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Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936816/altered-subjective-reward-valuation-among-female-heavy-marijuana-users
#1
Kathryn R Hefner, Mark J Starr
Maladaptive decision-making is a cardinal feature of drug use, contributing to ongoing use, and reflecting alterations in how drug users assess uncertain reward value. Accumulating evidence indicates the consequences of heavy marijuana use are worse for female versus male animals and humans, but research assessing sex differences in reward-related decision-making among marijuana users remains scarce. We examined sex differences in the subjective valuation of certain and uncertain rewards among heavy marijuana users (52; 26 male and 26 female) and controls (52; 26 male and 26 female)...
December 12, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929349/effects-of-paclitaxel-on-mechanical-sensitivity-and-morphine-reward-in-male-and-female-c57bl6-mice
#2
Harshini Neelakantan, Sara Jane Ward, Ellen Ann Walker
This study evaluated the hypothesis that a paclitaxel treatment regimen sufficient to produce mechanical allodynia would alter sensitivities of male and female mice to the conditioned rewarding and reinforcing effects of morphine. Saline or paclitaxel were administered on Days 1, 3, 5, and 7 in male and female C57Bl/6 mice to induce morphine-reversible mechanical allodynia as measured by the Von Frey filament test. Paclitaxel treatment did not change sensitivity to morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) relative to saline treatment in either male or female mice...
December 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929348/shallow-discounting-of-delayed-cocaine-by-male-rhesus-monkeys-when-immediate-food-is-the-choice-alternative
#3
Sally L Huskinson, Joel Myerson, Leonard Green, James K Rowlett, William L Woolverton, Kevin B Freeman
Huskinson et al. (2015) recently examined delay discounting in monkeys choosing between an immediate drug (cocaine) reinforcer and a delayed nondrug (food) reinforcer. The present experiment examined the reverse situation: choice between immediate nondrug (food) and delayed drug (cocaine) reinforcers. Whereas the former choice situation exemplifies drug abuse from a delay-discounting perspective, our interest in the latter choice situation is derived from the observation that drug abusers, who characteristically are associated with impulsive choice, typically must devote considerable time to procuring drugs, often at the expense of immediate nondrug alternatives...
December 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929347/comparing-exponential-and-exponentiated-models-of-drug-demand-in-cocaine-users
#4
Justin C Strickland, Joshua A Lile, Craig R Rush, William W Stoops
Drug purchase tasks provide rapid and efficient measurement of drug demand. Zero values (i.e., prices with zero consumption) present a quantitative challenge when using exponential demand models that exponentiated models may resolve. We aimed to replicate and advance the utility of using an exponentiated model by demonstrating construct validity (i.e., association with real-world drug use) and generalizability across drug commodities. Participants (N = 40 cocaine-using adults) completed Cocaine, Alcohol, and Cigarette Purchase Tasks evaluating hypothetical consumption across changes in price...
December 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929346/individual-differences-in-the-reinforcing-and-subjective-effects-of-d-amphetamine-dimensions-of-impulsivity
#5
Arit Harvanko, Catherine Martin, Joshua Lile, Richard Kryscio, Thomas H Kelly
Previous research has shown a relationship between impulsive personality and the subjective and reinforcing effects of d-amphetamine. Impulsive personality, however, is comprised of multiple dimensions. The association between different dimensions of impulsive personality and the subjective and reinforcing effects of d-amphetamine is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the independent contributions of the "sensation-seeking" and "impulsivity" dimensions of the impulsive sensation-seeking subscale of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) to the subjective and reinforcing effects of d-amphetamine...
December 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929345/directed-forgetting-of-memories-in-cocaine-users
#6
Manuel J Ruiz, Daniela Paolieri, Lorenza S Colzato, María Teresa Bajo
Memory retrieval requires an effective recruitment of inhibitory control to successfully reject unnecessary memories. The use of cocaine is associated with poor cognitive control processes, but little is known about the impact of chronic and recreational use of cocaine on inhibitory control during intentional forgetting. We studied whether chronic and recreational users of cocaine show impairments on the mechanism responsible for intentional forgetting of memories. Two experiments were carried out on chronic cocaine users in rehabilitation (Experiment 1) and recreational cocaine polydrug users (Experiment 2) performing a directed forgetting (DF) task, an index of memory suppression...
December 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929344/can-repetitive-mental-simulation-of-smoking-engender-habituation
#7
Janet Audrain-McGovern, Andrew A Strasser, E Paul Wileyto
Smoking cue exposure sensitizes smokers to cigarettes (i.e., increases cravings). Research examining the overlap between perception and mental imagery suggests that mentally simulating smoking a cigarette in a manner analogous to actually smoking should lead to habituation or a decrease in a smoker's motivation to smoke. The authors sought to determine whether repetitive mental simulation of smoking can engender habituation thereby reducing smoking cue-induced craving and shifts in mood, latency to smoke, and the hedonic response to smoking...
December 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668767/effects-of-methylphenidate-on-sensitivity-to-reinforcement-delay-and-to-reinforcement-amount-in-pigeons-implications-for-impulsive-choice
#8
Raymond C Pitts, Craig W Cummings, Carol Cummings, Rebecca L Woodcock, Christine E Hughes
Methylphenidate has been shown to decrease impulsive choice (increase choices of a larger more delayed reinforcer). The purpose of this study was to investigate 2 potential behavioral mechanisms of this effect: a drug-induced change in control by reinforcement delay (Experiment 1) and/or by reinforcement amount (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, pigeons responded under a rapid-acquisition, concurrent-chains choice procedure involving delay to reinforcement; the option with the shorter delay varied unpredictably across sessions...
December 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643914/high-fat-diet-meal-patterns-during-and-after-continuous-nicotine-treatment-in-male-rats
#9
Ian A Mendez, Luis Carcoba, Paul J Wellman, Antonio Cepeda-Benito
Smoking to control body weight is an obstacle to smoking cessation, particularly in western cultures where diets are often rich in calories derived from fat sources. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous nicotine administration on meal patterns in rats fed a high-fat diet. Male rats were housed in cages designed to continuously monitor food intake and implanted with minipumps to deliver approximately 1.00 mg/kg/day of nicotine or saline. Meal patterns and body weights were assessed for 2 weeks of treatment and 1 week posttreatment...
December 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690507/prescription-stimulant-medication-misuse-where-are-we-and-where-do-we-go-from-here
#10
Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Emma S Rathkey, Alison McCallum
Prescription stimulants, including methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin) and amphetamine compounds (e.g., dextroamphetamine; Adderall), have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are classified by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration as Schedule II medications because of their high potential for abuse and dependence (Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice, 2015). Despite the potential health and judicial consequences, misuse of prescription stimulants, typically defined as taking stimulants without a valid prescription, or use of stimulants other than as prescribed, has become a serious problem in the United States and abroad, especially on college campuses...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690506/initial-feasibility-and-validity-of-a-prospective-memory-training-program-in-a-substance-use-treatment-population
#11
Mary M Sweeney, Olga Rass, Patrick S Johnson, Eric C Strain, Meredith S Berry, Hoa T Vo, Marc J Fishman, Cynthia A Munro, George W Rebok, Miriam Z Mintzer, Matthew W Johnson
Individuals with substance use disorders have shown deficits in the ability to implement future intentions, called prospective memory. Deficits in prospective memory and working memory, a critical underlying component of prospective memory, likely contribute to substance use treatment failures. Thus, improvement of prospective memory and working memory in substance use patients is an innovative target for intervention. We sought to develop a feasible and valid prospective memory training program that incorporates working memory training and may serve as a useful adjunct to substance use disorder treatment...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690505/daily-relations-among-affect-urge-targeted-naltrexone-and-alcohol-use-in-young-adults
#12
Krysten W Bold, Lisa M Fucito, William R Corbin, Kelly S DeMartini, Robert F Leeman, Henry R Kranzler, Stephanie S O'Malley
Heavy drinking among young adults is a serious public health problem. Naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, has been shown to reduce drinking in young adults compared to placebo and can be taken on a targeted (i.e., as needed) basis. Understanding risk factors for drinking and naltrexone effects within-person in young adults may help to optimize the use of targeted naltrexone. The current study was a secondary analysis of daily diary data from 127 (n = 40 female) young adults (age 18-25) enrolled in a double-blind clinical trial of daily (25 mg) plus targeted (25 mg) naltrexone versus placebo...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690503/use-of-an-automated-mobile-application-to-assess-effects-of-nicotine-withdrawal-on-verbal-fluency-a-pilot-study
#13
Serguei V S Pakhomov, Wrenda Teeple, Anne M Mills, Michael Kotlyar
Mild-to-moderate impairment in frontally mediated functions such as sustained attention, working memory, and inhibition have been found to occur during tobacco withdrawal and may present a barrier to successful cessation. These findings have led to studies evaluating cessation treatments that target nicotine withdrawal related cognitive impairment. The instruments currently used to assess cognitive function provide detailed and specific information but have limitations including being time consuming, cumbersome, anxiety provoking, and having poor ecological validity...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690502/acute-and-chronic-effects-of-cannabidiol-on-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-tetrahydrocannabinol-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-thc-induced-disruption-in-stop-signal-task-performance
#14
David S Jacobs, Stephen J Kohut, Shan Jiang, Spyros P Nikas, Alexandros Makriyannis, Jack Bergman
Recent clinical and preclinical research has suggested that cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) have interactive effects on measures of cognition; however, the nature of these interactions is not yet fully characterized. To address this, we investigated the effects of Δ9-THC and CBD independently and in combination with proposed therapeutic dose ratios of 1:1 and 1:3 Δ9-THC:CBD in adult rhesus monkeys (n = 6) performing a stop signal task (SST). Additionally, the development of tolerance to the effects of Δ9-THC on SST performance was evaluated by determining the effects of acutely administered Δ9-THC (0...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690501/alternative-and-complementary-reinforcers-as-mechanisms-linking-adolescent-conduct-problems-and-substance-use
#15
Rubin Khoddam, Adam M Leventhal
The present study tested the hypothesis that teens who engage in conduct problems are more likely to use substances because they engage in fewer alternative reinforcing (i.e., pleasurable) substance-free activities and more complementary reinforcing substance-associated activities. In a cross-sectional, correlational design, 9th grade students (N = 3,383; mean age = 14.6 years) in Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. completed surveys in 2013 measuring conduct problems (e.g., stealing, lying, getting in fights); alternative and complementary reinforcement; use of a number of licit, illicit, and prescription drugs; and other cofactors...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379444/alcohol-approach-inclinations-and-drinking-identity-as-predictors-of-behavioral-economic-demand-for-alcohol
#16
Jason J Ramirez, Ashley A Dennhardt, Scott A Baldwin, James G Murphy, Kristen P Lindgren
Behavioral economic demand curve indices of alcohol consumption reflect decisions to consume alcohol at varying costs. Although these indices predict alcohol-related problems beyond established predictors, little is known about the determinants of elevated demand. Two cognitive constructs that may underlie alcohol demand are alcohol-approach inclinations and drinking identity. The aim of this study was to evaluate implicit and explicit measures of these constructs as predictors of alcohol demand curve indices...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347741/measurement-of-smoking-behavior-comparison-of-self-reports-returned-cigarette-butts-and-toxicant-levels
#17
Melissa D Blank, Alison B Breland, Paul T Enlow, Christina Duncan, Aaron Metzger, Caroline O Cobb
A basic tenet of empirical research on cigarette smoking behavior is the systematic assessment of patterns of use. However, the large majority of extant research relies on smokers' retrospective reports of their average number of cigarettes per day (CPD), a measure that may be variable in terms of reliability and validity. Using data from 3 previously published studies of non-treatment-seeking daily smokers (combined N = 89), this analysis examined the reliability of self-reported CPD, the consistency of returned cigarette butts each day over 4 consecutive 24-hr periods, the validity of self-reported CPD compared with returned cigarette butts, and the relationship of CPD and returned cigarette butts to toxicant exposure...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454678/acute-effects-of-cannabis-on-breath-holding-duration
#18
Samantha G Farris, Jane Metrik
Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2...
August 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454677/cocaine-dependent-adults-and-recreational-cocaine-users-are-more-likely-than-controls-to-choose-immediate-unsafe-sex-over-delayed-safer-sex
#19
Mikhail N Koffarnus, Matthew W Johnson, Daisy G Y Thompson-Lake, Michael J Wesley, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague, Warren K Bickel
Cocaine users have a higher incidence of risky sexual behavior and HIV infection than nonusers. Our aim was to measure whether safer sex discount rates-a measure of the likelihood of having immediate unprotected sex versus waiting to have safer sex-differed between controls and cocaine users of varying severity. Of the 162 individuals included in the primary data analyses, 69 met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) criteria for cocaine dependence, 29 were recreational cocaine users who did not meet the dependence criteria, and 64 were controls...
August 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454676/the-effects-of-social-contact-on-cocaine-intake-under-extended-access-conditions-in-male-rats
#20
Andrea M Robinson, Ryan T Lacy, Justin C Strickland, Charlotte P Magee, Mark A Smith
Social learning theories of drug use propose that drug use is influenced by the behavior of peers. We previously reported that cocaine self-administration under limited-access conditions can be either facilitated or inhibited by social contact, depending on the behavior of a peer. The purpose of this study was to determine whether social contact influences cocaine self-administration under conditions that are more representative of problematic patterns of drug use. Male rats were assigned to either isolated or pair-housed conditions in which a social partner either had access to cocaine or did not have access to cocaine...
August 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
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