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Human Brain Mapping

Martin E Héroux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Jing Shang, Josef G Bäuml, Nikolaos Koutsouleris, Marcel Daamen, Nicole Baumann, Claus Zimmer, Peter Bartmann, Henning Boecker, Dieter Wolke, Christian Sorg
Lasting volume reductions in subcortical and temporal-insular cortices after premature birth suggest altered ongoing activity in these areas. We hypothesized altered fluctuations in ongoing neural excitability and activity, as measured by slowly fluctuating blood oxygenation of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), in premature born adults, with altered fluctuations being linked with underlying brain volume reductions. To investigate this hypothesis, 94 very preterm/very low birth weight (VP/VLBW) and 92 full-term born young adults underwent structural and rs-fMRI data acquisition with voxel-based morphometry and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) as main outcome measure...
September 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Dae-Jin Kim, Ashley M Schnakenberg Martin, Yong-Wook Shin, Hang Joon Jo, Hu Cheng, Sharlene D Newman, Olaf Sporns, William P Hetrick, Eli Calkins, Brian F O'Donnell
Cellular studies indicate that endocannabinoid type-1 retrograde signaling plays a major role in synaptic plasticity. Disruption of these processes by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) could produce alterations either in structural and functional brain connectivity or in their association in cannabis (CB) users. Graph theoretic structural and functional networks were generated with diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional imaging in 37 current CB users and 31 healthy non-users. The primary outcome measures were coupling between structural and functional connectivity, global network characteristics, association between the coupling and network properties, and measures of rich-club organization...
September 11, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Mireille J C M Augustijn, Eva D'Hondt, Alexander Leemans, Lore Van Acker, Ann De Guchtenaere, Matthieu Lenoir, Frederik J A Deconinck, Karen Caeyenberghs
This study evaluated the effect of a multidisciplinary treatment program for children with obesity (OB) on motor competence, executive functioning (EF), and brain structure. Nineteen children with OB (7-11 years), who attended a multidisciplinary treatment program consisting of diet restriction, cognitive behavioral therapy, and physical activity, were compared with an age-matched control group of 24 children with a healthy weight (HW), who did not follow any treatment. For both groups, anthropometric measurements and tests of motor competence and EF were administered twice, with 5 months between pretest and posttest...
September 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Li-Yu Wang, Jongik Chung, Cheolwoo Park, Hosik Choi, Amanda L Rodrigue, Jordan E Pierce, Brett A Clementz, Jennifer E McDowell
Combining statistical parametric maps (SPM) from individual subjects is the goal in some types of group-level analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Brain maps are usually combined using a simple average across subjects, making them susceptible to subjects with outlying values. Furthermore, t tests are prone to false positives and false negatives when outlying values are observed. We propose a regularized unsupervised aggregation method for SPMs to find an optimal weight for aggregation, which aids in detecting and mitigating the effect of outlying subjects...
September 5, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Stefanie Köhler, Gerd Wagner, Karl-Jürgen Bär
Evidence suggests that cognitive control functions as well as the underlying brain network, anchored by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), are dysfunctional in schizophrenia. Catecholamine producing midbrain and brainstem nuclei are densely connected with the PFC and dACC and exert profound contributions to cognitive control processes. Dysfunctions within the underlying neurotransmitter systems are considered to play a central role in the occurrence of various symptoms of schizophrenia...
September 5, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Paolo Bosco, Alessia Giuliano, Jonathan Delafield-Butt, Filippo Muratori, Sara Calderoni, Alessandra Retico
The intermethod agreement between automated algorithms for brainstem segmentation is investigated, focusing on the potential involvement of this structure in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Inconsistencies highlighted in previous studies on brainstem in the population with ASD may in part be a result of poor agreement in the extraction of structural features between different methods. A sample of 76 children with ASD and 76 age-, gender-, and intelligence-matched controls was considered. Volumetric analyses were performed using common tools for brain structures segmentation, namely FSL-FIRST, FreeSurfer (FS), and Advanced Normalization Tools (ANTs)...
September 5, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Suril Gohel, Juan A Gallego, Delbert G Robinson, Pamela DeRosse, Bharat Biswal, Philip R Szeszko
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of psychosis have focused primarily on the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal ranging from .01 to 0.1 Hz. Few studies, however, have investigated the amplitude of frequency fluctuations within discrete frequency bands and higher than 0.1 Hz in patients with psychosis at different illness stages. We investigated BOLD signal within three frequency ranges including slow-4 (.027-.073 Hz), slow-3 (...
August 30, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Antje Gentsch, Alejandra Sel, Amanda C Marshall, Simone Schütz-Bosbach
The perception of internal bodily signals (interoception) is central to many theories of emotion and embodied cognition. According to recent theoretical views, the sensory processing of visceral signals such as one's own heartbeat is determined by top-down predictions about the expected interoceptive state of the body (interoceptive inference). In this EEG study we examined neural responses to heartbeats following expected and unexpected emotional stimuli. We used a modified stimulus repetition task in which pairs of facial expressions were presented with repeating or alternating emotional content, and we manipulated the emotional valence and the likelihood of stimulus repetition...
August 30, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Sarah Rudorf, Thomas Baumgartner, Sebastian Markett, Katrin Schmelz, Roland Wiest, Urs Fischbacher, Daria Knoch
When people sense that another person tries to control their decisions, some people will act against the control, whereas others will not. This individual tendency to control-averse behavior can have far-reaching consequences, such as engagement in illegal activities or noncompliance with medical treatments. Although individual differences in control-averse behavior have been well documented in behavioral studies, their neurological basis is less well understood. Here, we use a neural trait approach to examine whether individual differences in control-averse behavior might be linked to stable brain-based characteristics...
August 29, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Jord J T Vink, Stefano Mandija, Petar I Petrov, Cornells A T van den Berg, Iris E C Sommer, Sebastiaan F W Neggers
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe mental disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, which remains difficult to treat, as both resistance and recurrence rates are high. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) provides a safe and effective treatment for selected patients with treatment-resistant MDD. Little is known about the mechanisms of action of TMS provided to the left DLPFC in MDD and we can currently not predict who will respond to this type of treatment, precluding effective patient selection...
August 29, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Ann-Kathrin Kreuder, Lea Wassermann, Michael Wollseifer, Beate Ditzen, Monika Eckstein, Birgit Stoffel-Wagner, Juergen Hennig, René Hurlemann, Dirk Scheele
Social support plays a vital role in physical and mental well-being. The neuropeptide hormone oxytocin (OXT) has been implicated in modulating pair-bonding and affiliative behaviors, but whether OXT contributes to the analgesic effects of a romantic partner's touch remains elusive. In the present randomized placebo-controlled, between-group, functional magnetic resonance imaging study involving 194 healthy volunteers (97 heterosexual couples), we tested the effects of intranasal OXT (24 IU) on handholding as a common mode of expressing emotional support in romantic couples...
August 28, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Yang Yang, Fanlu Jia, Peter T Fox, Wai Ting Siok, Li Hai Tan
Persistent developmental stuttering is a neurological disorder that commonly manifests as a motor problem. Cognitive theories, however, hold that poorly developed cognitive skills are the origins of stuttering. Working memory (WM), a multicomponent cognitive system that mediates information maintenance and manipulation, is known to play an important role in speech production, leading us to postulate that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying stuttering may be associated with a WM deficit. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we aimed to elucidate brain mechanisms in a phonological WM task in adults who stutter and controls...
August 26, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Shaili C Jha, Kai Xia, James Eric Schmitt, Mihye Ahn, Jessica B Girault, Veronica A Murphy, Gang Li, Li Wang, Dinggang Shen, Fei Zou, Hongtu Zhu, Martin Styner, Rebecca C Knickmeyer, John H Gilmore
Genetic and environmental influences on cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) are thought to vary in a complex and dynamic way across the lifespan. It has been established that CT and SA are genetically distinct in older children, adolescents, and adults, and that heritability varies across cortical regions. Very little, however, is known about how genetic and environmental factors influence infant CT and SA. Using structural MRI, we performed the first assessment of genetic and environmental influences on normal variation of SA and CT in 360 twin neonates...
August 24, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Lauren K Lynch, Kun-Han Lu, Haiguang Wen, Yizhen Zhang, Andrew J Saykin, Zhongming Liu
During complex tasks, patterns of functional connectivity differ from those in the resting state. However, what accounts for such differences remains unclear. Brain activity during a task reflects an unknown mixture of spontaneous and task-evoked activities. The difference in functional connectivity between a task state and the resting state may reflect not only task-evoked functional connectivity, but also changes in spontaneously emerging networks. Here, we characterized the differences in apparent functional connectivity between the resting state and when human subjects were watching a naturalistic movie...
August 24, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Emma M Coppen, Jeroen van der Grond, Anne Hafkemeijer, Jurriaan J H Barkey Wolf, Raymund A C Roos
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor disturbances, psychiatric disturbances, and cognitive impairment. Visual cognitive deficits and atrophy of the posterior cerebral cortex are additionally present in early disease stages. This study aimed to assess the extent of structural and functional brain alterations of the visual cortex in HD gene carriers using different neuroimaging modalities. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 18 healthy controls, 21 premanifest, and 20 manifest HD gene carriers...
August 24, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Isabella A Breukelaar, Leanne M Williams, Cassandra Antees, Stuart M Grieve, Sheryl L Foster, Lavier Gomes, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar
Cognitive control is one of the most important skills in day-to-day social and intellectual functioning but we are yet to understand the neural basis of the group of behaviors required to carry this out. Here, we probed changes over time in the brain network associated with cognitive control (the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the dorsal posterior parietal cortex, and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex) using both behavioral assays and functional brain imaging during a selective working memory task in 69 healthy participants within the age range 18-38 years (mean: 25, SD: ±6), assessed twice, 2 years apart...
August 23, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Huiling Li, Jing Qu, Chuansheng Chen, Yanjun Chen, Gui Xue, Lei Zhang, Chengrou Lu, Leilei Mei
Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested similar neural activations for word reading in native and second languages. However, such similarities were qualitatively determined (i.e., overlapping activation based on traditional univariate activation analysis). In this study, using representational similarity analysis and an artificial language training paradigm, we quantitatively computed cross-language neural pattern similarity to examine the modulatory effect of proficiency in the new language. Twenty-four native Chinese speakers were trained to learn 30 words in a logographic artificial language for 12 days and scanned while performing a semantic decision task after 4-day training and after 12-day training...
August 23, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Vinod K Pilli, Jeong-Won Jeong, Praneetha Konka, Ajay Kumar, Harry T Chugani, Csaba Juhász
Clinical interpretation of cerebral positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2[F-18]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG-PET) images often relies on evaluation of regional asymmetries. This study was designed to establish age-related variations in regional cortical glucose metabolism asymmetries in the developing human brain. FDG-PET scans of 58 children (age: 1-18 years) were selected from a large single-center pediatric PET database. All children had a history of epilepsy, normal MRI, and normal pattern of glucose metabolism on visual evaluation...
August 23, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Judy A Kipping, Yingyao Xie, Anqi Qiu
Recent evidence suggests that the cerebellum contributes not only to the planning and execution of movement but also to the high-order cognitive planning. Childhood is a critical period for development of the cerebellum and cognitive planning. This study aimed (a) to examine the development of cerebellar morphology and microstructure and (b) to examine the cerebellar mediation roles in the relationship between age and cognitive planning in 6- to 10-year-old children (n = 126). We used an anatomical parcellation to quantify cerebellar regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes, and WM microstructure, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD)...
August 22, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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