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Journal of Biomedical Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532411/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-2-knock-in-mice-show-increased-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-response-to-cisplatin-treatment
#1
Jeewon Kim, Che-Hong Chen, Jieying Yang, Daria Mochly-Rosen
BACKGROUND: The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzyme family metabolizes and detoxifies both exogenous and endogenous aldehydes. Since chemotherapeutic agents, such as cisplatin, generate cytotoxic aldehydes and oxidative stress, and chemoresistant cancer cells express high levels of ALDH enzymes, we hypothesized that different ALDH expression within cells may show different chemosensitivity. ALDH2 has the lowest Km for acetaldehyde among ALDH isozymes and detoxifies acetaldehydes in addition to other reactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxy-nonenal, malondialdehyde and acrolein produced from lipid peroxidation by reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511675/comparing-adult-renal-stem-cell-identification-characterization-and-applications
#2
REVIEW
Jennifer Huling, James J Yoo
Despite growing interest and effort, a consensus has yet to be reached in regards to the identification of adult renal stem cells. Organ complexity and low turnover of renal cells has made stem cell identification difficult and lead to the investigation of multiple possible populations. In this review, we summarize the work that has been done toward finding and characterizing an adult renal stem cell population. In addition to giving a general overview of what has been done, we aim to highlight the variation in methods and outcomes...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499383/nintedanib-antiangiogenic-inhibitor-effectiveness-in-delaying-adenocarcinoma-progression-in-transgenic-adenocarcinoma-of-the-mouse-prostate-tramp
#3
Raquel Frenedoso da Silva, Ellen Nogueira-Pangrazi, Larissa Akemi Kido, Fabio Montico, Sarah Arana, Dileep Kumar, Komal Raina, Rajesh Agarwal, Valéria Helena Alves Cagnon
BACKGROUND: In recent times, anti-cancer treatments have focused on Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) and Vascular-Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) pathway inhibitors so as to target tumor angiogenesis and cellular proliferation. One such drug is Nintedanib; the present study evaluated the effectiveness of Nintedanib treatment against in vitro proliferation of human prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines, and growth and progression of different grades of PCa lesions in pre-clinical PCa transgenic adenocarcinoma for the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490365/differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-cardiomyocytes-is-regulated-by-mirna-1-2-via-wnt-signaling-pathway
#4
Xing Shen, Bo Pan, Huiming Zhou, Lingjuan Liu, Tiewei Lv, Jing Zhu, Xupei Huang, Jie Tian
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs) have the potential to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, but the rate of differentiation is low and the mechanism of differentiation is unclear completely. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of miR1-2 in differentiation of mouse BMSCs into cardiomyocyte-like cells and reveal the involved signaling pathways in the procedure. METHODS: Mouse BMSCs were treated with miR1-2 and 5-azacytine (5-aza). The expression of cardiac cell markers: NKx2...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490361/adducin-family-proteins-possess-different-nuclear-export-potentials
#5
Chia-Mei Liu, Wen-Hsin Hsu, Wan-Yi Lin, Hong-Chen Chen
BACKGROUND: The adducin (ADD) family proteins, namely ADD1, ADD2, and ADD3, are actin-binding proteins that play important roles in the stabilization of membrane cytoskeleton and cell-cell junctions. All the ADD proteins contain a highly conserved bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) at the carboxyl termini, but only ADD1 can localize to the nucleus. The reason for this discrepancy is not clear. METHODS: To avoid the potential effect of cell-cell junctions on the distribution of ADD proteins, HA epitope-tagged ADD proteins and mutants were transiently expressed in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and their distribution in the cytoplasm and nucleus was examined by immunofluorescence staining...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490336/characteristics-of-l-citrulline-transport-through-blood-brain-barrier-in-the-brain-capillary-endothelial-cell-line-tr-bbb-cells
#6
Kyeong-Eun Lee, Young-Sook Kang
BACKGROUND: L-Citrulline is a neutral amino acid and a major precursor of L-arginine in the nitric oxide (NO) cycle. Recently it has been reported that L-citrulline prevents neuronal cell death and protects cerebrovascular injury, therefore, L-citrulline may have a neuroprotective effect to improve cerebrovascular dysfunction. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the brain transport mechanism of L-citrulline through blood-brain barrier (BBB) using the conditionally immortalized rat brain capillary endothelial cell line (TR-BBB cells), as an in vitro model of the BBB...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486943/kb-r7943-reduces-4-aminopyridine-induced-epileptiform-activity-in-adult-rats-after-neuronal-damage-induced-by-neonatal-monosodium-glutamate-treatment
#7
Mariana Hernandez-Ojeda, Monica E Ureña-Guerrero, Paola E Gutierrez-Barajas, Jazmin A Cardenas-Castillo, Antoni Camins, Carlos Beas-Zarate
BACKGROUND: Neonatal monosodium glutamate (MSG) treatment triggers excitotoxicity and induces a degenerative process that affects several brain regions in a way that could lead to epileptogenesis. Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCX1-3) are implicated in Ca(2+) brain homeostasis; normally, they extrude Ca(2+) to control cell inflammation, but after damage and in epilepsy, they introduce Ca(2+) by acting in the reverse mode, amplifying the damage. Changes in NCX3 expression in the hippocampus have been reported immediately after neonatal MSG treatment...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376884/cancer-immunotherapies-targeting-the-pd-1-signaling-pathway
#8
REVIEW
Yoshiko Iwai, Junzo Hamanishi, Kenji Chamoto, Tasuku Honjo
Immunotherapy has recently emerged as the fourth pillar of cancer treatment, joining surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. While early immunotherapies focused on accelerating T-cell activity, current immune-checkpoint inhibitors take the brakes off the anti-tumor immune responses. Successful clinical trials with PD-1 monoclonal antibodies and other immune-checkpoint inhibitors have opened new avenues in cancer immunology. However, the failure of a large subset of cancer patients to respond to these new immunotherapies has led to intensified research on combination therapies and predictive biomarkers...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351426/associations-of-estradiol-levels-and-genetic-polymorphisms-of-inflammatory-genes-with-the-risk-of-ischemic-stroke
#9
Yi-Chen Hsieh, Fang-I Hsieh, Yih-Ru Chen, Chaur-Jong Hu, Jiann-Shing Jeng, Sung-Chun Tang, Nai-Fang Chi, Huey-Juan Lin, Li-Ming Lien, Giia-Sheun Peng, Hung-Yi Chiou
BACKGROUND: Estrogen plays an important role as an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent in ischemic stroke. In this study, we analyzed the effect of a polygenic risk score (PRS) constructed using inflammatory genes and estradiol levels on the risk of ischemic stroke. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted with 624 ischemic stroke patients and 624 age- and gender-matched controls. The PRS estimated the polygenic contribution of inflammatory genes from ischemic stroke susceptibility loci...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347345/serotonergic-system-in-hypoxic-ventilatory-response-in-unilateral-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Kryspin Andrzejewski, Katarzyna Kaczyńska, Małgorzata Zaremba
BACKGROUND: Malfunctioning of the serotonergic system in Parkinson's disease may contribute to non-motor symptoms such as respiratory complications. Thus the aim of our study was to investigate the role of serotonin 5-HT2 receptors in the modulation of normoxic breathing and the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) in rat model of Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Wistar rats were lesioned unilaterally with double 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection to the right medial forebrain bundle (MFB)...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347302/development-and-validation-of-a-high-throughput-calcium-mobilization-assay-for-the-orphan-receptor-gpr88
#11
Ann M Decker, Elaine A Gay, Kelly M Mathews, Taylor C Rosa, Tiffany L Langston, Rangan Maitra, Chunyang Jin
BACKGROUND: GPR88 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in the striatum and is implicated in basal ganglia-associated disorders. However, the receptor functions of GPR88 are still largely unknown due to the lack of potent and selective ligands appropriate for central nervous system investigation. Development of a high-throughput screening assay for GPR88 should facilitate the discovery of novel ligands to probe GPR88 functions. METHODS: In this paper, we describe the development of a CHO-Gαqi5-GPR88 cell-based calcium mobilization assay...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335781/tailored-design-of-nkt-stimulatory-glycolipids-for-polarization-of-immune-responses
#12
REVIEW
Jung-Tung Hung, Jing-Rong Huang, Alice L Yu
Natural killer T (NKT) cell is a distinct population of T lymphocytes that can rapidly release massive amount of Th1 and Th2 cytokines upon the engagement of their T cell receptor with glycolipids presented by CD1d. The secreted cytokines can promote cell-mediated immunity to kill tumor cells and intracellular pathogens, or suppress autoreactive immune cells in autoimmune diseases. Thus, NKT cell is an attractive target for developing new therapeutics to manipulate immune system. The best-known glycolipid to activate NKT cells is α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), which has been used as a prototype for designing new NKT stimulatory glycolipids...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320393/evaluation-of-the-use-of-therapeutic-peptides-for-cancer-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Susan Marqus, Elena Pirogova, Terrence J Piva
Cancer along with cardiovascular disease are the main causes of death in the industrialised countries around the World. Conventional cancer treatments are losing their therapeutic uses due to drug resistance, lack of tumour selectivity and solubility and as such there is a need to develop new therapeutic agents. Therapeutic peptides are a promising and a novel approach to treat many diseases including cancer. They have several advantages over proteins or antibodies: as they are (a) easy to synthesise, (b) have a high target specificity and selectivity and (c) have low toxicity...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270145/selective-activation-of-mirnas-of-the-primate-specific-chromosome-19-mirna-cluster-c19mc-in-cancer-and-stem-cells-and-possible-contribution-to-regulation-of-apoptosis
#14
Phan Nguyen Nhi Nguyen, Chiu-Jung Huang, Shigeki Sugii, Soon Keng Cheong, Kong Bung Choo
BACKGROUND: The human chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC) of 43 genes is a primate-specific miRNA cluster that may have biological significance in the genetic complexity of the primate. Despite previous reports on individual C19MC miRNA expression in cancer and stem cells, systematic studies on C19MC miRNA expression and biological functions are lacking. RESULTS: Cluster-wide C19MC miRNA expression profiling by microarray analysis showed wholesome C19MC activation in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253921/aldh2-polymorphism-and-alcohol-related-cancers-in-asians-a-public-health-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Jeffrey S Chang, Jenn-Ren Hsiao, Che-Hong Chen
The occurrence of more than 200 diseases, including cancer, can be attributed to alcohol drinking. The global cancer deaths attributed to alcohol-consumption rose from 243,000 in 1990 to 337,400 in 2010. In 2010, cancer deaths due to alcohol consumption accounted for 4.2% of all cancer deaths. Strong epidemiological evidence has established the causal role of alcohol in the development of various cancers, including esophageal cancer, head and neck cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer. The evidence for the association between alcohol and other cancers is inconclusive...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245819/effects-of-sarcosine-and-n-n-dimethylglycine-on-nmda-receptor-mediated-excitatory-field-potentials
#16
Mei-Yi Lee, Yi-Ruu Lin, Yi-Shu Tu, Yufeng Jane Tseng, Ming-Huan Chan, Hwei-Hsien Chen
BACKGROUND: Sarcosine, a glycine transporter type 1 inhibitor and an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor co-agonist at the glycine binding site, potentiates NMDA receptor function. Structurally similar to sarcosine, N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) is also N-methyl glycine-derivative amino acid and commonly used as a dietary supplement. The present study compared the effects of sarcosine and DMG on NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory field potentials (EFPs) in mouse medial prefrontal cortex brain slices using a multi-electrode array system...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245815/fast-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-imaging-techniques-in-human-brain-applications-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
REVIEW
Oun Al-Iedani, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Karen Ribbons, Saadallah Ramadan
Multi voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is an important imaging tool that combines imaging and spectroscopic techniques. MRSI of the human brain has been beneficially applied to different clinical applications in neurology, particularly in neurooncology but also in multiple sclerosis, stroke and epilepsy. However, a major challenge in conventional MRSI is the longer acquisition time required for adequate signal to be collected. Fast MRSI of the brain in vivo is an alternative approach to reduce scanning time and make MRSI more clinically suitable...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241824/treatment-of-chronic-non-healing-ulcers-using-autologous-platelet-rich-plasma-a-case-series
#18
Manish Suthar, Saniya Gupta, Suhail Bukhari, Venkatesh Ponemone
BACKGROUND: Non-healing ulcers are a major health problem worldwide and have great impact at personal, professional and social levels, with high cost in terms of human and material resources. Recalcitrant non-healing ulcers are inevitable and detrimental to the lower limb and are a major cause of non-traumatic lower limb amputations. Application of autologous Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) has been a major breakthrough for the treatment of non-healing and diabetic foot ulcers, as it is an easy and cost-effective method, and provides the necessary growth factors that enhance tissue healing...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219375/state-of-the-art-in-anti-cancer-mabs
#19
REVIEW
S M Chiavenna, J P Jaworski, A Vendrell
Following Milstein's discovery, the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) became a basic tool for biomedical science. In cancer field, since the first mAb was approved by the FDA a great improvement took place making of them a therapeutic option for many cancer types in the current clinical practice. Today, mAbs are being developed to target different molecules with different mechanisms of action and its target potential is unlimited. However, this huge and fast growing new field needs to be organized to better understand the treatment options we have to confront different cancer diseases...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178969/neuroblastoma-treatment-in-the-post-genomic-era
#20
REVIEW
Maria Rosaria Esposito, Sanja Aveic, Anke Seydel, Gian Paolo Tonini
Neuroblastoma is an embryonic malignancy of early childhood originating from neural crest cells and showing heterogeneous biological, morphological, genetic and clinical characteristics. The correct stratification of neuroblastoma patients within risk groups (low, intermediate, high and ultra-high) is critical for the adequate treatment of the patients.High-throughput technologies in the Omics disciplines are leading to significant insights into the molecular pathogenesis of neuroblastoma. Nonetheless, further study of Omics data is necessary to better characterise neuroblastoma tumour biology...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
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