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Clinical Chemistry

Evangelos Giannitsis, Hugo A Katus
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with high all-cause and PE-related mortality and requires individualized management. After confirmation of PE, a refined risk stratification is particularly warranted among normotensive patients. Previous prognostic models favored combinations of echocardiography or computed tomography suggestive of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction together with biomarkers of RV dysfunction (natriuretic peptides) or myocardial injury (cardiac troponins) to identify candidates for thrombolysis or embolectomy...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Noemi Pavo, Raphael Wurm, Stephanie Neuhold, Christopher Adlbrecht, Greisa Vila, Guido Strunk, Martin Clodi, Michael Resl, Helmut Brath, Rudolf Prager, Anton Luger, Richard Pacher, Martin Hülsmann
BACKGROUND: Diabetes has been linked epidemiologically to increased cancer incidence and mortality. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is increased in patients with diabetes and has recently been linked to the occurrence of cancer. We investigated whether circulating GDF-15 concentrations can predict the incidence of malignant diseases in a diabetic patient cohort already facing increased risk for cancer. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled a total of 919 patients with type 2 diabetes and no history of malignant disease, who were clinically followed up for 60 months...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Kenneth Kinzler, Bert Vogelstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Gernot Kriegshäuser, Wagner Carina, Harald Mangge, Gabriele Halwachs-Baumann, Dietmar Enko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Christina W Chen, Christiane Drechsler, Pirianthini Suntharalingam, S Ananth Karumanchi, Christoph Wanner, Anders H Berg
BACKGROUND: Monitoring of glycemic control with hemoglobin A1c (A1c) in hemodialysis patients may be compromised by anemia and erythropoietin therapy. Glycated albumin (GA) is an alternative measure of glycemic control but is not commonly used because of insufficient evidence of association to clinical outcomes. We tested whether GA measurements were associated with mortality in hemodialysis patients with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The German Diabetes and Dialysis Study (4D) investigated effects of atorvastatin on survival in 1255 patients with diabetes mellitus receiving hemodialysis...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Lieke J J Klinkenberg, Karin Wildi, Noreen van der Linden, Imre W K Kouw, Marijke Niens, Raphael Twerenbold, Maria Rubini Gimenez, Christian Puelacher, Jean Daniel Neuhaus, Petra Hillinger, Thomas Nestelberger, Jasper Boeddinghaus, Karin Grimm, Zaid Sabti, Judith A P Bons, Jeroen D E van Suijlen, Frans E S Tan, Joop Ten Kate, Otto Bekers, Luc J C van Loon, Marja P van Dieijen-Visser, Christian Mueller, Steven J R Meex
BACKGROUND: Interpretation of serial high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) measurements for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) assumes random fluctuation of hs-cTn around an individual's homeostatic set point. The aim of this study was to challenge this diagnostic concept. METHODS: Study 1 examined the presence of a diurnal hs-cTn rhythm by hourly blood sampling, day and night, in 24 individuals without a recent history of AMI. Study 2 assessed morning vs evening diagnostic accuracy of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI in a prospective multicenter diagnostic study of 2782 unselected patients, presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Anu Marahatta, Vandana Megaraj, Patrick T McGann, Russell E Ware, Kenneth D R Setchell
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a life-threatening blood disorder characterized by the presence of sickle-shaped erythrocytes. Hydroxyurea is currently the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment and there is a need for a convenient method to monitor compliance and hydroxyurea concentrations, especially in pediatric SCA patients. METHODS: We describe a novel approach to the determination of hydroxyurea concentrations in dried whole blood collected on DMPK-C cards or volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) devices...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Pamela L Lutsey, Christina M Parrinello, Jeffrey R Misialek, Andy N Hoofnagle, Clark M Henderson, Thomas J Laha, Erin D Michos, John H Eckfeldt, Elizabeth Selvin
BACKGROUND: Quantifying the variability of biomarkers is important, as high within-person variability can lead to misclassification of individuals. Short-term variability of important markers of vitamin D metabolism is relatively unknown. METHODS: A repeatability study was conducted in 160 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants (60% female, 28% black, mean age 76 years). Fasting serum was drawn at 2 time points, a median of 6 (range 3-13) weeks apart...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Christopher K Ellison, Youting Sun, Grant Hogg, Jesse Fox, Helen Tao, Erin McCarthy, Bright Sagoe, Mostafa A Azab, Amin R Mazloom, John Tynan, Timothy Burcham, Sung K Kim, Dirk van den Boom, Mathias Ehrich, Taylor J Jensen
BACKGROUND: Current methods for noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) ascertain fetal aneuploidies using either direct counting measures of DNA fragments from specific genomic regions or relative measures of single nucleotide polymorphism frequencies. Alternatively, the ratios of paralogous sequence pairs were predicted to reflect fetal aneuploidy. We developed an NIPT assay that uses paralog sequences to enable noninvasive detection of fetal trisomy 21 (T21) and trisomy 18 (T18) using cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from maternal plasma...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Robert M Cohen, Robert S Franco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Nicole White-Al Habeeb, Vathany Kulasingam, Eleftherios P Diamandis, George M Yousef, Gregory J Tsongalis, Louis Vermeulen, Ziqiang Zhu, Suzanne Kamel-Reid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Moniek P M de Maat, Marianne van Schie, Cornelis Kluft, Frank W G Leebeek, Piet Meijer
BACKGROUND: Levels of hemostasis factors vary between and within individuals as a result of genetic and environmental factors and analytical variation of the assays. The current state of the art for defining analytical precision requirements for analytical testing is based on this between- and within-individual (biological) variation. However, information on biological variation in hemostasis variables is still limited.The aim of this study was to determine the biological variation of coagulation variables involved in thrombosis and bleeding to provide a recommendation for performance specifications and to assess whether hemostasis assays fulfill the recommendation...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Peter M Clark, Jamie L Duke, Deborah Ferriola, Valia Bravo-Egana, Tunde Vago, Aniqa Hassan, Anna Papazoglou, Dimitri Monos
BACKGROUND: Routine, high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping by next generation sequencing within clinical immunogenetics laboratories can now provide the full-length gene sequence characterization of fully phased HLA alleles. This powerful technique provides insights into HLA variation beyond the traditionally characterized antigen recognition domain, providing sequence annotation across the entire gene including untranslated and intronic regions and may be used to characterize novel alleles from massively parallel sequencing runs...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Santiago Rodriguez-Segade, Javier Rodriguez Garcia, José M García-López, Francisco Gude, Felipe F Casanueva, Santiago Rs-Alonso, Félix Camiña
BACKGROUND: Several hematological alterations are associated with altered hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c). However, there have been no reports of their influence on the rates of exceeding standard Hb A1c thresholds by patients for whom Hb A1c determination is requested in clinical practice. METHODS: The initial data set included the first profiles (complete blood counts, Hb A1c, fasting glucose, and renal and hepatic parameters) of all adult patients for whom such a profile was requested between 2008 and 2013 inclusive...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Sridevi Devaraj, Alamelu Venkatachalam, Xinpu Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Carl T Wittwer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Kirsten J M van Nimwegen, Ronald A van Soest, Joris A Veltman, Marcel R Nelen, Gert Jan van der Wilt, Lisenka E L M Vissers, Janneke P C Grutters
BACKGROUND: The substantial technological advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS), combined with dropping costs, have allowed for a swift diffusion of NGS applications in clinical settings. Although several commercial parties report to have broken the $1000 barrier for sequencing an entire human genome, a valid cost overview for NGS is currently lacking. This study provides a complete, transparent and up-to-date overview of the total costs of different NGS applications. METHODS: Cost calculations for targeted gene panels (TGP), whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) were based on the Illumina NextSeq500, HiSeq4000, and HiSeqX5 platforms, respectively...
September 14, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Thijs C van Holten, Frans A L van der Horst, Sebastiaan J Huisman, Ference J Loupatty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Tobias M Gorges, Andra Kuske, Katharina Röck, Oliver Mauermann, Volkmar Müller, Sven Peine, Karl Verpoort, Vendula Novosadova, Mikael Kubista, Sabine Riethdorf, Klaus Pantel
BACKGROUND: Transcriptome analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) holds great promise to unravel the biology of cancer cell dissemination and identify expressed genes and signaling pathways relevant to therapeutic interventions. METHODS: CTCs were enriched based on their EpCAM expression (CellSearch®) or by size and deformability (Parsortix™), identified by EpCAM and/or pan-keratin-specific antibodies, and isolated for single cell multiplex RNA profiling. RESULTS: Distinct breast and prostate CTC expression signatures could be discriminated from RNA profiles of leukocytes...
September 14, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Roy W A Peake, Deborah L Marsden, Olaf A Bodamer, Michael H Gelb, David S Millington, Frits Wijburg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
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