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Journal of Biomedical Science

Yaozhong Liang, Shu Chen, Yuhao Yang, Chunhai Lan, Guowei Zhang, Zhisheng Ji, Hongsheng Lin
BACKGROUND: To investigate the treatment effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on osteoarthritis (OA) and the relative mechanism. METHOD: The OA model on the SD rat knee was established using the modified Hulth method, and the recombinant pcDNA3.1+/VIP plasmid was constructed. One month after the plasmids VIP were injected intra-articularly into the right knee joint of OA and sham-operated rats, the pathological changes of the OA knee joint were observed by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Safranin O/fast green staining...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Yu-Ju Peng, Tang-Long Shen, Yu-Shan Chen, Harry John Mersmann, Bing-Hsien Liu, Shih-Torng Ding
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipokine derived from adipocytes. It binds to adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and R2) to exert its function in regulating whole-body energy homeostasis and inflammatory responses. However, the role of ADN-AdipoR1 signaling in intestinal inflammation is controversial, and its role in the regulation of neutrophils is still unclear. Our goal was to clarify the role of AdipoR1 signaling in colitis and the effects on neutrophils. METHODS: We generated porcine AdipoR1 transgenic mice (pAdipoR1 mice) and induced murine colitis using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to study the potential role of AdipoR1 in inflammatory bowel disease...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Cheng Sun, Lining Huang, Zhenglong Li, Kaiming Leng, Yi Xu, Xingming Jiang, Yunfu Cui
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are a portion of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), have manifested a paramount role in the pathophysiology of human diseases, particularly in pathogenesis and progression of disease. Myocardial infarction associated transcript (MIAT), which was recently found to demonstrate aberrant expression in various diseases, such as myocardial infarction, schizophrenia, ischemic stroke, diabetic complications, age-related cataract and cancers, is a novel disease-related lncRNA...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Ricardo Leão, Joana Dias Apolónio, Donghyun Lee, Arnaldo Figueiredo, Uri Tabori, Pedro Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: Limitless self-renewal is one of the hallmarks of cancer and is attained by telomere maintenance, essentially through telomerase (hTERT) activation. Transcriptional regulation of hTERT is believed to play a major role in telomerase activation in human cancers. MAIN BODY: The dominant interest in telomerase results from its role in cancer. The role of telomeres and telomere maintenance mechanisms is well established as a major driving force in generating chromosomal and genomic instability...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
C Randall Harrell, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Crissy Fellabaum, Aleksandar Arsenijevic, Valentin Djonov, Vladislav Volarevic
BACKGROUND: Pericytes are multipotent cells present in every vascularized tissue in the body. Despite the fact that they are well-known for more than a century, pericytes are still representing cells with intriguing properties. This is mainly because of their heterogeneity in terms of definition, tissue distribution, origin, phenotype and multi-functional properties. The body of knowledge illustrates importance of pericytes in the regulation of homeostatic and healing processes in the body...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Ain Zubaidah Ayob, Thamil Selvee Ramasamy
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are subpopulations of cancer cells sharing similar characteristics as normal stem or progenitor cells such as self-renewal ability and multi-lineage differentiation to drive tumour growth and heterogeneity. Throughout the cancer progression, CSC can further be induced from differentiated cancer cells via the adaptation and cross-talks with the tumour microenvironment as well as a response from therapeutic pressures, therefore contributes to their heterogeneous phenotypes...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Chien-Huang Lin, Chung-Huang Shih, Yu-Chang Lin, You-Lan Yang, Bing-Chang Chen
BACKGROUND: In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, the interaction of CXCL12 and CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4) plays a critical role in lung fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) overexpression underlies the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Our previous report showed that the Rac1-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and activator protein (AP)-1 pathways are involved in CXCL12-generated CTGF expression in human lung fibroblasts (WI-38)...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Xiong Liu, Yuqi She, Hongrong Wu, Da Zhong, Jian Zhang
BACKGROUND: LncRNA Gas5 is known to be a key control element during growth, differentiation and development in mammalian species. However, the role and function of Gas5 in growth plate chondrocytes has not been determined. METHODS: The overexpression and knockdown models of Gas5 and miR-21 in cells and animals were constructed. Cell survival was determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Animal biochemical indices were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, hematoxylin/eosin staining, immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridisation...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Lan Zhao, Alvin H W Fong, Na Liu, William C S Cho
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive and metastatic cancer, with diverse molecular characteristics and clinical outcomes. This study aims to dissect the molecular heterogeneity of NPC, followed by the construction of a microRNA (miRNA)-based prognostic model for prediction of distant metastasis. METHODS: We retrieved two NPC datasets: GSE32960 and GSE70970 as training and validation cohorts, respectively. Consensus clustering was employed for cluster discovery, and support vector machine was used to build a classifier...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Sajjad Ahmadpour, Zohreh Noaparast, Seyed Mohammad Abedi, Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the world. Development of novel tumor-specific radiopharmaceuticals for early breast tumor diagnosis is highly desirable. In this study we developed99m Tc-HYNIC-(tricine/EDDA)-Lys-FROP peptide with the ability of specific binding to MCF-7 breast tumor. METHODS: The FROP-1 peptide was conjugated with the bifunctional chelator hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) and labeled with99m Tc using tricine/EDDA co-ligand...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Hassan Mahmood Jindal, Babu Ramanathan, Cheng Foh Le, Ranganath Gudimella, Rozaimi Razali, Rishya Manikam, Shamala Devi Sekaran
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae or pneumococcus is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, specifically in relation to community-acquired pneumonia. Due to the overuse of antibiotics, S. pneumoniae has developed a high degree of resistance to a wide range of antibacterial drugs. METHODS: In this study, whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed for 10 clinical strains of S. pneumoniae with different levels of sensitivity to standard antibiotics...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Vincent Chunpeng Pai, I-Chung Lo, Yan Wun Huang, I-Ching Tsai, Hui-Pin Cheng, Guey-Yueh Shi, Hua-Lin Wu, Meei Jyh Jiang
BACKGROUND: Thrombomodulin (TM), a transmembrane glycoprotein highly expressed in endothelial cells (ECs), is a potent anticoagulant maintaining circulation homeostasis. Under inflammatory states, TM expression is drastically reduced in ECs while vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) show a robust expression of TM. The functional role of TM in VSMCs remains elusive. METHODS: We examined the role of TM in VSMCs activities in human aortic VSMCs stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Xiaoling Yuan, Tao Hu, Hanwen He, Huan Qiu, Xuan Wu, Jingxian Chen, Minmin Wang, Cheng Chen, Shenghai Huang
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects the central nervous system, resulting in neurological symptoms. However, the precise underlying pathogenic mechanisms have not been elucidated. In the present study, the infectivity of RSV on N2a neuronal cells and the possible roles of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nucleolin (C23) during RSV infection were investigated. METHODS: We compared two experimental groups (infected and non-infected) and monitored the RSV viral titers in the culture supernatant by a viral plaque assay...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Sajal K Ghosh, Abhishek Ganta, Remco A Spanjaard
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy and targeted therapies have made important strides in cancer treatment yet they often fail and new therapies are still needed. Here, we employed a phenotypic screen to identify and analyze the mechanism of action of novel small molecules that interfere with critical pathways involved in tumor cell growth, using chemoresistant A375 melanoma cells as a model. METHODS: Cell culture studies were performed in ATCC-recommended media. Compounds, and compound libraries were obtained from Boston University or purchased commercially...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Lei Zhang, Hailing Cheng, Yuxia Yue, Shuangzhan Li, Daping Zhang, Ruili He
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as critical regulators in the development of atherosclerosis (AS). Here, we focused on discussing roles and molecular mechanisms of lncRNA H19 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) progression. METHODS: RT-qPCR assay was used to detect the expression patterns of H19 and miR-148b in clinical samples and cells. Cell proliferative ability was evaluated by CCK-8 and colony formation assays. Cell apoptotic capacity was assessed by apoptotic cell percentage and the caspase-3 activity...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Xian-Ping Wu, Rui-Xuan She, Yan-Ping Yang, Zu-Min Xing, Han-Wen Chen, Yi-Wen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Morphine is widely used in clinical practice for a class of analgesic drugs, long-term use of morphine will cause the action of tolerance. MicroRNAs have been reported to be involved in morphine analgesic tolerance.. METHODS: Forty male SD rats were selected and randomly divided into 5 groups: the control group, morphine tolerance group, miR-365 mimic + morphine (miR-365 mimic) group, miR-365 inhibitor + morphine (miR-365 inhibitor) group and miR-365 negative control (NC) + morphine (miR-365 NC) group...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Jia-Rong Jheng, Kean-Seng Lau, Yueh-Wen Lan, Jim-Tong Horng
BACKGROUND: Due to limited coding capacity of viral genome, enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) co-opts host nuclear proteins for its replication. Upon ER stress, the ER-localized 90 kDa activating transcription factor 6 (p90ATF6) is proteolytically cleaved to produce the transcriptionally active amino-terminal 50 kDa (p50ATF6) product where it enters the nucleus to activate a subset of unfolded protein response and ER-associated degradation (also known as ERAD) genes. During EV-A71 infection, however, this p50ATF6 product was not detected in the nucleus, and its downstream target genes were not activated...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Jiro Hasegawa Situmorang, Hsun-Hsun Lin, Hsuan Lo, Chih-Chia Lai
BACKGROUND: Intake of ethanol (alcohol) has been shown to influence cardiovascular function; the underlying brain mechanism remains unclear. Noting that nitric oxide (NO) system in the CNS is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function, the present study examined the role of NO in medulla in ethanol-induced cardiovascular changes. METHODS: Ethanol was administered by oral gavage at dose of 3.2 g/kg once every day for 8 consecutive days. Changes in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in response to ethanol were measured by radiotelemetry method in freely moving female Sprague-Dawley rats...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Kimberly D Brewer, Genevieve M Weir, Iulia Dude, Christa Davis, Cathryn Parsons, Andrea Penwell, Rajkannan Rajagopalan, Leeladhar Sammatur, Chris V Bowen, Marianne M Stanford
BACKGROUND: Oil emulsions are commonly used as vaccine delivery platforms to facilitate slow release of antigen by forming a depot at the injection site. Antigen is trapped in the aqueous phase and as the emulsion degrades in vivo the antigen is passively released. DepoVax™ is a unique oil based delivery system that directly suspends the vaccine components in the oil diluent that forces immune cells to actively take up components from the formulation in the absence of passive release...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Yi-Tai Chou, Fu-Fei Hsu, Dun-Yao Hu, Ying-Chih Chen, Yuan-Hao Hsu, John T-A Hsu, Lee-Young Chau
BACKGROUND: Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes NADPH-dependent degradation of heme to liberate iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin. The interaction between HO and cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR), an electron donor, is essential for HO activity. HO-1 is a stress-inducible isoform whereas HO-2 is constitutively expressed. HO-1 induction is commonly seen in cancers and impacts disease progression, supporting the possibility of targeting HO-1 for cancer therapy. METHODS: We employed a cell-based bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assay to screen compounds with ability to inhibit HO-1/CPR interaction...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
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