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Human Brain Mapping

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218489/development-of-cortical-motor-circuits-between-childhood-and-adulthood-a-navigated-tms-hdeeg-study
#1
Sara Määttä, Mervi Könönen, Elisa Kallioniemi, Timo Lakka, Niina Lintu, Virpi Lindi, Florinda Ferreri, David Ponzo, Laura Säisänen
Motor functions improve during childhood and adolescence, but little is still known about the development of cortical motor circuits during early life. To elucidate the neurophysiological hallmarks of motor cortex development, we investigated the differences in motor cortical excitability and connectivity between healthy children, adolescents, and adults by means of navigated suprathreshold motor cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with high-density electroencephalography (EEG). We demonstrated that with development, the excitability of the motor system increases, the TMS-evoked EEG waveform increases in complexity, the magnitude of induced activation decreases, and signal spreading increases...
February 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218433/activation-in-the-angular-gyrus-and-in-the-psts-is-modulated-by-face-primes-during-voice-recognition
#2
Cordula Hölig, Julia Föcker, Anna Best, Brigitte Röder, Christian Büchel
The aim of the present study was to better understand the interaction of face and voice processing when identifying people. In a S1-S2 crossmodal priming fMRI experiment, the target (S2) was a disyllabic voice stimulus, whereas the modality of the prime (S1) was manipulated blockwise and consisted of the silent video of a speaking face in the crossmodal condition or of a voice stimulus in the unimodal condition. Primes and targets were from the same speaker (person-congruent) or from two different speakers (person-incongruent)...
February 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205364/altered-neural-mechanisms-of-cognitive-control-in-patients-with-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-an-effective-connectivity-study
#3
Ekaterina Dobryakova, Maria Assunta Rocca, Paola Valsasina, John DeLuca, Massimo Filippi
Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) leads to physical and cognitive disability. Specifically, cognitive deficits in PPMS have been explained by both grey matter atrophy and white matter lesions. However, existing research still lacks in the understanding of how the brain of a patient with PPMS functions under cognitive control demands. Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine information integration in patients with PPMS using a search-based effective connectivity method. Fourteen patients with PPMS and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) performed the Stroop task, a cognitively demanding interference task that taxes neural resources required for cognitive control and response inhibition...
February 16, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205340/predictive-modeling-of-eeg-time-series-for-evaluating-surgery-targets-in-epilepsy-patients
#4
Andreas Steimer, Michael Müller, Kaspar Schindler
During the last 20 years, predictive modeling in epilepsy research has largely been concerned with the prediction of seizure events, whereas the inference of effective brain targets for resective surgery has received surprisingly little attention. In this exploratory pilot study, we describe a distributional clustering framework for the modeling of multivariate time series and use it to predict the effects of brain surgery in epilepsy patients. By analyzing the intracranial EEG, we demonstrate how patients who became seizure free after surgery are clearly distinguished from those who did not...
February 16, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195439/noninvasive-imaging-of-brain-oxygen-metabolism-in-children-with-primary-nocturnal-enuresis-during-natural-sleep
#5
Bing Yu, Mingzhu Huang, Xu Zhang, Hongwei Ma, Miao Peng, Qiyong Guo
A series of studies have revealed that nocturnal enuresis is closely related to hypoxia in children with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE). However, brain oxygen metabolism of PNE children has not been investigated before. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in whole-brain cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2 ), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in children suffering from PNE. We used the newly developed T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging (TRUST) magnetic resonance imaging technique...
February 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195438/from-rest-to-language-task-task-activation-selects-and-prunes-from-broader-resting-state-network
#6
Gaelle E Doucet, Xiaosong He, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini Sharan, Joseph I Tracy
Resting-state networks (RSNs) show spatial patterns generally consistent with networks revealed during cognitive tasks. However, the exact degree of overlap between these networks has not been clearly quantified. Such an investigation shows promise for decoding altered functional connectivity (FC) related to abnormal language functioning in clinical populations such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this context, we investigated the network configurations during a language task and during resting state using FC...
February 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195417/toward-the-automatic-quantification-of-in-utero-brain-development-in-3d-structural-mri-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Oualid M Benkarim, Gerard Sanroma, Veronika A Zimmer, Emma Muñoz-Moreno, Nadine Hahner, Elisenda Eixarch, Oscar Camara, Miguel Angel González Ballester, Gemma Piella
Investigating the human brain in utero is important for researchers and clinicians seeking to understand early neurodevelopmental processes. With the advent of fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and the development of motion correction algorithms to obtain high-quality 3D images of the fetal brain, it is now possible to gain more insight into the ongoing maturational processes in the brain. In this article, we present a review of the major building blocks of the pipeline toward performing quantitative analysis of in vivo MRI of the developing brain and its potential applications in clinical settings...
February 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176436/differential-microstructural-and-morphological-abnormalities-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-evidence-from-cortical-and-deep-gray-matter
#8
Nan-Jie Gong, Chun-Chung Chan, Lam-Ming Leung, Chun-Sing Wong, Russell Dibb, Chunlei Liu
One aim of this study is to use non-Gaussian diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) for capturing microstructural abnormalities in gray matter of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The other aim is to compare DKI metrics against thickness of cortical gray matter and volume of deep gray matter, respectively. A cohort of 18 patients with AD, 18 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 18 normal controls underwent morphological and DKI MR imaging. Images were investigated using regions-of-interest-based analyses for deep gray matter and vertex-wise analyses for cortical gray matter...
February 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176434/network-level-assessment-of-reward-related-activation-in-patients-with-adhd-and-healthy-individuals
#9
Daniel von Rhein, Christian F Beckmann, Barbara Franke, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Pieter J Hoekstra, Catharina A Hartman, Marjolein Luman, Stephen V Faraone, Roshan Cools, Jan K Buitelaar, Maarten Mennes
INTRODUCTION: Reward processing is a key aspect of cognitive control processes, putatively instantiated by mesolimbic and mesocortical brain circuits. Deficient signaling within these circuits has been associated with psychopathology. We applied a network discovery approach to assess specific functional networks associated with reward processing in participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: To describe task-related processes in terms of integrated functional networks, we applied independent component analysis (ICA) to task response maps of 60 healthy participants who performed a monetary incentive delay (MID) task...
February 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176425/sensory-tractography-and-robot-quantified-proprioception-in-hemiparetic-children-with-perinatal-stroke
#10
Andrea M Kuczynski, Helen L Carlson, Catherine Lebel, Jacquie A Hodge, Sean P Dukelow, Jennifer A Semrau, Adam Kirton
Perinatal stroke causes most hemiparetic cerebral palsy, resulting in lifelong disability. We have demonstrated the ability of robots to quantify sensory dysfunction in hemiparetic children but the relationship between such deficits and sensory tract structural connectivity has not been explored. It was aimed to characterize the relationship between the dorsal column medial lemniscus (DCML) pathway connectivity and proprioceptive dysfunction in children with perinatal stroke. Twenty-nine participants (6-19 years old) with MRI-classified, unilateral perinatal ischemic stroke (14 arterial, 15 venous), and upper extremity deficits were recruited from a population-based cohort and compared with 21 healthy controls...
February 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176413/anomalous-single-subject-based-morphological-cortical-networks-in-drug-naive-first-episode-major-depressive-disorder
#11
Taolin Chen, Keith M Kendrick, Jinhui Wang, Min Wu, Kaiming Li, Xiaoqi Huang, Yuejia Luo, Su Lui, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with disruptions in the topological organization of brain morphological networks in group-level data. Such disruptions have not yet been identified in single-patients, which is needed to show relations with symptom severity and to evaluate their potential as biomarkers for illness. To address this issue, we conducted a cross-sectional structural brain network study of 33 treatment-naive, first-episode MDD patients and 33 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs)...
February 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165171/less-is-more-neural-activity-during-very-brief-and-clearly-visible-exposure-to-phobic-stimuli
#12
Paul Siegel, Richard Warren, Zhishun Wang, Jie Yang, Don Cohen, Jason F Anderson, Lilly Murray, Bradley S Peterson
Research on automatic processes in fear has emphasized the provocation of fear responses rather than their attenuation. We have previously shown that the repeated presentation of feared images without conscious awareness via backward masking reduces avoidance of a live tarantula in spider-phobic participants. Herein we investigated the neural basis for these adaptive effects of masked exposure. 21 spider-phobic and 21 control participants, identified by a psychiatric interview, fear questionnaire, and approaching a live tarantula, viewed stimuli in each of three conditions: (1) very brief exposure (VBE) to masked images of spiders, severely limited awareness; (2) clearly visible exposure (CVE) to spiders, full awareness; and (3) masked images of flowers (control), severely limited awareness...
February 6, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150911/cerebellar-contributions-to-biological-motion-perception-in-autism-and-typical-development
#13
Allison Jack, Cara M Keifer, Kevin A Pelphrey
Growing evidence suggests that posterior cerebellar lobe contributes to social perception in healthy adults. However, they know little about how this process varies across age and with development. Using cross-sectional fMRI data, they examined cerebellar response to biological (BIO) versus scrambled (SCRAM) motion within typically developing (TD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples (age 4-30 years old), characterizing cerebellar response and BIO > SCRAM-selective effective connectivity, as well as associations with age and social ability...
February 2, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150897/connectivity-strength-weighted-sparse-group-representation-based-brain-network-construction-for-mci-classification
#14
Renping Yu, Han Zhang, Le An, Xiaobo Chen, Zhihui Wei, Dinggang Shen
Brain functional network analysis has shown great potential in understanding brain functions and also in identifying biomarkers for brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its early stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In these applications, accurate construction of biologically meaningful brain network is critical. Sparse learning has been widely used for brain network construction; however, its l1 -norm penalty simply penalizes each edge of a brain network equally, without considering the original connectivity strength which is one of the most important inherent linkwise characters...
February 2, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150892/dissociated-patterns-of-anti-correlations-with-dorsal-and-ventral-default-mode-networks-at-rest
#15
Jingyuan E Chen, Gary H Glover, Michael D Greicius, Catie Chang
Previous studies of resting state functional connectivity have demonstrated that the default-mode network (DMN) is negatively correlated with a set of brain regions commonly activated during goal-directed tasks. However, the location and extent of anti-correlations are inconsistent across different studies, which has been posited to result largely from differences in whether or not global signal regression (GSR) was applied as a pre-processing step. Notably, coordinates of seed regions-of-interest defined within the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, an area often employed to study functional connectivity of the DMN, have been inconsistent across studies...
February 2, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145075/biomarkers-designs-and-interpretations-of-resting-state-fmri-in-translational-pharmacological-research-a-review-of-state-of-the-art-challenges-and-opportunities-for-studying-brain-chemistry
#16
REVIEW
Najmeh Khalili-Mahani, Serge A R B Rombouts, Matthias J P van Osch, Eugene P Duff, Felix Carbonell, Lisa D Nickerson, Lino Becerra, Albert Dahan, Alan C Evans, Jean-Paul Soucy, Richard Wise, Alex P Zijdenbos, Joop M van Gerven
A decade of research and development in resting-state functional MRI (RSfMRI) has opened new translational and clinical research frontiers. This review aims to bridge between technical and clinical researchers who seek reliable neuroimaging biomarkers for studying drug interactions with the brain. About 85 pharma-RSfMRI studies using BOLD signal (75% of all) or arterial spin labeling (ASL) were surveyed to investigate the acute effects of psychoactive drugs. Experimental designs and objectives include drug fingerprinting dose-response evaluation, biomarker validation and calibration, and translational studies...
February 1, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145022/gray-matter-heritability-in-family-based-and-population-based-studies-using-voxel-based-morphometry
#17
Sven J van der Lee, Gennady V Roshchupkin, Hieab H H Adams, Helena Schmidt, Edith Hofer, Yasaman Saba, Reinhold Schmidt, Albert Hofman, Najaf Amin, Cornelia M van Duijn, Meike W Vernooij, M Arfan Ikram, Wiro J Niessen
BACKGROUND: The combination of genetics and imaging has improved their understanding of the brain through studies of aggregate measures obtained from high-resolution structural imaging. Voxel-wise analyses have the potential to provide more detailed information of genetic influences on the brain. Here they report a large-scale study of the heritability of gray matter at voxel resolution (1 × 1 × 1 mm). METHODS: Validated voxel-based morphometry (VBM) protocols were applied to process magnetic resonance imaging data of 3,239 unrelated subjects from a population-based study and 491 subjects from two family-based studies...
February 1, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130916/the-human-subthalamic-nucleus-and-globus-pallidus-internus-differentially-encode-reward-during-action-control
#18
Peter Justin Rossi, Corinna Peden, Oscar Castellanos, Kelly D Foote, Aysegul Gunduz, Michael S Okun
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) have recently been shown to encode reward, but few studies have been performed in humans. We investigated STN and GPi encoding of reward and loss (i.e., valence) in humans with Parkinson's disease. To test the hypothesis that STN and GPi neurons would change their firing rate in response to reward- and loss-related stimuli, we recorded the activity of individual neurons while participants performed a behavioral task. In the task, action choices were associated with potential rewarding, punitive, or neutral outcomes...
January 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130910/auditory-and-audio-visual-processing-in-patients-with-cochlear-auditory-brainstem-and-auditory-midbrain-implants-an-eeg-study
#19
Irina Schierholz, Mareike Finke, Andrej Kral, Andreas Büchner, Stefan Rach, Thomas Lenarz, Reinhard Dengler, Pascale Sandmann
There is substantial variability in speech recognition ability across patients with cochlear implants (CIs), auditory brainstem implants (ABIs), and auditory midbrain implants (AMIs). To better understand how this variability is related to central processing differences, the current electroencephalography (EEG) study compared hearing abilities and auditory-cortex activation in patients with electrical stimulation at different sites of the auditory pathway. Three different groups of patients with auditory implants (Hannover Medical School; ABI: n = 6, CI: n = 6; AMI: n = 2) performed a speeded response task and a speech recognition test with auditory, visual, and audio-visual stimuli...
January 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117515/multimodal-investigation-of-triple-network-connectivity-in-patients-with-22q11ds-and-association-with-executive-functions
#20
Maria C Padula, Marie Schaer, Elisa Scariati, Johanna Maeder, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez
Large-scale brain networks play a prominent role in cognitive abilities and their activity is impaired in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at high risk of developing schizophrenia and present similar cognitive impairments, including executive functions deficits. Thus, 22q11DS represents a model for the study of neural biomarkers associated with schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated structural and functional connectivity within and between the Default Mode (DMN), the Central Executive (CEN), and the Saliency network (SN) in 22q11DS using resting-state fMRI and DTI...
January 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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