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Human Brain Mapping

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718512/overweight-is-associated-with-lower-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-females-after-eliminating-genetic-effects-a-twin-study
#1
Stieneke Doornweerd, Eelco van Duinkerken, Eco J de Geus, Parniane Arbab-Zadeh, Dick J Veltman, Richard G IJzerman
Obesity is related to altered functional connectivity of resting state brain networks that are involved in reward and motivation. It is unknown to what extent these associations reflect genetic confounding and whether the obesity-related connectivity changes are associated with differences in dietary intake. In this study, resting state functional MRI was performed after an overnight fast in 16 female monozygotic twin pairs (aged 48.8 ± 9.8 years) with a mean BMI discordance of 3.96 ± 2.1 kg/m(2) (range 0...
July 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714594/neural-correlates-of-heart-rate-variability-in-ptsd-during-sub-and-supraliminal-processing-of-trauma-related-cues
#2
Daniela Rabellino, Wendy D'Andrea, Greg Siegle, Paul A Frewen, Reese Minshew, Maria Densmore, Richard W Neufeld, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by dysregulated arousal and altered cardiac autonomic response as evidenced by decreased high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), an indirect measure of parasympathetic modulation of the heart. Indeed, subtle threatening cues can cause autonomic dysregulation, even without explicit awareness of the triggering stimulus. Accordingly, examining the neural underpinnings associated with HF-HRV during both sub- and supraliminal exposure to trauma-related cues is critical to an enhanced understanding of autonomic nervous system dysfunction in PTSD...
July 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714589/meg-biomarker-of-alzheimer-s-disease-absence-of-a-prefrontal-generator-during-auditory-sensory-gating
#3
Sanja Josef Golubic, Cheryl J Aine, Julia M Stephen, John C Adair, Janice E Knoefel, Selma Supek
Magnetoencephalography (MEG), a direct measure of neuronal activity, is an underexplored tool in the search for biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we used MEG source estimates of auditory gating generators, nonlinear correlations with neuropsychological results, and multivariate analyses to examine the sensitivity and specificity of gating topology modulation to detect AD. Our results demonstrated the use of MEG localization of a medial prefrontal (mPFC) gating generator as a discrete (binary) detector of AD at the individual level and resulted in recategorizing the participant categories in (1) controls with mPFC generator localized in response to both the standard and deviant tones; (2) a possible preclinical stage of AD participants (a lower functioning group of controls) in which mPFC activation was localized to the deviant tone only; and (3) symptomatic AD in which mPFC activation was not localized to either the deviant or standard tones...
July 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714584/oscillations-during-observations-dynamic-oscillatory-networks-serving-visuospatial-attention
#4
Alex I Wiesman, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Amy L Proskovec, Timothy J McDermott, Tony W Wilson
The dynamic allocation of neural resources to discrete features within a visual scene enables us to react quickly and accurately to salient environmental circumstances. A network of bilateral cortical regions is known to subserve such visuospatial attention functions; however the oscillatory and functional connectivity dynamics of information coding within this network are not fully understood. Particularly, the coding of information within prototypical attention-network hubs and the subsecond functional connections formed between these hubs have not been adequately characterized...
July 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703919/cingulate-and-cerebellar-beta-oscillations-are-engaged-in-the-acquisition-of-auditory-motor-sequences
#5
María Herrojo Ruiz, Burkhard Maess, Eckart Altenmüller, Gabriel Curio, Vadim V Nikulin
Singing, music performance, and speech rely on the retrieval of complex sounds, which are generated by the corresponding actions and are organized into sequences. It is crucial in these forms of behavior that the serial organization (i.e., order) of both the actions and associated sounds be monitored and learned. To investigate the neural processes involved in the monitoring of serial order during the initial learning of sensorimotor sequences, we performed magnetoencephalographic recordings while participants explicitly learned short piano sequences under the effect of occasional alterations of auditory feedback (AAF)...
July 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685910/the-independent-influences-of-age-and-education-on-functional-brain-networks-and-cognition-in-healthy-older-adults
#6
Alistair Perry, Wei Wen, Nicole A Kochan, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Perminder S Sachdev, Michael Breakspear
Healthy aging is accompanied by a constellation of changes in cognitive processes and alterations in functional brain networks. The relationships between brain networks and cognition during aging in later life are moderated by demographic and environmental factors, such as prior education, in a poorly understood manner. Using multivariate analyses, we identified three latent patterns (or modes) linking resting-state functional connectivity to demographic and cognitive measures in 101 cognitively normal elders...
July 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685893/alterations-in-white-matter-microstructure-are-associated-with-goal-directed-upper-limb-movement-segmentation-in-children-born-extremely-preterm
#7
Niklas Lenfeldt, Anna-Maria Johansson, Erik Domellöf, Katrine Riklund, Louise Rönnqvist
Altered white matter microstructure is commonly found in children born preterm (PT), especially those born at an extremely low gestational age (GA). These children also commonly show disturbed motor function. This study explores the relation between white matter alterations and upper-limb movement segmentation in 41 children born PT (19 girls), and 41 children born at term (18 girls) at 8 years. The PT group was subdivided into extremely PT (E-PT; GA = 25-27 weeks, N = 10), very PT (V-PT; GA = 28-32 weeks, N = 13), and moderately PT (M-PT; GA = 33-35 weeks, N = 18)...
July 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681960/the-anatomical-scaffold-underlying-the-functional-centrality-of-known-cortical-hubs
#8
Francesco de Pasquale, Stefania Della Penna, Umberto Sabatini, Chiara Caravasso Falletta, Patrice Peran
Cortical hubs play a fundamental role in the functional architecture of brain connectivity at rest. However, the anatomical scaffold underlying their centrality is still under debate. Certainly, the brain function and anatomy are significantly entwined through synaptogenesis and pruning mechanisms that continuously reshape structural and functional connections. Thus, if hubs are expected to exhibit a large number of direct anatomical connections with the rest of the brain, such a dense wiring is extremely inefficient in energetic terms...
July 6, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677254/partial-volume-model-for-brain-mri-scan-using-mp2rage
#9
Quentin Duché, Hervé Saint-Jalmes, Oscar Acosta, Parnesh Raniga, Pierrick Bourgeat, Vincent Doré, Gary F Egan, Olivier Salvado
MP2RAGE is a T1 weighted MRI sequence that estimates a composite image providing much reduction of the receiver bias, has a high intensity dynamic range, and provides an estimate of T1 mapping. It is, therefore, an appealing option for brain morphometry studies. However, previous studies have reported a difference in cortical thickness computed from MP2RAGE compared with widely used Multi-Echo MPRAGE. In this article, we demonstrated that using standard segmentation and partial volume estimation techniques on MP2RAGE introduces systematic errors, and we proposed a new model to estimate partial volume of the cortical gray matter...
July 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677252/impairment-in-predictive-processes-during-auditory-mismatch-negativity-in-scz-evidence-from-event-related-fields
#10
Andreas Sauer, Maor Zeev-Wolf, Tineke Grent-'t-Jong, Marc Recasens, Catherine Wacongne, Michael Wibral, Saskia Helbling, Abraham Peled, Alexander Grinshpoon, Wolf Singer, Abraham Goldstein, Peter J Uhlhaas
Patients with schizophrenia (ScZ) show pronounced dysfunctions in auditory perception but the underlying mechanisms as well as the localization of the deficit remain unclear. To examine these questions, the current study examined whether alterations in the neuromagnetic mismatch negativity (MMNm) in ScZ-patients could involve an impairment in sensory predictions in local sensory and higher auditory areas. Using a whole-head MEG-approach, we investigated the MMNm as well as P300m and N100m amplitudes during a hierarchical auditory novelty paradigm in 16 medicated ScZ-patients and 16 controls...
July 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677224/brain-changes-following-four-weeks-of-unimanual-motor-training-evidence-from-behavior-neural-stimulation-cortical-thickness-and-functional-mri
#11
Martin V Sale, Lee B Reid, Luca Cocchi, Alex M Pagnozzi, Stephen E Rose, Jason B Mattingley
Although different aspects of neuroplasticity can be quantified with behavioral probes, brain stimulation, and brain imaging assessments, no study to date has combined all these approaches into one comprehensive assessment of brain plasticity. Here, 24 healthy right-handed participants practiced a sequence of finger-thumb opposition movements for 10 min each day with their left hand. After 4 weeks, performance for the practiced sequence improved significantly (P < 0.05 FWE) relative to a matched control sequence, with both the left (mean increase: 53...
July 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677154/brain-changes-following-four-weeks-of-unimanual-motor-training-evidence-from-fmri-guided-diffusion-mri-tractography
#12
Lee B Reid, Martin V Sale, Ross Cunnington, Jason B Mattingley, Stephen E Rose
We have reported reliable changes in behavior, brain structure, and function in 24 healthy right-handed adults who practiced a finger-thumb opposition sequence task with their left hand for 10 min daily, over 4 weeks. Here, we extend these findings by using diffusion MRI to investigate white-matter changes in the corticospinal tract, basal-ganglia, and connections of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Twenty-three participant datasets were available with pre-training and post-training scans. Task performance improved in all participants (mean: 52...
July 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670685/diversity-of-functional-connectivity-patterns-is-reduced-in-propofol-induced-unconsciousness
#13
Heonsoo Lee, Gyu-Jeong Noh, Pangyu Joo, Byung-Moon Choi, Brian Henry Silverstein, Minkyung Kim, Jisung Wang, Woo-Sung Jung, Seunghwan Kim
INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence suggests that the conscious brain is characterized by a diverse repertoire of functional connectivity patterns while the anesthetized brain shows stereotyped activity. However, classical time-averaged methods of connectivity dismiss dynamic and temporal characteristics of functional configurations. Here we demonstrate a new approach which characterizes time-varying patterns of functional connectivity at the subsecond time scale. METHODS: We introduce phase-lag entropy (PLE), a measure of the diversity of temporal patterns in the phase relationships between two signals...
July 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665045/extraction-of-dynamic-functional-connectivity-from-brain-grey-matter-and-white-matter-for-mci-classification
#14
Xiaobo Chen, Han Zhang, Lichi Zhang, Celina Shen, Seong-Whan Lee, Dinggang Shen
Brain functional connectivity (FC) extracted from resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) has become a popular approach for diagnosing various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Current studies mainly construct the FC networks between grey matter (GM) regions of the brain based on temporal co-variations of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals, which reflects the synchronized neural activities. However, it was rarely investigated whether the FC detected within the white matter (WM) could provide useful information for diagnosis...
June 30, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660701/accumulation-of-non-numerical-evidence-during-nonsymbolic-number-processing-in-the-brain-an-fmri-study
#15
Tali Leibovich, Daniel Ansari
Behavioral evidence has shown that when performing a nonsymbolic number comparison task (e.g., deciding which of two dot arrays contains more dots), participants' responses are sensitive to affected by both numerical (e.g., number of items) and non-numerical magnitudes (i.e., area, density, etc.). Thus far it is unclear what brain circuits support this process of accumulating non-numerical variables during nonsymbolic number processing. To investigate this, 21 adult participants were asked to engage in a dot comparison task...
June 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660668/fmri-capture-of-auditory-hallucinations-validation-of-the-two-steps-method
#16
Arnaud Leroy, Jack R Foucher, Delphine Pins, Christine Delmaire, Pierre Thomas, Mathilde M Roser, Stéphanie Lefebvre, Ali Amad, Thomas Fovet, Nemat Jaafari, Renaud Jardri
Our purpose was to validate a reliable method to capture brain activity concomitant with hallucinatory events, which constitute frequent and disabling experiences in schizophrenia. Capturing hallucinations using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) remains very challenging. We previously developed a method based on a two-steps strategy including (1) multivariate data-driven analysis of per-hallucinatory fMRI recording and (2) selection of the components of interest based on a post-fMRI interview. However, two tests still need to be conducted to rule out critical pitfalls of conventional fMRI capture methods before this two-steps strategy can be adopted in hallucination research: replication of these findings on an independent sample and assessment of the reliability of the hallucination-related patterns at the subject level...
June 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660667/pivotal-role-of-hmt-in-long-range-disambiguation-of-interhemispheric-bistable-surface-motion
#17
João Valente Duarte, Gabriel Nascimento Costa, Ricardo Martins, Miguel Castelo-Branco
It remains an open question whether long-range disambiguation of ambiguous surface motion can be achieved in early visual cortex or instead in higher level regions, which concerns object/surface segmentation/integration mechanisms. We used a bistable moving stimulus that can be perceived as a pattern comprehending both visual hemi-fields moving coherently downward or as two widely segregated nonoverlapping component objects (in each visual hemi-field) moving separately inward. This paradigm requires long-range integration across the vertical meridian leading to interhemispheric binding...
June 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660637/sensory-processes-modulate-differences-in-multi-component-behavior-and-cognitive-control-between-childhood-and-adulthood
#18
Krutika Gohil, Annet Bluschke, Veit Roessner, Ann-Kathrin Stock, Christian Beste
Many everyday tasks require executive functions to achieve a certain goal. Quite often, this requires the integration of information derived from different sensory modalities. Children are less likely to integrate information from different modalities and, at the same time, also do not command fully developed executive functions, as compared to adults. Yet still, the role of developmental age-related effects on multisensory integration processes has not been examined within the context of multicomponent behavior until now (i...
June 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657159/mapping-the-order-and-pattern-of-brain-structural-mri-changes-using-change-point-analysis-in-premanifest-huntington-s-disease
#19
Dan Wu, Andreia V Faria, Laurent Younes, Susumu Mori, Timothy Brown, Hans Johnson, Jane S Paulsen, Christopher A Ross, Michael I Miller
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that progressively affects motor, cognitive, and emotional functions. Structural MRI studies have demonstrated brain atrophy beginning many years prior to clinical onset ("premanifest" period), but the order and pattern of brain structural changes have not been fully characterized. In this study, we investigated brain regional volumes and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements in premanifest HD, and we aim to determine (1) the extent of MRI changes in a large number of structures across the brain by atlas-based analysis, and (2) the initiation points of structural MRI changes in these brain regions...
June 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657141/neural-correlates-of-atomoxetine-improving-inhibitory-control-and-visual-processing-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#20
Li-Ying Fan, Tai-Li Chou, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Atomoxetine improves inhibitory control and visual processing in healthy volunteers and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about the neural correlates of these two functions after chronic treatment with atomoxetine. This study aimed to use the counting Stroop task with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to investigate the changes related to inhibitory control and visual processing in adults with ADHD...
June 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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