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Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology

Robert D Dvorak, Brittany L Stevenson, Tess M Kilwein, Emily M Sargent, Michael E Dunn, Angelina V Leary, Matthew P Kramer
Several theories posit problematic alcohol use develops through mechanisms of positive and negative reinforcement. However, the literature on these mechanisms remains inconsistent. This may be due to a number of issues including a failure to disaggregate negative mood or a failure to account for mood functioning (i.e., stability in mood). Alternatively, there may be differences in typical postdrinking/evening mood on drinking and nondrinking days, however, this has yet to be fully explored. We examined multiple indices of distinct mood states prior to and after typical drinking onset times on drinking and nondrinking days using ecological momentary assessment...
July 9, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Constantine J Trela, Alexander W Hayes, Bruce D Bartholow, Kenneth J Sher, Andrew C Heath, Thomas M Piasecki
Laboratory cue exposure investigations have demonstrated that, relative to drinkers who report a high sensitivity to the pharmacologic effects of alcohol, low-sensitivity (LS) drinkers show exaggerated neurocognitive and behavioral reactivity to alcohol-related stimuli. The current study extends this line of work by testing whether LS drinkers report stronger cravings for alcohol in daily life. Data were from an ecological momentary assessment study in which participants ( N = 403 frequent drinkers) carried a palmtop computer for 21 days and responded to questions regarding drinking behavior, alcohol craving, mood states, and situational context...
July 9, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Fernando B de Moura, Stephen J Kohut, Jack Bergman
Disulfiram (Antabuse), an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and dopamine-beta hydroxylase inhibitor, has shown promise in preclinical and clinical studies as a pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction. However, the extent to which disulfiram may alter the abuse-related behavioral effects of related psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine, is unknown. Here, the therapeutic potential of disulfiram was evaluated by examining its impact on the reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects of d-methamphetamine in adult rhesus monkeys (N = 4 per group)...
July 2, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Kathryn E Soltis, Samuel F Acuff, Ashley A Dennhardt, Brian Borsari, Matthew P Martens, James G Murphy
Behavioral economic theory suggests that increased engagement in constructive, substance-free activities that are in the service of long-term goals (e.g., college graduation, career development, health) can decrease alcohol use and related problems. However, engaging in activities such as these in the high-risk college environment requires the ability to self-regulate by avoiding rewarding but risky behaviors (e.g., drinking) while also effectively organizing behavior in the pursuit of delayed academic and career-related rewards...
June 28, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Gregory T Collins, Charles P France
Cocaine use disorder is a serious public health issue for which there is no effective pharmacotherapy. One strategy to speed development of medications for cocaine use disorder is to repurpose drugs already approved for use in humans based on their ability to interact with targets known to be important for addiction. Two such drugs, lorcaserin (Belviq; a drug with serotonin [5-HT]2C receptor agonist properties) and buspirone (Buspar; a drug with 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist and dopamine D3/D4 receptor antagonist properties) can produce modest decreases in cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys...
June 28, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Emily M Sargent, Tess M Kilwein, Robert D Dvorak, Alison Looby, Brittany L Stevenson, Matthew P Kramer
Alcohol use among college students increases during spring break, which often results in more alcohol-related consequences. Given the rates of heavy alcohol use among Greek-life college students, this population may be particularly at risk for experiencing negative outcomes during this time. Thus, the current study utilized a Deviance Regulation Theory (DRT)-based approach to increase the use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) among Greek-life college students during spring break. Greek-life college students going on spring break (n = 89) completed a screening before being randomly assigned to a pre-spring break condition (i...
June 28, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Kari Benson, Darren T Woodlief, Kate Flory, E Rebekah Siceloff, Kevin Coleman, Andrea Lamont
Although previous research suggests that undergraduates with untreated or undertreated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may have academic motives for stimulant medication misuse, no previous work has examined the relation of ADHD symptoms, controlling for comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), to misuse, or has explored how these symptoms are differentially related to motives for misuse. Among a sample of 900 students from one public university, the current study first tested whether increased ADHD symptomology (using the Current Symptoms Scale, CSS) was associated with an increased likelihood of misusing stimulant medication, controlling for comorbid ODD...
June 28, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Lea M Martin, Michael A Sayette
Many smokers are aware that smoking is a dangerous health behavior and eventually try to quit smoking. Unfortunately, most quit attempts end in failure. Traditionally, the addictive nature of smoking has been attributed to the pharmacologic effects of nicotine. In an effort to offer a more comprehensive, biobehavioral analysis of smoking behavior and motivation, some researchers have begun to consider the role of social factors in smoking. In line with recent recommendations to integrate social and pharmacological analyses of smoking, we reviewed the experimental literature examining the effects of nicotine and nicotine withdrawal on social functioning...
June 28, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Joanna M Streck, Taylor A Ochalek, Gary J Badger, Stacey C Sigmon
Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and mood disorders among individuals with opioid use disorder far exceeds that of the general population. While psychiatric symptoms often improve upon entry into opioid treatment, this has typically been seen with treatments involving psychosocial counseling. In this secondary analysis, we examined changes in psychiatric symptoms during a randomized clinical trial evaluating an interim buprenorphine treatment without counseling among individuals awaiting entry into comprehensive treatment...
June 25, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Laís F Berro, Hannah Shields, Melis Odabas-Geldiay, Barbara O Rothbaum, Monica L Andersen, Leonard L Howell
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) affects monoaminergic pathways that play a critical role in sleep-wake cycles. Dopaminergic mechanisms are thought to mediate the sleep-disrupting effects of stimulant drugs. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of MDMA on sleep-wake cycles and the effects of R (-) MDMA, a stereoisomer that lacks dopaminergic activity, on sleep remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of racemic MDMA and R (-) MDMA on daytime activity and sleep-like parameters evaluated with actigraphy in adult rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta , n = 6)...
June 25, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Beth Ann Rice, Shannon E Eaton, Mark A Prendergast, Chana K Akins
Addiction is characterized as a chronic debilitating disease. One devastating feature of addiction is the susceptibility of relapse (40-60%) after stretches of abstinence. One theory that may account for relapse suggests that drug cues (e.g., paraphernalia) may increase stress hormones, and this may prompt relapse. Repeatedly pairing a neutral cue with a reward is commonly utilized to measure what subjects learn about a cue that is predictive of reward. Research has shown that animals that attend to a cue more than to the reward (sign trackers) may be more vulnerable to drug addiction...
June 7, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Sandy D Wilson, R Lorraine Collins, Mark A Prince, Paula C Vincent
Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, and craving for cannabis is related to cannabis use. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce craving for substances. To examine the effects of exercise on cannabis craving, we conducted a 3-week within-subject crossover experiment. Young-adult men (n = 35) and women (n = 11), age 18-25 years (M = 20.76, SD = 1.68), who regularly (≥3 times per week) used cannabis participated in a cue exposure paradigm to stimulate craving. After each of three separate craving inductions, they completed a 10-min bout of exercise that varied in intensity (rest, moderate, vigorous)...
May 24, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Richard W Foltin, Suzette M Evans
The anorexigenic effects of intramuscular d-amphetamine HCl (0.06-0.50 mg/kg) and dexfenfluramine HCl (0.25-2.0 mg/kg) were determined in experimentally naïve baboons. A group of 8 adult male baboons was tested prior to a group of 7 adult female baboons. A 120-min session occurred at 9:00 a.m. during which baboons could respond for food pellets. Drug was given 30 min prior to the 9:00 a.m. morning session. Beginning at 11:00 a.m., baboons had a 6-hr multiple-meal session during which they could have up to 4 food pellet meals...
May 24, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Alison Looby, Mara Norton-Baker, Tiffany D Russell
Binge drinking is frequently reported by young adults, despite being associated with a number of negative consequences. This type of heavy drinking is associated with deficits in many executive functions, including working memory. Poor working memory may contribute to increased alcohol use by limiting one's ability to modulate their behavior, including drinking. Furthermore, the limited resource model of executive functioning predicts that individuals with poorer premorbid executive functioning abilities, whose working memory is taxed or depleted, should experience the highest levels of dysregulated behavior...
May 21, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Initiation and retention in couples outpatient treatment for parents with drug and alcohol use disorders" by Abby L. Braitman and Michelle L. Kelley ( Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology , 2016[Jun], Vol 24[3], 174-184). In the article, there are errors in Table 2. In the corrected table, the impact of Men's perpetration of violence changes from a non-significant trend (p < .10) to a significant effect (p < .05). Also within Table 2, Women's dyadic cohesion effect changed from a significant finding to a non-significant trend (p ...
June 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Julia Rheker, Winfried Rief, Bettina K Doering, Alexander Winkler
Adverse events in clinical drug trials are often poorly assessed and reported. The absence of baseline assessment and structured symptom lists, as well as the fact that most drug trials are industry-sponsored are common sources of bias. In addition, adverse events are usually assessed in patient samples, which can bias results because of the misattribution of symptoms that are part of the illness to medication intake. We aimed to identify amitriptyline's placebo- and baseline-controlled side effects by examining a sample of healthy adults, using structured assessments via a symptom list...
June 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Michael J Wesley, Philip M Westgate, William W Stoops, Thomas H Kelly, Lon R Hays, Joshua A Lile
No medications are approved for cannabis use disorder (CUD). Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) reuptake is modulated by cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonists, and there are shared effects between CB agonists and the GABA reuptake inhibitor tiagabine. This overlapping neuropharmacology suggested that tiagabine might be useful for CUD. The study determined the ability of tiagabine maintenance to reduce cannabis self-administration using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, counterbalanced, within-subjects design. Nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis users (N = 12; 3 female, 9 male) completed two 12-day outpatient maintenance phases (0 or 12 mg of tiagabine/day)...
June 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Grace E Giles, Benjamin F Avanzato, Belén Mora, Nicole A Jurdak, Robin B Kanarek
Glucose intake has been found to improve some aspects of cognitive performance; however, results are often inconsistent. This inconsistency may be related to expectations surrounding glucose, which can have strong effects on performance outcomes. The present study evaluated the independent and interactive effects of acute sugar intake, in the form of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and sugar expectancies on cognitive performance and mood. One hundred five healthy young adults were randomized according to sugar intake and expectation: consumed-sugar/told-sugar, consumed-sugar/told-no-sugar, consumed-no-sugar/told-sugar, and consumed-no-sugar/told-no-sugar...
June 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Jason B Luoma, Paul M Guinther, Nicole M Lawless DesJardins, Roger Vilardaga
Between-subjects studies show that people with higher levels of shame tend to experience more negative drinking-related consequences than people with lower levels of shame. However, within-subjects studies of the association between daily fluctuations in shame and subsequent drinking have yielded mixed findings. This study aimed to resolve these inconsistencies by examining the association between daily fluctuations in shame, between-subjects differences in shame, and subsequent evening alcohol consumption in a sample of 70 community-dwelling drinkers...
June 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Jillian M Rung, Patrick S Johnson, Gregory J Madden
Delay discounting refers to one process by which an individual devalues delayed outcomes. Typical discounting tasks provide no information about events during delays to larger-later rewards. Imposing opportunity costs during the delay increases how steeply delayed rewards are discounted (P. S. Johnson, Herrmann, & Johnson, 2015). The present research evaluated whether distress tolerance (i.e., one's ability to tolerate distressing emotions and events) is related to discounting rates when opportunity costs are low, high, or unspecified...
June 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
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