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Human Brain Mapping

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913860/connectivity-based-parcellation-of-the-anterior-limb-of-the-internal-capsule
#1
Pranav Nanda, Garrett P Banks, Yagna J Pathak, Sameer A Sheth
The anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) is an important locus of frontal-subcortical fiber tracts involved in cognitive and limbic feedback loops. However, the structural organization of its component fiber tracts remains unclear. Therefore, although the ALIC is a promising target for various neurosurgical procedures for psychiatric disorders, more precise understanding of its organization is required to optimize target localization. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) collected on healthy subjects by the Human Connectome Project (HCP), we generated parcellations of the ALIC by dividing it according to structural connectivity to various frontal regions...
September 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901713/neural-correlates-of-interoception-effects-of-interoceptive-focus-and-relationship-to-dimensional-measures-of-body-awareness
#2
Emily R Stern, Stephanie J Grimaldi, Alexandra Muratore, James Murrough, Evan Leibu, Lazar Fleysher, Wayne K Goodman, Katherine E Burdick
Interoception has been defined as the sensing of the physiological condition of the body, with interoceptive sensibility (IS) characterizing an individual's self-reported awareness of internal sensation. IS is a multidimensional construct including not only the tendency to be aware of sensation but also how sensations are interpreted, regulated, and used to inform behavior, with different dimensions relating to different aspects of health and disease. Here we investigated neural mechanisms of interoception when healthy individuals attended to their heartbeat and skin temperature, and examined the relationship between neural activity during interoception and individual differences in self-reported IS using the Multidimensional Scale of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA)...
September 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901711/learning-to-name-smells-increases-activity-in-heteromodal-semantic-areas
#3
Arnaud Fournel, Caroline Sezille, Carmen C Licon, Charlotte Sinding, Johannes Gerber, Camille Ferdenzi, Thomas Hummel, Moustafa Bensafi
Semantic description of odors is a cognitively demanding task. Learning to name smells is, however, possible with training. This study set out to examine how improvement in olfactory semantic knowledge following training reorganizes the neural representation of smells. First, 19 nonexpert volunteers were trained for 3 days; they were exposed (i) to odorants presented without verbal labels (perceptual learning) and (ii) to other odorants paired with lexicosemantic labels (associative learning). Second, the same participants were tested in a brain imaging study (fMRI) measuring hemodynamic responses to learned odors presented in both the perceptual and associative learning conditions...
September 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901676/neural-mechanisms-of-motion-perceptual-learning-in-noise
#4
Nihong Chen, Junshi Lu, Hanyu Shao, Xuchu Weng, Fang Fang
Practice improves our perceptual ability. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this experience-dependent plasticity in adult brain remain unclear. Here, we studied the long-term neural correlates of motion perceptual learning. Subjects' behavioral performance and BOLD signals were tracked before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after practicing a motion direction discrimination task in noise over six daily sessions. Parallel to the specificity and persistency of the behavioral learning effect, we found that training sharpened the cortical tuning in MT, and enhanced the connectivity strength from MT to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS, a motion decision-making area)...
September 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901627/microstructural-white-matter-alterations-in-patients-with-drug-induced-parkinsonism
#5
Yoonju Lee, Yong Ho Choi, Jae Jung Lee, Hye Sun Lee, Young H Sohn, Jong-Min Lee, Phil Hyu Lee
Drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) is the second most common etiology of parkinsonism. And yet, there is little information on structural imaging in DIP to elucidate the accurate underlying pathomechanisms. To investigate microstructural white matter (WM) in patients with DIP using diffusion tensor image and to determine its relationship to severity of parkinsonian motor symptoms and cognitive function. A total of 42 patients with DIP, 65 with Parkinson's disease, and 33 control subjects were recruited from a movement disorders outpatient clinic...
September 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898497/a-pediatric-structural-mri-analysis-of-healthy-brain-development-from-newborns-to-young-adults
#6
Jacob Levman, Patrick MacDonald, Ashley Ruyan Lim, Cynthia Forgeron, Emi Takahashi
Assessment of healthy brain maturation can be useful toward better understanding natural patterns of brain growth and toward the characterization of a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders as deviations from normal growth trajectories. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides excellent soft-tissue contrast, which allows for the assessment of gray and white matter in the developing brain. We performed a large-scale retrospective analysis of 993 pediatric structural brain MRI examinations of healthy subjects (n = 988, aged 0-32 years) imaged clinically at 3 T, and extracted a wide variety of measurements such as white matter volumes, cortical thickness, and gyral curvature localized to subregions of the brain...
September 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885757/frequency-specific-neuromodulation-of-local-and-distant-connectivity-in-aging-and-episodic-memory-function
#7
Simon W Davis, Bruce Luber, David L K Murphy, Sarah H Lisanby, Roberto Cabeza
A growing literature has focused on the brain's ability to augment processing in local regions by recruiting distant communities of neurons in response to neural decline or insult. In particular, both younger and older adult populations recruit bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) as a means of compensating for increasing neural effort to maintain successful cognitive function. However, it remains unclear how local changes in neural activity affect the recruitment of this adaptive mechanism. To address this problem, we combined graph theoretical measures from functional MRI with diffusion weighted imaging and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to resolve a central hypothesis: how do aged brains flexibly adapt to local changes in cortical activity? Specifically, we applied neuromodulation to increase or decrease local activity in a cortical region supporting successful memory encoding (left dorsolateral PFC or DLPFC) using 5 or 1 Hz rTMS, respectively...
September 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885754/deficits-in-voluntary-pursuit-and-inhibition-of-risk-taking-in-sensation-seeking
#8
Ya Zheng, Qi Li, Moqian Tian, Weizhi Nan, Guochun Yang, Jin Liang, Xun Liu
Sensation seeking has been associated with substance use and other risk-taking behaviors. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the neural correlates underlying risk taking in sensation seeking. Twenty-eight high sensation seekers (HSS; 14 female and 14 male young adults) and 28 low sensation seekers (LSS; 14 female and 14 male young adults) performed an interactive, sequential gambling task that allowed for voluntary pursuit or inhibition of risk taking. Behaviorally, HSS versus LSS exhibited a stronger tendency toward risk taking...
September 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885752/dual-echo-asl-contributes-to-decrypting-the-link-between-functional-connectivity-and-cerebral-blow-flow
#9
Silvia F Storti, Ilaria Boscolo Galazzo, Stefania Montemezzi, Gloria Menegaz, Francesca B Pizzini
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI with a dual-echo readout module (DE-ASL) enables noninvasive simultaneous acquisition of cerebral blood flow (CBF)-weighted images and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast. Up to date, resting-state functional connectivity (FC) studies based on CBF fluctuations have been very limited, while the BOLD is still the method most frequently used. The purposes of this technical report were (i) to assess the potentiality of the DE-ASL sequence for the quantification of resting-state FC and brain organization, with respect to the conventional BOLD (cvBOLD) and (ii) to investigate the relationship between a series of complex network measures and the CBF information...
September 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885740/preferential-encoding-of-movement-amplitude-and-speed-in-the-primary-motor-cortex-and-cerebellum
#10
Alit Stark-Inbar, Eran Dayan
Voluntary movements require control of multiple kinematic parameters, a task carried out by a distributed brain architecture. However, it remains unclear whether regions along the motor system encode single, or rather a mixture of, kinematic parameters during action execution. Here, rapid event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to differentiate brain activity along the motor system during the encoding of movement amplitude, duration, and speed. We present cumulative evidence supporting preferential encoding of kinematic parameters along the motor system, based on blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal recorded in a well-controlled single-joint wrist-flexion task...
September 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881454/hypersensitivity-to-low-intensity-fearful-faces-in-autism-when-fixation-is-constrained-to-the-eyes
#11
Amandine Lassalle, Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Nicole R Zürcher, Loyse Hippolyte, Eva Billstedt, Noreen Ward, Eric Lemonnier, Christopher Gillberg, Nouchine Hadjikhani
Previous studies that showed decreased brain activation in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewing expressive faces did not control that participants looked in the eyes. This is problematic because ASD is characterized by abnormal attention to the eyes. Here, we collected fMRI data from 48 participants (27 ASD) viewing pictures of neutral faces and faces expressing anger, happiness, and fear at low and high intensity, with a fixation cross between the eyes. Group differences in whole brain activity were examined for expressive faces at high and low intensity versus neutral faces...
September 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881433/structural-connectivity-defined-thalamic-subregions-have-different-functional-connectivity-abnormalities-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-implications-for-clinical-correlations
#12
Alessandro d'Ambrosio, Milagros Hidalgo de la Cruz, Paola Valsasina, Elisabetta Pagani, Bruno Colombo, Mariaemma Rodegher, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
In spite of the well-known importance of thalami in multiple sclerosis (MS), only limited data on whole and subregional thalamic functional connectivity (FC) changes are available. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we performed a structural connectivity based thalamic parcellation and investigated subregional thalamic resting-state (RS) FC alterations and their relationship with clinical/cognitive measures in MS. MRI data from a reference set of healthy controls (HC) were used to parcellate the thalami into five subregions, according to their structural connectivity...
September 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881417/central-and-non-central-networks-cognition-clinical-symptoms-and-polygenic-risk-scores-in-schizophrenia
#13
Clara Alloza, Mark E Bastin, Simon R Cox, Jude Gibson, Barbara Duff, Scott I Semple, Heather C Whalley, Stephen M Lawrie
Schizophrenia is a complex disorder that may be the result of aberrant connections between specific brain regions rather than focal brain abnormalities. Here, we investigate the relationships between brain structural connectivity as described by network analysis, intelligence, symptoms, and polygenic risk scores (PGRS) for schizophrenia in a group of patients with schizophrenia and a group of healthy controls. Recently, researchers have shown an interest in the role of high centrality networks in the disorder...
September 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876500/on-the-integrity-of-functional-brain-networks-in-schizophrenia-parkinson-s-disease-and-advanced-age-evidence-from-connectivity-based-single-subject-classification
#14
Rachel N Pläschke, Edna C Cieslik, Veronika I Müller, Felix Hoffstaedter, Anna Plachti, Deepthi P Varikuti, Mareike Goosses, Anne Latz, Svenja Caspers, Christiane Jockwitz, Susanne Moebus, Oliver Gruber, Claudia R Eickhoff, Kathrin Reetz, Julia Heller, Martin Südmeyer, Christian Mathys, Julian Caspers, Christian Grefkes, Tobias Kalenscher, Robert Langner, Simon B Eickhoff
Previous whole-brain functional connectivity studies achieved successful classifications of patients and healthy controls but only offered limited specificity as to affected brain systems. Here, we examined whether the connectivity patterns of functional systems affected in schizophrenia (SCZ), Parkinson's disease (PD), or normal aging equally translate into high classification accuracies for these conditions. We compared classification performance between pre-defined networks for each group and, for any given network, between groups...
September 6, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868791/predicting-hemispheric-dominance-for-language-production-in-healthy-individuals-using-support-vector-machine
#15
Laure Zago, Pierre-Yves Hervé, Robin Genuer, Alexandre Laurent, Bernard Mazoyer, Nathalie Tzourio-Mazoyer, Marc Joliot
We used a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to assess hemispheric pattern of language dominance of 47 individuals categorized as non-typical for language from their hemispheric functional laterality index (HFLI) measured on a sentence minus word-list production fMRI-BOLD contrast map. The SVM classifier was trained at discriminating between Dominant and Non-Dominant hemispheric language production activation pattern on a group of 250 participants previously identified as Typicals (HFLI strongly leftward)...
September 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868623/short-term-language-switching-training-tunes-the-neural-correlates-of-cognitive-control-in-bilingual-language-production
#16
Chunyan Kang, Yongben Fu, Junjie Wu, Fengyang Ma, Chunming Lu, Taomei Guo
The present study investigated how language switching experience would modulate the neural correlates of cognitive control involved in bilingual language production. A group of unbalanced Chinese-English bilinguals undertook an 8-day cued picture naming training during which they named pictures in either of their languages based on visually presented cues. Participants' brain activation was scanned before and after the training in the same task. Behavioral results revealed a significant training effect such that switch costs were reduced after training...
September 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856799/complexity-analysis-of-cortical-surface-detects-changes-in-future-alzheimer-s-disease-converters
#17
Juan Ruiz de Miras, Víctor Costumero, Vicente Belloch, Joaquín Escudero, César Ávila, Jorge Sepulcre
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurological disorder that creates neurodegenerative changes at several structural and functional levels in human brain tissue. The fractal dimension (FD) is a quantitative parameter that characterizes the morphometric variability of the human brain. In this study, we investigate spherical harmonic-based FD (SHFD), thickness, and local gyrification index (LGI) to assess whether they identify cortical surface abnormalities toward the conversion to AD. We study 33 AD patients, 122 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients (50 MCI converters and 29 MCI nonconverters), and 32 healthy controls (HC)...
August 30, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856766/gray-matter-asymmetries-in-aging-and-neurodegeneration-a-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Lora Minkova, Annegret Habich, Jessica Peter, Christoph P Kaller, Simon B Eickhoff, Stefan Klöppel
Inter-hemispheric asymmetries are a common phenomenon of the human brain. Some evidence suggests that neurodegeneration related to aging and disease may preferentially affect the left-usually language- and motor-dominant-hemisphere. Here, we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis to assess gray matter (GM) loss and its lateralization in healthy aging and in neurodegeneration, namely, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's dementia (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD)...
August 30, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845892/multiple-functional-networks-modeling-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-diagnosis
#19
Tae-Eui Kam, Heung-Il Suk, Seong-Whan Lee
Despite countless studies on autism spectrum disorder (ASD), diagnosis relies on specific behavioral criteria and neuroimaging biomarkers for the disorder are still relatively scarce and irrelevant for diagnostic workup. Many researchers have focused on functional networks of brain activities using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to diagnose brain diseases, including ASD. Although some existing methods are able to reveal the abnormalities in functional networks, they are either highly dependent on prior assumptions for modeling these networks or do not focus on latent functional connectivities (FCs) by considering discriminative relations among FCs in a nonlinear way...
August 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845885/analysis-of-vascular-homogeneity-and-anisotropy-on-high-resolution-primate-brain-imaging
#20
Pol Kennel, Caroline Fonta, Romain Guibert, Franck Plouraboué
Using a systematic investigation of brain blood volume, in high-resolution synchrotron 3D images of microvascular structures within cortical regions of a primate brain, we challenge several basic questions regarding possible vascular bias in high-resolution functional neuroimaging. We present a bilateral comparison of cortical regions, where we analyze relative vascular volume in voxels from 150 to 1000 μm side lengths in the white and grey matter. We show that, if voxel size reaches a scale smaller than 300 µm, the vascular volume can no longer be considered homogeneous, either within one hemisphere or in bilateral comparison between samples...
August 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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