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Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology

Kyler Mulhauser, Jeremiah Weinstock, Ryan Van Patten, Andrew B McGrath, Zachary C Merz, Christina Noel White
Impulsivity reflects a pattern of rapid behavioral responses to internal or external cues with little planning or consideration of consequences. Impulsive personality is purported to be a largely stable, trait-based quality, while impulsive choice has been shown to respond to interventions aimed at reducing impulsivity. We sought to evaluate the stability of impulsive personality and examine reductions in impulsivity during short-term residential substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. The temporal stability of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS-P) and discounting rates on a measure of impulsive choice (i...
January 10, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
ReJoyce Green, Spencer Bujarski, Aaron C Lim, Alexandra Venegas, Lara A Ray
Naltrexone has been extensively studied for the treatment of alcohol use disorder. However, less is known about the effects of naltrexone on smoking outcomes in the context of alcohol use among East Asian individuals who have been suggested to differ in response to alcohol and to naltrexone. The present study is a secondary analysis that used a double-blind placebo-controlled design (n = 31) to examine the (a) effects of alcohol on basal craving for cigarettes, (b) effects of naltrexone on cigarette craving and alcohol craving during alcohol administration, and (c) relationship between craving for alcohol and cigarettes...
January 10, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Alexandra R D'Agostino, Michael J Wesley, Jaime Brown, Mark T Fillmore
Multisensory environments facilitate behavioral functioning in humans. The redundant signal effect (RSE) refers to the observation that individuals respond more quickly to stimuli when information is presented as multisensory, redundant stimuli (e.g., aurally and visually) rather than as a single stimulus presented to either modality alone. RSE appears to be because of specialized multisensory neurons in the superior colliculus and association cortex that allow intersensory coactivation between the visual and auditory channels...
January 10, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Farhana Sakloth, Elizabeth Leggett, Megan J Moerke, E Andrew Townsend, Matthew L Banks, S Stevens Negus
The prototype 5-HT2A receptor agonist hallucinogens LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin are classified as Schedule 1 drugs of abuse by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Accumulating clinical evidence has also suggested that acute or repeated "microdosing" with these drugs may have utility for treatment of some mental health disorders, including drug abuse and depression. The goal of the present study was to evaluate LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin effects on intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), a procedure that has been used to evaluate abuse-related effects of other classes of abused drugs...
January 10, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Amanda R Mathew, Bryan W Heckman, Brett Froeliger, Michael E Saladin, Richard A Brown, Brian Hitsman, Matthew J Carpenter
Although distress tolerance (DT) is associated with smoking lapse and relapse outcomes, few studies have conducted a rigorous assessment of DT across domain and method in the context of acute abstinence. In a human laboratory-based study of 106 adult daily smokers, we examined between multiple indices of DT and smoking lapse, withdrawal processes, and motivation to quit. We expected that low DT would be associated with shorter latency to smoke, greater withdrawal severity, and lower motivation to quit. Following a smoking abstinence period (≥ 6 hr deprived), participants completed an assessment battery including both behavioral (mirror-tracing, serial addition, cold pressor, and breath-holding tasks) and self-report measures of DT (general and smoking-specific), withdrawal processes (craving, negative affect, and positive affect), and motivation to quit...
December 27, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Justin R Yates
Because risky choice is associated with several psychiatric conditions, recent research has focused on examining the underlying neurochemical processes that control risk-based decision-making. Not surprisingly, several tasks have been developed to study the neural mechanisms involved in risky choice. The current review will briefly discuss the major tasks used to measure risky choice and will summarize the contribution of several major neurotransmitter systems to this behavior. To date, the most common measures of risky choice are the probability discounting task, the risky decision task, and the rat gambling task...
December 20, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
August F Holtyn, Elise M Weerts
Mifepristone, a type II glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, is under investigation as a potential pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder. This study examined effects of chronic administration of mifepristone on alcohol-seeking and self-administration in large nonhuman primates. Adult baboons ( n = 5) self-administered alcohol 7 days/week under a chained schedule of reinforcement (CSR). The CSR comprised 3 components in which distinct cues were paired with different schedule requirements, with alcohol available for self-administration only in the final component, to model different phases of alcohol anticipation, seeking, and consumption...
December 20, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Sara Weidberg, Roberto Secades-Villa, Ángel García-Pérez, Alba González-Roz, José R Fernández-Hermida
From a behavioral economics standpoint, tobacco addiction can be conceptualized as a reinforcer pathology deriving from high cigarette demand and elevated delay discounting (DD) rates. The primary aim of this study was to assess the interactive effects of cigarette demand and DD on nicotine dependence (ND) and cigarette consumption among a sample of treatment-seeking smokers. Participants were 277 smokers (68.9% women) who completed the 19-item version of the Cigarette Purchase Task, a computerized version of the DD task and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence...
December 20, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Cassandra L Boness, Jordan E Stevens, Douglas Steinley, Timothy Trull, Kenneth J Sher
Much of the foundation of clinical practice, psychiatric epidemiology, and research into the etiology, course, prevention, and treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) rests on psychiatric diagnosis. However, existing research has failed to adequately exploit empirical techniques and existing databases to derive criteria considered optimal with respect to predicting external correlates. The current project adopts a novel approach to deriving new diagnostic criteria sets and rules for AUD. Utilizing the 2010 (N = 24,120) and 2013 (N = 23,627) National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [SAMHSA], 2011, 2014) data sets, we performed a statistical optimization procedure, using complete enumeration, on participants 21 or older who had consumed at least 1 alcoholic beverage in the past year...
December 17, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Erin A McClure, Rachel L Tomko, Claudia A Salazar, Saima A Akbar, Lindsay M Squeglia, Evan Herrmann, Matthew J Carpenter, Erica N Peters
The co-use of tobacco and cannabis is a common practice worldwide and carries with it substantial public health burden. Few interventions exist that target both substances and little is known about quit interest, treatment preferences, and drug substitution during past cessation attempts, which is critical to guide the development of treatment strategies. The goal of this study was to provide descriptive information regarding quit interest, treatment preferences, and perceived drug substitution among adult (age 18 +) cannabis-tobacco co-users...
December 17, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Jun Gao, Yujing Huang, Ming Li
Existing evidence in the literature shows that antagonism at 5-HT2A receptors potentiates D₂ antagonism-induced disruption of conditioned avoidance response (CAR), a behavioral index of antipsychotic activity, suggesting that combining 5-HT2A antagonism with D₂ antagonism may confer an enhanced antipsychotic effect. The present study reexamined this issue and further investigated other behavioral effects of drug-drug interaction, mainly the conditioned drug effect (via drug-drug conditioning) and 5-HT2A antagonism's modulation on antipsychotic-induced sensitization (an enhanced avoidance disruption)...
December 17, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
James J Mahoney
It is well-documented in the literature that individuals repeatedly exposed to cocaine exhibit cognitive impairment and that cognitive dysfunction is a risk factor for poor treatment outcomes in those with cocaine use disorder (CUD). Specific deficits related to attention, episodic memory, working memory, and executive functioning are the most common deficits noted in this population. Given that cognitive impairment is a risk factor for poor treatment outcomes in those with CUD, identifying possible moderating factors contributing to and/or exacerbating cocaine-related cognitive deficits is of great importance...
December 17, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Ashley Acheson, Andrea S Vincent, Andrew Cohoon, William R Lovallo
Increased discounting (devaluing) of delayed rewards is associated with nearly all types of substance use disorders (SUDs) and is also present in individuals with family histories of SUDs. Early life adversity (ELA) likely contributes to these findings as it is common in both individuals with SUDs and their children and is linked to increased delay discounting and other neurocognitive impairments in human and animal studies. Here we examined data from 1192 healthy young adults (average age 23.6 years old) with (SUDs+) and without (SUDs-) histories of SUDs and with (FH+) and without (FH-) family histories of SUDs...
December 17, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Vivian M Gonzalez
There is a well-established association between suicidal behavior and alcohol misuse. However, few studies have applied relevant theory and research findings in the areas of both alcohol and suicidal behavior to aid in the understanding of why these may be linked. The current study examined whether three variables (problem-solving skills, avoidant coping, and negative urgency) suggested by theory and previous findings in both areas of study help to account for the previously found association of suicidal ideation with drinking to cope and alcohol problems...
December 17, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Justin C Strickland, William W Stoops
Crowdsourcing, the use of the Internet to outsource work to a large number of people, has witnessed a dramatic growth over the past decade. One popular crowdsourcing option, Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), is now commonly used to sample participants for psychological research. Addiction science is positioned to benefit greatly from crowdsourced sampling due to the ability to efficiently and effectively tap into populations with specific behavioral and health histories. The primary objective of this review is to describe the utility of crowdsourcing, broadly, and MTurk, specifically, for conducting research relevant to substance use and misuse...
November 29, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Herry Patel, Michael Amlung
Epidemiological and roadside studies suggest that driving after cannabis use (DACU) is prevalent in the United States, and rates have increased following legalization or decriminalization of cannabis in some U.S. states. Reinforcing value of addictive substances (as measured by behavioral economic demand tasks), is an emerging risk factor for driving under the influence. This study sought to expand upon the previously documented link between alcohol demand and driving after drinking by examining whether similar associations exist between cannabis demand and DACU...
November 26, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
W Brady DeHart, Brent A Kaplan, Derek A Pope, Alexandra M Mellis, Warren K Bickel
Despite promising decreases in overall smoking rates, a significant proportion of the population continues to engage in this costly behavior. Substituting e-cigarettes for conventional cigarettes is an increasingly popular harm-reduction strategy. Narratives may be one method of increasing the substitutability of e-cigarettes. Participants (N = 160) were assigned to 1 of 4 narratives that described a close friend becoming ill. In the positive narrative, participants read about a friend that became ill but learned it was only the flu...
November 5, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Lisa R Gerak, Gregory T Collins, David R Maguire, Charles P France
Drug abuse remains a serious public health issue, underscoring the need for additional treatment options. Agonists at serotonin (5-HT)2C receptors, particularly lorcaserin, are being considered as pharmacotherapies for abuse of a variety of drugs, including cocaine and opioids. The current study compared the capacity of lorcaserin to attenuate reinstatement of extinguished responding previously maintained by either cocaine or an opioid; this type of procedure is thought to model relapse, an important aspect of drug abuse...
November 1, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Derek A Pope, Lindsey Poe, Jeffrey S Stein, Sarah E Snider, Alexander G Bianco, Warren K Bickel
Delay discounting, the devaluation of delayed reinforcers, is one defining behavioral economic characteristic of cigarette smokers. Attempts at abstinence by smokers that result in relapse are conceptualized in this framework as preference reversals. Despite preference reversals being predicted by delay discounting models, little research has investigated the association between discount rate and preference reversals. The present study extended this research by examining the relation between discounting and preference reversals...
November 1, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Martine Groefsema, Maartje Luijten, Rutger Engels, Emmanuel Kuntsche
Drinking heavily in a short period is associated with significant health risks. However, little is known about when heavy drinking occurs during an evening. Recently, research found that individuals increase their drinking pace across the evening, speeding up their drinking. The current study examines whether this speeding up is different depending on when individuals start to drink in the evening. Data on alcohol consumption were collected among 197 young adults in the Netherlands (48.7% female, Mage = 20...
November 1, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
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