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Human Brain Mapping

Gong-Jun Ji, Cuiping Ren, Ying Li, Jinmei Sun, Tingting Liu, Yaxiang Gao, Dongzhang Xue, Longshan Shen, Wen Cheng, Chunyan Zhu, Yanghua Tian, Panpan Hu, Xianwen Chen, Kai Wang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with dysfunction in cortices as well as white matter (WM) tracts. While the changes to WM structure have been extensively investigated in PD, the nature of the functional changes to WM remains unknown. In this study, the regional activity and functional connectivity of WM were compared between PD patients (n = 57) and matched healthy controls (n = 52), based on multimodel magnetic resonance imaging data sets. By tract-based spatial statistical analyses of regional activity, patients showed decreased structural-functional coupling in the left corticospinal tract compared to controls...
November 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Sephira G Ryman, Ansam A El Shaikh, Nicholas A Shaff, Faith M Hanlon, Andrew B Dodd, Christopher J Wertz, Josef M Ling, Deanna M Barch, Shannon F Stromberg, Denise S Lin, Swala Abrams, Andrew R Mayer
The role of ventral versus dorsolateral prefrontal regions in instantiating proactive and reactive cognitive control remains actively debated, with few studies parsing cue versus probe-related activity. Rapid sampling (460 ms), long cue-probe delays, and advanced analytic techniques (deconvolution) were therefore used to quantify the magnitude and variability of neural responses during the AX Continuous Performance Test (AX-CPT; N = 46) in humans. Behavioral results indicated slower reaction times during reactive cognitive control (AY trials) in conjunction with decreased accuracy and increased variability for proactive cognitive control (BX trials)...
November 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Marek Bartoň, Radek Mareček, Lenka Krajčovičová, Tomáš Slavíček, Tomáš Kašpárek, Petra Zemánková, Pavel Říha, Michal Mikl
This study examines the impact of using different cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and white matter (WM) nuisance signals for data-driven filtering of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data as a cleanup method before analyzing intrinsic brain fluctuations. The routinely used temporal signal-to-noise ratio metric is inappropriate for assessing fMRI filtering suitability, as it evaluates only the reduction of data variability and does not assess the preservation of signals of interest. We defined a new metric that evaluates the preservation of selected neural signal correlates, and we compared its performance with a recently published signal-noise separation metric...
November 7, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Eric D Wilkey, Gavin R Price
Research indicates that the neurocognitive system representing nonsymbolic numerical magnitudes is foundational for the development of mathematical competence. However, recent studies found that the most common task used to measure numerical acuity, the nonsymbolic number comparison task, is heavily influenced by non-numerical visual parameters of stimuli that increase executive function demands. Further, this influence may be a confound invalidating theoretical accounts of the relation between number comparison performance and mathematical competence...
November 2, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Nathalie Mella, Alexia Bourgeois, Fabienne Perren, Aurélien Viaccoz, Matthias Kliegel, Fabienne Picard
The literature points to a large distributed brain network involved in the estimation of time. Among these regions, the role of the insular cortex is still poorly understood. At the confluence of emotional, interoceptive, and environmental signals, this brain structure has been proposed to underlie awareness of the passage of time and emotion related time dilation. Yet, this assumption has not been tested so far. This study aimed at exploring how a lesion of the insula affects subjective duration, either in an emotional context or in a non-emotional context...
November 2, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Philippe Albouy, Isabelle Peretz, Patrick Bermudez, Robert J Zatorre, Barbara Tillmann, Anne Caclin
Behavioral and neuropsychological studies have suggested that tonal and verbal short-term memory are supported by specialized neural networks. To date however, neuroimaging investigations have failed to confirm this hypothesis. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis of distinct neural resources for tonal and verbal memory by comparing typical nonmusician listeners to individuals with congenital amusia, who exhibit pitch memory impairments with preserved verbal memory. During fMRI, amusics and matched controls performed delayed-match-to-sample tasks with tones and words and perceptual control tasks with the same stimuli...
November 1, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Tao Zhou, Kim-Han Thung, Xiaofeng Zhu, Dinggang Shen
In this article, the authors aim to maximally utilize multimodality neuroimaging and genetic data for identifying Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal status, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), from normal aging subjects. Multimodality neuroimaging data such as MRI and PET provide valuable insights into brain abnormalities, while genetic data such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) provide information about a patient's AD risk factors. When these data are used together, the accuracy of AD diagnosis may be improved...
November 1, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Jinyoung Kim, Yuval Duchin, Reuben R Shamir, Remi Patriat, Jerrold Vitek, Noam Harel, Guillermo Sapiro
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has shown clinical potential for relieving the motor symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease. While accurate localization of the STN is critical for consistent across-patients effective DBS, clear visualization of the STN under standard clinical MR protocols is still challenging. Therefore, intraoperative microelectrode recordings (MER) are incorporated to accurately localize the STN. However, MER require significant neurosurgical expertise and lengthen the surgery time...
October 31, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Emily Ruzich, Maité Crespo-García, Sarang S Dalal, Justin F Schneiderman
The hippocampus, a hub of activity for a variety of important cognitive processes, is a target of increasing interest for researchers and clinicians. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is an attractive technique for imaging spectro-temporal aspects of function, for example, neural oscillations and network timing, especially in shallow cortical structures. However, the decrease in MEG signal-to-noise ratio as a function of source depth implies that the utility of MEG for investigations of deeper brain structures, including the hippocampus, is less clear...
October 31, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Lucia M Li, Ines R Violante, Rob Leech, Ewan Ross, Adam Hampshire, Alexander Opitz, John C Rothwell, David W Carmichael, David J Sharp
Despite its widespread use in cognitive studies, there is still limited understanding of whether and how transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates brain network function. To clarify its physiological effects, we assessed brain network function using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) simultaneously acquired during tDCS stimulation. Cognitive state was manipulated by having subjects perform a Choice Reaction Task or being at "rest." A novel factorial design was used to assess the effects of brain state and polarity...
October 30, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Xiaoying Tang, Christopher A Ross, Hans Johnson, Jane S Paulsen, Laurent Younes, Roger L Albin, J Tilak Ratnanather, Michael I Miller
Huntington's disease (HD) involves preferential and progressive degeneration of striatum and other subcortical regions as well as regional cortical atrophy. It is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the Huntingtin gene, and the longer the expansion the earlier the age of onset. Atrophy begins prior to manifest clinical signs and symptoms, and brain atrophy in premanifest expansion carriers can be studied. We employed a diffeomorphometric pipeline to contrast subcortical structures' morphological properties in a control group with three disease groups representing different phases of premanifest HD (far, intermediate, and near to onset) as defined by the length of the CAG expansion and the participant's age (CAG-Age-Product)...
October 30, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Ronald K Chu, Jed A Meltzer
The well-established right visual field (RVF-lh) advantage in word recognition is commonly attributed to the typical left hemisphere dominance in language; words presented to the LVF-rh are processed less efficiently due to the need for transcallosal transfer from the right to left hemisphere. The exact stage for this hemispheric transfer is currently unsettled. Some studies suggest that transfer occurs at very early stages between primary visual regions, whereas other studies suggest that transfer occurs between the left visual word form area and its right hemisphere homolog...
October 29, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Kjetil Vikene, Geir-Olve Skeie, Karsten Specht
Behavioral studies indicate that persons with Parkinson's disease have complexity dependent problems with the discrimination of auditory rhythms. Furthermore, neuroimaging studies show that rhythm processing activates many brain areas that overlap with areas affected by Parkinson's disease (PD). This study sought to investigate the neural correlates of rhythm processing in PD and healthy controls, with a particular focus on rhythmic complexity. We further aimed to investigate differences in brain activation during initial phases of rhythm processing...
October 29, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Seung Jae Lee, Jingwen Zhang, Michael C Neale, Martin Styner, Hongtu Zhu, John H Gilmore
White matter (WM) microstructure, as determined by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of cognitive function and is also altered in neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known about genetic and environmental influences on WM microstructure, especially in early childhood, an important period for cognitive development and risk for psychiatric disorders. We studied the heritability of DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) along 34 tracts, including 10 bilateral fiber pathways and the respective subdivision, using quantitative tractography in a longitudinal sample of healthy children at 1 year (N = 215) and 2 years (N = 165) of age...
October 27, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Christine M Embury, Alex I Wiesman, Timothy J McDermott, Amy L Proskovec, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Grace H Lord, Kaitlin L Brau, Andjela T Drincic, Cyrus V Desouza, Tony W Wilson
Type 1 diabetes has been associated with alterations in attentional processing and other cognitive functions, and previous studies have found alterations in both brain structure and function in affected patients. However, these previous neuroimaging studies have generally examined older patients, particularly those with major comorbidities known to affect functioning independent of diabetes. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the neural dynamics of selective attention processing in a young group of patients with type 1 diabetes who were otherwise healthy (i...
October 27, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Xiaonan Guo, Xujun Duan, John Suckling, Heng Chen, Wei Liao, Qian Cui, Huafu Chen
Time-invariant resting-state functional connectivity studies have illuminated the crucial role of the right anterior insula (rAI) in prominent social impairments of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, a recent dynamic connectivity study demonstrated that rather than being stationary, functional connectivity patterns of the rAI vary significantly across time. The present study aimed to explore the differences in functional connectivity in dynamic states of the rAI between individuals with ASD and typically developing controls (TD)...
October 27, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Charlotte Postel, Armelle Viard, Claire André, Fabian Guénolé, Robin de Flores, Jean-Marc Baleyte, Priscille Gerardin, Francis Eustache, Jacques Dayan, Bérengère Guillery-Girard
Reexperiencing symptoms in adolescent Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are characterized by the apparition of vivid intrusive images of the traumatic event. The emergence of these intrusions is thought to be related to a deficiency in context processing and could then be related to hippocampal alterations. The hippocampus is a complex structure which can be divided into several subfields, namely, the Cornu Ammonis (CA1, CA2, and CA3), the subiculum, and the dentate gyrus (DG). As each subfield presents different histological characteristics and functions, it appears more relevant to consider hippocampal subfields, instead of only assessing the whole hippocampus, to understand the neurobiology of PTSD...
October 27, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Benedetta Conio, Paola Magioncalda, Matteo Martino, Shankar Tumati, Laura Capobianco, Andrea Escelsior, Giulia Adavastro, Daniel Russo, Mario Amore, Matilde Inglese, Georg Northoff
Affective temperaments have been described since the early 20th century and may play a central role in psychiatric illnesses, such as bipolar disorder (BD). However, the neuronal basis of temperament is still unclear. We investigated the relationship of temperament with neuronal variability in the resting state signal-measured by fractional standard deviation (fSD) of Blood-Oxygen-Level Dependent signal-of the different large-scale networks, that is, sensorimotor network (SMN), along with default-mode, salience and central executive networks, in standard frequency band (SFB) and its sub-frequencies slow4 and slow5, in a large sample of healthy subject (HC, n = 109), as well as in the various temperamental subgroups (i...
October 27, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Simeon Zoellner, Jan Benner, Bettina Zeidler, Annemarie Seither-Preisler, Markus Christiner, Angelika Seitz, Rainer Goebel, Armin Heinecke, Martina Wengenroth, Maria Blatow, Peter Schneider
The primary auditory cortex (PAC) is located in the region of Heschl's gyrus (HG), as confirmed by histological, cytoarchitectonical, and neurofunctional studies. Applying cortical thickness (CTH) analysis based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 60 primary school children and 60 adults, we investigated the CTH distribution of left and right auditory cortex (AC) and primary auditory source activity at the group and individual level. Both groups showed contoured regions of reduced auditory cortex (redAC) along the mediolateral extension of HG, illustrating large inter-individual variability with respect to shape, localization, and lateralization...
October 27, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Klára Marečková, Anja Klasnja, Lenka Andrýsková, Milan Brázdil, Tomáš Paus
Depression is the leading cause of years lost due to disability worldwide. Still, the mechanisms underlying its development are not well understood. This study aimed to evaluate white-matter properties associated with depressive symptomatology in young adulthood and their developmental origins. Diffusion tensor imaging and assessment of depressive symptomatology were conducted in 128 young adults (47% male, age 23-24) from a prenatal birth cohort (European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood). For a subset of these individuals, the database included information on prenatal stress (n = 93) and depressive symptoms during adolescence (assessed repeatedly at age 15 and 19)...
October 27, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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