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Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy

Berta J Summers, Jesse R Cougle
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that computerized interpretation bias modification (IBM) techniques may be useful for modifying thoughts and behaviours relevant to eating pathology; however, little is known about the utility of IBM for decreasing specific eating disorder (ED) symptoms (e.g. bulimia, drive for thinness). AIMS: The current study sought to further examine the utility of IBM for ED symptoms via secondary analyses of an examination of IBM for individuals with elevated body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptoms (see Summers and Cougle, 2016), as these disorders are both characterized by threat interpretation biases of ambiguous appearance-related information...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Noboru Matsumoto, Satoshi Mochizuki
BACKGROUND: The meta-cognitive model of rumination is a theoretical model regarding the relationship between rumination and depression. Although meta-cognitive therapy for rumination was established based on this model, insufficient longitudinal studies addressing this model have been conducted. Moreover, the uncontrollability of rumination, suggested to be driven by negative meta-beliefs about rumination, has not been examined using this meta-cognitive model. AIMS: We longitudinally examined the meta-cognitive model and its relationship with uncontrollability of rumination and depressive symptoms...
March 7, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Johanna Sundag, Christine Zens, Leonie Ascone, Susanne Thome, Tania M Lincoln
BACKGROUND: According to Young's schema theory, Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) arise due to the violation of core emotional needs during childhood. It seems likely that parents have difficulties in satisfying their children's emotional needs if they have high levels of EMSs themselves. AIMS: This study investigated whether the extent of EMSs in parents is associated with the extent of EMSs in their offspring. Moreover, we tested for two putative mechanisms that account for this association: parental coping styles and parenting behaviour...
March 7, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Megan Lilly, Thompson E Davis, Peter J Castagna, Arwen Marker, Allison B Davis
BACKGROUND: Self-report instruments are commonly used to assess for childhood depressive symptoms. Historically, clinicians have relied heavily on parent-reports due to concerns about childrens' cognitive abilities to understand diagnostic questions. However, parents may also be unreliable reporters due to a lack of understanding of their child's symptomatology, overshadowing by their own problems, and tendencies to promote themselves more favourably in order to achieve desired assessment goals...
February 27, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
J E J Buckman, I Naismith, R Saunders, T Morrison, S Linke, J Leibowitz, S Pilling
BACKGROUND: The impact of alcohol use disorders (AUD) on psychological treatments for depression or anxiety in primary care psychological treatment services is unknown. AIMS: To establish levels of alcohol misuse in an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) service, examine the impact of higher risk drinking on IAPT treatment outcomes and drop-out, and to inform good practice in working with alcohol misuse in IAPT services. METHOD: 3643 patients completed a brief questionnaire on alcohol use pre-treatment in addition to measures of depression, anxiety and functioning...
February 26, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Katie Herron, Lorna Farquharson, Abigail Wroe, Annette Sterr
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBTI) has been successfully applied to those with chronic illness. However, despite the high prevalence of post-stroke insomnia, the applicability of CBTI for this population has not been substantially researched or routinely used in clinical practice. AIMS: The present study developed a 'CBTI+' protocol for those with post-stroke insomnia and tested its efficacy. The protocol also incorporated additional management strategies that considered the consequences of stroke...
February 26, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Ephrem Fernandez, Catia Malvaso, Andrew Day, Deepan Guharajan
BACKGROUND: Past reviews of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for anger have focused on outcome in specific subpopulations, with few questions posed about research design and methodology. Since the turn of the century, there has been a surge of methodologically varied studies awaiting systematic review. AIMS: The basic aim was to review this recent literature in terms of trends and patterns in research design, operationalization of anger, and covariates such as social desirability bias (SDB)...
February 21, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Matt Richardson, Gina Isbister, Brad Nicholson
BACKGROUND: Theories concerning the aetiology of functional neurological symptom disorder (FNSD; also known as conversion disorder) have historically inferred that psychological factors or dissociative states underlie patients' symptoms. Current psychological models of functional neurological symptoms suggest that some type of 'top-down' representations/beliefs are activated automatically (without conscious awareness), leading to symptoms. It is assumed that these representations or beliefs are similar to the idea 'I am neurologically damaged', as in our clinical experience, almost all patients have some reason to doubt the integrity of their neurological system...
February 21, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Nichole Fairbrother, Dana S Thordarson, Fiona L Challacombe, John K Sakaluk
BACKGROUND: Unwanted, intrusive thoughts of infant-related harm are a normal, albeit distressing experience for most new mothers. The occurrence of these thoughts can represent a risk factor for the development of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). As the early postpartum period represents a time of increased risk for OCD development, the transition to parenthood provides a unique opportunity to better understand OCD development. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to assess components of cognitive behavioural conceptualizations of postpartum OCD in relation to new mothers' thoughts of infant-related harm...
February 20, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Louise McCusker, Marie-Louise Turner, Georgina Pike, Helen Startup
BACKGROUND: The effective treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) presents healthcare providers with a significant challenge. The evidence base remains limited partially due to a lack of professional consensus and service user involvement regarding ways of measuring change. As a result, the limited evidence that is available draws on such a wide range of outcome measures, that comparison across treatment types is hindered, maintaining a lack of clarity regarding the clinical needs of this group...
February 19, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Emily Bastick, Suili Bot, Simone J W Verhagen, Gerhard Zarbock, Joan Farrell, Odette Brand-de Wilde, Arnoud Arntz, Christopher William Lee
BACKGROUND: Recent research has supported the efficacy of schema therapy as a treatment for personality disorders. A group format has been developed (group schema therapy; GST), which has been suggested to improve both the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the treatment. AIMS: Efficacy studies of GST need to assess treatment fidelity. The aims of the present study were to improve, describe and evaluate a fidelity measure for GST, the Group Schema Therapy Rating Scale - Revised (GSTRS-R)...
January 26, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Isobel Anne Williams, Stephanie Howlett, Liat Levita, Markus Reuber
BACKGROUND: Functional neurological symptoms (FNS) are considered non-volitional and often very disabling, but are not explainable by neurological disease or structural abnormalities. Brief Augmented Psychodynamic Interpersonal Therapy (BAPIT) was adapted to treat the putative emotion processing deficits thought to be central to FNS aetiology and maintenance. BAPIT for FNS has previously been shown to improve levels of distress and functioning, but it is unknown whether improvements on such measures correlate with changes in emotion processing ‒ which this treatment focuses on...
January 25, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Hannah Wilson, Alexandra L Donachie
BACKGROUND: Adapted DBT programmes have been well documented but little has been published on such programmes in the perinatal period. AIM: To assess the effectiveness of a stand-alone DBT skills group for perinatal women with emotion dysregulation. METHOD: A stand-alone DBT-informed skills training group was offered to 21 women with emotional dysregulation under the care of a perinatal community mental health team; 14 completed the programme...
January 25, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Timothy Bird, Warren Mansell, Jason Wright, Hannah Gaffney, Sara Tai
BACKGROUND: Evidence for the efficacy of computer-based psychological interventions is growing. A number of such interventions have been found to be effective, especially for mild to moderate cases. They largely rely on psychoeducation and 'homework tasks', and are specific to certain diagnoses (e.g. depression). AIMS: This paper presents the results of a web-based randomized controlled trial of Manage Your Life Online (MYLO), a program that uses artificial intelligence to engage the participant in a conversation across any problem topic...
January 25, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Andrew J Marshall, Emma K Evanovich, Sarah Jo David, Gregory H Mumma
BACKGROUND: High comorbidity rates among emotional disorders have led researchers to examine transdiagnostic factors that may contribute to shared psychopathology. Bifactor models provide a unique method for examining transdiagnostic variables by modelling the common and unique factors within measures. Previous findings suggest that the bifactor model of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) may provide a method for examining transdiagnostic factors within emotional disorders...
January 17, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Lindsey M Collins, Meredith E Coles
BACKGROUND: Cognitive theorists posit that inflated responsibility beliefs contribute to the development of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Salkovskis et al. (1999) proposed that experiencing heightened responsibility, overprotective parents and rigid rules, and thinking one influenced or caused a negative life event act as 'pathways' to the development of inflated responsibility beliefs, thereby increasing risk for OCD. Studies in adults with OCD and non-clinical adolescents support the link between these experiences and responsibility beliefs (Coles et al...
January 17, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Amanda Branson, Pamela Myles, Mishka Mahdi, Roz Shafran
BACKGROUND: Little is understood about the relationship between therapist competence and the outcomes of patients treated for common mental health disorders. Furthermore, the evidence is yet to extend to competence in the delivery of low-intensity cognitive behavioural interventions. Understanding this relationship is essential to the dissemination and implementation of low-intensity cognitive behavioural interventions. AIMS: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between Psychological Well-being Practitioner (PWP) competence and patient outcome within the framework of the British government's Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) initiative...
January 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Hossein Shareh
BACKGROUND: Not all patients suffering from trichotillomania (TTM) recover completely using CBT and of those that do, only a few maintain their recovery over time. AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of metacognitive methods combined with habit reversal (MCT/HRT) in trichotillomania with a relatively long-term follow-up. METHOD: A case series (n = 8) and a randomized wait-list controlled trial (n = 34) design were conducted in this study...
January 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Alison E J Mahoney, Megan J Hobbs, Jill M Newby, Alishia D Williams, Gavin Andrews
BACKGROUND: The use of maladaptive behaviors by individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is theoretically important and clinically meaningful. However, little is known about the specificity of avoidant behaviors to GAD and how these behaviors can be reliably assessed. AIMS: This study replicated and extended the psychometric evaluation of the Worry Behaviors Inventory (WBI), a brief self-report measure of avoidant behaviors associated with GAD. METHOD: The WBI was administered to a hospital-based sample of adults seeking treatment for symptoms of anxiety and/or depression (n = 639) and to a community sample (n = 55)...
January 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Kerrie Channer, Laura Jobson
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder often brings about profound, lasting, structural changes to one's sense of self. AIMS: This study investigated self-complexity and self-aspect control in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: Trauma survivors with (n = 103) and without (n = 102) PTSD completed an online questionnaire which involved the completion of a self-complexity task and measures of PTSD. RESULTS: It was found that those with PTSD had significantly greater overall self-complexity than those without PTSD...
January 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
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