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Human Brain Mapping

Dea Siggaard Stenbaek, Sara Kristiansen, Daniel Burmester, Martin Korsbak Madsen, Vibe Gedsoe Frokjaer, Gitte Moos Knudsen, Patrick MacDonald Fisher
Recent research found lasting increases in personality trait Openness in healthy individuals and patients after administration of the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2A R) agonist psilocybin. However, no studies have investigated whether 5-HT2A R availability as imaged using positron emission tomography (PET) is associated with this trait. In 159 healthy individuals (53 females), the association between 5-HT2A R binding in neocortex imaged with [18 F]altanserin or [11 C]Cimbi-36 PET and personality trait Openness was investigated using linear regression models...
January 11, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Xiaping Lu, Ting Li, Zhichao Xia, Ruida Zhu, Li Wang, Yue-Jia Luo, Chunliang Feng, Frank Krueger
Trust constitutes a fundamental basis of human society and plays a pivotal role in almost every aspect of human relationships. Although enormous interest exists in determining the neuropsychological underpinnings of a person's propensity to trust utilizing task-based fMRI; however, little progress has been made in predicting its variations by task-free fMRI based on whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC). Here, we combined a one-shot trust game with a connectome-based predictive modeling approach to predict propensity to trust from whole-brain RSFC...
January 11, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Jie Liu, Chong Liao, Juanzhi Lu, Yue-Jia Luo, Fang Cui
Moral contagion is a phenomenon in which individuals or objects take on the moral essence of the people who are associated with them. Previous studies have found that individuals value objects associated with moral and likable people more than those associated with immoral and dislikable people. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this "moral contagion effect" have not yet been explored. In the present study, we combined a novel "Second-hand Goods Pricing" paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging to (a) confirm the existence of the moral contagion effect on the hypothetical economic valuation of objects and (b) determine the neural substrates underlying it...
January 9, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Flor A Espinoza, Jingyu Liu, Jennifer Ciarochi, Jessica A Turner, Victor M Vergara, Arvind Caprihan, Maria Misiura, Hans J Johnson, Jeffrey D Long, Jeremy H Bockholt, Jane S Paulsen, Vince D Calhoun
Dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) is an expansion of traditional, static FNC that measures connectivity variation among brain networks throughout scan duration. We used a large resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) sample from the PREDICT-HD study (N = 183 Huntington disease gene mutation carriers [HDgmc] and N = 78 healthy control [HC] participants) to examine whole-brain dFNC and its associations with CAG repeat length as well as the product of scaled CAG length and age, a variable representing disease burden...
January 7, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Marjolein M L J Z Vandenbosch, Dennis van 't Ent, Dorret I Boomsma, Andrey P Anokhin, Dirk J A Smit
The human brain shows remarkable development of functional brain activity from childhood to adolescence. Here, we investigated whether electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are suitable for predicting the age of children and adolescents. Moreover, we investigated whether overestimation or underestimation of age was stable over longer time periods, as stable prediction error can be interpreted as reflecting individual brain maturational level. Finally, we established whether the age-prediction error was genetically determined...
January 4, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Ashwati Vipin, Kwun Kei Ng, Fang Ji, Hee Youn Shim, Joseph K W Lim, Ofer Pasternak, Juan Helen Zhou
Alterations in parietal and temporal white matter microstructure derived from diffusion tensor imaging occur in preclinical and clinical Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition and such white matter alterations are two pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. However, the relationship between these pathologies is not yet understood, partly since conventional diffusion MRI methods cannot distinguish between cellular and extracellular processes. Thus, we studied Aβ-associated longitudinal diffusion MRI changes in Aβ-positive (N = 21) and Aβ-negative (N = 51) cognitively normal elderly obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative dataset using linear mixed models...
January 3, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Zhaolin Chen, Francesco Sforazzini, Jakub Baran, Thomas Close, Nadim Jon Shah, Gary F Egan
Head motion is a major source of image artefacts in neuroimaging studies and can lead to degradation of the quantitative accuracy of reconstructed PET images. Simultaneous magnetic resonance-positron emission tomography (MR-PET) makes it possible to estimate head motion information from high-resolution MR images and then correct motion artefacts in PET images. In this article, we introduce a fully automated PET motion correction method, MR-guided MAF, based on the co-registration of multicontrast MR images...
January 3, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Eemeli Leppäaho, Hanna Renvall, Elina Salmela, Juha Kere, Riitta Salmelin, Samuel Kaski
Brain structure and many brain functions are known to be genetically controlled, but direct links between neuroimaging measures and their underlying cellular-level determinants remain largely undiscovered. Here, we adopt a novel computational method for examining potential similarities in high-dimensional brain imaging data between siblings. We examine oscillatory brain activity measured with magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 201 healthy siblings and apply Bayesian reduced-rank regression to extract a low-dimensional representation of familial features in the participants' spectral power structure...
January 1, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Cheng-Ta Li, Ying-Zu Huang, Ya-Mei Bai, Shih-Jen Tsai, Tung-Ping Su, Chih-Ming Cheng
Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) is a varied form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and has more rapid and powerful effects than rTMS. Experiments on the human motor cortex have demonstrated that intermittent TBS has facilitatory effects, whereas continuous TBS has inhibitory effects. Huang's simplified model provides a solid basis for elucidating such after-effects. However, evidence increasingly indicates that not all after-effects of TBS are as expected, and high variability among individuals has been observed...
January 1, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Giorgia Cona, Cristina Scarpazza
Spatial representations are processed in the service of several different cognitive functions. The present study capitalizes on the Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) method of meta-analysis to identify: (a) the shared neural activations among spatial functions to reveal the "core" network of spatial processing; (b) the specific neural activations associated with each of these functions. Following PRISMA guidelines, a total of 133 fMRI and PET studies were included in the meta-analysis. The overall analysis showed that the core network of spatial processing comprises regions that are symmetrically distributed on both hemispheres and that include dorsal frontoparietal regions, presupplementary motor area, anterior insula, and frontal operculum...
January 1, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Rujing Zha, Junjie Bu, Zhengde Wei, Long Han, Pengyu Zhang, Jiecheng Ren, Ji-An Li, Ying Wang, Lizhuang Yang, Sabine Vollstädt-Klein, Xiaochu Zhang
The processes involved in value evaluation and self-control are critical when making behavioral choices. However, the evidence linking these two types of processes to behavioral choices in intertemporal decision-making remains elusive. As the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), striatum, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) have been associated with these two processes, we focused on these three regions. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging during a delayed discounting task (DDT) using a relatively large sample size, three independent samples...
December 28, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Parinaz Babaeeghazvini, Laura Milena Rueda-Delgado, Hamed Zivari Adab, Jolien Gooijers, Stephan Swinnen, Andreas Daffertshofer
We studied the relationship between age-related differences in inter- and intra-hemispheric structural and functional connectivity in the bilateral motor network. Our focus was on the correlation between connectivity and declined motor performance in older adults. Structural and functional connectivity were estimated using diffusion weighted imaging and resting-state electro-encephalography, respectively. A total of 48 young and older healthy participants were measured. In addition, motor performances were assessed using bimanual coordination tasks...
December 26, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Armin Iraji, Zening Fu, Eswar Damaraju, Thomas P DeRamus, Noah Lewis, Juan R Bustillo, Rhoshel K Lenroot, Aysneil Belger, Judith M Ford, Sarah McEwen, Daniel H Mathalon, Bryon A Mueller, Godfrey D Pearlson, Steven G Potkin, Adrian Preda, Jessica A Turner, Jatin G Vaidya, Theo G M van Erp, Vince D Calhoun
The analysis of time-varying activity and connectivity patterns (i.e., the chronnectome) using resting-state magnetic resonance imaging has become an important part of ongoing neuroscience discussions. The majority of previous work has focused on variations of temporal coupling among fixed spatial nodes or transition of the dominant activity/connectivity pattern over time. Here, we introduce an approach to capture spatial dynamics within functional domains (FDs), as well as temporal dynamics within and between FDs...
December 26, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Nathan W Churchill, Eduardo Caverzasi, Simon J Graham, Michael G Hutchison, Tom A Schweizer
Concussion pathophysiology in humans remains incompletely understood. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has identified microstructural abnormalities in otherwise normal appearing brain tissue, using measures of fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). The results of prior DTI studies suggest that acute alterations in microstructure persist beyond medical clearance to return to play (RTP), but these measures lack specificity. To better understand the observed effects, this study combined DTI with neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), which employs a more sophisticated description of water diffusion in the brain...
December 26, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Yacila I Deza-Araujo, Philipp T Neukam, Michael Marxen, Dirk K Müller, Thomas Henle, Michael N Smolka
It has been shown that the functional architecture of the default mode network (DMN) can be affected by serotonergic challenges and these effects may provide insights on the neurobiological bases of depressive symptomatology. To deepen our understanding of this possible interplay, we used a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design, with a control condition and two interventions to decrease (tryptophan depletion) and increase (tryptophan loading) brain serotonin synthesis. Resting-state fMRI from 85 healthy subjects was acquired for all conditions 3 hr after the ingestion of an amino acid mixture containing different amounts of tryptophan, the dietary precursor of serotonin...
December 25, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Elveda Gozdas, Scott K Holland, Mekibib Altaye
Investigation of the brain connectome using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and measures derived from graph theory analysis has emerged as a new approach to study brain development, cognitive function, and neurophysiological disorders. Here we use graph theory analysis to examine the influence of age, sex, and neurocognitive measures on developmental changes to the global and regional topology of functional brain networks derived from fMRI data recorded in 189 healthy subjects from the age of 0-18 years during rest...
December 23, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Junghee Lee, Eric A Reavis, Stephen A Engel, Lori L Altshuler, Mark S Cohen, David C Glahn, Keith H Nuechterlein, Jonathan K Wynn, Michael F Green
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation (also known as fMRI repetition suppression) has been widely used to characterize stimulus selectivity in vivo, a fundamental feature of neuronal processing in the brain. We investigated whether SZ patients and BD patients show aberrant fMRI adaptation for object perception. About 52 SZ patients, 55 BD patients, and 53 community controls completed an object discrimination task with three conditions: the same object presented twice, two exemplars from the same category, and two exemplars from different categories...
December 21, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Kazumasa Uehara, Shinichi Furuya, Hidemi Numazawa, Kahori Kita, Takashi Sakamoto, Takashi Hanakawa
Two main neural mechanisms including loss of cortical inhibition and maladaptive plasticity have been thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of focal task-specific dystonia. Such loss of inhibition and maladaptive plasticity likely correspond to cortical overactivity and disorganized somatotopy, respectively. However, the most plausible mechanism of focal task-specific dystonia remains unclear. To address this question, we assessed brain activity and somatotopic representations of motor-related brain areas using functional MRI and behavioral measurement in healthy instrumentalists and patients with embouchure dystonia as an example of focal task-specific dystonia...
December 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Alexander Weigard, Adriene Beltz, Sukruth Nagarimadugu Reddy, Stephen J Wilson
Several plausible theories of the neural implementation of speed/accuracy trade-off (SAT), the phenomenon in which individuals may alternately emphasize speed or accuracy during the performance of cognitive tasks, have been proposed, and multiple lines of evidence point to the involvement of the pre-supplemental motor area (pre-SMA). However, as the nature and directionality of the pre-SMA's functional connections to other regions involved in cognitive control and task processing are not known, its precise role in the top-down control of SAT remains unclear...
December 19, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Liqun Kuang, Xie Han, Kewei Chen, Richard J Caselli, Eric M Reiman, Yalin Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia in the elderly with no effective treatment currently. Recent studies of noninvasive neuroimaging, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) with graph theoretical analysis have shown that patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) exhibit disrupted topological organization in large-scale brain networks. In previous work, it is a common practice to threshold such networks. However, it is not only difficult to make a principled choice of threshold values, but also worse is the discard of potential important information...
December 19, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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