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Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782983/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-addiction-testing-hypotheses-of-diffuse-versus-selective-phenotypic-dysfunction-with-a-classification-based-approach
#1
Warren K Bickel, Lara N Moody, Celia R Eddy, Christopher T Franck
Neurocognitive dysfunctions are frequently identified in the addictions. These dysfunctions may indicate either diffuse dysfunction or may represent separate facets that have differential importance to the addiction phenotype. In a sample (n = 260) of alcohol and/or stimulant users and controls we measured responses across 7 diverse neurocognitive measures. These measures were Continuous Performance, Delay Discounting, Iowa Gambling, Stroop, Tower, Wisconsin Card Sorting, and Letter Number Sequencing. Comparisons were then made between the drug-dependent groups and controls using analysis of variance and also using a machine learning approach to classify participants based on task performance as substance-dependent or controls in 1 tree and as alcohol and/or stimulant users or controls in a second tree...
August 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782982/sleep-continuity-architecture-and-quality-among-treatment-seeking-cannabis-users-an-in-home-unattended-polysomnographic-study
#2
Lauren R Pacek, Evan S Herrmann, Michael T Smith, Ryan Vandrey
The objective of the study was to describe self-report and objectively measured sleep characteristics of adult treatment-seeking cannabis users. Study participants (n = 87) were adults who were screened for a 12-week outpatient cannabis treatment research program in Baltimore, MD. Participants completed objective and self-report measures of sleep quality. Data were analyzed for the sample overall and after stratifying by sex (54 men, 33 women). Participants were primarily urban, socioeconomically disadvantaged African Americans...
August 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682103/exercise-attenuates-negative-effects-of-abstinence-during-72-hours-of-smoking-deprivation
#3
Cynthia A Conklin, Isabella Soreca, David J Kupfer, Yu Cheng, Ronald P Salkeld, Joel M Mumma, John M Jakicic, Christopher J Joyce
Exercise is presumed to be a potentially helpful smoking cessation adjunct reputed to attenuate the negative effects of deprivation. The present study examined the effectiveness of moderate within-session exercise to reduce 4 key symptoms of smoking deprivation during 3 72-hr nicotine abstinence blocks in both male and female smokers. Forty-nine (25 male, 24 female) sedentary smokers abstained from smoking for 3 consecutive days on 3 separate occasions. At each session, smokers' abstinence-induced craving, cue-induced craving, negative mood, and withdrawal symptom severity were assessed prior to and after either exercise (a...
August 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682102/the-effects-of-cannabidiol-cbd-on-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-self-administration-in-male-and-female-long-evans-rats
#4
Alison G P Wakeford, Bradley B Wetzell, Rebecca L Pomfrey, Matthew M Clasen, William W Taylor, Briana J Hempel, Anthony L Riley
Despite widespread cannabis use in humans, few rodent models exist demonstrating significant Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration, possibly due to THC's co-occurring aversive effects, which impact drug reinforcement. Cannabis contains a number of phytocannabinoids in addition to THC, one of which, cannabidiol (CBD), has been reported to antagonize some of the aversive effects of THC. Given such effects of CBD, it is possible that it might influence THC intravenous self-administration in rodents...
August 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682101/premenstrual-symptoms-and-factors-implicated-in-smoking-cessation-among-woman-smokers
#5
Raina D Pang, Nafeesa Andrabi, Adam M Leventhal
Premenstrual symptoms (PMS) may reduce smoking cessation success. Yet, little is known about the factors that may impact smoking cessation among women with elevated PMS, leaving little data to guide smoking cessation science and practice for this population. This cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of data from laboratory studies focused on menstrual cycle effects and smoking. Premenopausal woman daily smokers (n = 157) completed self-report measures of tobacco dependence and other cessation-relevant factors (i...
August 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650184/effects-of-nicotine-versus-placebo-e-cigarette-use-on-symptom-relief-during-initial-tobacco-abstinence
#6
Kenneth A Perkins, Joshua L Karelitz, Valerie C Michael
Because electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) containing nicotine may relieve smoking abstinence symptoms similar to nicotine replacement therapy medication, we used within-subjects designs to test these effects with a first-generation e-cig in nonquitting and quitting smokers. In Study 1, 28 nontreatment-seeking smokers abstained overnight prior to each of 3 sessions. Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) withdrawal (and craving item) relief was assessed following 4 exposures (each 10 puffs) over 2 hr to e-cigs that either did (36 mg/ml) or did not (i...
August 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627928/craving-and-acute-effects-of-alcohol-in-youths-daily-lives-associations-with-alcohol-use-disorder-severity
#7
Hayley Treloar, Robert Miranda
Identifying factors associated with the progression from recreational to pathological drinking in youth holds high clinical and theoretical importance. The present study tested cross-sectional associations of alcohol use disorder (AUD) severity with putative mechanisms of AUD progression among youth ages 15-24 years, namely acute subjective effects of alcohol and craving. Male (n = 44) and female (n = 42) youth completed ecological momentary assessments when not drinking, just before drinking, and while drinking in the natural environment via handheld wireless devices...
August 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627927/a-reinforcement-sensitivity-model-of-affective-and-behavioral-dysregulation-in-marijuana-use-and-associated-problems
#8
Noah N Emery, Jeffrey S Simons
This study tested a model linking sensitivity to punishment (SP) and reward (SR) to marijuana use and problems via affect lability and poor control. A 6-month prospective design was used in a sample of 2,270 young-adults (64% female). The hypothesized SP × SR interaction did not predict affect lability or poor control, but did predict use likelihood at baseline. At low levels of SR, SP was associated with an increased likelihood of abstaining, which was attenuated as SR increased. SP and SR displayed positive main effects on both affect lability and poor control...
August 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627926/using-crowdsourcing-to-examine-behavioral-economic-measures-of-alcohol-value-and-proportionate-alcohol-reinforcement
#9
Vanessa Morris, Michael Amlung, Brent A Kaplan, Derek D Reed, Tashia Petker, James MacKillop
Online crowdsourcing websites such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) are increasingly being used in addictions research. However, there is a relative paucity of such research examining the validity of administering behavioral economic alcohol-related measures, via an online crowdsourcing platform. This study sought to validate an alcohol purchase task (APT) for assessing demand and a questionnaire measure of proportionate alcohol reinforcement, using an online sample of participants recruited via MTurk. Participants (N = 865, 59% female) were recruited via MTurk to complete the APT, proportionate alcohol reinforcement questionnaire, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and demographics...
August 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627925/will-delay-discounting-predict-intention-to-quit-smoking
#10
Liqa N Athamneh, Jeffrey S Stein, Warren K Bickel
Intention to quit cigarette smoking is significantly associated with making quitting attempts and actual quitting. Delay discounting is significantly associated with smoking initiation and success in quitting. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated the relationship between delay discounting and intention to quit smoking. In 2 separate observational, cross-sectional studies, the current investigation examines the relationship between delay discounting and intention to quit smoking within groups of smokers...
August 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594195/pain-related-anxiety-as-a-predictor-of-early-lapse-and-relapse-to-cigarette-smoking
#11
Lisa R LaRowe, Kirsten J Langdon, Michael J Zvolensky, Emily L Zale, Joseph W Ditre
Although emerging research suggests that pain-related anxiety may play a role in the maintenance of tobacco dependence, no previous work has examined pain-related anxiety as a predictor of smoking cessation outcomes. The current study aimed to test the hypothesis that pain-related anxiety would predict early lapse and relapse to cigarette smoking. These data were collected in the context of a primary study examining the role of emotional vulnerabilities in smoking cessation. The current analyses were conducted among 55 daily cigarette smokers who attempted to quit without psychosocial or pharmacological cessation aids...
August 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493744/does-menthol-cigarette-use-moderate-the-effect-of-nicotine-metabolism-on-short-term-smoking-cessation
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Nancy C Jao, Anna K Veluz-Wilkins, Matthew J Smith, Allison J Carroll, Sonja Blazekovic, Frank T Leone, Rachel F Tyndale, Robert A Schnoll, Brian Hitsman
The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) has been shown to predict response to the transdermal nicotine patch, such that faster nicotine metabolism is associated with a lower abstinence rate. Menthol cigarette use, versus nonmenthol cigarette use, slows nicotine metabolism and therefore may attenuate the effect of NMR on smoking abstinence. In this study, we evaluated whether cigarette type (menthol vs. nonmenthol) modified the association between NMR and short-term abstinence. This was a secondary analysis examining treatment in the first 8 weeks of 21 mg/day nicotine patch therapy in a completed clinical trial (n = 474)...
June 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493743/stimulus-selectivity-of-drug-purchase-tasks-a-preliminary-study-evaluating-alcohol-and-cigarette-demand
#13
Justin C Strickland, William W Stoops
The use of drug purchase tasks to measure drug demand in human behavioral pharmacology and addiction research has proliferated in recent years. Few studies have systematically evaluated the stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks to demonstrate that demand metrics are specific to valuation of or demand for the commodity under study. Stimulus selectivity is broadly defined for this purpose as a condition under which a specific stimulus input or target (e.g., alcohol, cigarettes) is the primary determinant of behavior (e...
June 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493742/effects-of-alcohol-initial-gambling-outcomes-impulsivity-and-gambling-cognitions-on-gambling-behavior-using-a-video-poker-task
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
William R Corbin, Jessica M Cronce
Drinking and gambling frequently co-occur, and concurrent gambling and drinking may lead to greater negative consequences than either behavior alone. Building on prior research on the effects of alcohol, initial gambling outcomes, impulsivity, and gambling cognitions on gambling behaviors using a chance-based (nonstrategic) slot-machine task, the current study explored the impact of these factors on a skill-based (strategic) video poker task. We anticipated larger average bets and greater gambling persistence under alcohol relative to placebo, and expected alcohol effects to be moderated by initial gambling outcomes, impulsivity, and gambling cognitions...
June 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493741/how-actions-taken-or-not-under-alcohol-influence-inhibitory-control-and-perceived-impairment
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Cecile A Marczinski
Consumption of alcohol can lead to the impairment of the ability to suppress inappropriate responses. However, alcohol-induced disinhibition does not occur in all contexts in the real world. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine if actions taken (or not) under alcohol will impact observed inhibitory control and how behavioral control requirements under alcohol alter perceived levels of impairment. Participants (n = 40) of equal sex who were social drinkers participated in a 3 session laboratory study that involved the administration of placebo, 0...
June 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437124/marijuana-and-tobacco-cigarettes-estimating-their-behavioral-economic-relationship-using-purchasing-tasks
#16
Erica N Peters, Zachary R Rosenberry, Gillian L Schauer, Kevin E O'Grady, Patrick S Johnson
Although marijuana and tobacco are commonly coused, the nature of their relationship has not been fully elucidated. Behavioral economics has characterized the relationship between concurrently available commodities but has not been applied to marijuana and tobacco couse. U.S. adults ≥18 years who coused marijuana and tobacco cigarettes were recruited via Mechanical Turk, a crowdsourcing service by Amazon. Participants (N = 82) completed online purchasing tasks assessing hypothetical marijuana or tobacco cigarette puff consumption across a range of per-puff prices; 2 single-commodity tasks assessed these when only 1 commodity was available, and 2 cross-commodity tasks assessed these in the presence of a concurrently available fixed-price commodity...
June 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437123/distress-tolerance-and-physiological-reactivity-to-stress-predict-women-s-problematic-alcohol-use
#17
Cathryn Glanton Holzhauer, Stephanie Wemm, Edelgard Wulfert
Research has shown that measures of reactivity to distress-including distress tolerance and physiological reactivity to stress-are dysregulated in women who misuse alcohol. These variables may interact and create a risk profile for young adult women, reflecting patterns of stress reactivity that confer a risk for alcohol misuse. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the independent and interactive associations of subjective distress tolerance, behavioral distress tolerance, and physiological stress reactivity with women's alcohol misuse...
June 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414496/impaired-psychomotor-function-and-plasma-methadone-and-levo-alpha-acetylmethadol-laam-concentrations-in-opioid-substitution-patients
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
David A L Newcombe, Andrew A Somogyi, Felix Bochner, Jason M White
Tolerance to the psychomotor impairing effects of opioid drugs is expected to develop with repeated dosing, but may be incomplete. The relationship between plasma opioid concentration and psychomotor function in opioid-dependent patients was examined to determine whether impairment was more likely at the time of highest plasma drug concentration. Sixteen patients participating in a cross-over trial comparing methadone and LAAM completed a tracking task (OSPAT) 11 times over the dosing-interval for methadone (24-hrs) and LAAM (48-hrs)...
June 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287794/a-systematic-review-of-the-free-pour-assessment-implications-for-research-assessment-and-intervention
#19
REVIEW
Nicole R Schultz, Carolynn S Kohn, Megan Schmerbauch, Christopher J Correia
Excessive alcohol consumption is a major concern. Alcohol consumption data are typically collected via self-report questionnaires. However, research has suggested that individuals are unable to identify a standard drink size and that their self-report may be influenced by certain environmental conditions, calling into question the reliability and validity of self-report. The free-pour is an objective measure that may provide a clearer picture of current alcohol consumption trends, individuals' knowledge of standard drink sizes, and accuracy of self-report...
June 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240925/protective-behavioral-strategies-as-a-context-specific-mediator-a-multilevel-examination-of-within-and-between-person-associations-of-daily-drinking
#20
Abby L Braitman, Ashley N Linden-Carmichael, James M Henson
Research indicates that a drinker's environmental and social context can be differentially associated with drinking outcomes. Further, although many researchers have identified that more frequent use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) is associated with lower alcohol consumption and negative consequences, scant research has examined how one's drinking context may promote or hinder PBS use. The present study examined how the context of drinking each day (i.e., where and with whom) is associated with level of consumption and reported alcohol-related problems among n = 284 college drinkers (69...
June 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
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