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Medical Engineering & Physics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318949/wing-augmentation-reduces-femoral-head-cutting-out-of-dynamic-hip-screw
#1
Chih-Yu Chen, Shu-Wei Huang, Jui-Sheng Sun, Shin-Yiing Lin, Chih-Sheng Yu, Hsu-Pin Pan, Ping-Hung Lin, Fan-Chun Hsieh, Yang-Hwei Tsuang, Feng-Huei Lin, Rong-Sen Yang, Cheng-Kung Cheng
The dynamic hip screw (DHS) is commonly used in the treatment of femoral intertrochanteric fracture with high satisfactory results. However, post-operative failure does occur and result in poor prognosis. The most common failure is femoral head varus collapse, followed by lag screw cut-out through the femoral head. In this study, a novel-designed DHS with two supplemental horizontal blades was used to improve the fixation stability. In this study, nine convention DHS and 9 Orthopaedic Device Research Center (ODRC) DHSs were tested in this study...
March 17, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318948/comparative-assessment-of-intrinsic-mechanical-stimuli-on-knee-cartilage-and-compressed-agarose-constructs
#2
A Completo, C Bandeiras, F Fonseca
A well-established cue for improving the properties of tissue-engineered cartilage is mechanical stimulation. However, the explicit ranges of mechanical stimuli that correspond to favorable metabolic outcomes are elusive. Usually, these outcomes have only been associated with the applied strain and frequency, an oversimplification that can hide the fundamental relationship between the intrinsic mechanical stimuli and the metabolic outcomes. This highlights two important key issues: the firstly is related to the evaluation of the intrinsic mechanical stimuli of native cartilage; the second, assuming that the intrinsic mechanical stimuli will be important, deals with the ability to replicate them on the tissue-engineered constructs...
March 17, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292655/a-one-dimensional-arterial-network-model-for-bypass-graft-assessment
#3
A R Ghigo, S Abou Taam, X Wang, P-Y Lagrée, J-M Fullana
We propose an arterial network model based on one-dimensional hemodynamic equations to study the behavior of different vascular surgical bypass grafts in the case of an arterial occlusive pathology: a stenosis of the Right Iliac artery. We investigate the performances of three different bypass grafts (Aorto-Femoral, Axillo-Femoral and cross-over Femoral) depending on the degree of obstruction of the stenosis. Numerical simulations show that all bypass grafts are efficient since we retrieve in each case the healthy hemodynamics downstream of the stenosed region while ensuring at the same time a global healthy circulation...
March 11, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291699/in-silico-investigation-of-cornea-deformation-during-irrigation-aspiration-in-phacoemulsification-in-cataract-surgery
#4
Dariush Bayatpour, Omid Abouali, Alireza Ghaffarieh, Goodarz Ahmadi
To analyze the stress, strain and displacement of the human cornea under the action of negative intraocular pressure, which occurs during phacoemulsification in cataract surgery, a multidisciplinary approach including biomedical engineering, solid mechanics, numerical analysis, and fluid dynamics was used. Fluid-structure interaction method was implemented using 3-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis of cornea tissue in conjunction with CFD analysis of anterior chamber fluid flow to study the deformation of the cornea under negative gage pressure during irrigation and aspiration (I/A)...
March 10, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285881/finite-element-analysis-of-the-amputated-lower-limb-a-systematic-review-and-recommendations
#5
REVIEW
A S Dickinson, J W Steer, P R Worsley
The care and rehabilitation of individuals after lower limb amputation presents a substantial and growing socioeconomic challenge. Clinical outcome is closely linked to successful functional rehabilitation with a prosthetic limb, which depends upon comfortable prosthetic limb - residual limb load transfer. Despite early interest in the 1980s, the amputated limb has received considerably less attention in computational biomechanical analysis than other subjects, such as arthroplasty. This systematic literature review investigates the state of the art in residual limb finite element analysis published since 2000...
March 9, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284572/an-articulated-ankle-foot-orthosis-with-adjustable-plantarflexion-resistance-dorsiflexion-resistance-and-alignment-a-pilot-study-on-mechanical-properties-and-effects-on-stroke-hemiparetic-gait
#6
Toshiki Kobayashi, Michael S Orendurff, Grace Hunt, Lucas S Lincoln, Fan Gao, Nicholas LeCursi, K Bo Foreman
Mechanical properties of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) are closely related to gait performance in individuals post-stroke. This paper presents a pilot study on the mechanical properties of a novel articulated AFO with adjustable plantarflexion resistance, dorsiflexion resistance and alignment, and its effect on ankle and knee joint kinematics and kinetics in an individual post-stroke during gait. The mechanical properties of the AFO were quantified. Gait analysis was performed using a 3D motion capture system with a split-belt instrumented treadmill under 12 different settings of the mechanical properties of the AFO [i...
March 8, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284571/dynamic-mechanical-analysis-to-assess-viscoelasticity-of-liver-tissue-in-a-rat-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
Xinyu Zhang, Xuehua Gao, Pengpeng Zhang, Yanrong Guo, Haoming Lin, Xianfen Diao, Yingxia Liu, Changfeng Dong, Yaxin Hu, Siping Chen, Xin Chen
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder in both developed and developing countries. A noninvasive method of detecting early stage NAFLD and distinguishing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from simple steatosis (SS) would be useful. The over-accumulation of fat in hepatocytes alters the physical microstructure and chemical contents of the liver tissue. This study included dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) testing on liver samples from a rat model of NAFLD to determine whether the tissue shows any significant changes in viscoelasticity due to the histological changes...
March 8, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259614/effect-of-vibration-frequency-on-biopsy-needle-insertion-force
#8
Lei Tan, Xuemei Qin, Qinhe Zhang, Hongcai Zhang, Hongjian Dong, Tuodang Guo, Guowei Liu
Needle insertion is critical in many clinical medicine procedures, such as biopsy, brachytherapy, and injection therapy. A platform with two degrees of freedom was set up to study the effect of vibration frequency on needle insertion force. The gel phantom deformation at the needle cutting edge and the Voigt model are utilized to develop a dynamic model to explain the relationship between the insertion force and needle-tip velocity. The accuracy of this model was verified by performing needle insertions into phantom gel...
March 1, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259613/biplane-fluoroscopy-for-hindfoot-motion-analysis-during-gait-a-model-based-evaluation
#9
Janelle A Cross, Benjamin D McHenry, Robert Molthen, Emily Exten, Taly Gilat Schmidt, Gerald F Harris
The purpose of this study was to quantify the accuracy and precision of a biplane fluoroscopy system for model-based tracking of in vivo hindfoot motion during over-ground gait. Gait was simulated by manually manipulating a cadaver foot specimen through a biplane fluoroscopy system attached to a walkway. Three 1.6-mm diameter steel beads were implanted into the specimen to provide marker-based tracking measurements for comparison to model-based tracking. A CT scan was acquired to define a gold standard of implanted bead positions and to create 3D models for model-based tracking...
March 1, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259612/the-effect-of-boundary-constraints-on-finite-element-modelling-of-the-human-pelvis
#10
Peter J Watson, Ali Dostanpor, Michael J Fagan, Catherine A Dobson
The use of finite element analysis (FEA) to investigate the biomechanics of anatomical systems critically relies on the specification of physiologically representative boundary conditions. The biomechanics of the pelvis has been the specific focus of a number of FEA studies previously, but it is also a key aspect in other investigations of, for example, the hip joint or new design of hip prostheses. In those studies, the pelvis has been modelled in a number of ways with a variety of boundary conditions, ranging from a model of the whole pelvic girdle including soft tissue attachments to a model of an isolated hemi-pelvis...
March 1, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258824/above-knee-prosthesis-design-based-on-fatigue-life-using-finite-element-method-and-design-of-experiment
#11
Suwattanarwong Phanphet, Surangsee Dechjarern, Sermkiat Jomjanyong
The main objective of this work is to improve the standard of the existing design of knee prosthesis developed by Thailand's Prostheses Foundation of Her Royal Highness The Princess Mother. The experimental structural tests, based on the ISO 10328, of the existing design showed that a few components failed due to fatigue under normal cyclic loading below the required number of cycles. The finite element (FE) simulations of structural tests on the knee prosthesis were carried out. Fatigue life predictions of knee component materials were modeled based on the Morrow's approach...
February 28, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256338/the-relationship-between-rms-electromyography-and-thickness-change-in-the-skeletal-muscles
#12
Sharareh Kian-Bostanabad, Mahmood-Reza Azghani
The knowledge of muscle function may affect prescribing medications and physical treatments. Recently, ultrasound and electromyography (EMG) have been used to assess the skeletal muscles activity. The relationship between these methods has been reported in numerous articles qualitatively. In this paper, the relationship between EMG root-mean-square (RMS) and ultrasound data of muscle thickness has been investigated using Response Surface Methodology in the muscles separately and together and predictive models reported...
February 27, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242181/detecting-knee-osteoarthritis-and-its-discriminating-parameters-using-random-forests
#13
Margarita Kotti, Lynsey D Duffell, Aldo A Faisal, Alison H McGregor
This paper tackles the problem of automatic detection of knee osteoarthritis. A computer system is built that takes as input the body kinetics and produces as output not only an estimation of presence of the knee osteoarthritis, as previously done in the literature, but also the most discriminating parameters along with a set of rules on how this decision was reached. This fills the gap of interpretability between the medical and the engineering approaches. We collected locomotion data from 47 subjects with knee osteoarthritis and 47 healthy subjects...
February 24, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242180/development-and-validation-of-an-improved-mechanical-thorax-for-simulating-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-with-adjustable-chest-stiffness-and-simulated-blood-flow
#14
Stefan Eichhorn, Johannes Spindler, Marcin Polski, Alejandro Mendoza, Ulrich Schreiber, Michael Heller, Marcus Andre Deutsch, Christian Braun, Rüdiger Lange, Markus Krane
Investigations of compressive frequency, duty cycle, or waveform during CPR are typically rooted in animal research or computer simulations. Our goal was to generate a mechanical model incorporating alternate stiffness settings and an integrated blood flow system, enabling defined, reproducible comparisons of CPR efficacy. Based on thoracic stiffness data measured in human cadavers, such a model was constructed using valve-controlled pneumatic pistons and an artificial heart. This model offers two realistic levels of chest elasticity, with a blood flow apparatus that reflects compressive depth and waveform changes...
February 24, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237715/consistency-of-cutaneous-electrical-activity-of-the-human-colon-with-respect-to-serosal-slow-waves-a-simulation-study
#15
Nicola Mirizzi, Giuseppe Riezzo
The serosal slow waves in the human colon are complex, since their amplitude and frequency vary over time. Therefore, this study employed a simulation to investigate the consistency between serosal slow waves and cutaneous electrical activity by evaluating whether changes of the cutaneous waveform features due to anatomical and physiological parameters are detectable in the cutaneous electrical activity. The simulation results indicated that (a) changes in the dipole moment involve detectable changes in the amplitude of the cutaneous electrical activity; (b) changes in the annular band velocity induce modifications in the cutaneous signal frequency; and (c) changes in the anatomical factors affect both the amplitude and the frequency of the cutaneous signal...
February 22, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237714/application-of-data-fusion-techniques-and-technologies-for-wearable-health-monitoring
#16
REVIEW
Rachel C King, Emma Villeneuve, Ruth J White, R Simon Sherratt, William Holderbaum, William S Harwin
Technological advances in sensors and communications have enabled discrete integration into everyday objects, both in the home and about the person. Information gathered by monitoring physiological, behavioural, and social aspects of our lives, can be used to achieve a positive impact on quality of life, health, and well-being. Wearable sensors are at the cusp of becoming truly pervasive, and could be woven into the clothes and accessories that we wear such that they become ubiquitous and transparent. To interpret the complex multidimensional information provided by these sensors, data fusion techniques are employed to provide a meaningful representation of the sensor outputs...
February 22, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236603/computational-modelling-of-bone-fracture-healing-under-partial-weight-bearing-exercise
#17
Lihai Zhang, Saeed Miramini, Martin Richardson, Peter Ebeling, David Little, Yi Yang, Zhiyong Huang
A great deal of evidence suggests that partial weight-bearing exercise plays an important role in bone fracture healing. However, current physiotherapy program tends to follow the "Let's try it and see" strategy due to the lack of a fundamental understanding of in vivo mechanical environment required for the better healing outcomes. The purpose of present study is to develop an innovative framework to predict the healing outcomes as a result of post-surgical physical therapy. The raw acceleration data corresponding to a series of walking tests is firstly captured by ActiGraph accelerometers, and then used as input to theoretically estimate the peak ground reaction force (PGRF) and peak loading rate (PLR)...
February 21, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236602/electric-field-estimation-of-deep-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-clinically-used-for-the-treatment-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders-in-anatomical-head-models
#18
Marta Parazzini, Serena Fiocchi, Emma Chiaramello, Yiftach Roth, Abraham Zangen, Paolo Ravazzani
Literature studies showed the ability to treat neuropsychiatric disorders using H1 coil, developed for the deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (dTMS). Despite the positive results of the clinical studies, the electric field (E) distributions inside the brain induced by this coil when it is positioned on the scalp according to the clinical studies themselves are not yet precisely estimated. This study aims to characterize the E distributions due to the H1 coil in the brain of two realistic human models by computational electromagnetic techniques and to compare them with the ones due to the figure-of-8 coil, traditionally used in TMS and positioned as such to simulate the clinical experiments...
February 21, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236601/non-invasive-aortic-systolic-pressure-and-pulse-wave-velocity-estimation-in-a-primary-care-setting-an-in-silico-study
#19
Andrea Guala, Carlo Camporeale, Luca Ridolfi, Luca Mesin
Everyday clinical cardiovascular evaluation is still largely based on brachial systolic and diastolic pressures. However, several clinical studies have demonstrated the higher diagnostic capacities of the aortic pressure, as well as the need to assess the aortic mechanical properties (e.g., by measuring the aortic pulse wave velocity). In order to fill this gap, we propose to exploit a set of easy-to-obtain physical characteristics to estimate the aortic pressure and pulse wave velocity. To this aim, a large population of virtual subjects is created by a validated mathematical model of the cardiovascular system...
February 21, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233732/total-ankle-replacement-design-and-positioning-affect-implant-bone-micromotion-and-bone-strains
#20
Ran S Sopher, Andrew A Amis, James D Calder, Jonathan R T Jeffers
Implant loosening - commonly linked with elevated initial micromotion - is the primary indication for total ankle replacement (TAR) revision. Finite element modelling has not been used to assess micromotion of TAR implants; additionally, the biomechanical consequences of TAR malpositioning - previously linked with higher failure rates - remain unexplored. The aim of this study was to estimate implant-bone micromotion and peri-implant bone strains for optimally positioned and malpositioned TAR prostheses, and thereby identify fixation features and malpositioning scenarios increasing the risk of loosening...
February 20, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
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