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Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology

Raymond C Pitts, Craig W Cummings, Carol Cummings, Rebecca L Woodcock, Christine E Hughes
Methylphenidate has been shown to decrease impulsive choice (increase choices of a larger more delayed reinforcer). The purpose of this study was to investigate 2 potential behavioral mechanisms of this effect: a drug-induced change in control by reinforcement delay (Experiment 1) and/or by reinforcement amount (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, pigeons responded under a rapid-acquisition, concurrent-chains choice procedure involving delay to reinforcement; the option with the shorter delay varied unpredictably across sessions...
September 26, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Ian A Mendez, Luis Carcoba, Paul J Wellman, Antonio Cepeda-Benito
Smoking to control body weight is an obstacle to smoking cessation, particularly in western cultures where diets are often rich in calories derived from fat sources. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous nicotine administration on meal patterns in rats fed a high-fat diet. Male rats were housed in cages designed to continuously monitor food intake and implanted with minipumps to deliver approximately 1.00 mg/kg/day of nicotine or saline. Meal patterns and body weights were assessed for 2 weeks of treatment and 1 week posttreatment...
September 19, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Emma S Rathkey, Alison McCallum
Prescription stimulants, including methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin) and amphetamine compounds (e.g., dextroamphetamine; Adderall), have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are classified by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration as Schedule II medications because of their high potential for abuse and dependence (Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice, 2015). Despite the potential health and judicial consequences, misuse of prescription stimulants, typically defined as taking stimulants without a valid prescription, or use of stimulants other than as prescribed, has become a serious problem in the United States and abroad, especially on college campuses...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Mary M Sweeney, Olga Rass, Patrick S Johnson, Eric C Strain, Meredith S Berry, Hoa T Vo, Marc J Fishman, Cynthia A Munro, George W Rebok, Miriam Z Mintzer, Matthew W Johnson
Individuals with substance use disorders have shown deficits in the ability to implement future intentions, called prospective memory. Deficits in prospective memory and working memory, a critical underlying component of prospective memory, likely contribute to substance use treatment failures. Thus, improvement of prospective memory and working memory in substance use patients is an innovative target for intervention. We sought to develop a feasible and valid prospective memory training program that incorporates working memory training and may serve as a useful adjunct to substance use disorder treatment...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Krysten W Bold, Lisa M Fucito, William R Corbin, Kelly S DeMartini, Robert F Leeman, Henry R Kranzler, Stephanie S O'Malley
Heavy drinking among young adults is a serious public health problem. Naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, has been shown to reduce drinking in young adults compared to placebo and can be taken on a targeted (i.e., as needed) basis. Understanding risk factors for drinking and naltrexone effects within-person in young adults may help to optimize the use of targeted naltrexone. The current study was a secondary analysis of daily diary data from 127 (n = 40 female) young adults (age 18-25) enrolled in a double-blind clinical trial of daily (25 mg) plus targeted (25 mg) naltrexone versus placebo...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Serguei V S Pakhomov, Wrenda Teeple, Anne M Mills, Michael Kotlyar
Mild-to-moderate impairment in frontally mediated functions such as sustained attention, working memory, and inhibition have been found to occur during tobacco withdrawal and may present a barrier to successful cessation. These findings have led to studies evaluating cessation treatments that target nicotine withdrawal related cognitive impairment. The instruments currently used to assess cognitive function provide detailed and specific information but have limitations including being time consuming, cumbersome, anxiety provoking, and having poor ecological validity...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
David S Jacobs, Stephen J Kohut, Shan Jiang, Spyros P Nikas, Alexandros Makriyannis, Jack Bergman
Recent clinical and preclinical research has suggested that cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) have interactive effects on measures of cognition; however, the nature of these interactions is not yet fully characterized. To address this, we investigated the effects of Δ9-THC and CBD independently and in combination with proposed therapeutic dose ratios of 1:1 and 1:3 Δ9-THC:CBD in adult rhesus monkeys (n = 6) performing a stop signal task (SST). Additionally, the development of tolerance to the effects of Δ9-THC on SST performance was evaluated by determining the effects of acutely administered Δ9-THC (0...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Rubin Khoddam, Adam M Leventhal
The present study tested the hypothesis that teens who engage in conduct problems are more likely to use substances because they engage in fewer alternative reinforcing (i.e., pleasurable) substance-free activities and more complementary reinforcing substance-associated activities. In a cross-sectional, correlational design, 9th grade students (N = 3,383; mean age = 14.6 years) in Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. completed surveys in 2013 measuring conduct problems (e.g., stealing, lying, getting in fights); alternative and complementary reinforcement; use of a number of licit, illicit, and prescription drugs; and other cofactors...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Samantha G Farris, Jane Metrik
Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2...
August 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Mikhail N Koffarnus, Matthew W Johnson, Daisy G Y Thompson-Lake, Michael J Wesley, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague, Warren K Bickel
Cocaine users have a higher incidence of risky sexual behavior and HIV infection than nonusers. Our aim was to measure whether safer sex discount rates-a measure of the likelihood of having immediate unprotected sex versus waiting to have safer sex-differed between controls and cocaine users of varying severity. Of the 162 individuals included in the primary data analyses, 69 met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) criteria for cocaine dependence, 29 were recreational cocaine users who did not meet the dependence criteria, and 64 were controls...
August 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Andrea M Robinson, Ryan T Lacy, Justin C Strickland, Charlotte P Magee, Mark A Smith
Social learning theories of drug use propose that drug use is influenced by the behavior of peers. We previously reported that cocaine self-administration under limited-access conditions can be either facilitated or inhibited by social contact, depending on the behavior of a peer. The purpose of this study was to determine whether social contact influences cocaine self-administration under conditions that are more representative of problematic patterns of drug use. Male rats were assigned to either isolated or pair-housed conditions in which a social partner either had access to cocaine or did not have access to cocaine...
August 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Marisa E Marraccini, Lisa L Weyandt, Joseph S Rossi, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir
Increasing numbers of adults, particularly college students, are misusing prescription stimulants primarily for cognitive/academic enhancement, so it is critical to explore whether empirical findings support neurocognitive benefits of prescription stimulants. Previous meta-analytic studies have supported small benefits from prescription stimulants for the cognitive domains of inhibitory control and memory; however, no meta-analytic studies have examined the effects on processing speed or the potential impairment on other domains of cognition, including planning, decision-making, and cognitive perseveration...
August 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Albert Garcia-Romeu, Brennan Kersgaard, Peter H Addy
Hallucinogens fall into several different classes, as broadly defined by pharmacological mechanism of action, and chemical structure. These include psychedelics, entactogens, dissociatives, and other atypical hallucinogens. Although these classes do not share a common primary mechanism of action, they do exhibit important similarities in their ability to occasion temporary but profound alterations of consciousness, involving acute changes in somatic, perceptual, cognitive, and affective processes. Such effects likely contribute to their recreational use...
August 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
B Levi Bolin, Joseph L Alcorn, Anna R Reynolds, Joshua A Lile, Craig R Rush
Drug-discrimination procedures empirically evaluate the control that internal drug states exert over behavior. They provide a highly selective method to investigate the neuropharmacological underpinnings of the interoceptive effects of drugs. Historically, drug discrimination has been one of the most widely used assays in the field of behavioral pharmacology. Drug-discrimination procedures have also been adapted for use with humans and are conceptually similar to preclinical drug-discrimination techniques in that a behavior is differentially reinforced contingent on the presence or absence of a specific interoceptive drug stimulus...
August 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Nancy D Campbell
Behavioral pharmacology emerged in the early to mid-20th century as an experimental and observational science, helping to consolidate an empirically based psychological science of behavior. Behavioral psychologists came to play significant roles in toxicology, neuropharmacology, and psychopharmacology. This article traces the first 3 decades of American Psychological Association Division 28. Sources include the Division 28 Oral History Project; formal interviews conducted by the author in the early 2000s with behavioral, experimental, and clinical pharmacologists; and the archived newsletters of Division 28...
August 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
William W Stoops, Stacey C Sigmon, Suzette M Evans
This is an introduction to the special issue "50th Anniversary of APA Division 28: The Past, Present, and Future of Psychopharmacology and Substance Abuse." Taken together, the scholarly contributions included in this special issue serve as a testament to the important work conducted by our colleagues over the past five decades. Division 28 and its members have advanced and disseminated knowledge on the behavioral effects of drugs, informed efforts to prevent and treat substance abuse, and influenced education and policy issues more generally...
August 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Jason J Ramirez, Ashley A Dennhardt, Scott A Baldwin, James G Murphy, Kristen P Lindgren
Behavioral economic demand curve indices of alcohol consumption reflect decisions to consume alcohol at varying costs. Although these indices predict alcohol-related problems beyond established predictors, little is known about the determinants of elevated demand. Two cognitive constructs that may underlie alcohol demand are alcohol-approach inclinations and drinking identity. The aim of this study was to evaluate implicit and explicit measures of these constructs as predictors of alcohol demand curve indices...
July 4, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Melissa D Blank, Alison B Breland, Paul T Enlow, Christina Duncan, Aaron Metzger, Caroline O Cobb
A basic tenet of empirical research on cigarette smoking behavior is the systematic assessment of patterns of use. However, the large majority of extant research relies on smokers' retrospective reports of their average number of cigarettes per day (CPD), a measure that may be variable in terms of reliability and validity. Using data from 3 previously published studies of non-treatment-seeking daily smokers (combined N = 89), this analysis examined the reliability of self-reported CPD, the consistency of returned cigarette butts each day over 4 consecutive 24-hr periods, the validity of self-reported CPD compared with returned cigarette butts, and the relationship of CPD and returned cigarette butts to toxicant exposure...
June 27, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
John B Correa, Thomas H Brandon
Cross-sectional and experimental research has shown that female smokers use cigarettes to manage dietary restraint and body image dissatisfaction. The goal of this study was to investigate the cross-motivational impact of food and cigarettes by comparing attentional bias to smoking images against other images (food and jewelry) and testing how in vivo stimuli (cigarettes, food, and jewelry) affect attentional bias to these images. Thirty-five female smokers completed 3 image-viewing tasks during which they viewed images containing smoking, food, and jewelry pictorial stimuli...
June 23, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Lucy Albertella, Mike E Le Pelley, Jan Copeland
This study examined the relationship between cannabis use, sex, and attentional inhibition in a sample of 325 young Australians (194 women and 131 men) aged 14 to 24 years. Participants completed an online assessment, which included self-report measures of alcohol and other drug use, psychological distress, schizotypy, and location-based negative priming. Participants who had never used cannabis (n = 163) were compared with occasional (n = 118) and frequent (n = 44) cannabis users, with frequent use being defined as having used cannabis at least weekly in the past 6 months...
June 23, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
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