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Indoor Air

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022528/impact-of-material-emissions-and-sorption-of-molatile-organic-compounds-on-indoor-air-quality-in-a-low-energy-building-field-measurements-and-modeling
#1
M Rizk, F Guo, M Verriele, M Ward, S Dusanter, N Blond, N Locoge, C Schoemaecker
The assessment of VOC emission rates and sorption coefficients was performed for ten surfaces present within a classroom, using field and laboratory emission cells (FLEC) coupled to online and offline VOC quantification techniques. 21 identified VOCs were emitted by the different surfaces. VOC emission rates measured using PTR-ToF-MS were compared to gas chromatographic measurements. The results showed that the two methods are complementary to one another. Sorption parameters were also successfully measured for a mixture of 14 VOCs within a few hours (< 17 hours/surface)...
July 19, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999548/cfd-predictions-of-non-isothermal-ventilation-flow-how-can-the-user-factor-be-minimised
#2
Twan van Hooff, Peter V Nielsen, Yuguo Li
The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to solve indoor airflow problems has increased tremendously in the last decades. However, the accuracy of CFD simulations depends greatly on user experience, the available validation data and the effort made to verify solutions. This paper presents the results of a conference workshop, which assessed user influence on the CFD results obtained for a generic non-isothermal flow problem; i.e. a backward-facing step flow problem with a heated wall below the supply. Fifty-five simulation sets were submitted by 32 teams...
July 12, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989219/air-quality-in-indoor-go-kart-facilities-in-germany
#3
J Wolf, K Berlin, L Fembacher, D Heitmann, W Matzen, L Nitschke, M Sysoltseva, H Fromme
Indoor go-kart driving and viewing is enjoyed by people of all ages. However, it may pose health hazards, especially for children, pregnant women, cardiovascular patients and elderly individuals. Depending on the race length, for example, high concentrations of various contaminants may result in severe health problems. Therefore, this project investigated the indoor air quality of 8 indoor go-kart facilities. In general, karts that used regular fuel produced the highest concentrations of CO, benzene, TVOC and BaP, with maximum levels up to 150 mg/m³, 170 μg/m³, 2690 μg/m³ and 8...
July 10, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989216/research-on-electroencephalogram-eeg-to-measure-thermal-pleasure-in-thermal-alliesthesia-in-temperature-step-change-environment
#4
Young Joo Son, Chungyoon Chun
Thermal pleasure is currently measured along psychological and physiological variables. However, in transient environments where temperatures change, it is hard to correlate psychological and physiological measures, because there is a delay in physiological changes. This study tests a method for correlating both measures by using electroencephalogram (EEG), which can capture physiological feedback with a rapid response rate. In this experimental study, thermal pleasure was induced in a temperature step-change environment, one of non-uniform and transient environments...
July 10, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981175/prediction-of-particle-deposition-around-the-cabin-air-supply-nozzles-of-commercial-airplanes-using-measured-in-cabin-particle-emission-rates
#5
Q Cao, C Chen, S Liu, C H Lin, D Wei, Q Chen
Enhanced soiling on the surfaces around air supply nozzles due to particle deposition is frequently observed in commercial airliners. The problem is worsened by severe outdoor air pollution and flight delays in China. The particles in an aircraft cabin originate from both outdoor and in-cabin sources. This study conducted measurements on multiple commercial flights to obtain particle emission rates from in-cabin sources. Additional experiments on a retired MD-82 airplane provided justification of the in-flight measurements...
July 6, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978538/a-covert-field-intervention-experiment-to-determine-how-heating-controls-that-conserve-energy-affect-thermal-comfort
#6
David P Wyon, Jonathan E Ridenour
A field-intervention study was carried out in 106 households in Sweden. Without informing the householders, a retrofitted heat pump controller was twice disabled for one week at a time over a 4-week period during the heating season, using a single-blind cross-over design with two pseudo-randomly selected groups of householders, each experiencing different conditions at any given time. Thermal comfort was assessed by observing the total number of times that householders made adjustments to their set-point temperature under each condition...
July 6, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29943883/measuring-detachment-of-aspergillus-niger-spores-from-colonies-with-an-atomic-force-microscope
#7
Xian Li, Tengfei Tim Zhang, Shugang Wang
Detachment of fungal spores from moldy surfaces and the subsequent aerosolization can lead to adverse health effects. Spore aerosolization occurs when the forces for aerosolization exceed the binding forces of spores with their colonies. The threshold force to detach a spore from a growing colony remains unknown. This investigation measured the detachment of spores of Aspergillus niger from a colony using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The spores were first affixed to the cantilever of the AFM with ultraviolet curing glue, and then the colony was moved downward until the spores detached...
June 26, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29943860/altered-susceptibility-to-air-sampling-stress-by-filtration-is-related-to-colistin-resistance-development-in-acinetobacter-baumannii
#8
Chun-Chieh Tseng, Pei-Ying Yu, Je-Wen Liou, Kai-Chih Chang
The accurate quantification of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in indoor air has recently attracted increasing attention. Here, we investigated whether the susceptibility of a nosocomial infection-related microbe, Acinetobacter baumannii, to strong sampling stress caused by Nuclepore filter changes as it develops resistance to a drug called colistin. Both colistin-sensitive A. baumannii (CSAB) and colistin-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) are generally desiccation-resistant strains that can be collected by filter sampling...
June 26, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896912/exposure-to-household-air-pollution-from-biomass-burning-cookstoves-and-hba1c-and-diabetic-status-among-honduran-women
#9
S Rajkumar, M L Clark, B N Young, M L Benka-Coker, A M Bachand, R D Brook, T L Nelson, J Volckens, S J Reynolds, C L'Orange, N Good, K Koehler, S Africano, A B Osorto Pinel, J L Peel
Household air pollution from biomass cookstoves is estimated to be responsible for more than two and a half million premature deaths annually, primarily in low and middle-income countries where cardiometabolic disorders, such as Type II Diabetes, are increasing. Growing evidence supports a link between ambient air pollution and diabetes, but evidence for household air pollution is limited. This cross-sectional study of 142 women (72 with traditional stoves and 70 with cleaner-burning Justa stoves) in rural Honduras evaluated the association of exposure to household air pollution (stove type, 24-hour average kitchen and personal fine particulate matter [PM2...
June 13, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896813/cardiovascular-benefits-of-reducing-personal-exposure-to-traffic-related-noise-and-particulate-air-pollution-a-randomized-crossover-study-in-the-beijing-subway-system
#10
X Yang, X Jia, W Dong, S Wu, M R Miller, D Hu, H Li, L Pan, F Deng, X Guo
To assess the cardiovascular benefits of protecting against particulate air pollution and noise, we conducted a randomized crossover study with 40 young healthy college students from March to May 2017 in the underground subway, Beijing. Participants each received 4 treatments (no intervention phase [NIP], respirator intervention phase [RIP], headphone intervention phase [HIP], respirator plus headphone intervention phase [RHIP]) in a randomized order during 4 different study periods with 2-week washout intervals...
June 13, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873111/heterogeneous-oxidation-of-indoor-surfaces-by-gas-phase-hydroxyl-radicals
#11
R Alwarda, S Zhou, J P D Abbatt
We investigate heterogeneous oxidation kinetics of monolayer-thick, surface-sorbed organics, namely di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and palmitic acid (PA), with gas-phase OH. The pseudo-first order rate constants for organic loss at OH concentrations of 1.6 × 108  molecules/cm3 are: (2.3 ± 0.1) × 10-4 to (4.8 ± 0.8) × 10-4  s-1 , and (1.3 ± 0.5) × 10-4  s-1 for DnOP and PA, respectively. Films developed in indoor office environments over a few weeks are also oxidized using the same OH concentration...
June 5, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873109/assessment-of-chemical-and-microbiological-parameters-of-indoor-swimming-pool-atmosphere-using-multiple-comparisons
#12
A Rodríguez, M Tajuelo, D Rodríguez, S Seseña, P Ruiz, M Ll Palop
The aim of this study was to evaluate the air quality of an indoor swimming pool, analyzing diurnal and seasonal variations in microbiological counts and chemical parameters. The results indicated that yeast and bacteria counts, as well as carbon dioxide (CO2 ), nitrogen oxides (NOx ) and O3 concentrations, showed significant diurnal difference. On the other hand, temperature, relative humidity (R.H.), yeast counts and concentrations of CO2 , particles, O3 , toluene, and benzene showed seasonal differences...
June 5, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29855107/relative-survival-of-bacillus-subtilis-spores-loaded-on-filtering-facepiece-respirators-after-five-decontamination-methods
#13
T-H Lin, F-C Tang, P-C Hung, Z-C Hua, C-Y Lai
This study determines the relative survival (RS) of Bacillus subtilis spores loaded on an N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) after decontamination by five methods under worst-case conditions. Relative survival was obtained by testing after decontamination and after storing the FFRs at 37°C and 95% relative humidity for 24 hours. The decontamination methods involved ethanol, bleach, ultraviolet irradiation (UVA 365 nm, UVC 254 nm), an autoclave, and a traditional electric rice cooker (TERC) that was made in Taiwan...
May 31, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846963/building-and-environmental-factors-that-influence-bacterial-and-fungal-loading-on-air-conditioning-cooling-coils
#14
A Bakker, J A Siegel, M J Mendell, J Peccia
We investigated bacterial and fungal concentrations on cooling coils of commercial AC units and quantified associations between microbial loads and AC unit or building operational parameters. A field campaign was conducted to sample 25 AC units in the humid, subtropical climate of Southern CT, USA and 15 AC units in the hot-summer Mediterranean climate of Sacramento, CA, USA. Median concentrations (with interquartile range) of bacteria and fungi on the cooling coils were 1.2 × 107 (5.1 × 106 -3.9 × 107 ) cells/m2 and 7...
May 30, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732617/biofiltration-of-airborne-vocs-with-green-wall-systems-microbial-and-chemical-dynamics
#15
A Mikkonen, T Li, M Vesala, J Saarenheimo, V Ahonen, S Kärenlampi, J D Blande, M Tiirola, A Tervahauta
Botanical air filtration is a promising technology for reducing indoor air contaminants, but the underlying mechanisms need better understanding. Here, we made a set of chamber fumigation experiments of up to 16 weeks of duration, to study the filtration efficiencies for seven volatile organic compounds (VOCs; decane, toluene, 2-ethylhexanol, α-pinene, octane, benzene, and xylene) and to monitor microbial dynamics in simulated green wall systems. Biofiltration functioned on sub-ppm VOC levels without concentration-dependence...
May 6, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729045/characterization-of-fungi-in-office-dust-comparing-results-of-microbial-secondary-metabolites-fungal-internal-transcribed-spacer-region-sequencing-viable-culture-and-other-microbial-indices
#16
J-H Park, M Sulyok, A R Lemons, B J Green, J M Cox-Ganser
Recent developments in molecular and chemical methods have enabled the analysis of fungal DNA and secondary metabolites, often produced during fungal growth, in environmental samples. We compared 3 fungal analytical methods by analysing floor dust samples collected from an office building for fungi using viable culture, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and secondary metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Of the 32 metabolites identified, 29 had a potential link to fungi with levels ranging from 0...
May 4, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729044/nasal-mucosa-and-blood-cell-transcriptome-profiles-do-not-reflect-respiratory-symptoms-associated-with-moisture-damage
#17
J Ndika, H Suojalehto, M Täubel, M Lehto, K Karvala, P Pallasaho, J Sund, P Auvinen, K Järvi, J Pekkanen, P Kinaret, D Greco, A Hyvärinen, H Alenius
Upper and lower respiratory symptoms and asthma are adverse health effects associated with moisture-damaged buildings. Quantitative measures to detect adverse health effects related to exposure to dampness and mold are needed. Here, we investigate differences in gene expression between occupants of moisture-damaged and reference buildings. Moisture-damaged (N = 11) and control (N = 5) buildings were evaluated for dampness and mold by trained inspectors. The transcriptomics cohort consisted of nasal brushings and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 86 teachers, with/without self-perceived respiratory symptoms...
May 4, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729038/variability-of-pyrethroid-concentrations-on-hard-surface-kitchen-flooring-in-occupied-housing
#18
J M Starr, S E Graham, W Li, A A Gemma, M K Morgan
Pyrethroids are a class of neurotoxic insecticides, and some studies have used single-time wiping of hard surface flooring to estimate indoor pyrethroid concentrations. Considering that human activities may affect concentrations, knowledge of temporal variability is needed to reduce the uncertainty of exposure estimates that are calculated using wipe sampling of pyrethroids in occupied housing. During weeks one, two, and six of a 6-week study, two wipe samples of hard surface kitchen flooring were collected in each of 50 occupied residences and used to estimate the temporal variability of eight pyrethroids and six pyrethroid degradation products...
May 4, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906323/passing-the-torch
#19
EDITORIAL
William W Nazaroff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705988/how-home-ventilation-rates-affect-health-a-literature-review
#20
REVIEW
W J Fisk
This paper reviews studies of the relationships between ventilation rates (VRs) in homes and occupant health, primarily respiratory health. Five cross-sectional studies, seven case-control studies, and eight intervention studies met inclusion criteria. Nearly all studies controlled for a range of potential confounders and most intervention studies included placebo conditions. Just over half of studies reported one or more statistically significant (SS) health benefits of increased VRs. Wheeze was most clearly associated with VR...
July 2018: Indoor Air
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