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Journal of Biomedical Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776409/calcitriol-downregulates-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-1-through-histone-deacetylase-activation-in-hl-1-atrial-myocytes
#1
Ting-Wei Lee, Ting-I Lee, Yung-Kuo Lin, Yu-Hsun Kao, Yi-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). FGF-2 was reported to induce cardiac hypertrophy through activation of FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1). Multiple laboratory findings indicate that calcitriol may be a potential treatment for CVDs. In this study, we attempted to investigate whether calcitriol regulates FGFR1 expression to modulate the effects of FGF-2 signaling in cardiac myocytes and explored the potential regulatory mechanism...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759072/chat-gene-polymorphism-rs3810950-is-associated-with-the-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-czech-population
#2
Alice Hálová, Jana Janoutová, Laura Ewerlingová, Vladimír Janout, Ondřej Bonczek, Tomáš Zeman, Tereza Gerguri, Vladimir J Balcar, Omar Šerý
BACKGROUND: Cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is based on the findings that a reduced and/or perturbed cholinergic activity in the central nervous system correlates with cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The hypothesis resulted in the development of centrally-acting agents potentiating cholinergic neurotransmission; these drugs, however, only slowed down the cognitive decline and could not prevent it. Consequently, the perturbation of the central cholinergic signalling has been accepted as a part of the Alzheimer's aetiology but not necessarily the primary cause of the disease...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720183/disrupted-sphingolipid-metabolism-following-acute-clozapine-and-olanzapine-administration
#3
Katrina Weston-Green, Ilijana Babic, Michael de Santis, Bo Pan, Magdalene K Montgomery, Todd Mitchell, Xu-Feng Huang, Jessica Nealon
BACKGROUND: Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) induce glucometabolic side-effects, such as hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, which pose a therapeutic challenge for mental illness. Sphingolipids play a role in glycaemic balance and insulin resistance. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to impaired insulin signalling and whole-body glucose intolerance. Diabetogenic SGA effects on ER stress and sphingolipids, such as ceramide and sphingomyelin, in peripheral metabolic tissues are unknown...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695258/cells-responsible-for-liver-mass-regeneration-in-rats-with-2-acetylaminofluorene-partial-hepatectomy-injury
#4
Chin-Sung Chien, Ya-Hui Chen, Hui-Ling Chen, Chiu-Ping Wang, Shang-Hsin Wu, Shu-Li Ho, Wen-Cheng Huang, Chun-Hsien Yu, Mei-Hwei Chang
BACKGROUND: Whether hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs)/oval cells regenerate liver mass upon chronic liver injury is controversial in mice and has not been conclusively proven in humans and rats. In this study, we examined which cell type-hepatocytes or oval cells-mediates liver regeneration in the classic rat 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF)/partial hepatectomy (PH) injury where AAF reversibly blocks hepatocyte proliferation, thereby inducing oval cell expansion after the regenerative stimulus of PH...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690863/il-20-bone-diseases-involvement-and-therapeutic-target-potential
#5
REVIEW
Hsiao-Hsuan Wang, Yu-Hsiang Hsu, Ming-Shi Chang
BACKGROUND: Millions of people around the world suffer from bone disorders, likes osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and cancer-induced osteolysis. In general, the bone remodeling balance is determined by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively responsible for bone resorption and bone formation. Excessive inflammation disturbs the activities of these two kinds of cells, typically resulting in the bone loss. MAIN BODY: IL-20 is emerging as a potent angiogenic, chemotactic, and proinflammatory cytokine related to several chronic inflammatory disorders likes psoriasis, atherosclerosis, cancer, liver fibrosis, and RA...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685144/emerging-roles-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-hematological-malignancies
#6
REVIEW
San-Chi Chen, Tsai-Tsen Liao, Muh-Hwa Yang
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is an important process in embryonic development, fibrosis, and cancer metastasis. During the progression of epithelial cancer, activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition is tightly associated with metastasis, stemness and drug resistance. However, the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in non-epithelial cancer is relatively unclear. MAIN BODY: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factors are critical in both myeloid and lymphoid development...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681242/germ-cell-depletion-from-mammalian-ovary-possible-involvement-of-apoptosis-and-autophagy
#7
REVIEW
Pramod K Yadav, Meenakshi Tiwari, Anumegha Gupta, Alka Sharma, Shilpa Prasad, Ashutosh N Pandey, Shail K Chaube
Mammalian ovary contains millions of germ cells during embryonic life but only few of them are culminated into oocytes that achieve meiotic competency just prior to ovulation. The majority of germ cells are depleted from ovary through several pathways. Follicular atresia is one of the major events that eliminate germ cells from ovary by engaging apoptotic as well as non-apoptotic pathways of programmed cell death. Apoptosis is characterized by several morphological changes that include cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, membrane blebbing and cytoplasmic fragmentation by both mitochondria- as well as death receptor-mediated pathways in encircling granulosa cells and oocyte...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650017/toll-like-receptors-in-lupus-nephritis
#8
REVIEW
Satish Kumar Devarapu, Hans-Joachim Anders
The pathogenesis of systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is based on the loss of self-tolerance against ubiquitous autoantigens involving all mechanisms of adaptive immunity. However, data accumulating over the last decade imply an important role also for numerous elements of innate immunity, namely the Toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis of SLE. Here we discuss their role in the most common organ complication of SLE, i.e. lupus nephritis. We summarize experimental and clinical data on the expression and functional contribution of the Toll-like receptors in immune complex glomerulonephritis, and intrarenal inflammation...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642903/functional-domains-of-sp110-that-modulate-its-transcriptional-regulatory-function-and-cellular-translocation
#9
Jia-Shiun Leu, So-Yi Chang, Chia-Yu Mu, Mei-Ling Chen, Bo-Shiun Yan
BACKGROUND: SP110, an interferon-induced nuclear protein, belongs to the SP100/SP140 protein family. Very recently, we showed that SP110b, an SP110 isoform, controls host innate immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by regulating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity. However, it remains unclear how the structure of SP110 relates to its cellular functions. In this study, we provide experimental data illustrating the protein domains that are responsible for its functions. METHODS: We examined the effects of SP110 isoforms and a series of deletion mutants of SP110 on transcriptional regulation by luciferase reporter assays...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631629/flagellin-fused-protein-targeting-m2e-and-ha2-induces-potent-humoral-and-t-cell-responses-and-protects-mice-against-various-influenza-viruses-a-subtypes
#10
Liudmila A Stepanova, Eugenia S Mardanova, Marina A Shuklina, Elena A Blokhina, Roman Y Kotlyarov, Marina V Potapchuk, Anna A Kovaleva, Inna G Vidyaeva, Alexandr V Korotkov, Elizaveta I Eletskaya, Nikolai V Ravin, Liudmila M Tsybalova
BACKGROUND: Current influenza vaccines are mainly strain-specific and have limited efficacy in preventing new, potentially pandemic, influenza strains. Efficient control of influenza A infection can potentially be achieved through the development of broad-spectrum vaccines based on conserved antigens. A current trend in the design of universal flu vaccines is the construction of recombinant proteins based on combinations of various conserved epitopes of viral proteins (M1, M2, HA2, NP)...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631569/avicequinone-b-sensitizes-anoikis-in-human-lung-cancer-cells
#11
Arisara Prateep, Somruethai Sumkhemthong, Wiranpat Karnsomwan, Wanchai De-Eknamkul, Supakarn Chamni, Pithi Chanvorachote, Chatchai Chaotham
BACKGROUND: During metastasis, cancer cells require anokis resistant mechanism to survive until reach the distant secondary tissues. As anoikis sensitization may benefit for cancer therapy, this study demonstrated the potential of avicequinone B, a natural furanonaphthoquinone found in mangrove tree (Avicenniaceae) to sensitize anoikis in human lung cancer cells. METHODS: Anoikis inducing effect was investigated in human lung cancer H460, H292 and H23 cells that were cultured in ultra-low attachment plate with non-cytotoxic concentrations of avicequinone B...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602309/regenerative-abilities-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-through-mitochondrial-transfer
#12
REVIEW
Swati Paliwal, Rituparna Chaudhuri, Anurag Agrawal, Sujata Mohanty
The past decade has witnessed an upsurge in studies demonstrating mitochondrial transfer as one of the emerging mechanisms through which mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can regenerate and repair damaged cells or tissues. It has been found to play a critical role in healing several diseases related to brain injury, cardiac myopathies, muscle sepsis, lung disorders and acute respiratory disorders. Several studies have shown that various mechanisms are involved in mitochondrial transfer that includes tunnel tube formation, micro vesicle formation, gap junctions, cell fusion and others modes of transfer...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598816/annexin-a2-mediated-cancer-progression-and-therapeutic-resistance-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#13
REVIEW
Chang-Yu Chen, Yung-Song Lin, Chien-Ho Chen, Yin-Ju Chen
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a head and neck cancer with poor clinical outcomes and insufficient treatments in Southeast Asian populations. Although concurrent chemoradiotherapy has improved recovery rates of patients, poor overall survival and low efficacy are still critical problems. To improve the therapeutic efficacy, we focused on a tumor-associated protein called Annexin A2 (ANXA2). This review summarizes the mechanisms by which ANXA2 promotes cancer progression (e.g., proliferation, migration, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion, and cancer stem cell formation) and therapeutic resistance (e...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592811/novel-microtubule-inhibitor-mpt0b098-inhibits-hypoxia-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
I-Ting Tsai, Ching-Chuan Kuo, Jing-Ping Liou, Jang-Yang Chang
BACKGROUND: Tumor hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical in promoting cancer metastasis. We recently discovered a novel microtubule inhibitor, MPT0B098, that employs a novel antitumor mechanism. It destabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α mRNA by blocking the function of human antigen R. Thus, we proposed that MPT0B098 modulates hypoxia-induced EMT. METHODS: In vitro IC50 values were determined through the methylene blue dye assay...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592810/crispr-cas9-the-jedi-against-the-dark-empire-of-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Sehrish Khan, Muhammad Shahid Mahmood, Sajjad Ur Rahman, Hassan Zafar, Sultan Habibullah, Zulqarnain Khan, Aftab Ahmad
Advances in Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR associated system (CRISPR/Cas9) has dramatically reshaped our ability to edit genomes. The scientific community is using CRISPR/Cas9 for various biotechnological and medical purposes. One of its most important uses is developing potential therapeutic strategies against diseases. CRISPR/Cas9 based approaches have been increasingly applied to the treatment of human diseases like cancer, genetic, immunological and neurological disorders and viral diseases...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592806/%C3%AE-aminoisobutyric-acid-attenuates-lps-induced-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-adipocytes-through-ampk-mediated-pathway
#16
Tae Woo Jung, Hyung Sub Park, Geum Hee Choi, Daehwan Kim, Taeseung Lee
BACKGROUND: β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) is produced in skeletal muscle during exercise and has beneficial effects on obesity-related metabolic disorders such as diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Thus, it is supposed to prevent high fat diet (HFD)-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue though anti-inflammatory effects in obesity. Previous reports have also demonstrated strong anti-inflammatory effects of BAIBA. METHODS: We used BAIBA treated fully differentiated 3T3T-L1 mouse adipocytes to investigate the effects of exogenous BAIBA on inflammation and insulin signaling in adipocytes...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554962/neurochemical-changes-in-basal-ganglia-affect-time-perception-in-parkinsonians
#17
REVIEW
Francisco Magalhães, Kaline Rocha, Victor Marinho, Jéssica Ribeiro, Thomaz Oliveira, Carla Ayres, Thalys Bento, Francisca Leite, Daya Gupta, Victor Hugo Bastos, Bruna Velasques, Pedro Ribeiro, Marco Orsini, Silmar Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is described as resulting from dopaminergic cells progressive degeneration, specifically in the substantia nigra pars compacta that influence the voluntary movements control, decision making and time perception. AIM: This review had a goal to update the relation between time perception and Parkinson's Disease. METHODOLOGY: We used the PRISMA methodology for this investigation built guided for subjects dopaminergic dysfunction in the time judgment, pharmacological models with levodopa and new studies on the time perception in Parkinson's Disease...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540226/vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-alleviates-osteoarthritis-effectively-via-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#18
Yaozhong Liang, Shu Chen, Yuhao Yang, Chunhai Lan, Guowei Zhang, Zhisheng Ji, Hongsheng Lin
BACKGROUND: To investigate the treatment effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on osteoarthritis (OA) and the relative mechanism. METHOD: The OA model on the SD rat knee was established using the modified Hulth method, and the recombinant pcDNA3.1+/VIP plasmid was constructed. One month after the plasmids VIP were injected intra-articularly into the right knee joint of OA and sham-operated rats, the pathological changes of the OA knee joint were observed by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Safranin O/fast green staining...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540173/adiponectin-and-adiponectin-receptor-1-overexpression-enhance-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
Yu-Ju Peng, Tang-Long Shen, Yu-Shan Chen, Harry John Mersmann, Bing-Hsien Liu, Shih-Torng Ding
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipokine derived from adipocytes. It binds to adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and R2) to exert its function in regulating whole-body energy homeostasis and inflammatory responses. However, the role of ADN-AdipoR1 signaling in intestinal inflammation is controversial, and its role in the regulation of neutrophils is still unclear. Our goal was to clarify the role of AdipoR1 signaling in colitis and the effects on neutrophils. METHODS: We generated porcine AdipoR1 transgenic mice (pAdipoR1 mice) and induced murine colitis using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to study the potential role of AdipoR1 in inflammatory bowel disease...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534728/long-non-coding-rna-miat-in-development-and-disease-a-new-player-in-an-old-game
#20
REVIEW
Cheng Sun, Lining Huang, Zhenglong Li, Kaiming Leng, Yi Xu, Xingming Jiang, Yunfu Cui
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are a portion of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), have manifested a paramount role in the pathophysiology of human diseases, particularly in pathogenesis and progression of disease. Myocardial infarction associated transcript (MIAT), which was recently found to demonstrate aberrant expression in various diseases, such as myocardial infarction, schizophrenia, ischemic stroke, diabetic complications, age-related cataract and cancers, is a novel disease-related lncRNA...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
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