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Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy

Melissa M Norberg, Amie R Newins, Yan Jiang, Jianqiu Xu, Eduard Forcadell, Cristina Alberich, Brett J Deacon
BACKGROUND: While exposure therapy effectively reduces anxiety associated with specific phobias, not all individuals respond to treatment and some will experience a return of fear after treatment ceases. AIMS: This study aimed to test the potential benefit of increasing the intensity of exposure therapy by adding an extra step that challenged uncontrollability (Step 15: allowing a spider to walk freely over one's body) to the standard fear hierarchy. METHOD: Fifty-one participants who had a severe fear of spiders completed two 60-min exposure sessions 1 week apart in a context that was either the same or different from the baseline and follow-up assessment context...
July 13, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Stephanie Louise, Susan L Rossell, Neil Thomas
BACKGROUND: A prominent area of advancement in the psychological treatment for people with persisting psychosis has been the application of mindfulness-based therapies. Recent literature has recommended the investigation of focused mindfulness interventions for voices (auditory hallucinations) as a specific experience. To date, only mindfulness programs in group format have been examined. AIMS: This non-randomized pilot study aimed to assess the acceptability, feasibility and potential outcomes of an individual mindfulness program for persistent voices on the negative impact of voices on the subjective experience of mental health and wellbeing, depression and voice-related distress and disruption...
July 9, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Susie A Hales, Martina Di Simplicio, Lalitha Iyadurai, Simon E Blackwell, Kerry Young, Christopher G Fairburn, John R Geddes, Guy M Goodwin, Emily A Holmes
BACKGROUND: Despite the global impact of bipolar disorder (BD), treatment success is limited. Challenges include syndromal and subsyndromal mood instability, comorbid anxiety, and uncertainty around mechanisms to target. The Oxford Mood Action Psychology Programme (OxMAPP) offered a novel approach within a cognitive behavioural framework, via mental imagery-focused cognitive therapy (ImCT). AIMS: This clinical audit evaluated referral rates, clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction with the OxMAPP service...
July 9, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Megan Cowles, Lorna Hogg
BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence to suggest that anxiety is associated with paranoia in clinical and non-clinical samples. However, no research to date has directly manipulated anxiety to investigate if state-anxiety has a causal role in state-paranoia in clinical populations. AIMS: To investigate whether an anxious-mood induction leads to greater paranoia than a neutral-mood induction in people experiencing psychosis and paranoia and, if so, whether this is predicted by anxiety over and above other variables...
June 25, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Louise Isham, Heidemarie Grafahrend, Alecia Nickless, Katherine Pugh, Steve Pleasants, Nicola Smedley, Daniel Freeman, Alison Mulligan
BACKGROUND: A one-to-one cognitive behavioural therapy intervention targeting worry significantly reduces both worry and persecutory delusions (Freeman et al., 2015). AIM: To adapt this intervention for group delivery and conduct a feasibility trial within routine clinical practice. METHOD: Thirteen participants were randomized to a weekly 8-session worry intervention group (n = 7) or wait-list control (n = 6). RESULTS: All but one participant completed measures at all time points...
June 20, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Katy McIvor, Amy Degnan, Lauren Pugh, Laura Bettney, Richard Emsley, Katherine Berry
BACKGROUND: Guilt is commonly associated with distress and psychopathology. However, there is a lack of validated measures that assess how people cope with this aversive emotional and cognitive experience. AIMS: We therefore developed and validated a self-report measure that assesses how people manage their guilt: the Guilt Management Scale (GMS). METHOD: The GMS was administered to a non-clinical (n = 339) and clinical (n = 67) sample, alongside other validated measures of guilt severity, coping, thought control and psychological distress...
June 19, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Annika Norell-Clarke, Maria Tillfors, Markus Jansson-Fröjmark, Fredrik Holländare, Ingemar Engström
BACKGROUND: Recent treatment studies with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) have demonstrated effects on both sleep problems and depression. Two previous studies have indicated that the beneficial effect from CBT-I on depression may come through improved sleep, although insomnia severity during treatment had not previously been investigated as a mediator. AIMS: Our aim was to investigate if insomnia severity during treatment mediated between CBT-I and depression severity after treatment, in a sample with co-morbid insomnia and depressive symptomology...
June 14, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Alexandra Rose, Ruth McIntyre, Katharine A Rimes
Self-criticism is a transdiagnostic process associated with a range of psychological problems. This uncontrolled pilot study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a six-session intervention using methods from compassion-focused therapy to reduce self-criticism, as well as investigating changes in a range of outcome measures. Twenty-three university student participants with significant impaired functioning associated with high levels of self-criticism received six individual weekly treatment sessions and a 2-month follow-up appointment...
June 13, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Orla McDevitt-Petrovic, Karen Kirby, Orla McBride, Mark Shevlin, Donal McAteer, Colin Gorman, Jamie Murphy
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mental health difficulties in Northern Ireland (NI) is significantly higher than in England. In recent years, there have been extensive consultations, and subsequent recommendations made in NI in an effort to address this. AIMS: The current study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an 'Improving Access to Psychological Therapies' (IAPT) stepped care service model using low-intensity cognitive behavioural therapy (LI-CBT) in primary and community care settings...
June 13, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Sarah Schumacher, Nadine M Schopka, Manuel Heinrich, Christine Knaevelsrud
BACKGROUND: Exposure is an effective intervention in the treatment of pathological anxiety, but it is insufficiently disseminated. Therapists' negative attitudes towards exposure might be of relevance when considering factors contributing to the non-application of this intervention. AIMS: In order to be able to measure concerns in German-speaking therapist populations, the study aimed at validating a German version of the Therapist Beliefs about Exposure Scale. METHOD: The scale was translated into the German language and validated in a sample of 330 German licensed cognitive behavioural therapists...
June 13, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Daisuke Ito, Asuka Watanabe, Sakino Takeichi, Ayako Ishihara, Kazuyoshi Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: In Japan, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been introduced in the 'Rework Programme', but its impact on return to work (RTW) has not been fully clarified. AIMS: This pilot study investigated the initial efficacy of a work-focused cognitive behavioural group therapy (WF-CBGT) for Japanese workers on sick leave due to depression. METHOD: Twenty-three patients on leave due to depression were recruited from a mental health clinic...
June 6, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Daniel F Gros, Colleen Merrifield, Karen Rowa, Derek D Szafranski, Lisa Young, Randi E McCabe
BACKGROUND: Transdiagnostic psychotherapies are designed to apply the same underlying treatment principles across a set of psychiatric disorders, without significant tailoring to specific diagnoses. Several transdiagnostic psychotherapy protocols have been developed recently, each of which has its own strengths and weaknesses. One promising treatment is Transdiagnostic Behaviour Therapy (TBT), in that it is one of the few transdiagnostic treatments to date shown to be effective in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders...
May 29, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Anke W Blöte, Anne C Miers, Esther Van den Bos, P Michiel Westenberg
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has relatively poor outcomes for youth with social anxiety, possibly because broad-based CBT is not tailored to their specific needs. Treatment of social anxiety in youth may need to pay more attention to negative social cognitions that are considered a key factor in social anxiety development and maintenance. AIMS: The aim of the present study was to learn more about the role of performance quality in adolescents' cognitions about their social performance and, in particular, the moderating role social anxiety plays in the relationship between performance quality and self-cognitions...
May 17, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Jennie M Kuckertz, Casey A Schofield, Elise M Clerkin, Jennifer Primack, Hannah Boettcher, Risa B Weisberg, Nader Amir, Courtney Beard
BACKGROUND: In the past decade, a great deal of research has examined the efficacy and mechanisms of attentional bias modification (ABM), a computerized cognitive training intervention for anxiety and other disorders. However, little research has examined how anxious patients perceive ABM, and it is unclear to what extent perceptions of ABM influence outcome. AIMS: To examine patient perceptions of ABM across two studies, using a mixed methods approach. METHOD: In the first study, participants completed a traditional ABM program and received a hand-out with minimal information about the purpose of the task...
May 6, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Bethany M Wootton, Alexandra Hunn, Annabelle Moody, Bethany R Lusk, Valerie A Ranson, Kim L Felmingham
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and chronic mental health condition. Given the significant prevalence and impairment caused by SAD, it is important to investigate novel ways to improve the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for SAD. One approach may be to provide CBT in an accelerated fashion, which involves multiple sessions per week. Such accelerated treatments have been shown to be effective in other anxiety disorders, but in SAD this accelerated treatment has only been studied in a group treatment format...
April 25, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Katie Hanson
BACKGROUND: Depression is an extremely common mental health disorder, with prevalence rates rising. Low-intensity interventions are frequently used to help meet the demand for treatment. Bibliotherapy, for example, is often prescribed via books on prescription schemes (for example 'Reading Well' in England) to those with mild to moderate symptomology. Bibliotherapy can effectively reduce symptoms of depression (Naylor et al., 2010). However, the majority of self-help books are based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), which may not be suitable for all patients...
April 25, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Sven Hilbert, Stephan Goerigk, Frank Padberg, Annekatrin Nadjiri, Aline Übleis, Andrea Jobst, Julia Dewald-Kaufmann, Peter Falkai, Markus Bühner, Felix Naumann, Nina Sarubin
BACKGROUND: Based on the vulnerability model, several studies indicate that low self-esteem seems to contribute to depressive symptoms. AIMS: The aim of this study was to treat depressive symptoms in a cognitive behavioural group therapy, focusing on the enhancement of self-esteem, and to explore co-variation in depressive symptoms and the level of self-esteem. METHOD: The Multidimensional Self-esteem Scale (MSWS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to 147 psychiatric in-patients with current depressive symptoms due to an affective disorder (major depression, bipolar I, dysthymia)...
April 25, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Hannah Lee, Jung-Kwang Ahn, Jung-Hye Kwon
BACKGROUND: Research to date has focused on the detrimental effects of negative self-images for individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD), but the benefits of positive self-images have been neglected. AIMS: The present study examined the effect of holding a positive versus negative self-image in mind on anxiety, judgement bias and emotion regulation (ER) in individuals with SAD. METHOD: Forty-two individuals who met the diagnostic criteria for SAD were randomly assigned to either a positive or a negative self-image group...
April 25, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Mike Lucock, Serena Bartys, Jade Cupac, Jaime Delgadillo, Charlotte Denton, Sarah Gaines, Dean McMillan, Andrew Prestwich, Rick Stebbings
BACKGROUND: It is recognized that a significant proportion of people with depression are prone to relapse, even after successful treatment, and that self-management interventions should be developed and provided. There is evidence that implementation intentions (IMPS) can be successfully applied to health-related behaviours but their application to self-management of mental health problems has been limited. AIMS: This paper describes the design and initial evaluation of a Self-Management After Therapy (SMArT) intervention, which incorporated IMPS and followed psychological therapy for depression...
April 18, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Lottie Millett, Billie Lever Taylor, Louise M Howard, Debra Bick, Nicky Stanley, Sonia Johnson
BACKGROUND: Perinatal mental health difficulties are highly prevalent. In England, the Improving Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT) programme provides evidence-based psychological treatment, predominantly in the form of brief manualized cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), to people with mild to moderate depression or anxiety. Yet little is known about the experiences of women referred to IAPT with perinatal mental health difficulties. AIMS: The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate how women view IAPT support for perinatal mental health...
July 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
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