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Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792472/effects-of-exercise-on-experimentally-manipulated-craving-for-cannabis-a-preliminary-study
#1
Sandy D Wilson, R Lorraine Collins, Mark A Prince, Paula C Vincent
Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, and craving for cannabis is related to cannabis use. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce craving for substances. To examine the effects of exercise on cannabis craving, we conducted a 3-week within-subject crossover experiment. Young-adult men (n = 35) and women (n = 11), age 18-25 years (M = 20.76, SD = 1.68), who regularly (≥3 times per week) used cannabis participated in a cue exposure paradigm to stimulate craving. After each of three separate craving inductions, they completed a 10-min bout of exercise that varied in intensity (rest, moderate, vigorous)...
May 24, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792471/sex-differences-in-the-anorexigenic-effects-of-dexfenfluramine-and-amphetamine-in-baboons
#2
Richard W Foltin, Suzette M Evans
The anorexigenic effects of intramuscular d-amphetamine HCl (0.06-0.50 mg/kg) and dexfenfluramine HCl (0.25-2.0 mg/kg) were determined in experimentally naïve baboons. A group of 8 adult male baboons was tested prior to a group of 7 adult female baboons. A 120-min session occurred at 9:00 a.m. during which baboons could respond for food pellets. Drug was given 30 min prior to the 9:00 a.m. morning session. Beginning at 11:00 a.m., baboons had a 6-hr multiple-meal session during which they could have up to 4 food pellet meals...
May 24, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781640/interactive-effects-of-baseline-executive-functioning-and-working-memory-depletion-on-alcohol-use-among-heavy-drinking-young-adults
#3
Alison Looby, Mara Norton-Baker, Tiffany D Russell
Binge drinking is frequently reported by young adults, despite being associated with a number of negative consequences. This type of heavy drinking is associated with deficits in many executive functions, including working memory. Poor working memory may contribute to increased alcohol use by limiting one's ability to modulate their behavior, including drinking. Furthermore, the limited resource model of executive functioning predicts that individuals with poorer premorbid executive functioning abilities, whose working memory is taxed or depleted, should experience the highest levels of dysregulated behavior...
May 21, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504780/effects-of-reduced-nicotine-content-cigarettes-on-individual-withdrawal-symptoms-over-time-and-during-abstinence
#4
Sarah S Dermody, F Joseph McClernon, Neal Benowitz, Xianghua Luo, Jennifer W Tidey, Tracy T Smith, Ryan Vandrey, Dorothy Hatsukami, Eric C Donny
In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has initiated a public dialogue about reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes. A reduced-nicotine standard could increase withdrawal symptoms among current smokers. We examined the impact of switching smokers to cigarettes that varied in nicotine content on withdrawal symptoms over 6 weeks. A secondary analysis (N = 839) of a 10-site, double-blind clinical trial of nontreatment-seeking smokers was completed. Participants were instructed to smoke study cigarettes, containing 0...
March 5, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648861/an-assessment-of-concurrent-cannabidiol-and-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-tetrahydrocannabinol-administration-in-place-aversion-and-taste-avoidance-conditioning
#5
Briana J Hempel, Matthew M Clasen, Katharine H Nelson, Claudia J Woloshchuk, Anthony L Riley
Rising interest in medical marijuana has prompted research into its phytocannabinoid constituents, particularly Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Coadministration of CBD with THC has been shown to modulate a number of THC's effects, including its negative stimulus properties (e.g., anxiety, paranoia, psychosis) in a clinical setting. The present series of experiments extended these analyses by examining the ability of CBD to impact the aversive effects of THC as assessed in a combined taste and place conditioning procedure...
April 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648860/motivation-and-readiness-for-tobacco-cessation-among-nicotine-dependent-postmenopausal-females-a-pilot-study
#6
MacKenzie R Peltier, Melanie R Roys, Aaron F Waters, Christine Vinci, Krystal M Waldo, Shelby A Stewart, Robert C Toups, Louis Jones, Amy L Copeland
Despite considerable health risks due to lower levels of estrogen production and the compounding antiestrogenic effects of nicotine, postmenopausal females continue to smoke. These females face significant barriers to cessation, including negative affect, weight concerns, and menopausal symptom severity. The current pilot study explored the effect of negative affect, weight concerns, and menopausal symptom severity on motivation and readiness to quit smoking. Eighteen postmenopausal smokers were randomized to receive brief motivational interviewing (B-MI; n = 8) or control treatment (i...
April 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528663/naltrexone-maintenance-fails-to-alter-amphetamine-effects-on-intracranial-self-stimulation-in-rats
#7
Farhana Sakloth, S Stevens Negus
Pharmacotherapy to treat stimulant use disorders continues to be an unmet medical need. Some evidence supports both the role of opioids in mediating abuse-related amphetamine effects and the potential utility of opioid antagonists as therapeutic candidates for treating amphetamine abuse. This study used intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) to evaluate effects of exposure to and termination of naltrexone maintenance on rewarding amphetamine effects in an ICSS procedure in rats. Morphine and cocaine were included as positive and negative controls, respectively...
April 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431452/smoking-by-young-women-with-restrained-eating-following-a-food-prime-in-the-context-of-an-alternative-distractor
#8
Michelle A Kovacs, Amanda M Palmer, John B Correa, Thomas H Brandon
Female smokers with elevated dietary restraint (high restrainers) may smoke more than nonrestrained eaters after a disinhibiting food event. The current study aimed to determine whether high restrainers smoke merely to distract themselves from unplanned eating or whether the weight-control aspects of smoking play a role. Primary aims were to test the effect of restraint status and a food prime on smoking and eating behavior in the presence of an alternative distractor (a computer tablet) and to examine the role of expectancies...
April 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389213/tobacco-withdrawal-among-opioid-dependent-smokers
#9
Joanna M Streck, Sarah H Heil, Stephen T Higgins, Janice Y Bunn, Stacey C Sigmon
Prevalence of cigarette smoking among opioid-dependent individuals is 6-fold that of the general U.S. adult population and their quit rates are notoriously poor. One possible reason for the modest cessation outcomes in opioid-dependent smokers may be that they experience more severe tobacco withdrawal upon quitting. In this secondary analysis, we evaluated tobacco withdrawal in opioid-dependent (OD) smokers versus smokers without co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs). Participants were 47 methadone- or buprenorphine-maintained smokers and 25 non-SUD smokers who completed 1 of several 2-week studies involving daily visits for biochemical monitoring, delivery of financial incentives contingent on smoking abstinence, and assessment of withdrawal via the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS)...
April 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389212/negative-mood-induced-alcohol-seeking-is-greater-in-young-adults-who-report-depression-symptoms-drinking-to-cope-and-subjective-reactivity
#10
Lee Hogarth, Lorna Hardy, Amanda R Mathew, Brian Hitsman
Acute negative mood powerfully motivates alcohol-seeking behavior, but it remains unclear whether sensitivity to this effect is greater in drinkers who report depression symptoms, drinking to cope, and subjective reactivity. To examine these questions, 128 young adult alcohol drinkers (ages 18-25) completed questionnaires of alcohol use disorder symptoms, depression symptoms, and drinking to cope with negative affect. Baseline alcohol choice was measured by preference to enlarge alcohol versus food thumbnail images in two-alternative forced-choice trials...
April 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389211/hypersexuality-associated-with-paliperidone
#11
Ali Çayköylü, Ersin Hatice Karslıoğlu, İbrahim Özer, Ali Gökberk Köksal
We report a case of unusual sexual symptoms in a 43-year-old female patient with schizophrenia (according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , fifth edition), who was being treated with a depot formulation of paliperidone palmitate, an atypical antipsychotic medication. The symptoms included increased sexual desire, sexual preoccupation, constant drive for intercourse, and sexual arousal with unrelated stimuli such as urination. Potential neurochemical mechanisms have been elucidated for this symptomatology...
April 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389210/adolescents-who-experienced-negative-alcohol-related-consequences-are-willing-to-experience-these-consequences-again-in-the-future
#12
Matthias Wicki, Kimberly A Mallett, Marina Delgrande Jordan, Racheal Reavy, Rob Turrisi, Aurélie Archimi, Emmanuel Kuntsche
Alcohol use and risky single occasion drinking are common among adolescents and are associated with a higher risk of various negative social, physical, academic, or sexual consequences. Studies have shown that among college students, willingness to experience negative consequences is associated with a higher likelihood of experiencing these consequences in the future. However, it remains unclear how experiencing negative consequences influences adolescents' willingness to experience them again. Based on a representative sample of 1,333 alcohol-using 14- to 15-year-olds (47...
April 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355351/happy-hour-drink-specials-in-the-alcohol-purchase-task
#13
Brent A Kaplan, Derek D Reed
There is strong evidence to suggest that happy hour drink specials are associated with undesirable outcomes such as increased amount of drinking, increased likelihood of being highly intoxicated, and increased likelihood of experiencing negative outcomes related to drinking (e.g., getting into fights). Public policy efforts have been made to ban or at least restrict alcohol drink specials. Research in behavioral economics-primarily demand curve analyses-has yielded valuable insights into the role of environmental effects on reinforcer consumption, especially within the context of alcohol reinforcement...
April 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355349/faster-alcohol-metabolism-is-associated-with-increased-stimulation-and-within-session-consumption
#14
Stephen J Boyd, William R Corbin
Variability in subjective response (SR) to alcohol predicts drinking and the development of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs). Although both alcohol pharmacokinetics (i.e., absorption and metabolism) and SR are impacted by aspects of the drinking situation (e.g., rate of consumption), relations between individual differences in pharmacokinetics and SR have received little attention. The current study examined the extent to which alcohol pharmacokinetics impact SR and drinking during a single alcohol administration session...
April 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355348/access-to-environmental-reward-mediates-the-relation-between-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-and-alcohol-problems-and-craving
#15
Samuel F Acuff, Matthew T Luciano, Kathryn E Soltis, Keanan J Joyner, Meghan McDevitt-Murphy, James G Murphy
Symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) show significant comorbidity with alcohol use, but little is known about the mechanisms that might account for this comorbidity. Deficits in reward functioning have long been implicated in alcohol misuse and more recently in PTS reactions, but no study has examined whether reward deprivation may serve as a transdiagnostic risk factor for comorbid PTS-alcohol misuse. The current cross-sectional study sought to test the behavioral economic hypothesis that reward deprivation would be related to both PTS symptoms and alcohol problems, and would mediate the relation between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems in college students...
April 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337586/differential-development-of-acute-tolerance-may-explain-heightened-rates-of-impaired-driving-after-consumption-of-alcohol-mixed-with-energy-drinks-versus-alcohol-alone
#16
Cecile A Marczinski, Amy L Stamates, Sarah F Maloney
Consumers of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) are more likely to drive while impaired when compared to alcohol alone consumers. In addition, acute tolerance to the internal cues of feelings of intoxication is known to contribute to maladaptive decisions to drive while impaired. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether there is differential development of acute tolerance for AmED versus alcohol alone for ratings of willingness to drive after alcohol consumption. Social drinkers (n = 12) attended 4 separate sessions where they received alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination...
April 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337585/narrative-theory-ii-self-generated-and-experimenter-provided-negative-income-shock-narratives-increase-delay-discounting
#17
Alexandra M Mellis, Sarah E Snider, Warren K Bickel
Reading experimenter-provided narratives of negative income shock has been previously demonstrated to increase impulsivity, as measured by discounting of delayed rewards. We hypothesized that writing these narratives would potentiate their effects of negative income shock on decision-making more than simply reading them. In the current study, 193 cigarette-smoking individuals from Amazon Mechanical Turk were assigned to either read an experimenter-provided narrative or self-generate a narrative describing either the negative income shock of job loss or a neutral condition of job transfer...
April 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389172/a-meta-analysis-of-nonsystematic-responding-in-delay-and-probability-reward-discounting
#18
Kathleen R Smith, Steven R Lawyer, Joshua K Swift
Delay discounting (DD) and probability discounting (PD) are behavioral measures of choice that index sensitivity to delayed and probabilistic outcomes, which are associated with a range of negative health-related outcomes. Patterns of discounting tend to be predictable, where preferences for immediate (vs. delayed) and certain (vs. probabilistic) rewards change as a function of delay and probability. However, some participants yield nonsystematic response patterns (NSR) that cannot be accounted for by theories of choice and could have implications for the validity of discounting-related experiments...
February 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389171/examining-the-use-of-visual-performance-feedback-in-drug-treatment-court
#19
David S Festinger, Karen L Dugosh, John M Della Porta
A key component of drug courts is regular status hearings in which the judge reviews client progress and imposes sanctions or rewards for infractions or achievements; however, little is known about whether drug court clients fully understand the reasons for judicial responses and make clear connections between their behavior and judicially imposed consequences. Thus, we hypothesized that providing graphic performance feedback would improve clients' perceptions of procedural justice and increase the likelihood of success...
February 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389170/effects-of-varenicline-on-cognitive-performance-in-heavy-drinkers-dose-response-effects-and-associations-with-drinking-outcomes
#20
Walter Roberts, Sherry A McKee
Varenicline reduces drinking in people with alcohol use disorder, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this effect. Varenicline targets α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are associated with several cognitive functions such as working memory. Varenicline may improve drinking outcomes by enhancing cognitive functioning. The current manuscript reports on cognitive outcomes from a placebo-controlled, double-blind human laboratory experiment examining the effects of varenicline on drinking behavior (Verplaetse et al...
February 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
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