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Journal of Biomedical Science

Zivan M Babic, Filip Z Zunic, Jelena M Pantic, Gordana D Radosavljevic, Ivan P Jovanovic, Nebojsa N Arsenijevic, Miodrag L Lukic
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a life-threatening disease mediated by profound disturbances in systemic inflammatory response to infection. IL-33 is multifunctional regulator of numerous aspects of innate and adaptive immune response. The aim of this article was to further evaluate the role of IL-33 receptor (ST2) in different pathways of innate immunity during early polymicrobial sepsis. METHODS: Polymicrobial sepsis was induced using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model in ST2 deficient (ST2-/- ) and wild type BALB/c mice...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
C Sao Emani, M J Williams, I J Wiid, B Baker
BACKGROUND: Three low molecular weight thiols are synthesized by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), namely ergothioneine (ERG), mycothiol (MSH) and gamma-glutamylcysteine (GGC). They are able to counteract reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or reactive nitrogen species (RNS). In addition, the production of ERG is elevated in the MSH-deficient M.tb mutant, while the production of MSH is elevated in the ERG-deficient mutants. Furthermore, the production of GGC is elevated in the MSH-deficient mutant and the ERG-deficient mutants...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Hui-Yun Chang, Tzu-Kang Sang, Ann-Shyn Chiang
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that mainly localizes to the axon to stabilize axonal microtubule structure and neuronal connectivity. Tau pathology is one of the most common proteinopathies that associates with age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), and various Parkinsonism. Tau protein undergoes a plethora of intra-molecular modifications and some altered forms promote the production of toxic oligomeric tau and paired helical filaments, and through which further assemble into neurofibrillary tangles, also known as tauopathy...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Jinn-Li Wang, Chia-Lang Fang, Yu-Tien Tzeng, Han-Lin Hsu, Sey-En Lin, Ming-Chih Yu, Kuan-Jen Bai, Liang-Shun Wang, Hsingjin Eugene Liu
BACKGROUND: The nuclear translocation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been considered to play a role in carcinogenesis. However, the relevance of differentially located EGFR proteins in lung cancer remains unclear. METHODS: We examined 161 patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma to detect EGFR expression in lung cancer cells using immunohistochemistry and determined the correlations of EGFR expression with clinical characteristics, EGFR mutations, and survival time...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Meng-Ling Chen, Ruey-Meei Wu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder and manifests as resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Pathologically, PD is characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the formation of intracellular inclusions containing α-synuclein and ubiquitin called Lewy bodies. Consequently, a remarkable deficiency of dopamine in the striatum causes progressive disability of motor function. The etiology of PD remains uncertain. Genetic variability in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the most common genetic cause of sporadic and familial PD...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
I-Chin Wu, Wen-Chun Liu, Ting-Tsung Chang
BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful and high-throughput method for the detection of viral mutations. This article provides a brief overview about optimization of NGS analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-associated hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations, and hepatocarcinogenesis of relevant mutations. MAIN BODY: For the application of NGS analysis in the genome of HBV, four noteworthy steps were discovered in testing. First, a sample-specific reference sequence was the most effective mapping reference for NGS...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Fadwa S Albalawi, Maha H Daghestani, Mazin H Daghestani, Abdelmoneim Eldali, Arjumand S Warsy
BACKGROUND: Kisspeptin is involved in female reproduction. This study was designed to i- estimate kisspeptin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), in comparison with controls, ii- study the correlations between kisspeptin and PCOS-related reproductive hormones, and iii- investigate the relation between KISS1 gene polymorphisms and hormone levels in women suffering from PCOS. METHODS: The investigation was a clinically designed study on 28 women with PCOS, and 30 normal, healthy women with no signs of PCOS as controls...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Robert F Hillary, Una FitzGerald
BACKGROUND: Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localised protein and member of the leucine zipper family of transcription factors. Best known for its role in transducing signals linked to stress to the endoplasmic reticulum, the 50 kDa activated form of ATF6 is now emerging as a major regulator of organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Responsible for the correct folding, secretion and membrane insertion of a third of the proteome in eukaryotic cells, the ER encompasses a dynamic, labyrinthine network of regulators, chaperones, foldases and cofactors...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Ching-Huang Lin, Yi-Ting Hsu, Cheng-Chung Yen, Hsin-Hung Chen, Ching-Jiunn Tseng, Yuk-Keung Lo, Julie Y H Chan
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the relationship between the amounts of heavy metal and stroke incidence. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between levels of heavy metals, including Pb, Hg, As, and Cd, in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: We selected patients with first-ever AIS onset within 1 week as our study group. Healthy controls were participants without a history of stroke or chronic disease, except hypertension...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Wei-Chen Hsin, Chan-Hua Chang, Chi-You Chang, Wei-Hao Peng, Chung-Liang Chien, Ming-Fu Chang, Shin C Chang
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) consists of a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome and four structural proteins: the spike, envelope, membrane, and nucleocapsid protein. The assembly of the viral genome into virus particles involves viral structural proteins and is believed to be mediated through recognition of specific sequences and RNA structures of the viral genome. METHODS AND RESULTS: A culture system for the production of MERS coronavirus-like particles (MERS VLPs) was determined and established by electron microscopy and the detection of coexpressed viral structural proteins...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Lorenz S Neuwirth, Greg R Phillips, Abdeslem El Idrissi
BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb2+ ) is an environmental neurotoxicant that disrupts neurodevelopment, communication, and organization through competition with Ca2+ signaling. How perinatal Pb2+ exposure affects Ca2+ -related gene regulation remains unclear. However, Ca2+ activates the L-Type voltage sensitive calcium channel β-3 subunit (Ca-β3), which autoregulates neuronal excitability and plays a role in the GABA-shift from excitatory-to-inhibitory neurotransmission. METHOD: A total of eight females (n = 4 Control and n = 4 Perinatal) and four males (n = 2 Control and n = 2 Perinatal) rats were used as breeders to serve as Dams and Sires...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Yuan-Ren Cheng, Bo-Yang Jiang, Chih-Cheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a group of amiloride-sensitive ligand-gated ion channels belonging to the family of degenerin/epithelial sodium channels. ASICs are predominantly expressed in both the peripheral and central nervous system and have been characterized as potent proton sensors to detect extracellular acidification in the periphery and brain. MAIN BODY: Here we review the recent studies focusing on the physiological roles of ASICs in the nervous system...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Mohamed El Amri, Una Fitzgerald, Gerhard Schlosser
BACKGROUND: The Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C-kinase Substrate (MARCKS) and MARCKS-like protein 1 (MARCKSL1) have a wide range of functions, ranging from roles in embryonic development to adult brain plasticity and the inflammatory response. Recently, both proteins have also been identified as important players in regeneration. Upon phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) or calcium-dependent calmodulin-binding, MARCKS and MARCKSL1 translocate from the membrane into the cytosol, modulating cytoskeletal actin dynamics and vesicular trafficking and activating various signal transduction pathways...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Pi-Cheng Cheng, Yi-Chi Wang, Ya-Shuan Chen, Ruo-Ciao Cheng, Jyh-Jeen Yang, Rong-Chi Huang
BACKGROUND: Transmembrane Ca2+ influx is critical for molecular rhythmicity, metabolic activity, and neuropeptide release in the central clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). We previously reported that both the Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) and mitochondria play a role in regulating intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in the rat SCN neurons. Here we present evidence to show differential regulation by NCX and mitochondria of nimodipine-sensitive and -insensitive Ca2+ influx. METHODS: Ratiometric Ca2+ imaging was used to measure change in [Ca2+ ]i and patch clamp recordings to study spontaneous firing, membrane potential, and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in neurons from reduced SCN slice preparations...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Ting-Wei Lee, Ting-I Lee, Yung-Kuo Lin, Yu-Hsun Kao, Yi-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). FGF-2 was reported to induce cardiac hypertrophy through activation of FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1). Multiple laboratory findings indicate that calcitriol may be a potential treatment for CVDs. In this study, we attempted to investigate whether calcitriol regulates FGFR1 expression to modulate the effects of FGF-2 signaling in cardiac myocytes and explored the potential regulatory mechanism...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Alice Hálová, Jana Janoutová, Laura Ewerlingová, Vladimír Janout, Ondřej Bonczek, Tomáš Zeman, Tereza Gerguri, Vladimir J Balcar, Omar Šerý
BACKGROUND: Cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is based on the findings that a reduced and/or perturbed cholinergic activity in the central nervous system correlates with cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The hypothesis resulted in the development of centrally-acting agents potentiating cholinergic neurotransmission; these drugs, however, only slowed down the cognitive decline and could not prevent it. Consequently, the perturbation of the central cholinergic signalling has been accepted as a part of the Alzheimer's aetiology but not necessarily the primary cause of the disease...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Katrina Weston-Green, Ilijana Babic, Michael de Santis, Bo Pan, Magdalene K Montgomery, Todd Mitchell, Xu-Feng Huang, Jessica Nealon
BACKGROUND: Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) induce glucometabolic side-effects, such as hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, which pose a therapeutic challenge for mental illness. Sphingolipids play a role in glycaemic balance and insulin resistance. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to impaired insulin signalling and whole-body glucose intolerance. Diabetogenic SGA effects on ER stress and sphingolipids, such as ceramide and sphingomyelin, in peripheral metabolic tissues are unknown...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Chin-Sung Chien, Ya-Hui Chen, Hui-Ling Chen, Chiu-Ping Wang, Shang-Hsin Wu, Shu-Li Ho, Wen-Cheng Huang, Chun-Hsien Yu, Mei-Hwei Chang
BACKGROUND: Whether hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs)/oval cells regenerate liver mass upon chronic liver injury is controversial in mice and has not been conclusively proven in humans and rats. In this study, we examined which cell type-hepatocytes or oval cells-mediates liver regeneration in the classic rat 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF)/partial hepatectomy (PH) injury where AAF reversibly blocks hepatocyte proliferation, thereby inducing oval cell expansion after the regenerative stimulus of PH...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Hsiao-Hsuan Wang, Yu-Hsiang Hsu, Ming-Shi Chang
BACKGROUND: Millions of people around the world suffer from bone disorders, likes osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and cancer-induced osteolysis. In general, the bone remodeling balance is determined by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively responsible for bone resorption and bone formation. Excessive inflammation disturbs the activities of these two kinds of cells, typically resulting in the bone loss. MAIN BODY: IL-20 is emerging as a potent angiogenic, chemotactic, and proinflammatory cytokine related to several chronic inflammatory disorders likes psoriasis, atherosclerosis, cancer, liver fibrosis, and RA...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
San-Chi Chen, Tsai-Tsen Liao, Muh-Hwa Yang
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is an important process in embryonic development, fibrosis, and cancer metastasis. During the progression of epithelial cancer, activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition is tightly associated with metastasis, stemness and drug resistance. However, the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in non-epithelial cancer is relatively unclear. MAIN BODY: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factors are critical in both myeloid and lymphoid development...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
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