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Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325754/current-approaches-to-instrumental-assessment-of-swallowing-in-children
#1
Isuru Dharmarathna, Anna Miles, Jacqui E Allen
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This article reviews recent developments in the instrumental assessment of swallowing in children with a specific focus on research published between January 2017 and June 2018. RECENT FINDINGS: Instrumental swallowing assessments reported in the time period included: videofluoroscopic study of swallowing, digital cervical auscultation, dynamic ultrasound, high-resolution impedance manometry, nasal airflow thermistry and respiratory inductance plethysmography...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300213/the-long-and-winding-road
#2
Jacqui E Allen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300212/recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-reinnervation-is-this-the-standard-of-care-for-pediatric-unilateral-vocal-cord-paralysis
#3
Maria Catalina Espinosa, Julina Ongkasuwan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ansa to recurrent laryngeal nerve reinnervation, otherwise known as a nonselective laryngeal reinnervation (NSLR), is growing in popularity for the management of pediatric unilateral neuronal vocal fold movement impairment (VFMI). In this chapter, we will review the current treatment options for neuronal VFMI and role that NSLR plays in the treatment algorithm. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2018, Bouhabel and Hartnick published a survey of fellowship trained pediatric otolaryngologists and found an increasing comfort level with NSLR...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300211/vocal-fold-nodules-in-children
#4
Pamela Mudd, Carolyn Noelke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vocal nodules are a common presentation in children, representing the most common cause of dysphonia. RECENT FINDINGS: Children with siblings, ADHD, and of male sex are most likely to be affected. Female children, however, tend to have more likely progression into adolescence. Quality-of-life indices can aid in screening for vocal nodules whereas stroboscopy, and possibly, ultrasound are required for definitive diagnosis. SUMMARY: Management has not significantly changed over time and should begin with conservative behavioral and environmental modifications along with voice therapy in those more severely impacted...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300210/recurrent-respiratory-papillomatosis-update-2018
#5
Craig S Derkay, Andrew E Bluher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is the most common as well as the costliest benign airway neoplasm in the United States [Ivancic et al. (2018). Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 3:22; Derkay (1995). Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121:1386]. In addition, it is potentially deadly, with risk of airway obstruction as well as a 3-7% risk of malignant conversion [Schraff et al. (2004). Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130:1039]. This review highlights exciting advancements over the past 1-2 years in scientific understanding of the pathophysiology, epidemiology, natural history, prevention, and treatment of this difficult disease...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300209/velopharyngeal-incompetence-role-in-paediatric-swallowing-deficits
#6
Laura H Swibel Rosenthal, Kathleen Walsh, Dana M Thompson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight the latest advances in diagnosis and management of velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI) as it pertains to swallowing deficits in children. This is timely and relevant as otolaryngologists are often amongst the first to diagnose and treat VPI. Although nasal regurgitation of a bolus is frequently transient, persistent problems can be associated with other swallowing problems and other significant medical problems. Furthermore, velopharyngeal incompetence has implications for speech production...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300208/update-on-sinus-disease-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-advances-in-treatment-modalities-microbiology-and-health-related-quality-of-life-instruments
#7
Jean-Nicolas Gallant, Margaret B Mitchell, Frank W Virgin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a lack of consensus with regards to the diagnosis and treatment of sinus disease in children with cystic fibrosis. Here, we review literature from the past 18 months in order to highlight the way forward in this contentious field. RECENT FINDINGS: Most of the literature (from the past 18 months) on sinus disease in pediatric cystic fibrosis focused on treatment approaches, bacteriology and immunology, and health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) instruments...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234664/laryngopharyngeal-reflux-disease-clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and-therapeutic-challenges-in-2018
#8
Jerome R Lechien, Sven Saussez, Petros D Karkos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent literature on presentation, diagnosis and treatment of laryngopharyngeal reflux. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux have a higher risk for gastroesophageal reflux and respiratory-related diseases. Many symptoms and findings are underestimated, contributing to the inconclusive results of many therapeutic trials. Additionally, little significance is given to nonacid and mixed refluxates, although a significant prevalence...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234663/tympanostomy-tube-otorrhea-in-children-prevention-and-treatment
#9
Thijs M A van Dongen, Roger A M J Damoiseaux, Anne G M Schilder
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: One in two children treated with tympanostomy tubes, experience episodes of otorrhea whilst their tubes are in place. In this review, we present the results of the most recent publications on prevention and treatment of tympanostomy tube otorrhea (TTO). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent systematic reviews on water precautions for children with tympanostomy tubes support the American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery guideline recommendation against such preventive measures as there is no evidence that it protects against TTO...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234662/techniques-for-evaluation-and-management-of-tongue-base-obstruction-in-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#10
Stacey L Ishman, Katherine W Chang, Aimee A Kennedy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tongue-base obstruction (TBO) is a common cause of persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children. This review discusses available diagnostic modalities and surgical treatment options for the management of TBO. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, a systematic review that included nine studies using drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) in the evaluation of children with persistent OSA after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy identified the tongue-base as the most common site of obstruction...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234661/high-resolution-manometry-what-about-the-pharynx
#11
Taher Omari, Mistyka Schar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-resolution pharyngeal manometry (HRPM) is a well tolerated, catheter-based, method for recording the pressures and bolus flow generated by the pharyngeal muscles during swallowing. Despite a body of published evidence and a critical mass of investigators in the field, there is a lack of consensus surrounding what biomechanical phenomena to measure. The purpose of this review is to provide some insights into the information on swallowing physiology that can be gathered using HRPM...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234660/cervical-osteophytosis-and-spine-posture-contribution-to-swallow-disorders-and-symptoms
#12
Mosaad Abdel-Aziz, Noha Azab, Amr El-Badrawy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article reviews the effects of cervical osteophytosis and spine posture on swallowing, and how they can cause dysphagia. RECENT FINDINGS: Cerivical osteophytosis which is a bony overgrowth of the cervical spines, it affects the swallowing through different mechanisms, including direct mechanical compression of the pharynx and esophagus, disturbances of normal epiglottic tilt over the inlet of the larynx by the osteophytes at C3-C4 level, inflammatory reactions in the tissues around the esophagus and cricopharyngeal spasm...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234659/igg4-related-disease-in-the-head-and-neck
#13
James Johnston, Jacqui E Allen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize current evidence regarding the pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and management of IgG4 disease in the head and neck. RECENT FINDINGS: The anti-CD20 antibody, rituximab is being used increasingly as a primary treatment modality in cases with a definitive diagnosis. Despite the favorable prognosis, it is now recognized that the incidence of cancer development within 3 years of diagnosis is higher than that of the general population...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234658/swallowing-function-in-advanced-age
#14
Marie Jardine, Anna Miles, Jacqui E Allen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present current literature regarding swallowing function in advanced age, including healthy ageing, dysphagia and trends in multidisciplinary team service delivery. RECENT FINDINGS: Normative studies support swallowing efficiency but greater variability in healthy advanced age, through to 100 years old. Deviations from normative data and symptoms of dysphagia leading to aspiration or nutritional risk, imply swallowing disorder, rather than simply the ageing process...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138146/facial-nerve-decompression
#15
Nicholas S Andresen, Daniel Q Sun, Marlan R Hansen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Facial nerve paralysis is a debilitating condition. Bell's palsy and temporal bone trauma are common causes of acute facial palsy, with recurrent idiopathic paralysis and Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome accounting for a smaller subset of cases. Properly selected patients may benefit from facial nerve decompression. This article will review the relevant literature on facial nerve decompression. RECENT FINDINGS: The middle cranial fossa approach provides access to the primary site of lesion in Bell's palsy while preserving hearing...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124522/reconstructive-considerations-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#16
Brian Cervenka, Stephen Trudeau, Johan Fagan, Chad Zender
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Surgical mission trips in head and neck surgery are common. There are an increasing number of surgical groups performing complex reconstructions in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Consideration of reconstructive options that are location and patient specific are critical for optimum patient care and local physician education. RECENT FINDINGS: The pectoralis muscle regional flap is a versatile and reliable option and has been shown to reconstruct defects in nearly every head and neck subsite...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102613/editorial-the-middle-cranial-fossa-approach
#17
Ravi N Samy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074517/pediatric-free-flap-reconstruction-for-head-and-neck-defects
#18
Francis V Roasa, Samantha S CastaƱeda, Daniel Jose C Mendoza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to review recent literature on the use of pediatric free flap reconstruction for head and neck defects with focus on skull base, congenital deformities, mandibular reconstruction and operative considerations. RECENT FINDINGS: Reconstruction of the skull base depends on the defect size, location, bony involvement, and pedicle length with a variety of flaps to choose from. Free flaps may be used to correct congenital anomalies due to facial clefts and syndromic causes requiring bony and tissue bulk...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045104/molecular-therapy-for-genetic-and-degenerative-vestibular-disorders
#19
Zahra N Sayyid, Grace S Kim, Alan G Cheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The primary purpose of this review is to summarize current literature in the field of vestibular regeneration with a focus on recent developments in molecular and gene therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the discovery of limited vestibular hair cell regeneration in mammals in the 1990s, many elegant studies have improved our knowledge of mechanisms of development and regeneration of the vestibular system. A better understanding of the developmental pathways of the vestibular organs has fueled various biological strategies to enhance regeneration, including novel techniques in deriving vestibular hair cells from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045103/combined-petrosal-approach
#20
Sean P Polster, Peleg M Horowitz, Issam A Awad, Michael B Gluth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The combined petrosal approach to the lateral skull base merges a retrolabyrinthine-presigmoid posterior fossa craniotomy with an adjacent middle fossa craniotomy, which are rendered continuous by division of the tentorium. This is a hearing-preserving approach that affords wide access to the lateral aspect of the clivus, the prepontine space, and the cerebellopontine angle. RECENT FINDINGS: This article details the historical development of the combined petrosal approach alongside a description...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
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