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Human Brain Mapping

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792117/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-variance-and-state-specific-under-connectivity-in-autism
#1
Heng Chen, Jason S Nomi, Lucina Q Uddin, Xujun Duan, Huafu Chen
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition associated with altered brain connectivity. Previous neuroimaging research demonstrates inconsistent results, particularly in studies of functional connectivity in ASD. Typically, these inconsistent findings are results of studies using static measures of resting-state functional connectivity. Recent work has demonstrated that functional brain connections are dynamic, suggesting that static connectivity metrics fail to capture nuanced time-varying properties of functional connections in the brain...
August 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792103/progression-of-regional-atrophy-in-the-left-hemisphere-contributes-to-clinical-and-cognitive-deterioration-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-5-year-study
#2
Paolo Preziosa, Elisabetta Pagani, Sarlota Mesaros, Gianna C Riccitelli, Jelena Dackovic, Jelena Drulovic, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
In this longitudinal study, we investigated the regional patterns of focal lesions accumulation, and gray (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy progression over a five-year follow-up (FU) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and their association with clinical and cognitive deterioration. Neurological, neuropsychological and brain MRI (dual-echo and 3D T1-weighted sequences) assessments were prospectively performed at baseline (T0) and after a median FU of 4.9 years from 66 MS patients (including relapse-onset and primary progressive MS) and 16 matched controls...
August 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792094/audiovisual-integration-as-conflict-resolution-the-conflict-of-the-mcgurk-illusion
#3
Luis Morís Fernández, Emiliano Macaluso, Salvador Soto-Faraco
There are two main behavioral expressions of multisensory integration (MSI) in speech; the perceptual enhancement produced by the sight of the congruent lip movements of the speaker, and the illusory sound perceived when a speech syllable is dubbed with incongruent lip movements, in the McGurk effect. These two models have been used very often to study MSI. Here, we contend that, unlike congruent audiovisually (AV) speech, the McGurk effect involves brain areas related to conflict detection and resolution. To test this hypothesis, we used fMRI to measure blood oxygen level dependent responses to AV speech syllables...
August 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782901/the-effects-of-memory-training-on-behavioral-and-microstructural-plasticity-in-young-and-older-adults
#4
Ann-Marie Glasø de Lange, Anne Cecilie Sjøli Bråthen, Darius A Rohani, Håkon Grydeland, Anders M Fjell, Kristine B Walhovd
Age differences in human brain plasticity are assumed, but have not been systematically investigated. In this longitudinal study, we investigated changes in white matter (WM) microstructure in response to memory training relative to passive and active control conditions in 183 young and older adults. We hypothesized that (i) only the training group would show improved memory performance and microstructural alterations, (ii) the young adults would show larger memory improvement and a higher degree of microstructural alterations as compared to the older adults, and (iii) changes in memory performance would relate to microstructural alterations...
August 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782899/neural-predictors-of-motor-control-and-impact-of-visuo-proprioceptive-information-in-youth
#5
Sharissa H A Corporaal, Jolien Gooijers, Sima Chalavi, Boris Cheval, Stephan P Swinnen, Matthieu P Boisgontier
For successful motor control, the central nervous system is required to combine information from the environment and the current body state, which is provided by vision and proprioception respectively. We investigated the relative contribution of visual and proprioceptive information to upper limb motor control and the extent to which structural brain measures predict this performance in youth (n = 40; age range 9-18 years). Participants performed a manual tracking task, adopting in-phase and anti-phase coordination modes...
August 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782872/the-role-of-vascular-resistance-in-bold-responses-to-progressive-hypercapnia
#6
James Duffin, Olivia Sobczyk, Adrian Crawley, Julien Poublanc, Lashmi Venkatraghavan, Kevin Sam, Alan Mutch, David Mikulis, Joseph Fisher
The ability of the cerebral vasculature to regulate vascular diameter, hence resistance and cerebral blood flow (CBF), in response to metabolic demands (neurovascular coupling), and perfusion pressure changes (autoregulation) may be assessed by measuring the CBF response to carbon dioxide (CO2 ). In healthy individuals, the CBF response to a ramp CO2 stimulus from hypocapnia to hypercapnia is assumed sigmoidal or linear. However, other response patterns commonly occur, especially in individuals with cerebrovascular disease, and these remain unexplained...
August 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782871/combining-task-related-activation-and-connectivity-analysis-of-fmri-data-reveals-complex-modulation-of-brain-networks
#7
Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Peter Kirsch
Task-related effects in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data are usually analyzed with local activation approaches or integrative connectivity approaches, for example, by psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. While both approaches are often applied to the same data set, a systematic combination of the results with a whole-brain (WB) perspective is rarely conducted and the relationship between task-dependent activation and connectivity effects is relatively unexplored. Here, we combined brain activation and graph theoretical analysis of WB-PPI results in an exemplary episodic memory data set of N = 136 healthy human participants and found regions with congruent as well as incongruent activation and connectivity changes between task and control conditions...
August 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782869/distinguishing-stimulus-and-response-codes-in-theta-oscillations-in-prefrontal-areas-during-inhibitory-control-of-automated-responses
#8
Moritz Mückschel, Gabriel Dippel, Christian Beste
Response inhibition mechanisms are mediated via cortical and subcortical networks. At the cortical level, the superior frontal gyrus, including the supplementary motor area (SMA) and inferior frontal areas, is important. There is an ongoing debate about the functional roles of these structures during response inhibition as it is unclear whether these structures process different codes or contents of information during response inhibition. In the current study, we examined this question with a focus on theta frequency oscillations during response inhibition processes...
August 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782865/deep-learning-with-convolutional-neural-networks-for-eeg-decoding-and-visualization
#9
Robin Tibor Schirrmeister, Jost Tobias Springenberg, Lukas Dominique Josef Fiederer, Martin Glasstetter, Katharina Eggensperger, Michael Tangermann, Frank Hutter, Wolfram Burgard, Tonio Ball
Deep learning with convolutional neural networks (deep ConvNets) has revolutionized computer vision through end-to-end learning, that is, learning from the raw data. There is increasing interest in using deep ConvNets for end-to-end EEG analysis, but a better understanding of how to design and train ConvNets for end-to-end EEG decoding and how to visualize the informative EEG features the ConvNets learn is still needed. Here, we studied deep ConvNets with a range of different architectures, designed for decoding imagined or executed tasks from raw EEG...
August 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782862/enhanced-estimations-of-post-stroke-aphasia-severity-using-stacked-multimodal-predictions
#10
Dorian Pustina, Harry Branch Coslett, Lyle Ungar, Olufunsho K Faseyitan, John D Medaglia, Brian Avants, Myrna F Schwartz
The severity of post-stroke aphasia and the potential for recovery are highly variable and difficult to predict. Evidence suggests that optimal estimation of aphasia severity requires the integration of multiple neuroimaging modalities and the adoption of new methods that can detect multivariate brain-behavior relationships. We created and tested a multimodal framework that relies on three information sources (lesion maps, structural connectivity, and functional connectivity) to create an array of unimodal predictions which are then fed into a final model that creates "stacked multimodal predictions" (STAMP)...
August 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766907/neural-correlates-of-theory-of-mind-in-very-preterm-born-children
#11
Sarah I Mossad, Mary Lou Smith, Elizabeth W Pang, Margot J Taylor
Very preterm (VPT) birth (<32 weeks' gestational age) has been implicated in social-cognitive deficits including Theory of Mind (ToM); the ability to attribute mental states to others and understand that those beliefs can differ from one's own or reality. The neural bases for ToM deficits in VPT born children have not been examined. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) for its excellent spatial and temporal resolution to determine the neural underpinnings of ToM in 24 VPT and 24 full-term born (FT) children (7-13 years)...
August 2, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766853/axtract-toward-microstructure-informed-tractography
#12
Gabriel Girard, Alessandro Daducci, Laurent Petit, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Kevin Whittingstall, Rachid Deriche, Demian Wassermann, Maxime Descoteaux
Diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tractography has become the tool of choice to probe the human brain's white matter in vivo. However, tractography algorithms produce a large number of erroneous streamlines (false positives), largely due to complex ambiguous tissue configurations. Moreover, the relationship between the resulting streamlines and the underlying white matter microstructure characteristics remains poorly understood. In this work, we introduce a new approach to simultaneously reconstruct white matter fascicles and characterize the apparent distribution of axon diameters within fascicles...
August 2, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759710/functional-integrity-in-children-with-anoxic-brain-injury-from-drowning
#13
Mariam Ishaque, Janessa H Manning, Mary D Woolsey, Crystal G Franklin, Elizabeth W Tullis, Christian F Beckmann, Peter T Fox
Drowning is a leading cause of accidental injury and death in young children. Anoxic brain injury (ABI) is a common consequence of drowning and can cause severe neurological morbidity in survivors. Assessment of functional status and prognostication in drowning victims can be extremely challenging, both acutely and chronically. Structural neuroimaging modalities (CT and MRI) have been of limited clinical value. Here, we tested the utility of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) for assessing brain functional integrity in this population...
July 31, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758287/electrophysiological-correlates-of-the-drift-diffusion-model-in-visual-word-recognition
#14
Christina J Mueller, Corey N White, Lars Kuchinke
This study was designed to explore the electrophysiological correlates of the diffusion models drift rate parameter in cognitive decision making. Eighty-two participants completed a lexical decision task while their stimulus-dependent event-related potentials (ERP) and theta frequency band power were measured. A mass univariate approach was applied to examine the timeline at which correlations were evident. Individual differences in drift rate parameter and condition-wise within-subject differences in drift rates for word emotionality and item repetition were found to be related to amplitude differences in the late positive complex (LPC)...
July 31, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758271/visually-stressful-striped-patterns-alter-human-visual-cortical-functional-connectivity
#15
Jie Huang, David C Zhu
Visually stressful striped patterns with a spatial frequency (SF) of around 3 cycles per degree (cpd) can induce perceptual illusions/distortions and visual discomfort in most people, headaches in patients with migraine, and seizures in patients with photosensitive epilepsy. Patterns with SF ∼0.3 cpd have no such effects and are not uncomfortable to look at (non-stressful). The effects of the striped patterns on visual cortical activation have been investigated, but their effects on the visual cortical network remain to be studied...
July 31, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752565/the-relationship-between-subcortical-brain-volume-and-striatal-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-availability-in-healthy-humans-assessed-with-11-c-raclopride-and-11-c-phno-pet
#16
Fernando Caravaggio, Jun Ku Chung, Eric Plitman, Isabelle Boileau, Philip Gerretsen, Julia Kim, Yusuke Iwata, Raihaan Patel, M Mallar Chakravarty, Gary Remington, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in dopamine (DA) and brain morphology are observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it is not fully understood how these abnormalities may relate to one another. For such in vivo findings to be used as biomarkers for neuropsychiatric disease, it must be understood how variability in DA relates to brain structure under healthy conditions. We explored how the availability of striatal DA D2/3 receptors (D2/3 R) is related to the volume of subcortical brain structures in a sample of healthy humans...
July 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746733/mothers-with-substance-addictions-show-reduced-reward-responses-when-viewing-their-own-infant-s-face
#17
Sohye Kim, Udita Iyengar, Linda C Mayes, Marc N Potenza, Helena J V Rutherford, Lane Strathearn
Maternal addiction constitutes a major public health problem affecting children, with high rates of abuse, neglect, and foster care placement. However, little is known about the ways in which substance addiction alters brain function related to maternal behavior. Prior studies have shown that infant face cues activate similar dopamine-associated brain reward regions to substances of abuse. Here, we report on a functional MRI study documenting that mothers with addictions demonstrate reduced activation of reward regions when shown reward-related cues of their own infants...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745021/the-impact-of-t1-versus-epi-spatial-normalization-templates-for-fmri-data-analyses
#18
Vince D Calhoun, Tor D Wager, Anjali Krishnan, Keri S Rosch, Karen E Seymour, Mary Beth Nebel, Stewart H Mostofsky, Prashanth Nyalakanai, Kent Kiehl
Spatial normalization of brains to a standardized space is a widely used approach for group studies in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Commonly used template-based approaches are complicated by signal dropout and distortions in echo planar imaging (EPI) data. The most widely used software packages implement two common template-based strategies: (1) affine transformation of the EPI data to an EPI template followed by nonlinear registration to an EPI template (EPInorm) and (2) affine transformation of the EPI data to the anatomic image for a given subject, followed by nonlinear registration of the anatomic data to an anatomic template, which produces a transformation that is applied to the EPI data (T1norm)...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745016/associations-between-self-reported-sleep-quality-and-white-matter-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Claire E Sexton, Enikő Zsoldos, Nicola Filippini, Ludovica Griffanti, Anderson Winkler, Abda Mahmood, Charlotte L Allan, Anya Topiwala, Simon D Kyle, Kai Spiegelhalder, Archana Singh-Manoux, Mika Kivimaki, Clare E Mackay, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Klaus P Ebmeier
Both sleep disturbances and decline in white matter microstructure are commonly observed in ageing populations, as well as in age-related psychiatric and neurological illnesses. A relationship between sleep and white matter microstructure may underlie such relationships, but few imaging studies have directly examined this hypothesis. In a study of 448 community-dwelling members of the Whitehall II Imaging Sub-Study aged between 60 and 82 years (90 female, mean age 69.2 ± 5.1 years), we used the magnetic resonance imaging technique diffusion tensor imaging to examine the relationship between self-reported sleep quality and white matter microstructure...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744969/abnormal-functional-activation-and-maturation-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-and-cerebellum-during-temporal-discounting-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Clodagh M Murphy, Anastasia Christakou, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, Eileen M Daly, Christine Ecker, Patrick Johnston, Debbie Spain, Dene M Robertson, Declan G Murphy, Katya Rubia
People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poor decision-making and temporal foresight. This may adversely impact on their everyday life, mental health, and productivity. However, the neural substrates underlying poor choice behavior in people with ASD, or its' neurofunctional development from childhood to adulthood, are unknown. Despite evidence of atypical structural brain development in ASD, investigation of functional brain maturation in people with ASD is lacking. This cross-sectional developmental fMRI study investigated the neural substrates underlying performance on a temporal discounting (TD) task in 38 healthy (11-35 years old) male adolescents and adults with ASD and 40 age, sex, and IQ-matched typically developing healthy controls...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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