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Oncology Reports

Yubo Tang, Bowen Wu, Shuai Huang, Xinsheng Peng, Xing Li, Xiufang Huang, Wei Zhou, Peigen Xie, Peiheng He
The principal issue deriving from prostate cancer (PCa) is its propensity to metastasize to bone. To date, bone metastasis remains incurable, and therapeutic strategies are limited. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to explore predictive markers for bone metastasis of PCa. In the present study, we reported that miR‑505‑3p was significantly downregulated in bone metastatic PCa tissues compared with that in non‑bone metastatic PCa tissues, but there was no significant difference in miR‑505‑3p expression between PCa and adjacent normal tissues...
October 25, 2018: Oncology Reports
Kun Han, Zhao Jian Li, Peng Sun
The aim of the present study was to analyze the possible association between microRNA‑494 (miR‑494) and cell proliferation in glioma cancer. Firstly, the expression of miR‑494 was revealed to be upregulated in patients with glioma, compared with the normal group. Next, anti‑miR‑494 mimics were used to decrease the expression of miR‑494 in glioma cancer cells, which subsequently induced apoptosis, and inhibited cell growth and migration. Downregulation of miR‑494 expression induced phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and suppressed the protein kinase B/mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway (Akt/mTOR) pathway in glioma cancer cells...
October 25, 2018: Oncology Reports
Bo Tang, Wenjin Liang, Yong Liao, Zeming Li, Yan Wang, Chao Yan
Liver metastasis is one of the major causes of death in patients with colorectal cancer, and although treatment has improved recently, the long‑term survival rate of patients has not improved significantly. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to determine that phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes‑15 kDa (PEA15) was highly expressed in colorectal cancer tissues and liver metastatic cancer tissues. It was also highly expressed in metastatic colorectal cancer patients compared to non‑metastatic patients...
October 25, 2018: Oncology Reports
Jinsoo Oh, Yongbo Kim, Daye Baek, Yoon Ha
Gliomas, the most highly malignant central nervous system tumors, are associated with an extremely poor patient survival rate. Given that gliomas are derived from mutations in glial precursor cells, a considerable number of them strongly react with glial precursor cell‑specific markers. Thus, we investigated whether malignant gliomas can be converted to glial cells through the regulation of endogenous gene expression implicated in glial precursor cells. In the present study, we used three small‑molecule compounds, [cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) enhancer, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, and a bromodomain and extra‑terminal motif (BET) inhibitor] for glial reprogramming...
October 25, 2018: Oncology Reports
Tamaki Otani, Kazuya Kondo, Hiromitsu Takizawa, Koichiro Kajiura, Haruhiko Fujino, Hideki Otsuka, Hirokazu Miyoshi
We established patient‑like models of lung cancer metastasis by orthotopically implanting human non‑small cell lung cancer cell lines into SCID mice. We evaluated the utilities of small‑animal computed tomography (CT) and positron‑emission tomography‑computed tomography (PET/CT) in these models to non‑invasively and repeatedly monitor the anticancer effects of cisplatin and erlotinib. We orthotopically implanted three non‑small cell lung cancer cell lines, A549, FT821 and PC‑9, into SCID mice...
October 24, 2018: Oncology Reports
Wanyuan Chen, Weimin Fan, Guoqing Ru, Fang Huang, Xiaming Lu, Xin Zhang, Xiaozhou Mou, Shibing Wang
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a lethal solid malignancy with resistance to traditional chemotherapy. Recently, considerable studies have demonstrated the ubiquitous antitumor properties of gene therapy mediated by the oncolytic vaccinia virus. The second mitochondrial‑derived activator of caspase (Smac) has been identified as an innovative tumor suppressor that augments the chemosensitivity of cancer cells. However, the therapeutic value of oncolytic vaccinia virus (oVV)‑mediated Smac gene transfer in pancreatic cancer is yet to be elucidated...
October 24, 2018: Oncology Reports
Yiqun Huang, Yong Zou, Luhui Lin, Xudong Ma, Ruiji Zheng
MAPK kinase 1 (MEK1) is an upstream protein kinase of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), which activates the ERK/MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase) pathway. Importantly, bioinformatic analysis has shown that there is a target complementary binding site between miR‑101 and MEK1. The present study aimed to ascertain whether or not miR‑101 plays a role in regulating MEK1 expression, ERK/MAPK pathway activity, and the proliferation and apoptosis in a diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell line...
October 24, 2018: Oncology Reports
Xianxiong Ma, Ruikang Tao, Lei Li, Hengyu Chen, Zongtao Liu, Jie Bai, Xiaoming Shuai, Chuanqing Wu, Kaixiong Tao
miRNA‑gene axes have been reported to serve an important role in the carcinogenesis of pancreatic cancer (PC). The aim of the present study was to systematically identity the microRNA signature and hub molecules, as well as hub miRNA‑gene axes, and to explore the potential biomarkers and mechanisms associated with the carcinogenesis of PC. Eleven microRNA profile datasets were obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and ArrayExpress databases, and a meta‑analysis was performed to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) between tumor tissue and normal tissue...
October 24, 2018: Oncology Reports
Jianming Dou, Yiren Zhou, Xuni Liu, Xiaojing Qiao, Xi Yang, Wenjuan Xie, Shouyi Qiao, Yanhua Wu
Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) is a tumor metastasis suppressor implicated in multiple steps during the metastatic cascade. Many proteins interacting with BRMS1 have been identified to unravel the intracellular signaling mechanisms. In the present study, we report that FANCI is a novel interacting protein of BRMS1 as determined by co‑immunoprecipitation assay. The linker region between two coiled‑coil motifs of BRMS1 is required for BRMS1‑FANCI interaction. FANCI is an essential protein in the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway responsible for the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs)...
October 24, 2018: Oncology Reports
Yiqun Fan, Chi Zhang, Shengjie Jin, Zhihui Gao, Jun Cao, Aoqing Wang, Dawei Li, Qian Wang, Xing Sun, Dousheng Bai
Cancer cells can escape antitumor immune responses by exploiting inhibitory immune checkpoints. Immune checkpoint therapy, mainly including anti‑CTLA‑4 therapy and anti‑PD‑1/PD‑L1 therapy, can enhance antitumor immune responses by blocking the inhibitory signals of the immune system. This therapy has produced clinical advances in a fraction of patients. Deeper insight into the tumor microenvironment and immune checkpoint inhibitors will improve this therapy. Here, we review immune checkpoint inhibitors that prevent tumor immune escape and recent clinical studies of immune checkpoint therapy...
October 24, 2018: Oncology Reports
Ming Zhou, Aman Wang, Baosheng Yin, Dan Wu, Shiliang Han, Wenpeng Zhang, Jiwei Liu, Kang Sun
Osteosarcoma is the most frequent primary bone tumor. Staphylococcal nuclease domain‑containing 1 (SND1) is a multifunctional protein that plays important roles in tumor development and progression. Overexpression of SND1 has been found in several malignancies, however, its expression and function in osteosarcoma is largely unknown. In the present study, we firstly examined the expression of SND1 in 12 pairs of osteosarcoma and healthy bones by immunoblotting and real time‑PCR. The results revealed that osteosarcoma tissues expressed significantly high SND1 mRNA and protein expression compared to normal bone tissues...
October 24, 2018: Oncology Reports
Huimin Wang, Wentao Huang, Xiaoxiang Yu, Weidong Li, Yuanjie Huang, Zengnan Mo, Yong Gao, Qingniao Zhou, Yanling Hu
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common malignant cancer in men worldwide. Numerous genetic variations have been associated with PCa, but their biological function remains unclear. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) inside 3' untranslated region (UTR) affect gene expression, with one essential mechanism being regulation by micro (mi)RNAs. Based on data from genome‑wide association study of the Consortium for Chinese Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics, rs1815009 and rs2684788 inside 3'UTR of insulin‑like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) presented significant genotype distribution between PCa and control samples...
October 22, 2018: Oncology Reports
Chihiro Tomoyasu, Ken Kikuchi, Daisuke Kaneda, Shigeki Yagyu, Mitsuru Miyachi, Kunihiko Tsuchiya, Tomoko Iehara, Toshiyuki Sakai, Hajime Hosoi
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive pediatric cancer of musculoskeletal origin. Despite multidisciplinary approaches, such as surgical resection, irradiation, and intensive chemotherapy, adopted for its treatment, the prognosis of patients with high‑risk RMS remains poor. Thus, molecularly targeted therapies are required to improve patient survival and minimize side effects. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) modify transcription by deacetylation of the lysine residues in chromatin histone tails and several non‑histone proteins...
October 22, 2018: Oncology Reports
Dan Wang, Yan Xu, Lu Feng, Pin Yin, Shuang Shuang Song, Feng Wu, Ping Yan, Zhiqing Liang
Regulator of G‑protein signaling 5 (RGS5), a tissue‑specific signal‑regulating molecule, plays a key role in the development of the vasculature. It was recently found that RGS5 is abundantly expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) compared with the normal ovaries. However, the distribution of RGS5 in EOC and its significance require further investigation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of RGS5 in EOC, as well as its association with cancer differentiation, metastasis and clinicopathological parameters...
October 22, 2018: Oncology Reports
Roba M El-Tabba', Princy Mathew, Willias Masocha, Maitham A Khajah
Paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of breast cancer and other solid tumor types, including ovarian and lung, causes a dose‑dependent neuropathic pain, which limits its use. Chemically modified tetracycline‑3 (COL‑3) has anticancer properties and was previously reported to inhibit neuroinflammation and protect against paclitaxel‑induced neuropathic pain (PINP) in mice models. However, it is not known whether it affects the anticancer activities of paclitaxel. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of COL‑3 on the anticancer activity of paclitaxel on the breast cancer cell lines MCF‑7 (estrogen receptor‑positive), pII [estrogen receptor‑negative (ER‑ve)] and MDA‑MB‑231 (ER‑ve)...
October 22, 2018: Oncology Reports
Sang Eun Park, Dong Eun Kim, Mi Joung Kim, Jee Suk Lee, Jin Kyung Rho, Seong-Yun Jeong, Eun Kyung Choi, Choung-Soo Kim, Jung Jin Hwang
Although different mechanisms of acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)‑tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been reported in non‑small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), the optimal treatment for patients with acquired resistance has not been clearly defined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antitumor effects of gefitinib in combination with vorinostat, a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), and their associated molecular mechanisms in relation to activating apoptosis in NSCLC...
October 22, 2018: Oncology Reports
Jeong-Geon Mun, Ji-Ye Kee, Yo-Han Han, Sullim Lee, Seong-Hwan Park, Hee Dong Jeon, Seung-Heon Hong
Galla Rhois is a commonly used medicine in East Asia for the treatment of several diseases. However, the effects of Galla Rhois on the metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been studied. We investigated the anti‑metastatic properties of Galla Rhois water extract (GRWE) on metastatic CRC cells. The effect of GRWE on the viability of colon 26 (CT26) cells was evaluated using WST‑8 assay. Annexin V assay and western blot analysis were performed to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in apoptosis...
October 22, 2018: Oncology Reports
Baohua Li, Shu Zhang, Na Huang, Haiyan Chen, Peijun Wang, Jun Yang, Zongfang Li
Myeloid‑derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are the major negative regulators of immune responses and expand in numerous tumor models. They contribute to tumor progression and metastasis, and are involved in limiting the effects of cancer immunotherapy. To selectively target MDSCs, it is required to understand the molecular mechanisms that drive MDSC expansion. The mechanisms of their accumulation in tumor tissue have been extensively studied, while the mechanisms of their expansion in lymphoid organs have been rarely explored...
October 18, 2018: Oncology Reports
Heming Chen, Weihong Chen, Xiaojun Zhang, Lin Hu, Guojun Tang, Juan Kong, Zhiwei Wang
Thyroid cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy of the endocrine system, the incidence of which has increased rapidly in the last 30 years. Genetic alterations in pathways, including the mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (Erk) and phosphatidylinositol‑3‑kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathways, are the driving force behind the development of differentiated thyroid cancer cases into aggressive and undifferentiated forms of thyroid cancer. E26 transformation (ETS)‑specific related transcription factor‑3 (ELF3) belong to the epithelial‑specific subfamily of ETS transcription factors and has recently been reported to be involved in various pathophysiological processes...
October 18, 2018: Oncology Reports
Serena Pillozzi, Andrea Bernini, Ottavia Spiga, Barbara Lelli, Giulia Petroni, Luisa Bracci, Neri Niccolai, Annarosa Arcangeli
Notable advances in treatment have been made and increases in the cure rates of pediatric leukemia have been achieved. However, the majority of children with relapsed disease are not expected to survive, with chemotherapy resistance acting as the principal cause of treatment failure. Interaction between leukemic cells and the bone marrow microenvironment is the primary cause of relapse. It was identified that a multi‑protein membrane complex, formed by potassium voltage‑gated channel subfamily H member 2 (hERG1) channels, the β1 integrin subunit and the stromal cell‑derived factor 12 (CXCL12) receptor, C‑X‑C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), exerts a role in mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)‑mediated chemoresistance in pediatric leukemias...
October 18, 2018: Oncology Reports
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