-income residents...
September 11, 2017: Indoor Air
Sayana Tsushima, Pawel Wargocki, Shin-Ichi Tanabe
Conditions in which exhaled and dermally-emitted bioeffluents could be sampled separately or together (whole-body emission) were created. Five lightly-dressed males exhaled the air through a mask to another, identical chamber or without a mask to the chamber in which they were sitting; the outdoor air supply rate was the same in both chambers. The carbon dioxide concentration in the chamber with exhaled air was 2,000 ppm. Chamber temperatures were 23°C or 28°C and ozone was present or absent in the supply airflow...
September 11, 2017: Indoor Air
Sara Duncan, Kenneth G Sexton, Barbara Turpin
Dampness affects a substantial percentage of homes and is associated with increased risk of respiratory ailments; yet the effects of dampness on indoor chemistry are largely unknown. We hypothesize that the presence of water-soluble gases and their aqueous processing alters the chemical composition of indoor air and thereby affects inhalation and dermal exposures in damp homes. Herein, we use the existing literature and new measurements to examine the plausibility of this hypothesis, summarize existing evidence, and identify key knowledge gaps...
August 22, 2017: Indoor Air
W Horn, M Richter, M Nohr, O Wilke, O Jann
Emission testing of products is currently a rapidly increasing field of measurement activity. Labelling procedures for construction products are based on such emission test chamber measurements and hence measurement performance should be verified. One possible route is to conduct testing of one material in different laboratories within a Round Robin Test (RRT), ideally using homogeneous reference materials, which can be used within inter-laboratory studies or as part of the quality management system to ensure comparable results...
August 21, 2017: Indoor Air
A E Sain, J Zook, B M Davy, L C Marr, A M Dietrich
This study describes the size distribution and concentration of particles expelled by a portable, 3 L ultrasonic humidifier. The ultrasonic humidifier was filled with waters of varying mineral content and hardness. Aerosol size distributions were measured during 8 h of humidifier operation in a typical bedroom. Humidifiers produced approximately 1.22 ×10(10) to 2.50 ×10(10) airborne particles per milliliter of water consumed, resulting in airborne particle concentrations of 3.01 - 5.91×10(4) #/cm(3) , with modes ranging between 109 and 322 nm in diameter...
August 8, 2017: Indoor Air
Caroline Shorter, Julian Crane, Nevil Pierse, Phillipa Barnes, Janice Kang, Kristin Wickens, Jeroen Douwes, Thorsten Stanley, Martin Täubel, Anne Hyvärinen, Philippa Howden-Chapman
Evidence is accumulating that indoor dampness and mold are associated with the development of asthma. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. New Zealand has high rates of both asthma and indoor mold and is ideally placed to investigate this. We conducted an incident case control study involving 150 children with new-onset wheeze, aged between 1 and 7 years, each matched to two control children with no history of wheezing. Each participant's home was assessed for moisture damage, condensation and mold growth by researchers, an independent building assessor and parents...
August 4, 2017: Indoor Air
Che-Jung Chang, Shu-Fang Cheng, Pei-Ting Chang, Shih-Wei Tsai
To improve indoor air quality and to protect public health, Taiwan has enacted the 'Indoor Air Quality Act (IAQ Act)' in 2012. For the general public, the indoor air quality in hair salons is important because it is a popular location that people will often visit for hair treatments. However, only a few exposure assessments regarding air pollutants have previously been performed in hair salons. In order to assess the air quality of hairdressing environments in Taipei, ten hairdressing salons were included for a walk-through survey in this study...
August 4, 2017: Indoor Air
Marcus H Y Leung, Xinzhao Tong, Jimmy C K Tong, Patrick K H Lee
Currently, there is little information pertaining to the airborne bacterial communities of green buildings. In this case study, the air bacterial community of a zero carbon building (ZCB) in Hong Kong was characterized by targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Bacteria associated with the outdoor environment dominated the indoor airborne bacterial assemblage, with a modest contribution from bacteria associated with human skin. Differences in overall community diversity, membership, and composition associated with short (day-to-day) and long-term temporal properties were detected, which may have been driven by specific environmental genera and taxa...
August 2, 2017: Indoor Air
G C Morrison, H V Andersen, L Gunnarsen, D Varol, E Uhde, B Kolarik
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of buildings continues to pose an exposure threat, even decades after their application in the form of calks and other building materials. In this research, we investigate the ability of clothing to sorb PCBs from contaminated air and thereby influence exposure. The equilibrium concentration of PCB-28 and PCB-52 was quantified for nine used clothing fabrics exposed for 56 days to air in a Danish apartment contaminated with PCBs. Fabric materials included pure materials such as cotton and polyester, or blends of polyester, cotton, viscose/rayon, and/or elastane...
August 2, 2017: Indoor Air
E Finell, T Seppälä
This study explores subjective injustice experiences of individuals suffering from suspected or observed indoor air problems in their workplaces in two studies. We focus on injustice experiences because they influence how individuals cope with and recover from health problems. The first study reports associations between the perceived harmfulness of the indoor environment (ie, mold/inadequate ventilation) and subjective injustice experiences in workplaces in a representative sample of Finnish working-aged people (N = 4633)...
July 25, 2017: Indoor Air
Fraser W Gaspar, Randy Maddalena, Jeffery Williams, Rosemary Castorina, Zhong-Min Wang, Kazukiyo Kumagai, Thomas E McKone, Asa Bradman
Although many U.S. children spend time in child care, little information exists on exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) in this environment, even though PM may be associated with asthma and other respiratory illness, which is a key concern for young children. To address this data gap, we measured ultrafine particles (UFP), PM2.5 , PM10 , and black carbon in 40 California child care facilities and examined associations with potential determinants. We also tested a low-cost optical particle measuring device (Dylos monitor)...
July 25, 2017: Indoor Air
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