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Journal of Biomedical Science

Nicholas E Burgis
Human ITPase (encoded by the ITPA gene) is a protective enzyme which acts to exclude noncanonical (deoxy)nucleoside triphosphates ((d)NTPs) such as (deoxy)inosine 5'-triphosphate ((d)ITP), from (d)NTP pools. Until the last few years, the importance of ITPase in human health and disease has been enigmatic. In 2009, an article was published demonstrating that ITPase deficiency in mice is lethal. All homozygous null offspring died before weaning as a result of cardiomyopathy due to a defect in the maintenance of quality ATP pools...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Cheng-Fu Chang, Yi-Chao Lee, Kuen-Haur Lee, Hui-Ching Lin, Chia-Ling Chen, Che-Kun James Shen, Chi-Chen Huang
BACKGROUND: In the central nervous system regions of the sporadic and familial FTLD and ALS patients, TDP-43 has been identified as the major component of UBIs inclusions which is abnormally hyperphosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and cleaved into C-terminal fragments to form detergent-insoluble aggregates. So far, the effective drugs for FTLD and ALS neurodegenerative diseases are yet to be developed. Autophagy has been demonstrated as the major metabolism route of the pathological TDP-43 inclusions, hence activation of autophagy is a potential therapeutic strategy for TDP-43 pathogenesis in FTLD and ALS...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Yi-An Zhang, Hai-Ning Liu, Ji-Min Zhu, Dan-Ying Zhang, Xi-Zhong Shen, Tao-Tao Liu
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of Nova1's role in hepatocellular carcinoma has not been delineated. Also its interaction with GABAA receptor γ2 in HCC is unveiled. This study is aimed to make it clear the distribution, prognostic value of GABAARγ2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma. And its role in HCC tumorigenesis under the regulation of its alternative splicing factor Nova1. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry staining was used to investigate the distribution and clinical significance of GABAARγ2 protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Hong-Tai Tzeng, Yi-Ching Wang
A large group of small Rab GTPases which mediate secretory and endosomal membrane transport, as well as autophagosome biogenesis, are essential components of vesicle trafficking machinery. Specific Rab protein together with the cognate effectors coordinates the dynamics of trafficking pathway and determines the cargo proteins destination. Functional impairments of Rab proteins by mutations or post-translational modifications disrupting the regulatory network of vesicle trafficking have been implicated in tumorigenesis...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Yi-Jen Liao, Tzong-Shyuan Lee, Yuh-Ching Twu, Shih-Ming Hsu, Ching-Ping Yang, Chung-Kwe Wang, Yu-Chih Liang, Yi-Ming Arthur Chen
BACKGROUND: Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is abundantly expressed in the normal liver but is down-regulated in liver cancer tissues. GNMT knockout (Gnmt-/-) mice can spontaneously develop chronic hepatitis, fatty liver, and liver cancer. We previously demonstrated that hepatic GNMT is decreased in high-fat-diet-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus, but its contribution to metabolic syndrome is unclear. Here we show that GNMT modulates key aspects of metabolic syndrome in mice. METHODS: Eleven-week-old Gnmt-/- and wild-type (WT) mice with a C57BL/6 genetic background were used in this study...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Semjon Seemann, Amelie Lupp
BACKGROUND: Chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a multifunctional G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by its natural ligand, C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12). As a likely member of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-sensing complex, CXCR4 is involved in pro-inflammatory cytokine production and exhibits substantial chemo-attractive activity for various inflammatory cells. Here, we aimed to characterize the effects of CXCR4 blockade in systemic inflammation and to evaluate its impact on organ function...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Babak Bakhshinejad, Behzad Baradaran, Morteza Motallebnezhad, Ali Aghebati-Maleki, Hamid Nickho, Mehdi Yousefi, Jafar Majidi
Bacteriophages are specific antagonists to bacterial hosts. These viral entities have attracted growing interest as optimal vaccine delivery vehicles. Phages are well-matched for vaccine design due to being highly stable under harsh environmental conditions, simple and inexpensive large scale production, and potent adjuvant capacities. Phage vaccines have efficient immunostimulatory effects and present a high safety profile because these viruses have made a constant relationship with the mammalian body during a long-standing evolutionary period...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Sheng-Tang Wu, Wei-Chi Ku, Chi-Jung Huang, Yen-Chieh Wang, Chih-Ming Lin, Shao-Kuan Chen
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an adult malignancy with 2:1 men-to-women ratio, which implies the possible role of sex hormones in RCC carcinogenesis. One of the predominant sex hormones in women before menopause, 17-β-estradiol (or E2), may regulate RCC growth by cellular mechanisms that are still not fully understood. METHODS: The expression levels of E2 receptors (ER1 and ER2) were determined in different RCC cell lines. The DNA damage response induced by E2 was determined by a DNA double-strand break marker γH2AX...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Ching-Yi Tsai, Faith C H Li, Carol H Y Wu, Alice Y W Chang, Samuel H H Chan
BACKGROUND: Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a group of proteins that participates in post-translational modifications. One known SUMO target is the transcription factor nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) that plays a pivotal role in many disease processes; sumoylation inactivates NF-kB by conjugation with inhibitors of NF-kB (IkB). Our laboratory demonstrated previously that transcriptional upregulation of nitric oxide synthase II (NOS II) by NF-kB, leading to nitrosative stress by the formation of peroxynitrite in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), underpins the defunct brain stem cardiovascular regulation that precedes brain death...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Ko-Jiunn Liu, Tsu-Yi Chao, Jang-Yang Chang, Ann-Lii Cheng, Hui-Ju Ch'ang, Woei-Yau Kao, Yu-Chen Wu, Wei-Lan Yu, Tsai-Rong Chung, Jacqueline Whang-Peng
BACKGROUND: To better evaluate and improve the efficacy of dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer immunotherapy, we conducted a clinical study of patients with advanced colorectal cancer using carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-pulsed DCs mixed with tetanus toxoid and subsequent interleukin-2 treatment. The tetanus toxoid in the vaccine preparation serves as an adjuvant and provides a non-tumor specific immune response to enhance vaccine efficacy. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the toxicity of this treatment, (2) observe the clinical responses of vaccinated patients, and (3) investigate the immune responses of patients against CEA before and after treatment...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Wei Jiang, Hua Wang, Yu-Sheng Li, Wei Luo
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) plays important roles in many biological functions, such as, stimulation of contractility in the heart, vasodilation, promoting neuroendocrine-immune communication, lowering arterial blood pressure, and anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory activity. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic and degenerative bone disease, which is one of the most common causes of disability and most common in both sexes as people become older. Interestingly VIP can prevent chronic cartilage damage and joint remodeling...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Celia María Quiñonez-Flores, Susana Aideé González-Chávez, César Pacheco-Tena
Alterations in tissue oxygen pressure contribute to a number of diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Low partial pressure of oxygen, a condition known as hypoxia, is a relevant feature in RA since it is involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, apoptosis, cartilage degradation, energy metabolism, and oxidative damage. Therefore, alterations in hypoxia-related signaling pathways are considered potential mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. The objective of this review is to highlight and update our current knowledge of the role of hypoxia in the pathogenesis of RA...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Moinul Haque, Joseph Keith Kendal, Ryan Matthew MacIsaac, Douglas James Demetrick
The wsb1 gene has been identified to be important in developmental biology and cancer. A complex transcriptional regulation of wsb1 yields at least three functional transcripts. The major expressed isoform, WSB1 protein, is a substrate recognition protein within an E3 ubiquitin ligase, with the capability to bind diverse targets and mediate ubiquitinylation and proteolytic degradation. Recent data suggests a new role for WSB1 as a component of a neuroprotective pathway which results in modification and aggregation of neurotoxic proteins such as LRRK2 in Parkinson's Disease, via an unusual mode of protein ubiquitinylation...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Sheng-Tang Wu, Guang-Huan Sun, Tai-Lung Cha, Chien-Chang Kao, Sun-Yran Chang, Sheng-Chu Kuo, Tzong-Der Way
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks specific therapeutic target and limits to chemotherapy and is essential to develop novel therapeutic regimens. Increasing studies indicated that tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), has anti-tumor therapeutic effect in estrogen receptor α (ERα)-negative tumor. Here, we determined whether autophagy was activated by tamoxifen in TNBC cells. Moreover, CSC-3436 displayed strong and selective growth inhibition on cancer cells...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Lawrence Yu-Min Liu, Min-Hsuan Lin, Zih-Yin Lai, Jie-Peng Jiang, Yi-Ching Huang, Li-En Jao, Yung-Jen Chuang
BACKGROUND: Development of neural and vascular systems displays astonishing similarities among vertebrates. This parallelism is under a precise control of complex guidance signals and neurovascular interactions. Previously, our group identified a highly conserved neural protein called thrombospondin type I domain containing 7A (THSD7A). Soluble THSD7A promoted and guided endothelial cell migration, tube formation and sprouting. In addition, we showed that thsd7a could be detected in the nervous system and was required for intersegmental vessels (ISV) patterning during zebrafish development...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
I-Ying Kuo, Jayu Jen, Lien-Huei Hsu, Han-Shui Hsu, Wu-Wei Lai, Yi-Ching Wang
BACKGROUND: The incidence of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is increasing worldwide with different prognosis even in early-stage patients. We aimed to identify a prognostic panel with multiple DNA methylation biomarkers to predict survival in early-stage LUAD patients of different racial groups. METHODS: The methylation array, pyrosequencing methylation assay, Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were conducted to build the risk score equations of selected probes in a training cohort of 69 Asian LUAD patients...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Xiaopeng Liu, Yue Tang, Yongchun Cui, Hong Zhang, Dong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Autophagy participates in plaque formation and progression; however, its association with foam cells' fate is unknown. To investigate autophagy features and its effect on the fate of different-stage macrophage foam cells (FCs). Different-stage FCs were obtained through incubation of THP-1 macrophages (THP-M) with oxidized low-density lipoprotein LDL (oxLDL, 80 μg/mL) for various durations (0-72 h). Autophagy in THP-1 macrophage FCs and in apoE-/- mice was regulated by Rapamycin (80 ug/mL) or 3-MA (10 mM)...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Yue Fan, Kumi Futawaka, Rie Koyama, Yuki Fukuda, Misa Hayashi, Miyuki Imamoto, Takashi Miyawaki, Masato Kasahara, Tetsuya Tagami, Kenji Moriyama
BACKGROUND: The impact of vitamin D3 (VD3) on obesity has been reported in the past. Our study was aimed at investigating the possible mechanisms by which VD3 affects obesity induced by a high fat diet. METHODS: Eight-week-old C57BL/6 J male mice were fed a normal- or high-fat diet for 9 weeks and were treated with a gavage of vehicle (corn oil) or cholecalciferol (50 μg/kg, daily). Body weight, white adipose tissue weight, blood lipid and glucose levels were measured...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Ying An, Tianyan Liu, Jinjiao He, Hongsong Wu, Rui Chen, Yunye Liu, Yunzhou Wu, Yin Bai, Xiaochen Guo, Qi Zheng, Chang Liu, Jiechao Yin, Deshan Li, Guiping Ren
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated that the NDV-mediated gene therapy is a promising new approach for treatment of cancers. P53 plays a vital role in tumor suppression and surveillance. Therefore, we hypothesize that a recombinant NDV expressing P53 would be an ideal agent for the hepatoma therapy. RESULTS: In the essay, the human P53 gene was incorporated into the genome of a lentogenic strain (named rNDV-P53), which did not affect viral replication kinetics and magnitude in HepG2 cells...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Elio Pizzo, Antimo Di Maro
Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are enzymes ( that possess N-glycosilase activity that irreversibly inhibits protein synthesis. RIPs have been found in plants, fungi, algae, and bacteria; their biological role is still under investigation, even if it has been recognized their role in plant defence against predators and viruses. Nevertheless, several studies on these toxins have been performed to evaluate their applicability in the biomedical field making RIPs selectively toxic towards target cells...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
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