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Vahid Bagheri, Hossein Khorramdelazad, Gholamhossein Hassanshahi, Amir Moghadam-Ahmadi, Alireza Vakilian
OBJECTIVE: The role of CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 has not been fully examined in Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of CXCL12/CXCR4 in the peripheral blood of patients with PD and healthy controls. METHODS: CXCL12 serum levels and CXCR4 mRNA levels were measured in 30 PD patients and 40 controls using ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. RESULTS: CXCL12 serum levels were significantly higher in PD patients compared to controls (p < 0...
November 14, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Baozhu Liu, Xiaonan Zhong, Zhengqi Lu, Wei Qiu, Xueqiang Hu, Honghao Wang
OBJECT: CD27 belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and is constitutively expressed on T cells. The concentration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) soluble (s)CD27 is elevated in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, whether the level of CSF sCD27 is elevated in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to measure the CSF concentration of sCD27 and to determine its relationship with NMOSD disease activity. METHODS: CSF CXCL13 was measured by ELISA in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) (n = 31) and MS (n = 23) patients and in controls (CTLs) (n = 22)...
November 13, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Samarah Cook, Vanessa Hung, Kelli A Duncan
OBJECTIVES: Characterized by neuroinflammation, traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces neuropathological changes and cognitive deficits. Estrogens are neuroprotective by increasing cell survival and this increase is mediated by a decrease in neuroinflammation. To further explore the relationship between estrogens, brain injury, and neuroinflammation, we examined the expression of the IKK/NFκB complex. The IKK/NFκB complex is a pleiotropic regulator of many cellular signaling pathways linked to inflammation, as well as three major cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α)...
November 13, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Sharon L Hollins, Luke Brock, Rafael Barreto, Lauren Harms, Ariel Dunn, Pedro Garcia-Sobrinho, Jessica Bruce, Phillip W Dickson, Marjorie M Walker, Simon Keely, Deborah M Hodgson
OBJECTIVES: Gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation and GI integrity deficits are common comorbidities of neuropsychiatric disorders. Ongoing research suggests that these aberrations may be contributing to heightened immune signals that have the potential to disrupt neuronal homeostasis and exacerbate behavioural deficits. The current study aimed to determine whether the well-characterized animal model of neuropsychopathology, the maternal immune activation (MIA) model, produced GI inflammation and integrity disruptions in association with anxiety-like behaviour...
November 9, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Laura S Redwine, Meredith A Pung, Kathleen Wilson, Kelly Chinh, Allyson R Duffy
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits are common in patients with heart failure (HF), and can negatively affect self-care, predict rehospitalizations, and increase mortality rates 5-fold. Inflammation can produce vascular pathology, reducing cerebral blood flow to brain regions necessary for optimal cognitive function. The purpose of the investigation was to identify a pattern of peripheral blood inflammation-related biomarkers associated with cognitive impairment in patients with HF. METHODS: Forty-five outpatients (median age = 67 years, SD = 9...
October 23, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Jalil Mehrzad, Saman Hosseinkhani, Amir Mohammad Malvandi
OBJECTIVE: Knowledge regarding interactions of AFB1 with the human nervous system and how a naturally occurring level of AFB1 could potentially induce neuroimmune dysregulation is very limited. To assess the cellular effects of AFB1 on the human brain, we used the human microglia cell line CHME5 as a model to pinpoint its potential in vivo translation. METHODS: We used the CHME5 cell line culture system, multiplex qPCR, (chemi)bioluminescence, Luminex ELISA, and flow cytometry assays to evaluate the toxic effects of a naturally occurring level of AFB1 on human microglia...
October 18, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Eleonora Sacchinelli, Fabrizio Piras, Maria Donata Orfei, Nerisa Banaj, Francesca Salani, Antonio Ciaramella, Carlo Caltagirone, Gianfranco Spalletta, Paola Bossù
OBJECTIVE: Interaction between the nervous and immune systems may influence emotions, ultimately affecting human health. Cytokines may play a role in developing emotional dysregulation as in alexithymia, a personality construct characterized by the subclinical inability to identify and describe emotions, often associated with several psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders. The proinflammatory cytokine IL-18, with a recognized role in brain functions, may influence serotonin metabolism and appears to be associated with alexithymia...
October 16, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
José L Arias, Andrea C Mayordomo, Juan E Silva, Juan A V Ragusa, Gabriel A Rabinovich, Ana C Anzulovich, María S Di Genaro
OBJECTIVE: Circadian rhythms are generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and involve rhythmic expression of clock genes and proteins. This rhythmicity is transferred to peripheral tissues by neural and hormonal signals. Late pregnancy is considered a state of inflammation which impacts on peripheral tissues such as joints. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mediates inflammatory and circadian responses through its p55 receptor (TNFRp55). Neuroimmunoendocrine interactions in joints have not been studied completely...
October 10, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Florencia González, Silvina Villar, Luciano D'Attilio, Rodolfo Leiva, Julia Marquez, Susana Lioi, Juan Beloscar, Oscar Bottasso, Ana Rosa Perez
Individuals who are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi develop chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), which is a complication involving a series of immune pathogenetic mechanisms, although an association between immune and metabolic alterations was more recently proposed. Accordingly, we investigated the immuno-metabolic response in chagasic patients and their possible influence on CCC pathogenesis. To this end, T. cruzi-seropositive (asymptomatic or with CCC) and sero-negative individuals were studied. Serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, adipocytokines and the expression of their receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) were evaluated, together with other factors influencing the immune response...
September 25, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Diego B Rebouças, Francisco Diego Rabelo-da-Ponte, Rafael Massuda, Leticia S Czepielewski, Clarissa S Gama
BACKGROUND: Verbal memory impairment may be considered an endophenotype in schizophrenia (SZ), also affecting the siblings of SZ subjects. Furthermore, the immune-inflammatory system response has an important modulatory effect on brain processes, especially on memory circuits. OBJECTIVE: Investigating the relationship between TNF-α and IL-6 and memory performance in patients with SZ, their unaffected siblings (SB) and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: 35 subjects with SZ, 36 SB, and 47 HC underwent a neurocognitive assessment for verbal memory by means of the revised Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT-R) in addition to serum cytokines analyses...
September 24, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Monika Pal, Santhosh Kumar, Muralidhar Varma, Pratibha Gopalkrishna, Subraya Bhat
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess pyrexia and sickness behavior such as anxiety, depression, lethargy, and weight loss in subjects with chronic periodontitis, and evaluate inflammatory mediators such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the patients with fever. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that consisted of 150 chronic periodontitis and 150 healthy subjects. Sublingual and subgingival temperatures were assessed using a digital temperature probe...
September 10, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Josemar Marchezan, Eduardo Geyer Arrussul Winkler Dos Santos, Iohanna Deckmann, Rudimar Dos Santos Riesgo
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with an unknown etiology and currently few effective therapies. Immune system alterations have being demonstrated in ASD, both in humans and via animal models; immune imbalance thus arises as a possible pathway for drug intervention. In this review, the studies were classified into 2 major groups: (1) clinical research whose authors classify therapies with primary anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions, making use of: sulforaphane, celecoxib, lenalidomide, pentoxifylline, spironolactone, flavonoid luteolin, corticosteroids, oral immunoglobulin, intravenous immunoglobulin, cell therapy, dialyzable lymphocyte extracts, minocycline, and pioglitazone; and (2) other ASD therapies already used or currently under study whose initial characteristics were neither anti-inflammatory nor immunomodulatory initially, but displayed a capacity for immunomodulation throughout the treatment: risperidone, vitamin D, omega-3, Ginkgo biloba, L-carnosine, N-acetylcysteine, and microbiome restoration...
September 5, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Iohanna Deckmann, Gustavo Brum Schwingel, Mellanie Fontes-Dutra, Victorio Bambini-Junior, Carmem Gottfried
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent developmental disorder characterized by deficits in communication and social interaction and in stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. Besides the classical behavioral dyad, several comorbidities are frequently present in patients with ASD, such as anxiety, epilepsy, sleep disturbances, and gastrointestinal tract dysfunction. Although the etiology of ASD remains unclear, there is supporting evidence for the involvement of both genetic and environmental factors...
August 29, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Renata Torres Abib, Alexandru Gaman, Aroldo A Dargél, Ryad Tamouza, Flávio Kapczinski, Carmem Gottfried, Marion Leboyer
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Perinatal exposure to infections during critical developmental periods is a promising area of study in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Epidemiological data has highlighted this relationship, pointing out significant correlations between perinatal exposure to pathogens and the occurrence of ASD. The aim of this review is to critically examine the present state of the art on intracellular pathogenic infection during pregnancy and postnatally, pointing out possible correlations with the development of ASD...
August 21, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Diego Baronio, Guilherme Bauer-Negrini, Kamila Castro, Gustavo Della-Flora Nunes, Rudimar Riesgo, Daniella Arêas Mendes-da-Cruz, Wilson Savino, Carmem Gottfried, Victorio Bambini-Junior
Considering the potential role of lymphocytes in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we aimed to evaluate possible alterations of T cell pools in the lymphoid organs of an animal model of autism induced by valproic acid (VPA). Pregnant Swiss mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg of VPA (VPA group) or saline (control group) on day 11 of gestation. Male offspring were euthanized on postnatal day 60 for removal of thy-muses, spleens, and a pool of inguinal, axillary and brachial lymph nodes...
August 17, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Douglas Teixeira Leffa, Iraci L S Torres, Luis Augusto Rohde
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental condition that impairs quality of life in social, academic, and occupational contexts for both children and adults. Although a strong neurobiological basis has been demonstrated, the pathophysiology of ADHD is still poorly understood. Among the proposed mechanisms are glial activation, neuronal damage and degeneration, increased oxidative stress, reduced neurotrophic support, altered neurotransmitter metabolism, and blood-brain barrier disruption...
June 6, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Xiaoyu Ma, Qingqing Yin, Ziling Zeng, Chunjuan Wang, Yang Yang, Shougang Guo
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that functional abnormalities of the thyroid are associated with the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases. However, their relationship in patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis remains to be defined. METHODS: Forty-three patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were examined for thyroid function and autoimmune indications, in comparison with 225 healthy controls (CTL). Patients were further classified into 2 subgroups based on their free tri-iodothyronine (fT3) levels...
2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Amanda Fiorentina Nascimento, Shelley Kirychuk, Maria Martha Bernardi, Luciano F Felício
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies from our group showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure induces several signs of sickness behavior, including a decrease in food consumption, body weight gain, adipsia, and a biphasic effect in tympanic temperature with a first phase of hypothermia, followed by an increased tympanic temperature. LPS can activate a chain of nonspecific host responses, including the immune response, and decreased zinc levels. In addition, there are differences in the immune response between males and females, particularly fever, with sex hormones interfering with body temperature...
2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Vanessa Gama Goulart, Grasielle Duarte Menezes, Sheila Espírito-Santo, Adriana da Cunha Faria-Melibeu, Claudio Alberto Serfaty, Paula Campello-Costa
OBJECTIVE: Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine related to different aspects of central nervous system development such as survival, proliferation, and differentiation, among others. Our goals were to investigate the effect of intravitreous treatment with IL-4 on the activation of downstream signaling pathways in the retina and the distribution of retinal axons within the superior colliculus (SC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Lister hooded rats were submitted to an intravitreous injection of either IL-4 (5 U/µL) or PBS (vehicle) at postnatal day 10 (PND10)...
2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Behrouz Robat-Jazi, Mina Hosseini, Vahid Shaygannejad, Shahriar Nafissi, Abbas Rezaei, Marjan Mansourain, Omid Mirmosayyeb, Nafiseh Esmaeil
OBJECTIVES: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease accompanied by a thymic pathology and in most patients thymectomy (TE) is used as the therapeutic approach. Both B and T cells play an important role in MG pathogenesis. METHODS: Twelve pre- and post-TE MG patients and 12 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. The mean percentages of Th22 and Tc22 cells were evaluated in MG patients (before and 6 months after TE) and HCs. RESULTS: The mean percentage of Tc22 cells in pre-TE patients was significantly higher than in HCs (p < 0...
2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
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