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Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology

W Brady DeHart, Brent A Kaplan, Derek A Pope, Alexandra M Mellis, Warren K Bickel
Despite promising decreases in overall smoking rates, a significant proportion of the population continues to engage in this costly behavior. Substituting e-cigarettes for conventional cigarettes is an increasingly popular harm-reduction strategy. Narratives may be one method of increasing the substitutability of e-cigarettes. Participants (N = 160) were assigned to 1 of 4 narratives that described a close friend becoming ill. In the positive narrative, participants read about a friend that became ill but learned it was only the flu...
November 5, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Lisa R Gerak, Gregory T Collins, David R Maguire, Charles P France
Drug abuse remains a serious public health issue, underscoring the need for additional treatment options. Agonists at serotonin (5-HT)2C receptors, particularly lorcaserin, are being considered as pharmacotherapies for abuse of a variety of drugs, including cocaine and opioids. The current study compared the capacity of lorcaserin to attenuate reinstatement of extinguished responding previously maintained by either cocaine or an opioid; this type of procedure is thought to model relapse, an important aspect of drug abuse...
November 1, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Derek A Pope, Lindsey Poe, Jeffrey S Stein, Sarah E Snider, Alexander G Bianco, Warren K Bickel
Delay discounting, the devaluation of delayed reinforcers, is one defining behavioral economic characteristic of cigarette smokers. Attempts at abstinence by smokers that result in relapse are conceptualized in this framework as preference reversals. Despite preference reversals being predicted by delay discounting models, little research has investigated the association between discount rate and preference reversals. The present study extended this research by examining the relation between discounting and preference reversals...
November 1, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Martine Groefsema, Maartje Luijten, Rutger Engels, Emmanuel Kuntsche
Drinking heavily in a short period is associated with significant health risks. However, little is known about when heavy drinking occurs during an evening. Recently, research found that individuals increase their drinking pace across the evening, speeding up their drinking. The current study examines whether this speeding up is different depending on when individuals start to drink in the evening. Data on alcohol consumption were collected among 197 young adults in the Netherlands (48.7% female, Mage = 20...
November 1, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Julianne C Flanagan, Nicholas P Allan, Casey D Calhoun, Christal L Badour, Megan Moran-Santa Maria, Kathleen T Brady, Sudie E Back
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are highly prevalent and commonly co-occur. The dual diagnosis of PTSD/AUD is associated with serious negative sequalae, and there are currently no effective pharmacological treatments for this comorbidity. Both PTSD and AUD are characterized by dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which helps modulate stress reactivity. Oxytocin, a neuropeptide that attenuates HPA axis dysregulation, may be beneficial for individuals with co-occurring PTSD/AUD...
November 1, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Julia D Buckner, Katherine Walukevich Dienst, Michael J Zvolensky
Low levels of distress tolerance have been identified as an important vulnerability factor for negative cannabis outcomes. The current study is the first known experimental manipulation of state distress to test whether distress tolerance interacts with state distress to predict the urge to use cannabis. Current cannabis users (N = 126; 88.9% with cannabis use disorder; 54.0% non-Hispanic Caucasian) were randomly assigned to a distress task condition or neutral (reading) task condition. Participants in the 2 conditions did not differ on distress tolerance, negative affect (NA), or craving at baseline...
October 22, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Maria A Parker, James C Anthony
Among young people who start using prescription pain relievers (PPRs) for feeling-states such as "to get high" or otherwise beyond boundaries intended by prescribers, the most recent epidemiological incidence estimates show 2%-9% with rapid-onset opioid dependence. In this work, we study recently active underage alcohol dependence as a susceptibility marker and estimate alcohol dependence-associated PPR rates of use, once use starts. In recent U.S. epidemiological samples, we identified 16,125 community-dwelling 12-to-20-year-olds with standardized assessments of both problem drinking and newly incident extra-medical PPR use...
September 27, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Liqa N Athamneh, Jeffrey S Stein, Michael Amlung, Warren K Bickel
Basic and clinical addiction research use demand measures and analysis extensively to characterize drug use motivations. Hence, obtaining an accurate and brief measurement of demand that can be easily utilized in different settings is highly valued. In the current study, 2 versions of a breakpoint measure, designed to capture cigarette demand, were investigated in 119 smokers who were recruited from an online crowdsourcing platform. The first version determines the maximum price a smoker is willing to pay for one cigarette received right now when paid out of pocket, and the second determines the maximum price when paid using a hypothetical $100 gift card received for free...
September 27, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Kenneth Silverman, August F Holtyn, Shrinidhi Subramaniam
Poverty is associated with poor health and affects many United States residents. The therapeutic workplace, an operant intervention designed to treat unemployed adults with histories of drug addiction, could form the basis for an effective antipoverty program. Under the therapeutic workplace, participants receive pay for work. To promote drug abstinence or medication adherence, participants must provide drug-free urine samples or take scheduled doses of medication, respectively, to maintain maximum pay. Therapeutic workplace participants receive job-skills training in Phase 1 and perform income-producing jobs in Phase 2...
September 27, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Anne K Baker, Eric L Garland
Prescription opioid misuse among chronic pain patients is undergirded by self-regulatory deficits, affective distress, and opioid-cue reactivity. Dispositional mindfulness has been associated with enhanced self-regulation, lower distress, and adaptive autonomic responses following drug-cue exposure. We hypothesized that dispositional mindfulness might serve as a protective factor among opioid-treated chronic pain patients. We examined heart-rate variability (HRV) during exposure to opioid cues and depressed mood as mediators of the association between dispositional mindfulness and opioid craving...
September 27, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
James MacKillop, Joshua C Gray, Jessica Weafer, Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Abraham A Palmer, Harriet de Wit
Delayed reward discounting (DRD) is a behavioral economic measure of impulsivity that has been consistently associated with addiction. It has also been identified as a promising addiction endophenotype, linking specific sources of genetic variation to individual risk. A challenge in the studies to date is that levels of DRD are often confounded with prior drug use, and previous studies have also had limited genomic scope. The current investigation sought to address these issues by studying DRD in healthy young adults with low levels of substance use (N = 986; 62% female, 100% European ancestry) and investigating genetic variation genome-wide...
September 27, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Sterling M McPherson, Ekaterina Burduli, Crystal Lederhos Smith, Olivia Brooks, Michael F Orr, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Trynke Hoekstra, Michael G McDonell, Sean M Murphy, Matthew Layton, John M Roll
Tobacco and alcohol are often used in tandem over time, but specific predictors of course and patterns of course over time need explication. We examined differences in alcohol and tobacco course among an adolescent population as they transitioned into young adulthood across a 17-year period. Data came from participants (n = 303 for ages 15-21, n = 196 for ages 21 to 32; 52% female and 54% female, respectively) enrolled in the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, an epidemiologic investigation examining disease across the life span...
August 27, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Keanan J Joyner, Samuel F Acuff, Lidia Z Meshesha, Christopher J Patrick, James G Murphy
Behavioral economic theories of substance abuse posit that deficits in substance-free reward increase risk for substance misuse, but little research has examined potential moderators of this relationship, including dispositional risk factors. Here, we tested the hypothesis that young adult heavy drinkers with family histories of alcohol misuse would show a stronger association specifically between low evening substance-free reinforcement and alcohol problems compared to those without a family history of alcohol misuse...
August 27, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
David P Jarmolowicz, Derek D Reed, Amanda S Bruce, Sharon Lynch, Julia Smith, Jared M Bruce
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that causes a range of problematic symptoms. These symptoms tend to get worse over time, causing substantial impairment in patient quality of life. Although many effective disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) exist that slow the course of MS, patients often do not choose to take them, which may be because these medications carry substantial risks of side effects, varying from mild to severe, while only decreasing the probability of future symptoms. In the current study, we examined MS patients' self-reported likelihood of taking medications with a range of efficacies (11 values, ranging from 0...
August 27, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Marco Colizzi, Philip McGuire, Vincent Giampietro, Steve Williams, Mick Brammer, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
Cannabis can induce transient psychotic and anxiety symptoms and long-lasting disorders. The acute psychoactive effects of its main active ingredient, (-)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), may be modulated by previous cannabis exposure. Secondary data analyses tested whether modest previous cannabis exposure modulated the acute effects of Δ9-THC on attentional salience and emotional processing and their neurophysiological substrates. Twenty-four healthy men participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures, within-subject, Δ9-THC challenge study using fMRI...
August 23, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Eric K Soule, Carolina Ramôa, Thomas Eissenberg, Caroline O Cobb
Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) exposes users to toxicants in much greater amounts than a cigarette. Little is known about how gender affects WTS toxicant exposure and subjective response. Data from three WTS clinical laboratory studies were combined for analysis. Participants ( N = 99; 38 women) completed a 45-min WTS session where they smoked a waterpipe ad libitum. Puff topography was measured throughout, and plasma nicotine concentration, expired air carbon monoxide (CO), and subjective responses were measured pre- and post-WTS...
October 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Jinyi Kuang, Hannah Milhorn, Allison Stuppy-Sullivan, Soyeon Jung, Richard Yi
Delay discounting, reflected in the tendency to prefer immediate rewards over delayed rewards, is associated with most forms of problematic substance use. When assessed multiple times to examine within-individual changes, for example, following acute drug administration or an intervention, shifts in delay discounting simply because of repeated assessment is a concern, particularly when the assessment task is identical. This may be true for the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ), a widely used, fixed-item assessment of delay discounting...
October 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Kailey A Richner, William R Corbin, Kyle R Menary
Individual differences in subjective response (SR) to alcohol (e.g., stimulation, sedation) are a significant predictor of negative alcohol outcomes. Previous studies have reported ethnic differences in SR (e.g., between some Asian populations and Caucasians), but very few studies have examined SR among Hispanic/Latino individuals. To address this gap in the literature, the present study utilized data from a large-scale, placebo-controlled alcohol administration study to examine differences in SR between Hispanic/Latino and Caucasian individuals...
October 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Lisa R LaRowe, Jesse D Kosiba, Emily L Zale, Joseph W Ditre
Animal research has consistently demonstrated increased pain in the context of nicotine deprivation, and there is cross-sectional evidence that tobacco smokers may experience greater pain following periods of smoking abstinence. This study aimed to examine current pain intensity as a function of nicotine deprivation among 137 daily tobacco smokers who did not endorse chronic pain and were recruited to participate in a primary study of the effects of smoking abstinence on experimental pain reactivity. Participants were randomized to either deprivation (12-24 hr abstinence) or continued ad lib smoking conditions...
October 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Fernando B de Moura, Stephen J Kohut, Jack Bergman
Disulfiram (Antabuse), an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and dopamine-beta hydroxylase inhibitor, has shown promise in preclinical and clinical studies as a pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction. However, the extent to which disulfiram may alter the abuse-related behavioral effects of related psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine, is unknown. Here, the therapeutic potential of disulfiram was evaluated by examining its impact on the reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects of d-methamphetamine in adult rhesus monkeys (N = 4 per group)...
October 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
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