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Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964470/update-on-imaging-contrast-agents
#1
EDITORIAL
Carlos A Zamora, Mauricio Castillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964469/foreword
#2
EDITORIAL
Suresh K Mukherji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964468/safety-of-contrast-material-use-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#3
REVIEW
Paulo Puac, Andrés Rodríguez, Carina Vallejo, Carlos A Zamora, Mauricio Castillo
The use of contrast media to image patients who are pregnant has increased during the past decades worldwide. Their use in pregnancy and in patients who are lactating remains a challenging issue for radiologists and other physicians. This article addresses the different types of contrast media that may be used in such patients according to the imaging modality (iodinated contrast media, barium, gadolinium-based, and ultrasound contrast agents), focusing on their adverse effects, potential teratogenic effects, strategies to minimize risks, and current clinical recommendation...
November 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964467/safety-of-contrast-material-use-in-children
#4
REVIEW
Bruno P Soares, Maarten H Lequin, Thierry A G M Huisman
Iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast materials have excellent safety profiles for use in pediatric computed tomography and MR imaging. The rate of acute adverse reactions and contrast-induced nephropathy is lower than in adults. The relationship between nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and gadolinium administration is well established and only a small number of children suffer from this debilitating disorder. The recent finding of gadolinium deposition in the brain of patients with normal renal function has renewed concerns regarding its long-term toxicity...
November 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964466/gadolinium-deposition-and-chronic-toxicity
#5
REVIEW
Joana Ramalho, Miguel Ramalho
Clinicians, radiologists, and patients should be aware of the most up-to-date data on the risks of gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) administration. In this review, we discuss in vivo gadolinium retention, particularly brain tissue retention, and potential toxic effects. GBCA pharmacokinetics and biodistribution are reviewed briefly. Based on the more recent published literature and society guidelines, general safety recommendations for clinical practice are provided.
November 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964465/gadolinium-based-contrast-agents-associated-adverse-reactions
#6
REVIEW
Miguel Ramalho, Joana Ramalho
Gadolinium-based contrast agents have been considered extremely safe drugs with a low incidence of acute adverse reactions. Most of the reactions are mild and physiologic. However, despite being extremely rare, acute severe adverse reactions, including anaphylaxis, may occur. In this article adverse reactions are discussed with regard to their classification, pathophysiology, symptoms, and risk factors.
November 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964464/contrast-induced-acute-kidney-injury-pathophysiology-manifestations-prevention-and-management
#7
REVIEW
Travis Scharnweber, Lea Alhilali, Saeed Fakhran
Contrast-induced acute kidney injury is a phenomenon that has been extensively studied throughout the years. There is a large volume of literature documenting this risk, and most radiology departments and radiologists use this information when making decisions regarding contrast administration. A review of the current information on the topic of contrast-induced acute kidney injury is necessary to ensure that the risks of intravenous contrast are properly weighed against the benefits of a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan...
November 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964463/managing-adverse-reactions-to-contrast-agents
#8
REVIEW
Brian Boyd, Carlos A Zamora, Mauricio Castillo
Adverse reactions to iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast agents occur at an incidence of less than 1%. Although the exact pathophysiologic mechanisms are not completely understood, the treatment regimens are well accepted. Skin testing may be helpful in patients with a history of severe allergiclike reaction to aid in the selection of alternative contrast agents. Premedication should only be used for a history of allergiclike reaction. Imaging team members should be familiar with signs and symptoms of contrast reactions to allow for prompt assessment and treatment...
November 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964462/contrast-enhanced-ultrasound
#9
REVIEW
David Hunt, Javier Romero
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging is a recently approved technique in the United States that uses a specific contrast agent, namely, microbubbles, consisting mainly of a gas core and a stabilized biological shell. These compounds allow for the visualization of small vascular beds and improve characterization of anatomic structures and lesions. They have a relatively safe profile and are primarily excreted through the lungs.
November 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964461/myelography-from-lipid-based-to-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents
#10
REVIEW
Donald B Price, A Orlando Ortiz
Myelographic contrast media of various types have been used over the past 100 years. Many of the early contrast agents had significant toxicities. Gas myelography was tried, but the contrast between gas and soft tissue is poor. Pantopaque, an oil-based iodinated medium was successfully used for decades, but was not compatible with computed tomography (CT) scanning because it was viscous, insoluble, and caused streak artifact. The development of water-soluble agents allowed even distribution in the subarachnoid space and excellent depiction of spinal anatomy on post-myelographic CT scanning...
November 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964460/contrast-agents-for-mr-imaging
#11
REVIEW
Ferenc Czeyda-Pommersheim, Diego R Martin, James R Costello, Bobby Kalb
Contrast media are essential to the practice of MR imaging. An increasing variety of agents have been approved for clinical use, specific contrast agents can often be tailored to a specific clinical question. Compared with CT contrast media, MR imaging contrast is well tolerated with an excellent safety record and a low incidence of adverse events. In this article, we review the pharmacology, indications, and the common adverse events of the intravenous and oral MR contrast agents most commonly used in contemporary imaging practice, including gadolinium-based contrast, manganese and iron-based agents and the most common oral contrast agents...
November 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964459/current-radiographic-iodinated-contrast-agents
#12
REVIEW
Maria Vittoria Spampinato, Ahad Abid, Maria Gisele Matheus
Millions of radiologic examinations requiring the use of iodinated contrast are performed yearly in North America. Triiodobenzoic acid, the contrast agent molecule currently in use, is a benzene ring covalently bonded to the 3 iodine atoms. Iodinated contrast media can be divided in 4 categories: ionic monomers, ionic dimers, nonionic monomer, and nonionic dimers. Currently, second- and third-generation nonionic low-osmolar and iso-osmolar contrast media are used in clinical practice. The search for a safer and more effective iodinated contrast agents remains an ongoing challenge and important research topic...
November 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964458/historical-perspective-of-imaging-contrast-agents
#13
REVIEW
Carlos A Zamora, Mauricio Castillo
Contrast agents were introduced early in the history of medical imaging. Iodine-based intravascular agents became the radiographic compounds of choice and refinements of their chemical structures led to the highly tolerated low-osmolarity agents in use today. Gadolinium became the most popular compound for MR imaging; however, recognition of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and in vivo dechelation intensified research on their safety profile. Ultrasonography contrast media evolved from manual injections of air through agitated saline solutions to microbubbles with different gases...
November 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668168/be-an-advocate-for-women-s-health-get-a-pelvic-mri
#14
EDITORIAL
Katherine E Maturen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668167/foreword
#15
EDITORIAL
Suresh K Mukherji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668166/pet-mr-imaging-in-gynecologic-oncology
#16
REVIEW
Michael A Ohliger, Thomas A Hope, Jocelyn S Chapman, Lee-May Chen, Spencer C Behr, Liina Poder
MR imaging and PET using 2-Deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoroglucose (FDG) are both useful in the evaluation of gynecologic malignancies. MR imaging is superior for local staging of disease whereas fludeoxyglucose FDG PET is superior for detecting distant metastases. Integrated PET/MR imaging scanners have great promise for gynecologic malignancies by combining the advantages of each modality into a single scan. This article reviews the technology behind PET/MR imaging acquisitions and technical challenges relevant to imaging the pelvis...
August 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668165/mr-imaging-in-gynecologic-brachytherapy
#17
REVIEW
Jessica B Robbins, Elizabeth A Sadowski, Shruti Jolly, Katherine E Maturen
Magnetic resonance-based image-guided adaptive brachytherapy is gaining popularity in the United States in the setting of gynecologic malignancies. This technique improves local control, increases overall survival, and minimizes toxicity to the adjacent organs at risk. The purpose of this article is to familiarize radiologists with image-guided adaptive brachytherapy by describing its history, detailing MR imaging techniques, describing treatment considerations, and reviewing image interpretation.
August 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668164/mr-imaging-of-cervical-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Krupa Patel-Lippmann, Jessica B Robbins, Lisa Barroilhet, Bethany Anderson, Elizabeth A Sadowski, James Boyum
Cervical cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide despite advances in screening and prevention. Although cervical cancer remains clinically staged, the 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics committee has encouraged the use of advanced imaging modalities, including MR imaging, where available, to increase the accuracy of staging, guide treatment, and detect recurrence. Understanding the multiple roles of advanced imaging in the evaluation of cervical cancer will help radiologists provide an accurate and useful report to the referring clinicians...
August 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668163/from-staging-to-prognostication-achievements-and-challenges-of-mr%C3%A2-imaging-in-the-assessment-of-endometrial-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Stephanie Nougaret, Yulia Lakhman, Hebert Alberto Vargas, Pierre Emmanuel Colombo, Shinya Fujii, Caroline Reinhold, Evis Sala
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States, with recent increasing incidence mostly owing to obesity. Preoperative MR imaging is essential to stratify patients according to their risk of recurrence and to guide surgical management. In the combination of T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and dynamic contrast enhancement, MR imaging provides a "one-stop shop" approach for patient-specific accurate staging including the evaluation of the depth of myometrial invasion, cervical stromal invasion, extrauterine extension, and lymph node status...
August 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668162/mr-imaging-of-abnormal-placentation
#20
REVIEW
Manjiri Dighe
Morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) encompasses a spectrum of conditions characterized by abnormal adherence of the placenta to the implantation site. Classification of MAP is based on the degree of trophoblastic invasion through myometrium and uterine serosa and includes accrete, when the villi are attached to the myometrium but do not invade the muscle; increta, when the placenta invades partially through the myometrium; and percreta, when it invades up to and beyond the uterine serosa. Knowledge of the common findings of MAP on MR imaging is important to be able to provide an accurate diagnosis...
August 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
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