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Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology

Cecile A Marczinski, Amy L Stamates, Sarah F Maloney
Consumers of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) are more likely to drive while impaired when compared to alcohol alone consumers. In addition, acute tolerance to the internal cues of feelings of intoxication is known to contribute to maladaptive decisions to drive while impaired. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether there is differential development of acute tolerance for AmED versus alcohol alone for ratings of willingness to drive after alcohol consumption. Social drinkers (n = 12) attended 4 separate sessions where they received alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination...
January 15, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Alexandra M Mellis, Sarah E Snider, Warren K Bickel
Reading experimenter-provided narratives of negative income shock has been previously demonstrated to increase impulsivity, as measured by discounting of delayed rewards. We hypothesized that writing these narratives would potentiate their effects of negative income shock on decision-making more than simply reading them. In the current study, 193 cigarette-smoking individuals from Amazon Mechanical Turk were assigned to either read an experimenter-provided narrative or self-generate a narrative describing either the negative income shock of job loss or a neutral condition of job transfer...
January 15, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Jani Kajanoja, Noora M Scheinin, Max Karukivi, Linnea Karlsson, Hasse Karlsson
Studies on the subjective effects of antidepressants suggest that they may not only improve depressed mood, but as an adverse effect also cause "emotional blunting." This phenomenon is poorly understood and little studied. The aim of this study was to examine the association of serotonergic antidepressant use and subjective emotional awareness. Emotional awareness was assessed using the Difficulty Identifying Feelings subscale from the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Fifty-seven individuals on antidepressant medication and 441 controls were compared...
January 15, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Jillian M Rung, Gregory J Madden
Steep delay discounting, or rapid devaluation of future outcomes, is one mechanism that can account for the chronic selection of smaller-sooner over larger-later outcomes; that is, impulsive choice. Because steep delay discounting is correlated with maladaptive behavior, researchers have explored methods for reducing discounting. One empirically supported method is episodic future thinking (EFT), or vividly imagining one's future before completing the discounting task. However, EFT procedures may include demand characteristics, which could account for some its beneficial effects...
January 11, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Dezarie Moskal, Stephen A Maisto, Martin De Vita, Joseph W Ditre
Research suggests one determinant of alcohol consumption may be physical pain, but there is no empirical evidence that pain has a causal effect on drinking. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to test experimental pain as a determinant of several alcohol consumption proxies: self-reported urge to drink, intention to consume alcohol, and alcohol demand. This study also was designed to test negative affect as a mediator of the effects of pain on alcohol use proxies. We hypothesized that participants randomized to experimental pain induction (vs...
January 11, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Andrew T Voss, Kathryn E Soltis, Ashley A Dennhardt, Matthew P Martens, James G Murphy
Behavioral economic measures of alcohol reward value and future orientation have received support as predictors of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and response to intervention. Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) have been shown to be a significant mediator between a variety of risk factors and alcohol-related problems. The current article examines direct and mediating associations between measures of alcohol reward value (proportionate substance-related activity participation and enjoyment) and future orientation, use of PBS, and alcohol-related problems...
January 11, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Amy L Stamates, Cathy Lau-Barraco
Heightened impulsivity is a risk factor for problematic alcohol use among emerging adults. However, recent literature suggests that impulsivity is comprised of several facets that have shown differential relationships with alcohol use versus alcohol-related problems. Previous reviews have noted the bivariate associations between facets and alcohol use outcomes, but have not honed in on which facets may explain more variance in alcohol-related outcomes once other facets are accounted for. As such, certain facets may be more relevant than others in predicting alcohol-related harms among emerging adults...
December 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Jessica Weafer, Joshua C Gray, Kyle Hernandez, Abraham A Palmer, James MacKillop, Harriet de Wit
Poor inhibitory control is a known risk factor for substance use disorders, making it a priority to identify the determinants of these deficits. The aim of the current study was to identify genetic associations with inhibitory control using the stop signal task in a large sample (n = 934) of healthy young adults of European ancestry. We genotyped the subjects genome-wide and then used a hierarchical approach in which we tested seven a priori single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with stop signal task performance, approximately 9,000 SNPs designated as high-value addiction (HVA) markers by the SmokeScreen array, and approximately five million genotyped and imputed SNPs, followed by a gene-based association analysis using the resultant p values...
December 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Amy L Stamates, Cathy Lau-Barraco
The present study primarily sought to (a) determine the effects of environmental context on subjective ratings of craving for alcohol and caffeinated alcohol beverages (CAB) and (b) test inhibitory control, a state behavioral aspect of impulsivity, as a mediator of the association between context and craving in a sample of consumers of CAB. A secondary aim was to examine the associations between trait impulsivity and subjective craving for alcohol and CAB. Participants were 143 (67.1% female) college CAB drinkers...
December 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Ramey G Monem, Mark T Fillmore
Attentional bias to alcohol-related stimuli is believed to be an important contributor to the development and maintenance of drug abuse. There is a considerable body of research examining attentional bias, much of which has typically utilized image-display tasks as a means to assess the phenomenon. Little, however, is known about the nature of this bias in an individual's natural environment. The current study sought to implement a novel approach to assessing attentional bias in vivo. Participants wore portable eye-tracking glasses that recorded video from their point of view and measured fixation time to objects they observed...
December 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Brent A Moore, Frank D Buono, Destiny M B Printz, Daniel P Lloyd, David A Fiellin, Christopher J Cutter, Richard S Schottenfeld, Declan T Barry
The Recovery Line is an automated, computer-based intervention based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) designed to provide real-time assistance by phone for patients in methadone maintenance. Preliminary efficacy findings were promising, however, as with other computer-based systems for substance use disorder, patient system use was less than recommended. Development and evaluation of system functions to increase patient engagement and use is needed. Thus, we conducted two randomized trials to evaluate system functions designed to increase patient use of the Recovery Line among methadone-maintained patients with continued illicit drug use...
December 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
David P Jarmolowicz, Amanda S Bruce, Morgan Glusman, Seung-Lark Lim, Sharon Lynch, Joanie Thelen, Delwyn Catley, Nicole Zieber, Derek D Reed, Jared M Bruce
Although effective disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) are available for individuals suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS), many patients fail to take their recommended medications. Unlike medications that provide immediate relief from existing symptoms, DMTs decrease the probability of future symptoms (i.e., a probabilistic benefit) while concurrently carrying an appreciable risk of immediate side effects (i.e., a probabilistic cost). Prior research has shown that both the probability of reducing disease progression and the probability of experiencing side effects impact patients' likelihood of taking a hypothetical DMT...
December 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Christopher A Arger, Sarah H Heil, Stacey C Sigmon, Jennifer W Tidey, Maxine L Stitzer, Diann E Gaalema, Hanna J Durand, Janice Y Bunn, Elizabeth K Ruggieri, Stephen T Higgins
Validity studies evaluating self-report measures in relation to behavioral preference of cigarettes varying in nicotine content are needed. The current study examined the relationship between ratings on the modified Cigarette Evaluation Questionnaire (mCEQ) and the relative reinforcing effects of Spectrum research cigarettes (15.8, 5.2, 2.4, 0.4 mg per gram of tobacco). Data for this secondary analysis were obtained from a double-blind study (Higgins et al., 2017) evaluating the subjective and reinforcing effects of Spectrum cigarettes under acute smoking abstinence...
December 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
André Q C Miguel, Clarice S Madruga, Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Rodolfo Yamauchi, Viviane Simões, Ariadne Ribeiro, Claudio J da Silva, Andrew Fruci, Michael McDonell, Sterling McPherson, John M Roll, Ronaldo R Laranjeira
Although contingency management (CM) is effective in promoting abstinence and treatment retention among crack cocaine users who meet the criteria for cocaine dependence, less is known about its off-target effects. In this secondary analysis, we evaluated the impact of CM on depressive and anxiety symptoms in a sample of cocaine-dependent individuals under treatment. Sixty-five crack cocaine users who met the criteria for cocaine dependence were randomly assigned to receive 12 weeks of standard treatment alone (STA; n = 32) or 12 weeks of standard treatment plus CM (STCM; n = 33)...
December 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Robin Tan, Mark S Goldman
In a demonstration of a heretofore unknown motivational pathway for alcohol consumption, we recently showed that exposure to scents emitted by human females during the fertile phase of their menstrual cycle could increase men's drinking. The current study examined the reverse: whether exposure to male sexual scents (androstenone) would increase women's drinking. One hundred three female participants were primed with either androstenone or a control prime (plain water) camouflaged as a men's "cologne." They then completed a laboratory assessment of beer consumption and related measures...
December 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Lorna Hardy, Lee Hogarth
This study tested whether a novel concurrent pictorial choice procedure, inspired by animal self-administration models, is sensitive to the motivational effect of negative mood induction on alcohol-seeking in hazardous drinkers. Forty-eight hazardous drinkers (scoring ≥7 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Inventory) recruited from the community completed measures of alcohol dependence, depression, and drinking coping motives. Baseline alcohol-seeking was measured by percent choice to enlarge alcohol- versus food-related thumbnail images in two alternative forced-choice trials...
December 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Blake A Hutsell, Matthew L Banks
Emerging human laboratory and preclinical drug self-administration data suggest that a history of contingent abused drug exposure impairs performance in operant discrimination procedures, such as delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMTS), that are hypothesized to assess components of executive function. However, these preclinical discrimination studies have exclusively used food as the reinforcer and the effects of drugs as reinforcers in these operant procedures are unknown. The present study determined effects of contingent intravenous remifentanil injections on DNMTS performance hypothesized to assess 1 aspect of executive function, working memory...
December 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Anita Li, Brian MacNeill, Hugo Curiel, Alan Poling
Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder simultaneously receive 2 or more drugs intended to improve their behavior, but few studies have evaluated the effects of such polypharmacy. This article summarizes those studies that have systematically examined the effects of risperidone, an antipsychotic drug that is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat "irritability" in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, in combination with another drug with respect to experimental design, assessment techniques, drug co-administered, reported effects, and participant characteristics...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Han-Yung Chang, Ping-Tao Tseng, Brendon Stubbs, Che-Sheng Chu, Dian-Jeng Li, Michele Fornaro, Andre Carvalho, Marco Solmi, Nicola Veronese, Eduard Vieta, Tien-Yu Chen, Yen-Wen Chen, Pao-Yen Lin, Philip Chik-Keung Chow
Paliperidone may be effective for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD); however, the evidence has been mixed. This is the first meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of paliperidone for the treatment of BD. We performed a systematic search of the literature using major electronic databases from inception to January 27, 2017. Randomized control trials (RCTs) investigating paliperidone treatment among patients with BD versus a placebo or other second-generation antipsychotics were included...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Linda M Skalski, Rachel L Gunn, Amy Caswell, Stephen Maisto, Jane Metrik
Marijuana use has been associated with sexual risk behavior, but the mechanisms that underlie this relationship are not well understood. The present study examined whether marijuana acutely increased sexual risk on a behavioral decision-making task and whether sex-related marijuana outcome expectancies influenced sexual risk decisions after marijuana administration. Participants were heterosexual marijuana users (n = 126) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 study conditions using a 2 × 2 factorial design crossing drug administration (received 2...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
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