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Clinical Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054924/pharmacotherapy-for-patients-with-obesity
#1
REVIEW
Kishore M Gadde, John W Apolzan, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
BACKGROUND: Although pharmacotherapy is not the cornerstone of obesity treatment, it is a valuable tool that could be considered for patients who have not had adequate benefit from lifestyle interventions or who have difficulty maintaining initial weight loss over longer periods. CONTENT: This review focuses on the role of antiobesity drugs, the mechanisms by which the drugs work, potential pharmacological targets in the neural control of food intake and regulation of body weight, the history of antiobesity drugs, a summary of efficacy and safety data from clinical trials, and the clinical application of pharmacotherapy...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054923/activity-of-the-calcineurin-pathway-in-patients-on-the-liver-transplantation-waiting-list-factors-of-variability-and-response-to-tacrolimus-inhibition
#2
Ofelia Noceti, Lucie Pouché, Patricia Esperón, Daniela Lens, Marcelo Vital, Cristina Touriño, Solange Gerona, Jean Baptiste Woillard, Pierre Marquet
BACKGROUND: We sought to evaluate, in patients on a liver transplantation waiting list, potential biomarkers of the base calcineurin pathway activity with use of a new model of nonstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and ex vivo response to tacrolimus (TAC). METHODS: The calcineurin pathway activity was explored ex vivo in stimulated and nonstimulated PBMC from 19 patients. The inhibition of NFATC1(+) translocation to PBMC, expression of intracellular IL-2, and membrane CD25 in different T-cell subsets were measured by multiparametric flow cytometry before and after exposure to TAC...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054922/protein-turnover-measurements-in-human-serum-by-serial-immunoaffinity-lc-ms-ms
#3
Vahid Farrokhi, Xiaoying Chen, Hendrik Neubert
BACKGROUND: The half-life of target proteins is frequently an important parameter in mechanistic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling of biotherapeutics. Clinical studies for accurate measurement of physiologically relevant protein turnover can reduce the uncertainty in PK/PD model-based predictions, for example, of the therapeutic dose and dosing regimen in first-in-human clinical trials. METHODS: We used a targeted mass spectrometry work flow based on serial immunoaffinity enrichment of multiple human serum proteins from a [5,5,5-(2)H3]-L-leucine tracer pulse-chase study in healthy volunteers...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046332/adipose-tissue-lpl-methylation-is-associated-with-triglyceride-concentrations-in-the-metabolic-syndrome
#4
Daniel Castellano-Castillo, Isabel Moreno-Indias, José Carlos Fernández-García, Juan Alcaide-Torres, Inmaculada Moreno-Santos, Luis Ocaña, Enrique Gluckman, Francisco Tinahones, María Isabel Queipo-Ortuño, Fernando Cardona
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is one of the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. DNA methylation may be modified by environmental and nutritional factors. Thus, epigenetics could potentially provide a mechanism to explain the etiology of metabolic disorders, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to analyze the level of DNA methylation of several lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-promoter-CpG dinucleotides in a CpG island region and relate this to the gene and protein expression levels in human visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from individuals with and without MetS...
October 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046331/comprehensive-age-and-sex-99th-percentiles-for-a-high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-i-assay
#5
LETTER
Joel Estis, Alan H B Wu, John Todd, Jeff Bishop, Johanna Sandlund, Peter A Kavsak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046330/systematic-review-and-metaanalysis-comparing-the-bias-and-accuracy-of-the-modification-of-diet-in-renal-disease-and-chronic-kidney-disease-epidemiology-collaboration-equations-in-community-based-populations
#6
REVIEW
Emily C McFadden, Jennifer A Hirst, Jan Y Verbakel, Julie H McLellan J, F D Richard Hobbs, Richard J Stevens, Chris A O'Callaghan, Daniel S Lasserson
BACKGROUND: The majority of patients with chronic kidney disease are diagnosed and monitored in primary care. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a key marker of renal function, but direct measurement is invasive; in routine practice, equations are used for estimated GFR (eGFR) from serum creatinine. We systematically assessed bias and accuracy of commonly used eGFR equations in populations relevant to primary care. CONTENT: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies comparing measured GFR (mGFR) with eGFR in adult populations comparable to primary care and reporting both the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations based on standardized creatinine measurements...
October 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046329/copy-number-variations-in-serum-amyloid-a-play-a-role-in-the-determination-of-its-individual-baseline-concentrations
#7
LETTER
Jie Zhang, Wei Guo, Changgen Shi, Yan Zhang, Chunyan Zhang, Lei Zhang, Rongfang Wang, Baishen Pan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038157/increased-plasma-ferritin-concentration-and-low-grade-inflammation-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#8
Ingrid W Moen, Helle K M Bergholdt, Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Christina Ellervik
BACKGROUND: It is unknown why increased plasma ferritin concentration predicts all-cause mortality. As low-grade inflammation and increased plasma ferritin concentration are associated with all-cause mortality, we hypothesized that increased plasma ferritin concentration is genetically associated with low-grade inflammation. METHODS: We investigated whether increased plasma ferritin concentration is associated with low-grade inflammation [i.e., increased concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement component 3 (C3)] in 62537 individuals from the Danish general population...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038156/human-toxicity-caused-by-indole-and-indazole-carboxylate-synthetic-cannabinoid-receptor-agonists-from-horizon-scanning-to-notification
#9
Simon L Hill, Michael Dunn, Céline Cano, Suzannah J Harnor, Ian R Hardcastle, Johann Grundlingh, Paul I Dargan, David M Wood, Simon Tucker, Thomas Bartram, Simon H L Thomas
BACKGROUND: The emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS), particularly synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRA), has involved hundreds of potentially harmful chemicals in a highly dynamic international market challenging users', clinicians', and regulators' understanding of what circulating substances are causing harm. We describe a toxicovigilance system for NPS that predicted the UK emergence and identified the clinical toxicity caused by novel indole and indazole carboxylate SCRA...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038155/objective-metabolomics-research
#10
Mika Ala-Korpela
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038154/deactivated-crispr-associated-protein-9-for-minor-allele-enrichment-in-cell-free-dna
#11
Amin Aalipour, Jonathan C Dudley, Seung-Min Park, Surya Murty, Jacob J Chabon, Evan A Boyle, Maximilian Diehn, Sanjiv S Gambhir
BACKGROUND: Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) diagnostics are emerging as a new paradigm of disease monitoring and therapy management. The clinical utility of these diagnostics is relatively limited by a low signal-to-noise ratio, such as with low allele frequency (AF) mutations in cancer. While enriching for rare alleles to increase their AF before sample analysis is one strategy that can greatly improve detection capability, current methods are limited in their generalizability, ease of use, and applicability to point mutations...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038153/prospective-validation-of-a-biomarker-based-rule-out-strategy-for-functionally-relevant-coronary-artery-disease
#12
Joan E Walter, Ursina Honegger, Christian Puelacher, Deborah Mueller, Max Wagener, Nicolas Schaerli, Ivo Strebel, Raphael Twerenbold, Jasper Boeddinghaus, Thomas Nestelberger, Lorraine Sazgary, Stella Marbot, Jeanne du Fay de Lavallaz, Christoph Kaiser, Stefan Osswald, Damian Wild, Katharina Rentsch, Michael Zellweger, Tobias Reichlin, Christian Mueller
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to prospectively advance a rule-out strategy for functionally significant coronary artery disease (CAD) by use of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) from bench to bedside, by application of a 3-step approach: validation in serum, correlation in plasma, and application on a clinical platform. METHODS: Patients without known CAD referred for rest/stress myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography/computer tomography (MPI-SPECT/CT) were assigned to 3 consecutive cohorts: validation, correlation, and application...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038152/harmonization-of-viral-load-testing-with-the-first-international-standard-for-bk-dna
#13
LETTER
Sheila Govind, Neil Berry, Neil Almond, Clare Morris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038151/obesity-and-cancer-evidence-impact-and-future-directions
#14
REVIEW
Graham A Colditz, Lindsay L Peterson
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence, particularly from prospective epidemiologic studies but with additional support from animal models and mechanistic studies, supported conclusions in 2016 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)(3) in their review of the preventive effects of weight control on cancer risk. CONTENT: The workgroup concluded that obesity is causally related to cancer at 13 anatomic sites (esophagus: adenocarcinoma; gastric cardia; colon and rectum; liver; gallbladder; pancreas; breast: postmenopausal; uterine endometrial; ovary; kidney: renal cell; meningioma; thyroid; and multiple myeloma)...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038150/deep-learning-makes-its-way-to-the-clinical-laboratory
#15
EDITORIAL
Ronald Jackups
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038149/partitioning-the-genetic-architecture-of-plasma-lipoprotein-a-and-kringle-iv-type-2-repeats-implications-for-therapeutic-lowering
#16
EDITORIAL
Patrick R Lawler, Samia Mora
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038148/the-potential-and-pitfalls-of-a-dye-assisted-paper-based-assay-for-blood-grouping
#17
Steven R Sloan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038147/imputation-of-baseline-ldl-cholesterol-concentration-in-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia-on-statins-or-ezetimibe
#18
Isabelle Ruel, Sumayah Aljenedil, Iman Sadri, Émilie de Varennes, Robert A Hegele, Patrick Couture, Jean Bergeron, Eric Wanneh, Alexis Baass, Robert Dufour, Daniel Gaudet, Diane Brisson, Liam R Brunham, Gordon A Francis, Lubomira Cermakova, James M Brophy, Arnold Ryomoto, G B John Mancini, Jacques Genest
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most frequent genetic disorder seen clinically and is characterized by increased LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (>95th percentile), family history of increased LDL-C, premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the patient or in first-degree relatives, presence of tendinous xanthomas or premature corneal arcus, or presence of a pathogenic mutation in the LDLR, PCSK9, or APOB genes. A diagnosis of FH has important clinical implications with respect to lifelong risk of ASCVD and requirement for intensive pharmacological therapy...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038146/use-of-metabolomics-in-improving-assessment-of-dietary-intake
#19
REVIEW
Marta Guasch-Ferré, Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Frank B Hu
BACKGROUND: Nutritional metabolomics is rapidly evolving to integrate nutrition with complex metabolomics data to discover new biomarkers of nutritional exposure and status. CONTENT: The purpose of this review is to provide a broad overview of the measurement techniques, study designs, and statistical approaches used in nutrition metabolomics, as well as to describe the current knowledge from epidemiologic studies identifying metabolite profiles associated with the intake of individual nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038145/oncometabolites-a-new-paradigm-for-oncology-metabolism-and-the-clinical-laboratory
#20
REVIEW
Rebecca R J Collins, Khushbu Patel, William C Putnam, Payal Kapur, Dinesh Rakheja
BACKGROUND: Pediatric clinical laboratories commonly measure tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates for screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of specific inborn errors of metabolism, such as organic acidurias. In the past decade, the same tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites have been implicated and studied in cancer. The accumulation of these metabolites in certain cancers not only serves as a biomarker but also directly contributes to cellular transformation, therefore earning them the designation of oncometabolites...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
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