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Journal of Biomedical Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325565/impact-of-social-relationships-on-alzheimer-s-memory-impairment-mechanistic-studies
#1
REVIEW
Ya-Hsin Hsiao, Chih-Hua Chang, Po-Wu Gean
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive memory and neuronal loss culminating in cognitive impairment that not only affects a person's living ability but also becomes a society's as well as a family's economic burden. AD is the most common form of dementia in older persons. It is expected that the number of people with AD dementia will increase dramatically in the next 30 years, projecting to 75 million in 2030 and 131.5 million in 2050 worldwide. So far, no sufficient evidence is available to support that any medicine is able to prevent or reverse the progression of the disease...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310658/the-involvement-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-formation-and-protein-synthesis-efficiency-in-vcp-and-atl1-related-neurological-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Yu-Tzu Shih, Yi-Ping Hsueh
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the biggest organelle in cells and is involved in versatile cellular processes. Formation and maintenance of ER morphology are regulated by a series of proteins controlling membrane fusion and curvature. At least six different ER morphology regulators have been demonstrated to be involved in neurological disorders-including Valosin-containing protein (VCP), Atlastin-1 (ATL1), Spastin (SPAST), Reticulon 2 (RTN2), Receptor expression enhancing protein 1 (REEP1) and RAB10-suggesting a critical role of ER formation in neuronal activity and function...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295709/differential-regulations-of-fibronectin-and-laminin-in-smad2-activation-in-vascular-endothelial-cells-in-response-to-disturbed-flow
#3
Tung-Lin Yang, Pei-Ling Lee, Ding-Yu Lee, Wei-Li Wang, Shu-Yi Wei, Chih-I Lee, Jeng-Jiann Chiu
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis occurs in arterial curvatures and branches, where the flow is disturbed with low and oscillatory shear stress (OSS). The remodeling and alterations of extracellular matrices (ECMs) and their composition is the critical step in atherogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of different ECM proteins on the regulation of mechanotransduction in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in response to OSS. METHODS: Through the experiments ranging from in vitro cell culture studies on effects of OSS on molecular signaling to in vivo examinations on clinical specimens from patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), we elucidated the roles of integrins and different ECMs, i...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233161/id-1-promotes-migration-and-invasion-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-through-activating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#4
Jie Li, Yingjie Li, Bin Wang, Yongfu Ma, Ping Chen
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that Id-1 (Inhibitor of differentiation 1) is upregulated in several cancers and associated with tumor malignant characters. However, the clinical significance and biological role of Id-1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. METHODS: We used RT-PCR, Western blot and Immunohistochemistry to measure Id-1 expression in NSCLC tissues and matched adjacent noncancerous tissues. The expression pattern of Id-1 in NSCLC tissues was determined by scoring system of immunohistochemical analysis...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233145/suppression-of-interleukin-6-increases-enterovirus-a71-lethality-in-mice
#5
Li-Chiu Wang, Hui-Wen Yao, Chuan-Fa Chang, Shainn-Wei Wang, Shih-Min Wang, Shun-Hua Chen
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infection can induce fatal encephalitis in young children. Clinical reports show that interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of infected patients with brainstem encephalitis are significantly elevated. We used a murine model to address the significance of endogenous IL-6 in EV-A71 infection. RESULTS: EV-A71 infection transiently increased serum and brain IL-6 protein levels in mice. Most importantly, absence of IL-6 due to gene knockout or depletion of IL-6 using neutralizing monoclonal antibody enhanced the mortality and tissue viral load of infected mice...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202749/inhibitory-or-excitatory-optogenetic-interrogation-of-the-functional-roles-of-gabaergic-interneurons-in-epileptogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Hui Ye, Stephanie Kaszuba
Alteration in the excitatory/inhibitory neuronal balance is believed to be the underlying mechanism of epileptogenesis. Based on this theory, GABAergic interneurons are regarded as the primary inhibitory neurons, whose failure of action permits hyperactivity in the epileptic circuitry. As a consequence, optogenetic excitation of GABAergic interneurons is widely used for seizure suppression. However, recent evidence argues for the context-dependent, possibly "excitatory" roles that GABAergic cells play in epileptic circuitry...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202846/haplotypes-inside-the-beta-globin-gene-use-as-new-biomarkers-for-beta-thalassemia-prenatal-diagnosis-in-north-of-iran
#7
Mohammad Bagher Hashemi-Soteh, Seyed Saeed Mousavi, Alireza Tafazoli
BACKGROUND: Beta-thalassemia is common in the Mediterranean area as well as the Middle East and India. Official report in Iran revealed the average prevalence rate of carriers about 4%. More than 20 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) are known in the beta-globin gene cluster and used in the prenatal diagnosis (PND) services. Some of these locations may have low allele frequency and are not informative in the prenatal diagnosis. The current study aims to find new haplotypes and polymorphisms with high allele frequency in the local population...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202842/preclinical-and-clinical-aspects-of-tnf-%C3%AE-and-its-receptors-tnfr1-and-tnfr2-in-breast-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Isela Martínez-Reza, Lorenza Díaz, Rocío García-Becerra
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and a public health problem worldwide. Breast cancer is often accompanied by an inflammatory process characterized by the presence of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), which has important implications in the course of the disease. Inflammation has been described primarily as a favorable environment for tumor development. However, under certain conditions TNF-α can promote signals for activation, differentiation, survival or cell death, so the study of the variants of this cytokine, its receptors, the presence of polymorphisms and its implication in different phenotypes of breast cancer is necessary...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202755/h558r-a-common-scn5a-polymorphism-modifies-the-clinical-phenotype-of-brugada-syndrome-by-modulating-dna-methylation-of-scn5a-promoters
#9
Hiroya Matsumura, Yukiko Nakano, Hidenori Ochi, Yuko Onohara, Akinori Sairaku, Takehito Tokuyama, Shunsuke Tomomori, Chikaaki Motoda, Michitaka Amioka, Naoya Hironobe, Masaaki Toshishige, Shinya Takahashi, Katsuhiko Imai, Taijiro Sueda, Kazuaki Chayama, Yasuki Kihara
BACKGROUND: A common SCN5A polymorphism H558R (c.1673 A > G, rs1805124) improves sodium channel activity in mutated channels and known to be a genetic modifier of Brugada syndrome patients (BrS). We investigated clinical manifestations and underlying mechanisms of H558R in BrS. METHODS AND RESULTS: We genotyped H558R in 100 BrS (mean age 45 ± 14 years; 91 men) and 1875 controls (mean age 54 ± 18 years; 1546 men). We compared clinical parameters in BrS with and without H558R (H558R+ vs...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178881/atrial-erk1-2-activation-in-the-embryo-leads-to-incomplete-septal-closure-a-novel-mouse-model-of-atrial-septal-defect
#10
Che-Chung Yeh, Yanying Fan, Yi-Lin Yang, Michael J Mann
BACKGROUND: MEK1 mutation and activated MAPK signaling has been found in patients with RASopathies and abnormal cardiac development. Previous studies have suggested that regulation of fetal MAPK signaling is essential for normal cardiac development. We investigated the effect of active MEK1 overexpression on fetal atrial septal development. METHODS AND RESULTS: An inducible double transgenic (DTg) mouse model was developed in which cardiac-specific fetal expression of a constitutively active form of human MEK1 (aMEK1) was induced primarily in the atrium via the withdrawal of doxycycline from the drinking water of pregnant mice...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169357/in-silico-design-of-a-zika-virus-non-structural-protein-5-aiming-vaccine-protection-against-zika-and-dengue-in-different-human-populations
#11
Lorrany Dos Santos Franco, Paloma Oliveira Vidal, Jaime Henrique Amorim
BACKGROUND: The arboviruses Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) have important epidemiological impact in Brazil and other tropical regions of the world. Recently, it was shown that previous humoral immunity to DENV enhances ZIKV replication in vitro, which may lead to more severe forms of the disease. Thus, traditional approaches of vaccine development aiming to control viral infection through neutralizing antibodies may induce cross-reactive enhancing antibodies. In contrast, cellular immune response was shown to be capable of controlling DENV infection independently of antibodies...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157234/zinc-transporters-and-insulin-resistance-therapeutic-implications-for-type-2-diabetes-and-metabolic-disease
#12
REVIEW
Shaghayegh Norouzi, John Adulcikas, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal, Stephen Myers
BACKGROUND: Zinc is a metal ion that is essential for growth and development, immunity, and metabolism, and therefore vital for life. Recent studies have highlighted zinc's dynamic role as an insulin mimetic and a cellular second messenger that controls many processes associated with insulin signaling and other downstream pathways that are amendable to glycemic control. MAIN BODY: Mechanisms that contribute to the decompartmentalization of zinc and dysfunctional zinc transporter mechanisms, including zinc signaling are associated with metabolic disease, including type 2 diabetes...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151021/regulatory-t-cells-induced-by-b-cells-a-novel-subpopulation-of-regulatory-t-cells
#13
REVIEW
Chien-Hui Chien, Bor-Luen Chiang
Regulatory T cells play a crucial role in the homeostasis of the immune response. In addition to CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, several subsets of Foxp3- regulatory T cells, such as T helper 3 (Th3) cells and type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells, have been described in mice and human. Accumulating evidence shows that naïve B cells contribute to tolerance and are able to promote regulatory T cell differentiation. Naïve B cells can convert CD4+CD25- T cells into CD25+Foxp3- regulatory T cells, named Treg-of-B cells by our group...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141644/lipopolysaccharide-pretreatment-increases-protease-activated-receptor-2-expression-and-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-secretion-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#14
Hung-Hsing Chao, Po-Yuan Chen, Wen-Rui Hao, Wei-Ping Chiang, Tzu-Hurng Cheng, Shih-Hurng Loh, Yuk-Man Leung, Ju-Chi Liu, Jin-Jer Chen, Li-Chin Sung
BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increase protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) expression and enhance the association between PAR-2 expression and chemokine production in human vascular endothelial cells (ECs). METHODS: The morphology of ECs was observed through microphotography in cultured human umbilical vein ECs (EA. hy926 cells) treated with various LPS concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 μg/mL) for 24 h, and cell viability was assessed using the MTT assay...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132351/therapeutic-efficacy-of-pentoxifylline-on-proteinuria-and-renal-progression-an-update
#15
REVIEW
Yung-Ming Chen, Wen-Chih Chiang, Shuei-Liong Lin, Tun-Jun Tsai
Blood pressure control with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade has remained the gold standard for treating patients with proteinuric chronic kidney disease (CKD) up to date. Nevertheless, RAS blockade slows but does not halt the progression of kidney disease, thus highlighting the need to search for additional therapeutic approaches. The nonselective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor pentoxifylline (PTX) is an old drug that exhibits prominent anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-fibrotic activities both in vitro and in vivo...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084538/expression-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-and-2%C3%AE-and-its-association-with-vitamin-c-level-in-thyroid-lesions
#16
Paweł Jóźwiak, Piotr Ciesielski, Agnieszka Zaczek, Anna Lipińska, Lech Pomorski, Marek Wieczorek, Magdalena Bryś, Ewa Forma, Anna Krześlak
BACKGROUND: Cells adapt to hypoxia by transcriptional induction of genes that participate in regulation of angiogenesis, glucose metabolism and cell proliferation. The primary factors mediating cell response to low oxygen tension are hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs), oxygen-dependent transcription activators. The stability and activity of the α subunits of HIFs are controlled by hydroxylation reactions that require ascorbate as a cofactor. Therefore, deficiency of intracellular vitamin C could contribute to HIFs overactivation...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082856/male-non-insulin-users-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-are-predisposed-to-gastric-corpus-predominant-inflammation-after-h-pylori-infection
#17
Yao-Jong Yang, Chung-Tai Wu, Horng-Yih Ou, Chin-Han Lin, Hsiu-Chi Cheng, Wei-Lun Chang, Wei-Ying Chen, Hsiao-Bai Yang, Cheng-Chan Lu, Bor-Shyang Sheu
BACKGROUND: Both H. pylori infection and diabetes increase the risk of gastric cancer. This study investigated whether patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and H. pylori infection had more severe corpus gastric inflammation and higher prevalence of precancerous lesions than non-diabetic controls. METHODS: A total of 797 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were screened for H. pylori, of whom 264 had H. pylori infection. Of these patients, 129 received esophagogastroduodenoscopy to obtain topographic gastric specimens for gastric histology according to the modified Updated Sydney System, corpus-predominant gastritis index (CGI), Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment, and Operative Link on Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia Assessment...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058606/accuracy-of-serum-luteinizing-hormone-and-serum-testosterone-measurements-to-assess-the-efficacy-of-medical-castration-in-prostate-cancer-patients
#18
Juan Morote, Imma Comas, Roser Ferrer, Jacques Planas, Anna Celma, Lucas Regis
BACKGROUND: Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists are the standard for androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Current guidelines recommend serum testosterone measurement to assess the efficacy of ADT and to define castration resistance. However, serum testosterone does not reflect the exclusive effect of castration due to its extratesticular production. The aim of this study is to analyze if serum LH reflects better than serum testosterone the activity of LH-RH agonists...
October 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047370/the-recent-development-and-applications-of-fluidic-channels-by-3d-printing
#19
REVIEW
Yufeng Zhou
The technology of "Lab-on-a-Chip" allows the synthesis and analysis of chemicals and biological substance within a portable or handheld device. The 3D printed structures enable precise control of various geometries. The combination of these two technologies in recent years makes a significant progress. The current approaches of 3D printing, such as stereolithography, polyjet, and fused deposition modeling, are introduced. Their manufacture specifications, such as surface roughness, resolution, replication fidelity, cost, and fabrication time, are compared with each other...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041928/the-tlr3-ticam-1-signal-constitutively-controls-spontaneous-polyposis-through-suppression-of-c-myc-in-apc-min-mice
#20
Junya Ono, Hiroaki Shime, Hiromi Takaki, Ken Takashima, Kenji Funami, Sumito Yoshida, Yohei Takeda, Misako Matsumoto, Masanori Kasahara, Tsukasa Seya
BACKGROUND: Intestinal tumorigenesis is promoted by myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) activation in response to the components of microbiota in Apc (Min/+) mice. Microbiota also contains double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a ligand for TLR3, which activates the toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1 (TICAM-1, also known as TRIF) pathway. METHODS: We established Apc (Min/+) Ticam1 (-/-) mice and their survival was compared to survival of Apc (Min/+) Myd88 (-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
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