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Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy

Jonathan Rabner, Nicholas D Mian, David A Langer, Jonathan S Comer, Donna Pincus
BACKGROUND: Worry is a common feature across many anxiety disorders. It is important to understand how and when worry presents from childhood to adolescence to prevent long-term negative outcomes. However, most of the existing studies that examine the relationship between worry and anxiety disorders utilize adult samples. AIMS: The present study aimed to assess the level of worry in children and adolescents and how relationships between worry and symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and social anxiety disorder (Soc) may present differently at different ages...
November 17, 2016: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Paul M Salkovskis, Josie Millar, James D Gregory, Karina Wahl
BACKGROUND: Repeated checking in OCD can be understood from a cognitive perspective as the motivated need to achieve certainty about the outcome of a potentially risky action, leading to the application of Elevated Evidence Requirements (EER) and overuse of subjective criteria. METHOD: Twenty-four obsessional checkers, 22 anxious controls, and 26 non-clinical controls were interviewed about and rated recent episodes where they felt (a) they needed to check and (b) checked mainly out of habit (i...
November 9, 2016: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Roberto Truzoli, Cecilia Rovetta, Caterina Viganò, Paola Marianna Marinaccio, Gabriella Ba, Phil Reed
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistance for depression and anxiety is a major limitation in the treatment of these common disorders, and adjunct support interventions may be beneficial in the treatment of these patients. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a short-term (8 session) Relaxation Response Skills Training (RRST) programme for a population of psychiatric outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders who were unresponsive to drug treatment, and to test the feasibility of this intervention as complementary treatment for a psychiatric setting...
September 27, 2016: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Farjana Nasrin, Katharine Rimes, Andrea Reinecke, Mike Rinck, Thorsten Barnhofer
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the behavioural activation (BA) treatments for depression unfold their effects, at least partly, through changes in approach and avoidance tendencies. However, as yet, little research has examined the cognitive effects of these interventions. AIMS: This study investigated the impact of a single session of BA on depressive symptomatology, self-reported avoidance, and behavioural approach and avoidance tendencies. METHOD: Forty-six patients with a diagnosis of Major Depression were recruited from primary care psychological therapies services and block randomized to either a single session of behavioural activation (n = 22) or waiting list control (n = 24) delivered by an unblinded therapist...
January 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Lydia R M French, Laura Thomas, John Campbell, Willem Kuyken, Glyn Lewis, Chris Williams, Nicola J Wiles, Katrina M Turner
BACKGROUND: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) aims to teach people skills to help them self-manage their depression. Trial evidence shows that CBT is an effective treatment for depression and individuals may experience benefits long-term. However, there is little research about individuals' continued use of CBT skills once treatment has finished. AIMS: To explore whether individuals who had attended at least 12 sessions of CBT continued to use and value the CBT skills they had learnt during therapy...
January 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Gerard Hutchinson, Paul Willner, John Rose, Ian Burke, Tony Bastick
BACKGROUND: Anger causes significant problems in offenders and to date few interventions have been described in the Caribbean region. AIM: To evaluate a package of CBT-based Anger Management Training provided to offenders in prison in Trinidad. METHOD: A controlled clinical trial with 85 participants who participated in a 12-week prison-based group anger management programme, of whom 57 (67%: 16 control, 41 intervention) provided pretrial and posttrial outcome data at Times 1 and 2...
January 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Ana Sofia Andrade, Margarida Moreira, Mónica Sá, Duarte Pacheco, Vera Almeida, José Carlos Rocha
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: As there are known risks of retraumatization through bereavement crisis interventions, we tailored a new intervention lowering the degree of direct emotional activation. However, we need some evidence on the effects of depression and psychotraumatic symptoms between 1 and 6 months after a loss. METHOD: We conducted a randomized controlled trial with two groups: control group (n = 18) and experimental group (n = 11) in two assessments (1 and 6 months after loss); both included a semi-structured interview (Socio-Demographic Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised-IES-R)...
January 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Mia Sydenham, Jennifer Beardwood, Katharine A Rimes
BACKGROUND: Beliefs that it is unacceptable to experience or express negative emotions have been found to be associated with various clinical problems. It is unclear how such beliefs, which could be viewed as a form of unhelpful perfectionism about emotions, may contribute to symptomatology. AIMS: This study investigated two hypotheses: a) greater endorsement of beliefs about the unacceptability of negative emotions will be associated with greater emotional avoidance and lower levels of support-seeking and self-compassion; b) these beliefs about emotions will be associated with higher levels of symptoms of depression, anxiety and fatigue and that this relationship will be mediated by social support-seeking, emotional avoidance and self-compassion...
January 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Noor de Klerk, Tineke A Abma, Lotte L M Bamelis, Arnoud Arntz
BACKGROUND: Several studies have evaluated the (cost) effectiveness of schema therapy for personality disorders, but little research has been done on the perspectives of patients and therapists. AIM: The present study aims to explore patients' and therapists' perspectives on schema therapy. METHOD: Qualitative data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews with 15 patients and a focus group of 8 therapists. A thematic analysis was performed...
January 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Sheena Liness, Susan Lea, Steffen Nestler, Hannah Parker, David M Clark
BACKGROUND: The UK Department of Health Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) initiative set out to train a large number of therapists in cognitive behaviour therapies (CBT) for depression and anxiety disorders. Little is currently known about the retention of IAPT CBT trainees, or the use of CBT skills acquired on the course in the workplace after training has finished. AIMS: This study set out to conduct a follow-up survey of past CBT trainees on the IAPT High Intensity CBT Course at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN), King's College London (KCL), one of the largest IAPT High Intensity courses in the UK...
January 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Annemarie I Luik, Sophie Bostock, Leanne Chisnall, Simon D Kyle, Nicky Lidbetter, Nick Baldwin, Colin A Espie
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that insomnia may be an important therapeutic target to improve mental health. AIMS: Evaluating changes in symptoms of depression and anxiety after supported digital cognitive behavioural therapy (dCBT) for insomnia delivered via a community-based provider (Self Help Manchester) of the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) service. METHOD: Supported dCBT for insomnia was delivered to 98 clients (mean age 44...
January 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
David Hambrook, Tracey Taylor, Victoria Bream
BACKGROUND: Paruresis, or "shy bladder syndrome", is a relatively common anxiety disorder, yet little is known about the causes of, and effective treatments for this disabling condition. AIM: This report describes a case study in which a man (Peter) presenting with paruresis was treated using formulation-driven CBT, which aimed to address the idiosyncratic processes that were maintaining his anxiety and avoidance of urinating in public. METHOD: Peter attended 12 sessions of CBT including one follow-up session a month after treatment had ended...
January 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Jesse R Cougle, Berta J Summers, Ashleigh M Harvey, Kirsten H Dillon, Nicholas P Allan
BACKGROUND: Disgust is thought to play a prominent role in multiple anxiety disorders and fears, including spider phobia, though little attention has been given to specific treatment strategies that may be effective for multiple disgust-based fears. AIMS: In the present study, we evaluated contamination-focused exposure as a potential transdiagnostic treatment strategy for disgust-based fears in a spider fearful sample. METHOD: Women with significant spider fear were randomized to three 30-minute sessions of exposure therapy involving repeated contact with a dirt mixture (n=17) or a waitlist control condition (n=17)...
November 2016: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Elizabeth Newton, Nicola Shepherd, Jim Orford, Alex Copello
BACKGROUND: The psychological difficulties and emotional impacts resulting from the substance use of close relatives constitute a large, underestimated and frequently unidentified health burden. The development of primary care mental health services in response to the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies initiative provides an opportunity to investigate this in more depth. AIMS: A preliminary exploration of prevalence of IAPT service-users being treated for moderate-severe depression and/or anxiety who report that they have relatives with alcohol and/or drug problems...
November 2016: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Stephanie Lai, Vicki Bruce, Daniel Collerton
BACKGROUND: A previous study (Gauntlett-Gilbert and Kuipers, 2005) has suggested that distress associated with complex visual hallucinations (CVHs) in younger adults with psychosis may more strongly relate to appraisals of meaning than to the content of the hallucination. However, visual hallucinations are most commonly seen in the disorders of later life, where this relationship has not been investigated. AIM: To establish if there is a relationship between appraisals of CVHs and distress in older, non-psychotic people with CVHs...
November 2016: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Stephen Kellett, Kimberley Webb, Nic Wilkinson, Paul Bliss, Tom Ayers, Gillian Hardy
BACKGROUND: There are national policy drivers for mental health services to demonstrate that they are effectively meeting the psychological needs of people with long-term health conditions/medically unexplained symptoms (LTC/MUS). AIMS: To evaluate the implementation of a stepped-care service delivery model within an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) service for patients with depression or anxiety in the context of their LTC/MUS. METHOD: A stepped-care model was designed and implemented...
September 2016: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Julia Schwind, Julia M B Neng, Florian Weck
BACKGROUND: Cognitive-behavioural therapy can change dysfunctional symptom attributions in patients with hypochondriasis. Past research has used forced-choice answer formats, such as questionnaires, to assess these misattributions; however, with this approach, idiosyncratic attributions cannot be assessed. Free associations are an important complement to existing approaches that assess symptom attributions. AIMS: With this study, we contribute to the current literature by using an open-response instrument to investigate changes in freely associated attributions after exposure therapy (ET) and cognitive therapy (CT) compared with a wait list (WL)...
September 2016: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Nathan A Illman, June S L Brown
BACKGROUND: Problem anger is frequently experienced by the general population and is known to cause significant problems for the individual and those around them. Whilst psychological treatments for problem anger are becoming increasingly established, this is still an under-researched area of mental health. We present an evaluation of a series of one-day anger management workshops for the public, targeting problem anger with a cognitive-behavioural approach. AIMS: The main aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief group-based anger intervention in terms of subjectively reported anger provocation levels and of depression and anxiety...
September 2016: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Daniel Freeman, Jonathan Bradley, Felicity Waite, Bryony Sheaves, Natalie DeWeever, Emilie Bourke, Josephine McInerney, Nicole Evans, Emma Černis, Rachel Lister, Philippa Garety, Graham Dunn
BACKGROUND: Many patients do not respond adequately to current pharmacological or psychological treatments for psychosis. Persistent persecutory delusions are common in clinical services, and cause considerable patient distress and impairment. Our aim has been to build a new translational personalized treatment, with the potential for wide use, that leads to high rates of recovery in persistent persecutory delusions. We have been developing, and evaluating individually, brief modular interventions, each targeting a key causal factor identified from our cognitive model...
September 2016: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Charlotte Richardson, Stewart Killeen, Andrew Jahoda, Rose Christopher, John Rose, Paul Willner
BACKGROUND: Interventions for anger represent the largest body of research on the adaptation of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for people with intellectual disabilities. The extent to which the effectiveness of these interventions reflects the behavioural or cognitive components of CBT is uncertain. This arises in part because there are few measures of anger-related cognitions. METHOD: The Profile of Anger-related Cognitions (PAC) is built around interpersonal scenarios that the participant identifies as personally anger-provoking, and was designed as an extension of the Profile of Anger Coping Skills (PACS)...
September 2016: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
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