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Journal of Biomedical Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335781/tailored-design-of-nkt-stimulatory-glycolipids-for-polarization-of-immune-responses
#1
REVIEW
Jung-Tung Hung, Jing-Rong Huang, Alice L Yu
Natural killer T (NKT) cell is a distinct population of T lymphocytes that can rapidly release massive amount of Th1 and Th2 cytokines upon the engagement of their T cell receptor with glycolipids presented by CD1d. The secreted cytokines can promote cell-mediated immunity to kill tumor cells and intracellular pathogens, or suppress autoreactive immune cells in autoimmune diseases. Thus, NKT cell is an attractive target for developing new therapeutics to manipulate immune system. The best-known glycolipid to activate NKT cells is α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), which has been used as a prototype for designing new NKT stimulatory glycolipids...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320393/evaluation-of-the-use-of-therapeutic-peptides-for-cancer-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Susan Marqus, Elena Pirogova, Terrence J Piva
Cancer along with cardiovascular disease are the main causes of death in the industrialised countries around the World. Conventional cancer treatments are losing their therapeutic uses due to drug resistance, lack of tumour selectivity and solubility and as such there is a need to develop new therapeutic agents. Therapeutic peptides are a promising and a novel approach to treat many diseases including cancer. They have several advantages over proteins or antibodies: as they are (a) easy to synthesise, (b) have a high target specificity and selectivity and (c) have low toxicity...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270145/selective-activation-of-mirnas-of-the-primate-specific-chromosome-19-mirna-cluster-c19mc-in-cancer-and-stem-cells-and-possible-contribution-to-regulation-of-apoptosis
#3
Phan Nguyen Nhi Nguyen, Chiu-Jung Huang, Shigeki Sugii, Soon Keng Cheong, Kong Bung Choo
BACKGROUND: The human chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC) of 43 genes is a primate-specific miRNA cluster that may have biological significance in the genetic complexity of the primate. Despite previous reports on individual C19MC miRNA expression in cancer and stem cells, systematic studies on C19MC miRNA expression and biological functions are lacking. RESULTS: Cluster-wide C19MC miRNA expression profiling by microarray analysis showed wholesome C19MC activation in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253921/aldh2-polymorphism-and-alcohol-related-cancers-in-asians-a-public-health-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Jeffrey S Chang, Jenn-Ren Hsiao, Che-Hong Chen
The occurrence of more than 200 diseases, including cancer, can be attributed to alcohol drinking. The global cancer deaths attributed to alcohol-consumption rose from 243,000 in 1990 to 337,400 in 2010. In 2010, cancer deaths due to alcohol consumption accounted for 4.2% of all cancer deaths. Strong epidemiological evidence has established the causal role of alcohol in the development of various cancers, including esophageal cancer, head and neck cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer. The evidence for the association between alcohol and other cancers is inconclusive...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245819/effects-of-sarcosine-and-n-n-dimethylglycine-on-nmda-receptor-mediated-excitatory-field-potentials
#5
Mei-Yi Lee, Yi-Ruu Lin, Yi-Shu Tu, Yufeng Jane Tseng, Ming-Huan Chan, Hwei-Hsien Chen
BACKGROUND: Sarcosine, a glycine transporter type 1 inhibitor and an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor co-agonist at the glycine binding site, potentiates NMDA receptor function. Structurally similar to sarcosine, N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) is also N-methyl glycine-derivative amino acid and commonly used as a dietary supplement. The present study compared the effects of sarcosine and DMG on NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory field potentials (EFPs) in mouse medial prefrontal cortex brain slices using a multi-electrode array system...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245815/fast-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-imaging-techniques-in-human-brain-applications-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Oun Al-Iedani, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Karen Ribbons, Saadallah Ramadan
Multi voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is an important imaging tool that combines imaging and spectroscopic techniques. MRSI of the human brain has been beneficially applied to different clinical applications in neurology, particularly in neurooncology but also in multiple sclerosis, stroke and epilepsy. However, a major challenge in conventional MRSI is the longer acquisition time required for adequate signal to be collected. Fast MRSI of the brain in vivo is an alternative approach to reduce scanning time and make MRSI more clinically suitable...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241824/treatment-of-chronic-non-healing-ulcers-using-autologous-platelet-rich-plasma-a-case-series
#7
Manish Suthar, Saniya Gupta, Suhail Bukhari, Venkatesh Ponemone
BACKGROUND: Non-healing ulcers are a major health problem worldwide and have great impact at personal, professional and social levels, with high cost in terms of human and material resources. Recalcitrant non-healing ulcers are inevitable and detrimental to the lower limb and are a major cause of non-traumatic lower limb amputations. Application of autologous Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) has been a major breakthrough for the treatment of non-healing and diabetic foot ulcers, as it is an easy and cost-effective method, and provides the necessary growth factors that enhance tissue healing...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219375/state-of-the-art-in-anti-cancer-mabs
#8
REVIEW
S M Chiavenna, J P Jaworski, A Vendrell
Following Milstein's discovery, the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) became a basic tool for biomedical science. In cancer field, since the first mAb was approved by the FDA a great improvement took place making of them a therapeutic option for many cancer types in the current clinical practice. Today, mAbs are being developed to target different molecules with different mechanisms of action and its target potential is unlimited. However, this huge and fast growing new field needs to be organized to better understand the treatment options we have to confront different cancer diseases...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178969/neuroblastoma-treatment-in-the-post-genomic-era
#9
REVIEW
Maria Rosaria Esposito, Sanja Aveic, Anke Seydel, Gian Paolo Tonini
Neuroblastoma is an embryonic malignancy of early childhood originating from neural crest cells and showing heterogeneous biological, morphological, genetic and clinical characteristics. The correct stratification of neuroblastoma patients within risk groups (low, intermediate, high and ultra-high) is critical for the adequate treatment of the patients.High-throughput technologies in the Omics disciplines are leading to significant insights into the molecular pathogenesis of neuroblastoma. Nonetheless, further study of Omics data is necessary to better characterise neuroblastoma tumour biology...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173864/macrophage-activation-and-polarization-in-post-infarction-cardiac-remodeling
#10
REVIEW
Aleksandra Gombozhapova, Yuliya Rogovskaya, Vladimir Shurupov, Mariya Rebenkova, Julia Kzhyshkowska, Sergey V Popov, Rostislav S Karpov, Vyacheslav Ryabov
Adverse cardiac remodeling leads to impaired ventricular function and heart failure, remaining a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with acute myocardial infarction. It have been shown that, even if all the recommended therapies for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction are performed, one third of patients undergoes progressive cardiac remodeling that represents morphological basis for following heart failure. The need to extend our knowledge about factors leading to different clinical scenarios of myocardial infarction and following complications has resulted in a research of immuno-inflammatory pathways and molecular activities as the basis for post-infarction remodeling...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173811/marrow-adipocytes-inhibit-the-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-osteoblasts-via-suppressing-bmp-signaling
#11
Basem M Abdallah
BACKGROUND: Reduced bone formation is associated with increased bone marrow fat in many bone-loss related diseases including aging, post-menopause, and anorexia nervosa. Several lines of evidence suggested the regulation of osteogenesis and adipogenesis of the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal (skeletal) stem cells (BMSCs) by paracrine mediators. This study aimed to investigate the impact of adipocytes-secreted factors on the cell proliferation and osteoblast differentiation of BMSCs. METHODS: Serum free conditioned medium (CM-Adipo) was collected from stromal ST2 cells-derived adipocytes...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173800/oxidized-ldl-induced-jab1-influences-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-independent-inflammatory-signaling-in-human-macrophages-during-foam-cell-formation
#12
Anja Schwarz, Gabriel A Bonaterra, Hans Schwarzbach, Ralf Kinscherf
BACKGROUND: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) mediates the transformation of macrophages (MΦ) to cholesterol-rich foam cells and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines during atherogenesis. JAB1 (Jun activation domain binding protein-1) is present in all stages of human plaques, involved in the Toll-like receptor-mediated activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and controls nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Thus, we were interested in the role of JAB1 during foam cell formation of MΦ after oxLDL exposition...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143527/escape-from-ifn-%C3%AE-dependent-immunosurveillance-in-tumorigenesis
#13
REVIEW
Chiou-Feng Lin, Chih-Ming Lin, Kang-Yun Lee, Szu-Yuan Wu, Po-Hao Feng, Kuan-Yuan Chen, Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Chia-Ling Chen, Yu-Chih Wang, Po-Chun Tseng, Tsung-Ting Tsai
Immune interferon (IFN), also known as IFN-γ, promotes not only immunomodulation but also antimicrobial and anticancer activity. After IFN-γ binds to the complex of IFN-γ receptor (IFNGR) 1-IFNGR2 and subsequently activates its downstream signaling pathways, IFN-γ immediately causes transcriptional stimulation of a variety of genes that are principally involved in its biological activities. Regarding IFN-γ-dependent immunosurveillance, IFN-γ can directly suppress tumorigenesis and infection and/or can modulate the immunological status in both cancer cells and infected cells...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143470/current-use-of-autologous-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-vascular-fraction-cells-for-orthopedic-applications
#14
REVIEW
Jaewoo Pak, Jung Hun Lee, Kwang Seung Park, Moonhee Park, Lin-Woo Kang, Sang Hee Lee
Autologous adipose stromal vascular fractions (SVFs) containing adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are currently being used in clinical settings for various orthopedic applications for human patients. Due to its potential capability of regenerating cartilage, bone, and tendons, autologous adipose SVFs are being tried in treating patients with osteoarthritis (OA), chondromalacia, meniscus tear, osteonecrosis of the femoral head, and tendon injuries. Here, we have reviewed available human clinical studies with regard to patient applications of autologous adipose SVF containing ASCs, specifically assessing effectiveness and safety in the field of orthopedic disorders...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095830/kv7-voltage-activated-potassium-channel-inhibitors-reduce-fluid-resuscitation-requirements-after-hemorrhagic-shock-in-rats
#15
Sean P Nassoiy, Kenneth L Byron, Matthias Majetschak
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that drugs targeting Kv7 channels could be used to modulate vascular function and blood pressure. Here, we studied whether Kv7 channel inhibitors can be utilized to stabilize hemodynamics and reduce resuscitation fluid requirements after hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with arterial and venous catheters for blood pressure monitoring, hemorrhage and fluid resuscitation. Series 1: Linopirdine (Kv7 channel blocker, 0...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086885/harnessing-the-early-post-injury-inflammatory-responses-for-cardiac-regeneration
#16
REVIEW
Bill Cheng, H C Chen, I W Chou, Tony W H Tang, Patrick C H Hsieh
Cardiac inflammation is considered by many as the main driving force in prolonging the pathological condition in the heart after myocardial infarction. Immediately after cardiac ischemic injury, neutrophils are the first innate immune cells recruited to the ischemic myocardium within the first 24 h. Once they have infiltrated the injured myocardium, neutrophils would then secret proteases that promote cardiac remodeling and chemokines that enhance the recruitment of monocytes from the spleen, in which the recruitment peaks at 72 h after myocardial infarction...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077137/aberrant-methylation-of-dact1-and-dact2-are-associated-with-tumor-progression-and-poor-prognosis-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
Yan-Li Guo, Bao-En Shan, Wei Guo, Zhi-Ming Dong, Zhen Zhou, Su-Peng Shen, Xin Guo, Jia Liang, Gang Kuang
BACKGROUND: The DACT (Dishevelled-associated antagonist of β-catenin) family of scaffold proteins may play important roles in tumorigenesis. However, the epigenetic changes of DACT1, 2, 3 and their effect on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have not been investigated so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the promoter methylation and expression of DACT family, in order to elucidate more information on the role of DACT with regard to the progression and prognosis of ESCC...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069019/ppars-modulate-cardiac-metabolism-and-mitochondrial-function-in-diabetes
#18
REVIEW
Ting-Wei Lee, Kuan-Jen Bai, Ting-I Lee, Tze-Fan Chao, Yu-Hsun Kao, Yi-Jen Chen
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a major complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Currently, effective treatments for diabetic cardiomyopathy are limited. The pathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy is complex, whereas mitochondrial dysfunction plays a vital role in the genesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Metabolic regulation targeting mitochondrial dysfunction is expected to be a reasonable strategy for treating diabetic cardiomyopathy. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are master executors in regulating glucose and lipid homeostasis and also modulate mitochondrial function...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061846/map4k4-and-il-6-th17-cells-play-important-roles-in-non-obese-type-2-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Huai-Chia Chuang, Tse-Hua Tan
Obesity is a causal factor of type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, people without obesity (including lean, normal weight, or overweight) may still develop T2D. Non-obese T2D is prevalent in Asia and also frequently occurs in Europe. Recently, multiple evidences oppose the notion that either obesity or central obesity (visceral fat accumulation) promotes non-obese T2D. Several factors such as inflammation and environmental factors contribute to non-obese T2D. According to the data derived from gene knockout mice and T2D clinical samples in Asia and Europe, the pathogenesis of non-obese T2D has been unveiled recently...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056995/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-activation-and-coevolution-of-its-%C3%AE%C2%B5pkc-mediated-phosphorylation-sites
#20
Aishwarya Nene, Che-Hong Chen, Marie-Hélène Disatnik, Leslie Cruz, Daria Mochly-Rosen
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a key enzyme for the metabolism of many toxic aldehydes such as acetaldehyde, derived from alcohol drinking, and 4HNE, an oxidative stress-derived lipid peroxidation aldehyde. Post-translational enhancement of ALDH2 activity can be achieved by serine/threonine phosphorylation by epsilon protein kinase C (εPKC). Elevated ALDH2 is beneficial in reducing injury following myocardial infarction, stroke and other oxidative stress and aldehyde toxicity-related diseases...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
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