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Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234664/laryngopharyngeal-reflux-disease-clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and-therapeutic-challenges-in-2018
#1
Jerome R Lechien, Sven Saussez, Petros D Karkos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent literature on presentation, diagnosis and treatment of laryngopharyngeal reflux. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux have a higher risk for gastroesophageal reflux and respiratory-related diseases. Many symptoms and findings are underestimated, contributing to the inconclusive results of many therapeutic trials. Additionally, little significance is given to nonacid and mixed refluxates, although a significant prevalence...
September 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234663/tympanostomy-tube-otorrhea-in-children-prevention-and-treatment
#2
Thijs M A van Dongen, Roger A M J Damoiseaux, Anne G M Schilder
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: One in two children treated with tympanostomy tubes, experience episodes of otorrhea whilst their tubes are in place. In this review, we present the results of the most recent publications on prevention and treatment of tympanostomy tube otorrhea (TTO). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent systematic reviews on water precautions for children with tympanostomy tubes support the American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery guideline recommendation against such preventive measures as there is no evidence that it protects against TTO...
September 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234662/techniques-for-evaluation-and-management-of-tongue-base-obstruction-in-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#3
Stacey L Ishman, Katherine W Chang, Aimee A Kennedy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tongue-base obstruction (TBO) is a common cause of persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children. This review discusses available diagnostic modalities and surgical treatment options for the management of TBO. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, a systematic review that included nine studies using drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) in the evaluation of children with persistent OSA after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy identified the tongue-base as the most common site of obstruction...
September 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234661/high-resolution-manometry-what-about-the-pharynx
#4
Taher Omari, Mistyka Schar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-resolution pharyngeal manometry (HRPM) is a well tolerated, catheter-based, method for recording the pressures and bolus flow generated by the pharyngeal muscles during swallowing. Despite a body of published evidence and a critical mass of investigators in the field, there is a lack of consensus surrounding what biomechanical phenomena to measure. The purpose of this review is to provide some insights into the information on swallowing physiology that can be gathered using HRPM...
September 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234660/cervical-osteophytosis-and-spine-posture-contribution-to-swallow-disorders-and-symptoms
#5
Mosaad Abdel-Aziz, Noha Azab, Amr El-Badrawy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article reviews the effects of cervical osteophytosis and spine posture on swallowing, and how they can cause dysphagia. RECENT FINDINGS: Cerivical osteophytosis which is a bony overgrowth of the cervical spines, it affects the swallowing through different mechanisms, including direct mechanical compression of the pharynx and esophagus, disturbances of normal epiglottic tilt over the inlet of the larynx by the osteophytes at C3-C4 level, inflammatory reactions in the tissues around the esophagus and cricopharyngeal spasm...
September 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234659/igg4-related-disease-in-the-head-and-neck
#6
James Johnston, Jacqui Allen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize current evidence regarding the pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and management of IgG4 disease in the head and neck. RECENT FINDINGS: The anti-CD20 antibody, rituximab is being used increasingly as a primary treatment modality in cases with a definitive diagnosis. Despite the favorable prognosis, it is now recognized that the incidence of cancer development within 3 years of diagnosis is higher than that of the general population...
September 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234658/swallowing-function-in-advanced-age
#7
Marie Jardine, Anna Miles, Jacqui Allen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present current literature regarding swallowing function in advanced age, including healthy ageing, dysphagia and trends in multidisciplinary team service delivery. RECENT FINDINGS: Normative studies support swallowing efficiency but greater variability in healthy advanced age, through to 100 years old. Deviations from normative data and symptoms of dysphagia leading to aspiration or nutritional risk, imply swallowing disorder, rather than simply the ageing process...
September 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138146/facial-nerve-decompression
#8
Nicholas S Andresen, Daniel Q Sun, Marlan R Hansen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Facial nerve paralysis is a debilitating condition. Bell's palsy and temporal bone trauma are common causes of acute facial palsy, with recurrent idiopathic paralysis and Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome accounting for a smaller subset of cases. Properly selected patients may benefit from facial nerve decompression. This article will review the relevant literature on facial nerve decompression. RECENT FINDINGS: The middle cranial fossa approach provides access to the primary site of lesion in Bell's palsy while preserving hearing...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124522/reconstructive-considerations-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#9
Brian Cervenka, Stephen Trudeau, Johan Fagan, Chad Zender
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Surgical mission trips in head and neck surgery are common. There are an increasing number of surgical groups performing complex reconstructions in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Consideration of reconstructive options that are location and patient specific are critical for optimum patient care and local physician education. RECENT FINDINGS: The pectoralis muscle regional flap is a versatile and reliable option and has been shown to reconstruct defects in nearly every head and neck subsite...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102613/editorial-the-middle-cranial-fossa-approach
#10
Ravi N Samy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074517/pediatric-free-flap-reconstruction-for-head-and-neck-defects
#11
Francis V Roasa, Samantha S CastaƱeda, Daniel Jose C Mendoza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to review recent literature on the use of pediatric free flap reconstruction for head and neck defects with focus on skull base, congenital deformities, mandibular reconstruction and operative considerations. RECENT FINDINGS: Reconstruction of the skull base depends on the defect size, location, bony involvement, and pedicle length with a variety of flaps to choose from. Free flaps may be used to correct congenital anomalies due to facial clefts and syndromic causes requiring bony and tissue bulk...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045104/molecular-therapy-for-genetic-and-degenerative-vestibular-disorders
#12
Zahra N Sayyid, Grace S Kim, Alan G Cheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The primary purpose of this review is to summarize current literature in the field of vestibular regeneration with a focus on recent developments in molecular and gene therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the discovery of limited vestibular hair cell regeneration in mammals in the 1990s, many elegant studies have improved our knowledge of mechanisms of development and regeneration of the vestibular system. A better understanding of the developmental pathways of the vestibular organs has fueled various biological strategies to enhance regeneration, including novel techniques in deriving vestibular hair cells from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045103/combined-petrosal-approach
#13
Sean P Polster, Peleg M Horowitz, Issam A Awad, Michael B Gluth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The combined petrosal approach to the lateral skull base merges a retrolabyrinthine-presigmoid posterior fossa craniotomy with an adjacent middle fossa craniotomy, which are rendered continuous by division of the tentorium. This is a hearing-preserving approach that affords wide access to the lateral aspect of the clivus, the prepontine space, and the cerebellopontine angle. RECENT FINDINGS: This article details the historical development of the combined petrosal approach alongside a description...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30036196/the-anteromedial-thigh-free-flap-a-primary-reconstructive-option-or-second-best
#14
Steven G Hoshal, Arnaud F Bewley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the recent literature on the anteromedial thigh free flap. RECENT FINDINGS: The anteromedial thigh (AMT) free flap is an excellent reconstructive option for head and neck defects. It is often overshadowed by the anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap. Lack of familiarity with the anatomy of the AMT likely deters many surgeons from considering it as a reliable option. However, as many as one in 20 patients may not have anatomy suitable for ALT free-flap harvest, and in these cases the AMT provides an ideal alternative as it can be harvested through the same incision without added morbidity...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028747/advances-in-computer-aided-design-for-bony-free-flap-reconstruction
#15
Axel Sahovaler, Kevin Fung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article reviews the most recent publications of computer-assisted reconstruction using bony free flaps, emphasizing on comparative reports using these novel techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: Computer-aided reconstruction has shown some benefits in comparison with traditional techniques and some of the perceived limitations are currently being addressed in the latest reports. Still, there is a lack of appropriate comparative studies and unblinded measurements to establish solid conclusions...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028746/assessment-of-vestibular-function-in-elderly-patients
#16
Rachael Krager
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Individuals over the age of 60 are at an increased risk of falls, even if they do not have an isolated dysfunction of the vestibular system. The aim of this article is to review the various vestibular testing currently available and its usefulness in determining the presence of vestibular dysfunction in the elderly population. The primary vestibular tests to be reviewed include: balance function testing, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs), and video head impulse testing (vHIT)...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024419/pearls-for-the-middle-fossa-approach-in-acoustic-neuroma-surgery
#17
Kevin A Peng, Gregory P Lekovic, Eric P Wilkinson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the use of the middle fossa craniotomy for resection of vestibular schwannomas; to present pearls of and modifications to the approach. RECENT FINDINGS: The middle fossa craniotomy allows for hearing preservation in the resection of intracanalicular vestibular schwannomas. Over recent years, the approach has been modified to address larger tumors with a limited cerebellopontine angle component. Positive identification of the superior semicircular canal allows for rapid exposure of the internal auditory canal (IAC)...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024418/functional-considerations-in-oral-cavity-reconstruction
#18
Patrik Pipkorn, Kelsey Rosenquist, Joseph Zenga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment of oral cavity cancer may impair speech and swallowing function. Optimizing posttreatment function may lead to significant improvement of quality of life. RECENT FINDINGS: Although oncologic control remains the main goal of treatment for oral cavity cancer, posttreatment function for surviving patients has over the last decades been recognized as an important secondary outcome. Reconstruction of oral cavity defects range from primary closure to advanced microvascular reconstruction, including multiple tissue types...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957681/comprehensive-review-of-the-extended-middle-cranial-fossa-approach
#19
Noga Lipschitz, Gavriel D Kohlberg, Mario Zuccarello, Ravi N Samy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current literature on the extended middle cranial fossa (xMCF) approach and to provide a comprehensive description of the relevant anatomy, indications, surgical technique, results, and complications. RECENT FINDINGS: The xMCF approach expands the surgical exposure provided by the sMCF approach, allowing access to the internal auditory canal, cerebellopontine angle, prepontine cistern, anterior petrous apex, petrous carotid artery, Meckel's cave, cavernous sinus, mid and upper clivus, and posterior lesions approaching the jugular foramen...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894317/contemporary-considerations-in-concurrent-endoscopic-sinus-surgery-and-rhinoplasty
#20
Toby O Steele, Amarbir Gill, Travis T Tollefson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Characterize indications, perioperative considerations, clinical outcomes and complications for concurrent endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and rhinoplasty. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic rhinosinusitis and septal deviation with or without inferior turbinate hypertrophy independently impair patient-reported quality of life. Guidelines implore surgeons to include endoscopy to accurately evaluate patient symptoms. Complication rates parallel those of either surgery (ESS and rhinoplasty) alone and are not increased when performed concurrently...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
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