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Xiuqing Tian, Rui Guo, Yujiao Zhang, Lingling Xu, Xianbing Liu, Yinglong Hou
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of sympathetic overactivity on the immune system involved in the imbalance of T helper (Th) lymphocytes, we investigated the correlation between autonomic dysregulation and the generation of regulatory T (Treg) and Th1 chemokines in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: Blood samples obtained from patients with coronary artery disease and controls were analyzed for levels of Th1 and Treg cells and their associated cytokines by flow cytometry...
October 21, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Alexey Boyko, Mikhail Melnikov, Rustam Zhetishev, Mikhail Pashenkov
OBJECTIVE: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating, presumably autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Biogenic amines may participate in MS pathogenesis modulating immune cell activity and cytokine production. METHODS: Forty-three patients with relapsing-remitting MS were examined. Serotonin (SE), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) concentrations in sera were measured by ELISA. The functional activity of Th17 and Th1 cells was assessed by the ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) and cell proliferation upon stimulation with microbeads coated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies...
October 7, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Xiaofu Zhai, Ying Ding, Qi Wang, Hao Zhang, Fayin Li
Rutin reportedly conveys many beneficial effects, including neuroprotection in brain injury. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still not well understood. This study investigates the effect of rutin on potential mechanisms for neuroprotective effects, using the weight-drop model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in male mice treated either with rutin or a vehicle via intraperitoneal injection 30 min after TBI. After euthanasia and 24 h after TBI, all mice were examined by tests, including neurologic scores, blood-brain barrier permeability, brain water content and neuronal cell death in the cerebral cortex...
September 20, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Ramon de Almeida Kruschewsky, Luciana Santos Cardoso, Jamille Souza Fernandes, Robson da Paixão de Souza, Diego Mota Lopes, Otavio Augusto Moreno de Carvalho, Maria Ilma Araujo
BACKGROUND: Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR) is the most serious ectopic presentation of Schistosoma mansoni infection. The pathogenesis occurs mainly via the host inflammatory response to the eggs of the parasite that are stuck in the central nervous system, and the diagnosis is generally made by the exclusion of other neurological diseases. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the immune status of SMR patients and to identify a marker for SMR diagnosis. METHODS: We enrolled 15 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of SMR, and the control groups included 17 patients with myelopathy associated with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and 11 with other neurological disorders...
September 9, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Chen Chen, Sun Xiaobo, Wang Yuge, Shu Yaqing, Fang Ling, Peng Lisheng, Lu Zhengqi, Qiu Wei
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and autoantibodies. METHODS: Blood samples of 108 NMOSD patients and 38 controls were collected from January 2012 to August 2014. Immunological parameters, including anti-aquaporin 4, antinuclear, anti-ribonucleoprotein, anti-SM, anti-SSA/Ro, anti-SSB/La and anti-ribosomal P-protein autoantibodies were examined. RESULTS: The NMOSD group exhibited a significantly higher percentage of anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies compared with the control group (76...
September 8, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Barry McGuiness, Sinead M Gibney, Wouter Beumer, Marjan A Versnel, Inge Sillaber, Andrew Harkin, Hemmo A Drexhage
: The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, an established model for autoimmune diabetes, shows an exaggerated reaction of pancreas macrophages to inflammatory stimuli. NOD mice also display anxiety when immune-stimulated. Chronic mild brain inflammation and a pro-inflammatory microglial activation is critical in psychiatric behaviour. OBJECTIVE: To explore brain/microglial activation and behaviour in NOD mice at steady state and after systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection...
August 17, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Elham Hakimizadeh, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi, Ali Shamsizadeh, Ali Roohbakhsh, Mohammad Allahtavakoli
Stroke is a prevalent and dangerous health problem, which triggers an intense inflammatory response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. TLRs are the essential components of the response of the innate immunity system, and, therefore, they are one of the key factors involved in recognizing pathogens and internal ligands. Among TLRs, TLR4 significantly participates in the induction of inflammation and brain functions; hence, it has been hypothesized that this molecule is associated with several immune-related brain diseases such as stroke...
June 9, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Fengyang Geng, Yinghua Ma, Tao Xing, Xianbo Zhuang, Jianxin Zhu, Lusu Yao
OBJECTIVE: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in secondary tissue damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recently, the inflammasome-mediated inflammatory pathway has been observed in the inflammatory response of TBI. In this study, we investigated the influence of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on inflammasome activation after TBI. METHODS: The experimental mice were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: sham-operated normobaric air (21% O2 at one absolute atmosphere), HBOT only, TBI + normobaric air and TBI + HBOT...
2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Peter Behrendt, Philipp Arnold, Max Brueck, Uta Rickert, Richard Lucius, Susanne Hartmann, Christian Klotz, Ralph Lucius
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether the natural protease inhibitor Av-cystatin (rAv17) of the parasitic nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae exerts anti-inflammatory effects in an in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia. METHODS: Primary microglia were harvested from the brains of 2-day-old Wistar rats and cultured with or without rAv17 (250 nM). After 6 and 24 h the release of nitric oxide (Griess reagent) and TNF-α (ELISA) was measured in the supernatant...
2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Meiyan Sun, Jie Wang, Yue Zhou, Zijian Wang, Yong Jiang, Miao Li
OBJECTIVE: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe neurological demyelinating autoimmune disease that affects the optic nerves and spinal cord with no cure and no FDA-approved therapy. Research over the last decade revealed that the binding of NMO-IgG to the water channel protein astrocyte aquaporin 4 (AQP4) might be the primary cause of NMO pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to identify potential blockers of NMO-IgG and AQP4 binding. METHODS: We developed a two-step screening platform consisting of a reporter cell-based high-throughput screen assay and a cell viability-based assay...
2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Bruno C Fábregas, Érica L M Vieira, Alexandre S Moura, Ricardo A Carmo, Renata E Ávila, Mery N S Abreu, Allan R Prossin, Antônio L Teixeira
OBJECTIVE: Major depression (MD) is a condition associated with both hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and pegylated interferon (IFN)-α treatment. IFN induces a depressive syndrome that is associated with an inflammatory profile. We aimed to investigate whether there is any specific alteration in plasma biomarkers associated with MD. METHODS: HCV-monoinfected patients, with and without IFN treatment, were followed up for 18 months and went through structured psychiatric evaluation...
2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Grasielle D Menezes, Vanessa G Goulart, Sheila Espírito-Santo, Priscilla Oliveira-Silva, Claudio Alberto Serfaty, Paula Campello-Costa
OBJECTIVE: The development of retinotectal pathways form precise topographical maps is usually completed by the third postnatal week. Cytokines participate in the development and plasticity of the nervous system. We have previously shown that in vivo treatment with interleukin 2 disrupts the retinocollicular topographical order in early stages of development. Therefore, we decided to study the effect of a single intravitreous injection of IL-6 upon retinotectal circuitry in neonates and juvenile rats...
2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Rewa Verma, Jae Young Kim
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], the active metabolite of vitamin D, on M1/M2 polarization of human microglia and the expression of Toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10) on these cells, which has been suggested to play an inhibitory role in inflammation previously. METHODS: Microglial HMO6 cells were treated with 1,25(OH)2D3, and mRNA or protein levels of M1 and M2 cytokines and TLR10 were examined. RESULTS: 1,25(OH)2D3 upregulated TLR10 in HMO6 cells at both mRNA and protein level...
2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Gyöngyi Serfőző, Tamás Horváth, Imre Földesi, Beatrix Rafael, Roland von Känel, Margit Keresztes
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial stress and depression have been recognized as major risk factors of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although monocytes are known to be key players in atherosclerosis, monocyte-based associations with psychoneuroendocrino-immuno-inflammatory (PNI) markers have not been widely investigated in stable CAD. OBJECTIVE: We examined associations between the monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and key PNI markers in stable CAD. METHODS: We studied 23 patients with stable CAD who completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Rahe's Brief Stress and Coping Inventory...
2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Delson José da Silva, Arissa Felipe Borges, Priscila Oliveira Souza, Patrícia Reis de Souza, Cristina Ribeiro de Barros Cardoso, Miriam Leandro Dorta, Milton Adriano Pelli de Oliveira, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias
OBJECTIVES: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed in several immune cells including blood monocytes and resident macrophages, such as microglia in the central nervous system. TLRs recognize pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns, leading to the release of inflammatory and toxic molecules, which can contribute to neuroinflammation associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to compare the potential of peripheral blood cells from PD patients or healthy subjects to produce cytokines after exposure to TLR agonists, and to investigate TLR2 and TLR4 expression on monocyte subsets...
2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Malik Hasarmeh, Anna Itzik, Joseph Weidenfeld, Haim Ovadia
OBJECTIVES: The role of nitric oxide (NO) in modulating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is not entirely clear. We examined the effect of different NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors and NO donors on the permeability of the BBB in animals with normally functioning brain blood vessels, following disruption by hyperosmotic mannitol and during immune inflammation. METHODS: We administered L-NAME, aminoguanidine, S-methyl-thiocitrulline (SMT) and 7-indazole (NOS inhibitors) and NOR-4 (an NO donor) into the cerebral ventricle of rats...
2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
José de Jesús Guerrero-García, Víctor Andrés Castañeda-Moreno, Norma Torres-Carrillo, José Francisco Muñoz-Valle, Oscar Kurt Bitzer-Quintero, María Dolores Ponce-Regalado, Mario Alberto Mireles-Ramírez, Yeminia Valle, Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún
OBJECTIVE: The present study was specifically designed to discern the possible existence of subgroups of patients with the relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis (RRMS) depending on their gender, age, disease stage (relapsing or remitting), time of disease evolution and response to different treatments. METHODS: We analyzed samples from patients with RRMS (50 females and 32 males) and healthy individuals (25 matched for age and gender) and determined serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17A...
2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Fei Hao, Aiping Li, Huan Yu, Meichen Liu, Yachen Wang, Jing Liu, Zhanhua Liang
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) can provide neuroprotective effects and enhance the efficacy of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). METHODS: We examined the synergistic action of BMSCs combined with EGb761 treatment in EAE rats. The immunized rats received an intravenous injection of BMSCs or intraperitoneal administration of EGb761 or both on the day of the onset of clinical symptoms and for the following 21 days...
2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Eduardo Luzía França, Adenilda Cristina Honorio-França, Rubian Trindade da Silva Fernandes, Camila Moreira Ferreira Marins, Claudia Cristina de Souza Pereira, Fernando de Pilla Varotti
Although melatonin exhibits oncostatic properties such as antiproliferative effects, the oral bioavailability of this hormone is less than 20%. Modified drug release systems have been used to improve the pharmacological efficiency of drugs. These systems can change the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the associated drugs. Thus, this study investigated the effect of melatonin adsorbed to polyethylene glycol (PEG) microspheres on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The MCF-7 cells were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection...
2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Irene Guzmán-Soto, Eva Salinas, J Luis Quintanar
OBJECTIVE: Recent findings have shown that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration in an animal model of multiple sclerosis (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, EAE) improves clinical signs of locomotion. The present study was designed to determine whether the administration of the synthetic analog of GnRH, leuprolide acetate (LA) - besides its effects on clinical signs of locomotion - also has an effect on the activation/expression levels of molecular markers of EAE, namely transcription nuclear factor (NF)-κB and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-17A, IL-23 and TNF-α...
2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
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