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Human Brain Mapping

Zhencai Chen, Xiaoyue Zhao, Jin Fan, Antao Chen
The control system in human brain generally exerts the goal-directed regulation on a variety of mental processes. To deal with different control demands, these brain areas of the control system, especially the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), may be flexibly recruited across different tasks. However, few studies have investigated how the flexibility of the control system is realized during cognitive control. Present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the brain responses during two domain distinct conflict tasks (verbal color-word Stroop and visuospatial arrow flanker)...
July 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Paolo Bonifazi, Asier Erramuzpe, Ibai Diez, Iñigo Gabilondo, Matthieu P Boisgontier, Lisa Pauwels, Sebastiano Stramaglia, Stephan P Swinnen, Jesus M Cortes
Physiological aging affects brain structure and function impacting morphology, connectivity, and performance. However, whether some brain connectivity metrics might reflect the age of an individual is still unclear. Here, we collected brain images from healthy participants (N = 155) ranging from 10 to 80 years to build functional (resting state) and structural (tractography) connectivity matrices, both data sets combined to obtain different connectivity features. We then calculated the brain connectome age-an age estimator resulting from a multi-scale methodology applied to the structure-function connectome, and compared it to the chronological age (ChA)...
July 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Anne Cecilie Sjøli Bråthen, Ann-Marie Glasø de Lange, Darius A Rohani, Markus H Sneve, Anders M Fjell, Kristine B Walhovd
Episodic memory can be trained in both early and late adulthood, but there is considerable variation in cognitive improvement across individuals. Which brain characteristics make some individuals benefit more than others? We used a multimodal approach to investigate whether volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI characteristics of the cortex and hippocampus, brain regions involved in episodic-memory function, were predictive of cognitive improvement after memory training...
July 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Andrew A Nicholson, Daniela Rabellino, Maria Densmore, Paul A Frewen, Christian Paret, Rosemarie Kluetsch, Christian Schmahl, Jean Théberge, Tomas Ros, Richard W J Neufeld, Margaret C McKinnon, Jeffrey P Reiss, Rakesh Jetly, Ruth A Lanius
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with a disturbance in neural intrinsic connectivity networks (ICN), including the central executive network (CEN), default mode network (DMN), and salience network (SN). Here, we conducted a preliminary investigation examining potential changes in ICN recruitment as a function of real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI-NFB) during symptom provocation where we targeted the downregulation of neural response within the amygdala-a key region-of-interest in PTSD neuropathophysiology...
July 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Lei Wu, Feng-Tao Liu, Jing-Jie Ge, Jue Zhao, Yi-Lin Tang, Wen-Bo Yu, Huan Yu, Tim Anderson, Chuan-Tao Zuo, Ling Chen, Jian Wang
This study aimed to characterize the clinical features and the related cerebral glucose metabolism pattern of cognitive impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD) with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. We recruited 168 PD patients and 100 age-matched healthy controls of similar education and gender distribution. All of those enrolled underwent clinical assessment including the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale motor score, Hoehn and Yahr scale, and comprehensive neuropsychological tests including domains of executive function, attention, memory, visuospatial function, and language...
July 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Xiaodan Chen, Xuhong Liao, Zhengjia Dai, Qixiang Lin, Zhiqun Wang, Kuncheng Li, Yong He
Recently, functional connectome studies based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) and graph theory have greatly advanced our understanding of the topological principles of healthy and diseased brains. However, how different strategies for R-fMRI data preprocessing and for connectome analyses jointly affect topological characterization and contrastive research of brain networks remains to be elucidated. Here, we used two R-fMRI data sets, a healthy young adult data set and an Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient data set, and up to 42 analysis strategies to comprehensively investigate the joint influence of three key factors (global signal regression, regional parcellation schemes, and null network models) on the topological analysis and contrastive research of whole-brain functional networks...
July 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Christian Starzynski, Alexander Gutschalk
Disappearance of a voice or other sound source may often go unnoticed when the auditory scene is crowded. We explored the role of selective attention for this change deafness with magnetoencephalography in multi-speaker scenes. Each scene was presented two times in direct succession, and one target speaker was frequently omitted in Scene 2. When listeners were previously cued to the target speaker, activity in auditory cortex time locked to the target speaker's sound envelope was selectively enhanced in Scene 1, as was determined by a cross-correlation analysis...
July 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Akitoshi Ogawa, Takahiro Osada, Masaki Tanaka, Masaaki Hori, Shigeki Aoki, Aki Nikolaidis, Michael P Milham, Seiki Konishi
The striatum constitutes the cortical-basal ganglia loop and receives input from the cerebral cortex. Previous MRI studies have parcellated the human striatum using clustering analyses of structural/functional connectivity with the cerebral cortex. However, it is currently unclear how the striatal regions functionally interact with the cerebral cortex to organize cortical functions in the temporal domain. In the present human functional MRI study, the striatum was parcellated using boundary mapping analyses to reveal the fine architecture of the striatum by focusing on local gradient of functional connectivity...
July 5, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Rui Li, Shouzi Zhang, Shufei Yin, Weicong Ren, Rongqiao He, Juan Li
The triple network model that consists of the default-mode network (DMN), central-executive network (CEN), and salience network (SN) has been suggested as a powerful paradigm for investigation of network mechanisms underlying various cognitive functions and brain disorders. A crucial hypothesis in this model is that the fronto-insular cortex (FIC) in the SN plays centrally in mediating interactions between the networks. Using a machine learning approach based on independent component analysis and Bayesian network (BN), this study characterizes the directed connectivity architecture of the triple network and examines the role of FIC in connectivity of the model...
July 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Zirui Huang, Jun Zhang, Jinsong Wu, Xiaoge Liu, Jianghui Xu, Jianfeng Zhang, Pengmin Qin, Rui Dai, Zhong Yang, Ying Mao, Anthony G Hudetz, Georg Northoff
Variability quenching is a widespread neural phenomenon in which trial-to-trial variability (TTV) of neural activity is reduced by repeated presentations of a sensory stimulus. However, its neural mechanism and functional significance remain poorly understood. Recurrent network dynamics are suggested as a candidate mechanism of TTV, and they play a key role in consciousness. We thus asked whether the variability-quenching phenomenon is related to the level of consciousness. We hypothesized that TTV reduction would be compromised during reduced level of consciousness by propofol anesthetics...
July 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Ivan Zubarev, Lauri Parkkonen
Adaptive behavior relies on the ability of the brain to form predictions and monitor action outcomes. In the human brain, the same system is thought to monitor action outcomes regardless of whether the information originates from internal (e.g., proprioceptive) and external (e.g., visual) sensory channels. Neural signatures of processing motor errors and action outcomes communicated by external feedback have been studied extensively; however, the existence of such a general action-monitoring system has not been tested directly...
July 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Tal Ivancovsky, Oded Kleinmintz, Joo Lee, Jenny Kurman, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
Whereas Western individualistic cultures emphasize uniqueness, collectivistic East-Asian cultures discourage it. Here we examined whether cross-cultural differences in creativity as measured by a task of divergent thinking (DT) are explained by enhanced activity in brain regions that mediate inhibitory control (e.g., the left inferior frontal gyrus [L-IFG]). We therefore predicted that the L-IFG would be "hyperactive" among individuals from East-Asian cultures compared to Western ones. In Study 1, Israeli and South Korean participants were compared on a classic DT task (AUT; "Alternate uses: Manual of instructions and interpretation")...
July 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Raffaele Cacciaglia, José Luis Molinuevo, Gonzalo Sánchez-Benavides, Carles Falcón, Nina Gramunt, Anna Brugulat-Serrat, Oriol Grau, Juan Domingo Gispert
The neuroanatomical bases of episodic memory (EM) and executive functions (EFs) have been widely addressed in patients with brain damage and in individuals with neurologic disorders. These studies reported that larger brain structures support better outcomes in both cognitive domains, thereby supporting the "bigger is better" account. However, relatively few studies have explored the cerebral morphological properties underlying EM and EFs in cognitively healthy individuals and current findings indicate no unitary theoretical explanation for the structure-function relationship...
July 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Andrew T DeMarco, Peter E Turkeltaub
Lesion-symptom mapping has become a cornerstone of neuroscience research seeking to localize cognitive function in the brain by examining the sequelae of brain lesions. Recently, multivariate lesion-symptom mapping methods have emerged, such as support vector regression, which simultaneously consider many voxels at once when determining whether damaged regions contribute to behavioral deficits (Zhang, Kimberg, Coslett, Schwartz, & Wang, ). Such multivariate approaches are capable of identifying complex dependences that traditional mass-univariate approach cannot...
July 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Philip Novosad, D Louis Collins
Brain extraction is an important first step in many magnetic resonance neuroimaging studies. Due to variability in brain morphology and in the appearance of the brain due to differences in scanner acquisition parameters, the development of a generally applicable brain extraction algorithm has proven challenging. Learning-based brain extraction algorithms in particular perform well when the target and training images are sufficiently similar, but often perform worse when this condition is not met. In this study, we propose a new patch-based multi-atlas segmentation method for brain extraction which is specifically developed for accurate and robust processing across datasets...
July 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Charlène Aubinet, Stephen Karl Larroque, Lizette Heine, Charlotte Martial, Steve Majerus, Steven Laureys, Carol Di Perri
Patients in minimally conscious state (MCS) have been subcategorized in MCS plus and MCS minus, based on command-following, intelligible verbalization or intentional communication. We here aimed to better characterize the functional neuroanatomy of MCS based on this clinical subcategorization by means of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Resting state fMRI was acquired in 292 MCS patients and a seed-based analysis was conducted on a convenience sample of 10 MCS plus patients, 9 MCS minus patients and 35 healthy subjects...
July 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Zhiyong Zhao, Chaozheng Tang, Dazhi Yin, Jie Wu, Jiayu Gong, Limin Sun, Jie Jia, Dongrong Xu, Mingxia Fan
Emerging evidence has suggested that abnormalities in regional spontaneous brain activity following stroke may be detected by intrinsic low-frequency oscillations (LFO) in resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI). However, the relationship between hand function outcomes following stroke and local LFO synchronization in different frequency bands is poorly understood. In this study, we performed R-fMRI to examine the regional homogeneity (ReHo) at three different frequency bands (slow-5: .01-.027 Hz; slow-4: ...
July 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Bruce D Keefe, André D Gouws, Aislin A Sheldon, Richard J W Vernon, Samuel J D Lawrence, Declan J McKeefry, Alex R Wade, Antony B Morland
Symmetry is effortlessly perceived by humans across changes in viewing geometry. Here, we re-examined the network subserving symmetry processing in the context of up-to-date retinotopic definitions of visual areas. Responses in object selective cortex, as defined by functional localizers, were also examined. We further examined responses to both frontoparallel and slanted symmetry while manipulating attention both toward and away from symmetry. Symmetry-specific responses first emerge in V3 and continue across all downstream areas examined...
July 3, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Melissa A Lancaster, Timothy B Meier, Daniel V Olson, Michael A McCrea, Lindsay D Nelson, L Tugan Muftuler
Recent studies demonstrated evidence of physiological changes in the brain following sport-related concussion (SRC) that persisted beyond the point at which athletes achieved full symptom recovery. Diffusion MRI techniques have been used to study brain white matter (WM) changes following SRC; however, longitudinal studies that follow injured athletes from the acute to chronic stages of injury are sparse. The current study explores potential persisting effects of the injury, which serves as a follow-up to our previous work that reported WM changes in the acute and subacute phase of SRC recovery...
July 2, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Luis-Alberto Casado-Aranda, Laura Nynke Van der Laan, Juan Sánchez-Fernández
This article explores neural and self-report responses to gender congruence in product-voice combinations in commercials. An fMRI study was carried out in which participants (n = 30) were presented with gender-targeted pictures of characteristic male or female products accompanied by either gender congruent or incongruent voices. The findings show that attitudes are more positive toward commercials with gender congruent than with gender incongruent product-voice combinations. fMRI analyses revealed that primary visual brain areas, namely calcarine and cuneus, responded stronger to congruent than incongruent combinations suggesting that participants enhanced their endogenous attention toward congruent commercials...
July 2, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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