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Journal of Biomedical Science

Linda Chia-Hui Yu
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disease which arises as a result of the interaction of genetic, environmental, barrier and microbial factors leading to chronic inflammation in the intestine. Patients with IBD had a higher risk of developing colorectal carcinoma (CRC), of which the subset was classified as colitis-associated cancers. Genetic polymorphism of innate immune receptors had long been considered a major risk factor for IBD, and the mutations were also recently observed in CRC. Altered microbial composition (termed microbiota dybiosis) and dysfunctional gut barrier manifested by epithelial hyperpermeability and high amount of mucosa-associated bacteria were observed in IBD and CRC patients...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Shu-Wen Wan, Betty A Wu-Hsieh, Yee-Shin Lin, Wen-Yu Chen, Yan Huang, Robert Anderson
Dengue virus, the causative agent of dengue disease which may have hemorrhagic complications, poses a global health threat. Among the numerous target cells for dengue virus in humans are monocytes, macrophages and mast cells which are important regulators of vascular integrity and which undergo dramatic cellular responses after infection by dengue virus. The strategic locations of these three cell types, inside blood vessels (monocytes) or outside blood vessels (macrophages and mast cells) allow them to respond to dengue virus infection with the production of both intracellular and secretory factors which affect virus replication, vascular permeability and/or leukocyte extravasation...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Magdalena Chmiela, Natalia Walczak, Karolina Rudnicka
Helicobacter pylori - (H. pylori) play a role in the pathogenesis of gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as gastric cancer. A possible involvement of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by H. pylori in the distribution of bacterial antigens through the gastric epithelial barrier and their role in the development of local and systemic host inflammatory and immune responses has been suggested. OMVs contain various biologically active compounds, which internalize into host cells affecting signaling pathways and promoting apoptosis of gastric epithelial and immunocompetent cells...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Yi-Chao Lee, Wan-Chen Huang, Jiann-Her Lin, Tzu-Jen Kao, Hui-Ching Lin, Kuen-Haur Lee, Hsin-Chuan Lin, Che-Kun James Shen, Wen-Chang Chang, Chi-Chen Huang
BACKGROUND: The brain predominantly expressed RING finger protein, Znf179, is known to be important for embryonic neuronal differentiation during brain development. Downregulation of Znf179 has been observed in motor neurons of adult mouse models for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), yet the molecular function of Znf179 in neurodegeneration has never been previously described. Znf179 contains the classical C3HC4 RING finger domain, and numerous proteins containing C3HC4 RING finger domain act as E3 ubiquitin ligases...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Huey-Ling Chen, Shang-Hsin Wu, Shu-Hao Hsu, Bang-Yu Liou, Hui-Ling Chen, Mei-Hwei Chang
BACKGROUND: Jaundice is a common symptom of inherited or acquired liver diseases or a manifestation of diseases involving red blood cell metabolism. Recent progress has elucidated the molecular mechanisms of bile metabolism, hepatocellular transport, bile ductular development, intestinal bile salt reabsorption, and the regulation of bile acids homeostasis. MAIN BODY: The major genetic diseases causing jaundice involve disturbances of bile flow. The insufficiency of bile salts in the intestines leads to fat malabsorption and fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Ya-Fei Xu, Ying-Qing Li, Na Liu, Qing-Mei He, Xin-Ran Tang, Xin Wen, Xiao-Jing Yang, Ying Sun, Jun Ma, Ling-Long Tang
BACKGROUND: Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a widespread phenomenon in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression that generates mRNAs with alternative 3'-untranslated regions (3'UTRs). APA contributes to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including cancer. However, the potential role of APA in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains largely unknown. METHODS: A strategy of sequencing APA sites (SAPAS) based on second-generation sequencing technology was carried out to explore the global patterns of APA sites and identify genes with tandem 3'UTRs in samples from 6 NPC and 6 normal nasopharyngeal epithelial tissue (NNET)...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Matteo M Pusceddu, Melanie G Gareau
BACKGROUND: Visceral pain is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, which can range from the mild discomfort of indigestion to the agonizing pain of renal colic. Regulation of visceral pain involves the spinal cord as well as higher order brain structures. Recent findings have linked the microbiota to gastrointestinal disorders characterized by abdominal pain suggesting the ability of microbes to modulate visceral hypersensitivity and nociception to pain. MAIN BODY: In this review we describe the neuroanatomical basis of visceral pain signaling and the existing evidence of its manipulation exerted by the gut microbiota...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Yah-Huei Wu-Chou, Tzu-Chao Hung, Yin-Ting Lin, Hsing-Wen Cheng, Ju-Li Lin, Chih-Hung Lin, Chung-Chih Yu, Kuo-Ting Chen, Tu-Hsueh Yeh, Yu-Ray Chen
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a dominantly inherited tumor predisposition syndrome that targets the peripheral nervous system. It is caused by mutations of the NF1 gene which serve as a negative regulator of the cellular Ras/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases) signaling pathway. Owing to the complexity in some parts of clinical diagnoses and the need for better understanding of its molecular relationships, a genetic characterization of this disorder will be helpful in the clinical setting...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Yu-Ting Weng, Ting Chien, I-I Kuan, Yijuang Chern
Psychiatric disorders (such as bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia) affect the lives of millions of individuals worldwide. Despite the tremendous efforts devoted to various types of psychiatric studies and rapidly accumulating genetic information, the molecular mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorder development remain elusive. Among the genes that have been implicated in schizophrenia and other mental disorders, disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) have been intensively investigated...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Jyh-Ming Liou, Po-Yueh Chen, Yu-Ting Kuo, Ming-Shiang Wu
In the face of rising prevalence of antibiotic resistance, susceptibility testing to provide personalized treatment is recommended prior to eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Yet, population specific treatment according to the local prevalence of antibiotic resistance may be an alternative if susceptibility testing is not available. In this article, we reviewed the global prevalence of primary antibiotic resistance and the efficacies of commonly used regimens in antibiotic susceptible and resistance strains...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Nádia Calvo Martins Okuyama, Fernando Cezar-Dos-Santos, Érica Romão Pereira, Kleber Paiva Trugilo, Guilherme Cesar Martelossi Cebinelli, Michelle Mota Sena, Ana Paula Lombardi Pereira, Adriano Martin Felis Aranome, Luis Fernando Lasaro Mangieri, Rodolfo Sanches Ferreira, Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe, Karen Brajão de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted virus in women worldwide. The persistence of the virus may cause warts that are considered benign lesions and low or high grade intraepithelial lesions (LSIL/HSIL). Immunological system plays an important role in the resolution of infections. In this context, we highlight the chemokines, which are important regulators in the development of viral infections and inflammation. Among which CXCL12 stands out, due to its pro-inflammatory features, acting as chemoattractant recruiting immune cells...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Wei-Lun Chang, Yi-Chun Yeh, Bor-Shyang Sheu
Although most H. pylori infectors are asymptomatic, some may develop serious disease, such as gastric adenocarcinoma, gastric high-grade B cell lymphoma and peptic ulcer disease. Epidemiological and basic studies have provided evidence that infection with H. pylori carrying specific virulence factors can lead to more severe outcome. The virulence factors that are associated with gastric adenocarcinoma development include the presence, expression intensity and types of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA, especially EPIYA-D type and multiple copies of EPIYA-C) and type IV secretion system (CagL polymorphism) responsible for its translocation into the host cells, the genotypes of vacuolating cytotoxin A (vacA, s1/i1/m1 type), and expression intensity of blood group antigen binding adhesin (BabA, low-producer or chimeric with BabB)...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Shih-Han Kao, Han-Tsang Wu, Kou-Juey Wu
Ubiquitination modulates a large repertoire of cellular functions and thus, dysregulation of the ubiquitin system results in multiple human diseases, including cancer. Ubiquitination requires an E3 ligase, which is responsible for substrate recognition and conferring specificity to ubiquitination. HUWE1 is a multifaceted HECT domain-containing ubiquitin E3 ligase, which catalyzes both mono-ubiquitination and K6-, K48- and K63-linked poly-ubiquitination of its substrates. Many of the substrates of HUWE1 play a crucial role in maintaining the homeostasis of cellular development...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Feng-Woei Tsay, Ping-I Hsu
Helicobacter pylori infection is the principal cause of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Recent studies have shown that it may interfere with many biological processes and determine or influence the occurrence of many diseases outside the stomach. Currently, the role of H. pylori in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and iron deficiency anemia is well documented. Emerging evidence suggests that it may also contribute to vitamin B12 deficiency, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic liver disease...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Nikki P Lee, Chung Man Chan, Lai Nar Tung, Hector K Wang, Simon Law
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant subtype of esophageal cancer worldwide and highly prevalent in less developed regions. Management of ESCC is challenging and involves multimodal treatments. Patient prognosis is generally poor especially for those diagnosed in advanced disease stage. One factor contributing to this clinical dismal is the incomplete understanding of disease mechanism, for which this situation is further compounded by the presence of other limiting factors for disease diagnosis, patient prognosis and treatments...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Kovit Pattanapanyasat, Ladawan Khowawisetsut, Ampaiwan Chuansumrit, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Kanchana Tangnararatchakit, Nopporn Apiwattanakul, Chonnamet Techasaensiri, Premrutai Thitilertdecha, Tipaporn Sae-Ung, Nattawat Onlamoon
BACKGROUND: B cells play an essential role during dengue viral infection. While a major expansion of antibody secreting cells (ASCs) was observed, the importance of these increased frequencies of ASCs remains unclear. The alteration of B cell subsets may result from the expression of tissue specific homing molecules leading to their mobilization and distribution to different target organs during acute dengue viral infection. METHODS: In this study, whole blood samples were obtained from thirty pediatric dengue-infected patients and ten healthy children and then stained with fluorochrome-conjugated monoclonal antibodies against CD3, CD14, CD19, CD20, CD21, CD27, CD38, CD45, CD138 and homing molecules of interest before analyzed by polychromatic flow cytometry...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Jianquan Zhao, Tiewei Lv, Junjun Quan, Weian Zhao, Jing Song, Zhuolin Li, Han Lei, Wei Huang, Longke Ran
BACKGROUND: Identify genes probably associated with chronic heart failure and predict potential target genes for dilated cardiomyopathy using bioinformatics analyses. METHODS: Gene expression profiles (series number GSE3585 and GSE42955) of cardiomyopathy patients and healthy controls were downloaded from the Expression Omnibus Gene (GEO) database. Differential expression of genes (DEGS) between the two groups of total 14 cardiomyopathy patients and 10 healthy controls were subsequently identified by limma package of R...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Ira Sharma, Avninder Singh, Fouzia Siraj, Sunita Saxena
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the lethal malignant tumors of the central nervous system. Despite advances made in understanding this complex disease, little has been achieved in improving clinical efficacy towards it. Factors such as chemokines play important role in shaping the tumor microenvironment which in turn plays a significant role in deciding course of tumor progression. In this study, we investigated the role of chemokine IL-8 in glioblastoma progression with particular emphasis on immunomodulation, cellular proliferation, invasion and vascular mimicry...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Victor Marinho, Thomaz Oliveira, Juliete Bandeira, Giovanny R Pinto, Anderson Gomes, Valéria Lima, Francisco Magalhães, Kaline Rocha, Carla Ayres, Valécia Carvalho, Bruna Velasques, Pedro Ribeiro, Marco Orsini, Victor Hugo Bastos, Daya Gupta, Silmar Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Studies at the molecular level aim to integrate genetic and neurobiological data to provide an increasingly detailed understanding of phenotypes related to the ability in time perception. MAIN TEXT: This study suggests that the polymorphisms genetic SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, 5HTR2A T102C, DRD2/ANKK1-Taq1A, SLC6A3 3'-UTR VNTR, COMT Val158Met, CLOCK genes and GABRB2 A/C as modification factor at neurochemical levels associated with several neurofunctional aspects, modifying the circadian rhythm and built-in cognitive functions in the timing...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Chun-Chia Cheng, Po-Nien Liao, Ai-Sheng Ho, Ken-Hong Lim, Jungshan Chang, Ying-Wen Su, Caleb Gon-Shen Chen, Ya-Wen Chiang, Bi-Ling Yang, Huan-Chau Lin, Yu-Cheng Chang, Chun-Chao Chang, Yi-Fang Chang
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells are capable of undergoing cell division after surviving cancer therapies, leading to tumor progression and recurrence. Inhibitory agents against cancer stem cells may be therapeutically used for efficiently eradicating tumors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the relevant driver genes that maintain cancer stemness in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and to discover effective therapeutic agents against these genes...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
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