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Medical Engineering & Physics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527835/biomechanical-study-on-surgical-fixation-methods-for-minimally-invasive-treatment-of-hallux-valgus
#1
Rui Mao, Junchao Guo, Chenyu Luo, Yubo Fan, Jianmin Wen, Lizhen Wang
Hallux valgus (HV) was one of the most frequent female foot deformities. The aim of this study was to evaluate mechanical responses and stabilities of the Kirschner, bandage and fiberglass fixations after the distal metatarsal osteotomy in HV treatment. Surface traction of different forefoot regions in bandage fixation and the biomechanical behavior of fiberglass bandage material were measured by a pressure sensor device and a mechanical testing, respectively. A three-dimensional foot finite element (FE) model was developed to simulate the three fixation methods (Kirschner, bandage and fiberglass fixations) in weight bearing...
May 17, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512000/computed-tomography-ct-compatible-remote-center-of-motion-needle-steering-robot-fusing-ct-images-and-electromagnetic-sensor-data
#2
Navid Shahriari, Wout Heerink, Tim van Katwijk, Edsko Hekman, Matthijs Oudkerk, Sarthak Misra
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death, and early detection can reduce the mortality rate. Patients with lung nodules greater than 10 mm usually undergo a computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy. However, aligning the needle with the target is difficult and the needle tends to deflect from a straight path. In this work, we present a CT-compatible robotic system, which can both position the needle at the puncture point and also insert and rotate the needle. The robot has a remote-center-of-motion arm which is achieved through a parallel mechanism...
May 13, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499813/red-blood-cell-aggregate-flux-in-a-bifurcating-microchannel
#3
E Kaliviotis, D Pasias, J M Sherwood, S Balabani
Red blood cell aggregation plays a key role in microcirculatory flows, however, little is known about the transport characteristics of red blood cell aggregates in branching geometries. This work reports on the fluxes of red blood cell aggregates of various sizes in a T-shaped microchannel, aiming to clarify the effects of different flow conditions in the outlet branches of the channel. Image analysis techniques, were utilised, and moderately aggregating human red blood cell suspensions were tested in symmetric (∼50-50%) and asymmetric flow splits through the two outlet (daughter) branches...
May 9, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499812/modeling-of-the-interaction-between-grip-force-and-vibration-transmissibility-of-a-finger
#4
John Z Wu, Daniel E Welcome, Thomas W McDowell, Xueyan S Xu, Ren G Dong
It is known that the vibration characteristics of the fingers and hand and the level of grip action interacts when operating a power tool. In the current study, we developed a hybrid finger model to simulate the vibrations of the hand-finger system when gripping a vibrating handle covered with soft materials. The hybrid finger model combines the characteristics of conventional finite element (FE) models, multi-body musculoskeletal models, and lumped mass models. The distal, middle, and proximal finger segments were constructed using FE models, the finger segments were connected via three flexible joint linkages (i...
May 9, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478918/backflow-free-catheters-for-efficient-and-safe-convection-enhanced-delivery-of-therapeutics
#5
Eric Lueshen, Kevin Tangen, Ankit I Mehta, Andreas Linninger
Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is an invasive drug delivery technique used to target specific regions of the brain for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases while bypassing the blood-brain barrier. In order to prevent the possibility of backflow, low volumetric flow rates are applied which limit the achievable drug distribution volumes from CED. This can render CED treatment ineffective since a small convective flow produces narrow drug distribution inside the treatment region. Novel catheter designs and CED protocols are needed to improve the drug distribution inside the treatment region...
May 3, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461200/mathematical-modelling-of-variable-porosity-coatings-for-controlled-drug-release
#6
Sean McGinty, David King, Giuseppe Pontrelli
In this paper we investigate the extent to which variable porosity drug-eluting coatings can provide better control over drug release than coatings where the porosity is constant throughout. In particular, we aim to establish the potential benefits of replacing a single-layer with a two-layer coating of identical total thickness and initial drug mass. In our study, what distinguishes the layers (other than their individual thickness and initial drug loading) is the underlying microstructure, and in particular the effective porosity and the tortuosity of the material...
April 28, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457593/a-review-of-cutting-mechanics-and-modeling-techniques-for-biological-materials
#7
REVIEW
Behrouz Takabi, Bruce L Tai
This paper presents a comprehensive survey on the modeling of tissue cutting, including both soft tissue and bone cutting processes. In order to achieve higher accuracy in tissue cutting, as a critical process in surgical operations, the meticulous modeling of such processes is important in particular for surgical tool development and analysis. This review paper is focused on the mechanical concepts and modeling techniques utilized to simulate tissue cutting such as cutting forces and chip morphology. These models are presented in two major categories, namely soft tissue cutting and bone cutting...
April 27, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462826/notched-k-wire-for-low-thermal-damage-bone-drilling
#8
Yao Liu, Barry Belmont, Yiwen Wang, Bruce Tai, James Holmes, Albert Shih
The Kirschner wire (K-wire) is a common bone drilling tool in orthopedic surgery to affix fractured bone. Significant heat is produced due to both the cutting and the friction between the K-wire and the bone debris during drilling. Such heat can result in high temperatures, leading to osteonecrosis and other secondary injuries. To reduce thermal injury and other high-temperature associated complications, a new K-wire design with three notches along the three-plane trocar tip fabricated using a thin micro-saw tool is studied...
April 24, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462825/characterization-of-human-cancellous-and-subchondral-bone-with-respect-to-electro-physical-properties-and-bone-mineral-density-by-means-of-impedance-spectroscopy
#9
Yvonne Haba, Andreas Wurm, Martin Köckerling, Christoph Schick, Wolfram Mittelmeier, Rainer Bader
Computational simulation of electrical bone stimulation of the electrical and dielectric parameters of osteoarthritic bone tissue is useful for an exact patient-individual adaptation of the bone models. Therefore, we investigated electrical and dielectric parameters at a frequency of 20Hz of cancellous and subchondral human femoral head bone samples. Furthermore, the mechanical properties and the bone mineral density (BMD) were determined. Finally, these data were compared with the electrical and dielectric parameters...
April 24, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462824/simulation-and-performance-analysis-of-a-novel-high-accuracy-sheathless-microfluidic-impedance-cytometer-with-coplanar-electrode-layout
#10
Federica Caselli, Paolo Bisegna
The performance of a novel microfluidic impedance cytometer (MIC) with coplanar configuration is investigated in silico. The main feature of the device is the ability to provide accurate particle-sizing despite the well-known measurement sensitivity to particle trajectory. The working principle of the device is presented and validated by means of an original virtual laboratory providing close-to-experimental synthetic data streams. It is shown that a metric correlating with particle trajectory can be extracted from the signal traces and used to compensate the trajectory-induced error in the estimated particle size, thus reaching high-accuracy...
April 24, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431822/detecting-bursts-in-the-eeg-of-very-and-extremely-premature-infants-using-a-multi-feature-approach
#11
John M O'Toole, Geraldine B Boylan, Rhodri O Lloyd, Robert M Goulding, Sampsa Vanhatalo, Nathan J Stevenson
AIM: To develop a method that segments preterm EEG into bursts and inter-bursts by extracting and combining multiple EEG features. METHODS: Two EEG experts annotated bursts in individual EEG channels for 36 preterm infants with gestational age < 30 weeks. The feature set included spectral, amplitude, and frequency-weighted energy features. Using a consensus annotation, feature selection removed redundant features and a support vector machine combined features...
April 18, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416198/engineering-human-renal-epithelial-cells-for-transplantation-in-regenerative-medicine
#12
Vita Manzoli, David C Colter, Sridevi Dhanaraj, Alessia Fornoni, Camillo Ricordi, Antonello Pileggi, Alice A Tomei
Cellular transplantation may treat several human diseases by replacing damaged cells and/or providing a local source of trophic factors promoting regeneration. We utilized human renal epithelial cells (hRECs) isolated from cadaveric donors as a cell model. For efficacious implementation of hRECs for treatment of kidney diseases, we evaluated a novel encapsulation strategy for immunoisolation of hRECs and lentiviral transduction of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as model gene for genetic engineering of hRECs to secrete desired trophic factors...
April 13, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408158/validity-of-the-activpal3-activity-monitor-in-people-moderately-affected-by-multiple-sclerosis
#13
E H Coulter, L Miller, S McCorkell, C McGuire, K Algie, J Freeman, B Weller, P G Mattison, A McConnachie, O Wu, L Paul
Walking is the primary form of physical activity performed by people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), therefore it is important to ensure the validity of tools employed to measure walking activity. The aim of this study was to assess the criterion validity of the activPAL3 activity monitor during overground walking in people with MS. Validity of the activPAL3 accelerometer was compared to video observation in 20 people moderately affected by MS. Participants walked 20-30m twice along a straight quiet corridor at a comfortable speed...
April 10, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408157/microsoft-kinect-can-distinguish-differences-in-over-ground-gait-between-older-persons-with-and-without-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Moataz Eltoukhy, Christopher Kuenze, Jeonghoon Oh, Marco Jacopetti, Savannah Wooten, Joseph Signorile
Gait patterns differ between healthy elders and those with Parkinson's disease (PD). A simple, low-cost clinical tool that can evaluate kinematic differences between these populations would be invaluable diagnostically; since gait analysis in a clinical setting is impractical due to cost and technical expertise. This study investigated the between group differences between the Kinect and a 3D movement analysis system (BTS) and reported validity and reliability of the Kinect v2 sensor for gait analysis. Nineteen subjects participated, eleven without (C) and eight with PD (PD)...
April 10, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373015/penetration-of-inhaled-aerosols-in-the-bronchial-tree
#15
Antonio F Miguel
It has long been recognized that the pattern of particle deposition in the respiratory tree affects how far aerosols penetrate into the deeper zones of the arterial tree, and hence contribute to either their pathogenic potential or therapeutic benefit. In this paper, we introduce an anatomically-inspired model of the human respiratory tree featuring the generations 0-7 in the Weibel model of respiratory tree (i.e., the conducting zone). This model is used to study experimentally the dynamics of inhaled aerosol particles (0...
March 31, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373014/the-combyn%C3%A2-ecg-adding-haemodynamic-and-fluid-leads-for-the-ecg-part-ii-prediction-of-total-body-water-tbw-extracellular-fluid-ecf-ecf-overload-fat-mass-fm-and-dry-appendicular-muscle-mass-appmm
#16
Falko Skrabal, Georg P Pichler, Mathias Penatzer, Johannes Steinbichl, Anna-Katharina Hanserl, Alfred Leis, Herbert Loibner
Simultaneous with a 12 channel ECG, body composition was analysed by segmental multi-frequency impedance analysis in 101 healthy subjects and in 118 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF, n= 40), chronic renal failure with haemodialysis (HD, n= 20), and miscellaneous internal diseases (n= 58). Whole body DXA and sodium bromide dilution were used as reference methods for total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid (ECF), appendicular muscle mass (AppMM) and fat mass (FM). Empirical prediction equations were developed in a randomized evaluation sample and then evaluated in unknowns...
March 31, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373013/effects-of-socket-size-on-metrics-of-socket-fit-in-trans-tibial-prosthesis-users
#17
Joan E Sanders, Robert T Youngblood, Brian J Hafner, John C Cagle, Jake B McLean, Christian B Redd, Colin R Dietrich, Marcia A Ciol, Katheryn J Allyn
The purpose of this research was to conduct a preliminary effort to identify quantitative metrics to distinguish a good socket from an oversized socket in people with trans-tibial amputation. Results could be used to inform clinical practices related to socket replacement. A cross-over study was conducted on community ambulators (K-level 3 or 4) with good residual limb sensation. Participants were each provided with two sockets, a duplicate of their as-prescribed socket and a modified socket that was enlarged or reduced by 1...
March 31, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373012/prediction-of-damage-formation-in-hip-arthroplasties-by-finite-element-analysis-using-computed-tomography-images
#18
Abdul Halim Abdullah, Mitsugu Todo, Yasuharu Nakashima
Femoral bone fracture is one of the main causes for the failure of hip arthroplasties (HA). Being subjected to abrupt and high impact forces in daily activities may lead to complex loading configuration such as bending and sideway falls. The objective of this study is to predict the risk of femoral bone fractures in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and resurfacing hip arthroplasty (RHA). A computed tomography (CT) based on finite element analysis was conducted to demonstrate damage formation in a three dimensional model of HAs...
March 31, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363767/time-scaling-based-sliding-mode-control-for-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-under-uncertain-relative-degrees
#19
Tiago Roux Oliveira, Luiz Rennó Costa, João Marcos Yamasaki Catunda, Alexandre Visintainer Pino, William Barbosa, Márcio Nogueira de Souza
This paper addresses the application of the sliding mode approach to control the arm movements by artificial recruitment of muscles using Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES). Such a technique allows the activation of motor nerves using surface electrodes. The goal of the proposed control system is to move the upper limbs of subjects through electrical stimulation to achieve a desired elbow angular displacement. Since the human neuro-motor system has individual characteristics, being time-varying, nonlinear and subject to uncertainties, the use of advanced robust control schemes may represent a better solution than classical Proportional-Integral (PI) controllers and model-based approaches, being simpler than more sophisticated strategies using fuzzy logic or neural networks usually applied in this control problem...
March 28, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341568/a-mathematical-method-for-precisely-calculating-the-radiographic-angles-of-the-cup-after-total-hip-arthroplasty
#20
LETTER
Brian Derbyshire
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
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