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Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195935/allometric-grip-strength-norms-for-children-of-hawaiian-lineage
#1
Morgan H Kocher, Rebecca K Romine, Christopher D Stickley, Charles F Morgan, Portia B Resnick, Ronald K Hetzler
PURPOSE: To determine allometric exponents for scaling grip strength in children that effectively control for body mass and height and develop normative grip strength data for Hawaiian children. METHODS: 1,437 students (754 boys) from a rural community in Hawaii participated in this 5-year study, resulting in 2,567 data points. Handgrip strength, body mass (BM), stature (Ht) were collected every year. Multiple log-linear regression was used to determine allometric exponents for BM and Ht...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644195/considerations-for-selecting-field-based-strength-and-power-fitness-tests-to-measure-asymmetries
#2
Chris Bishop, Anthony Turner, Shyam Chavda, Paul Jarvis, Paul Read
The prevalence of lower limb asymmetries has been reported in numerous studies; however, methodological differences exist in the way they can be detected. Strength and jumping-based tasks have been most commonly used to examine these differences across both athlete and non-athlete populations. The aim of this review was to critically analyze the utility of strength and jumping tests that are frequently used to measure asymmetry. Reliability, validity, and considerations for assessment are examined to enhance test accuracy and effectiveness in the quantification of asymmetries during strength and jumping-based tasks...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644194/phase-characteristics-of-the-countermovement-jump-force-time-curve-a-comparison-of-athletes-by-jumping-ability
#3
Christopher J Sole, Satoshi Mizuguchi, Kimitake Sato, Gavin L Moir, Michael H Stone
The purpose of this study was to compare the phase characteristics of the countermovement jump (CMJ) force time (F-t) curve between athletes based on jumping ability. An initial sample of one-hundred and fifty Division-I collegiate athletes were ranked based on CMJ jump height. Three performance groups were then formed by taking the top, middle, and lower thirty athletes (15 male and 15 female) from the sample. Phases of the CMJ F-t curve were determined and then characterized by their duration, magnitude, area (impulse), and shape (shape factor)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644193/heel-raised-foot-posture-do-not-affect-trunk-and-lower-extremity-biomechanics-during-a-barbell-back-squat-in-recreational-weightlifters
#4
Szu-Ping Lee, Carrie Gillis, Javier J Ibarra, Derek Oldroyd, Ryan Zane
It is claimed that weightlifting shoes with a raised heel may lead to a more upright trunk posture, and thus reduce the risk of back injuries during a barbell back squat. These proclaimed biomechanical effects have not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare trunk and lower extremity biomechanics during barbell back squats in 3 foot postures.14 recreational weightlifters (7 male and 7 female) between the ages of 18-50 performed barbell back squats in 3 conditions (barefoot on a flat surface, barefoot on a heel-raised platform, and wearing heel-raised weightlifting shoes) at 80% of their 1-RM...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614164/multi-component-musculoskeletal-movement-assessment-tools-a-systematic-review-and-critical-appraisal-of-their-development-and-applicability-to-professional-practice
#5
Hunter Bennett, Kade Davison, John Arnold, Kevin Norton, Flynn Slattery, Max Martin
Multi-component movement assessment tools have become commonplace to measure movement quality, proposing to indicate injury risk and performance capabilities. Despite popular use, there has been no attempt to compare the components of each tool reported in the literature, the processes in which they were developed, or the underpinning rationale for their included content. As such, the objective of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive summary of current movement assessment tools, and appraise the evidence supporting their development...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614163/effect-of-low-volume-high-intensity-interval-exercise-and-continuous-exercise-on-delayed-onset-muscle-soreness-in-untrained-healthy-males
#6
Luiz F Farias Junior, Rodrigo A V Browne, Danniel T Frazão, Teresa C B Dantas, Paulo H M Silva, Rodrigo P A Freitas, Marcelo S Aoki, Eduardo C Costa
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a single session of a low-volume high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and a continuous exercise (CE) on the magnitude of delayed onset-muscle soreness (DOMS) in untrained healthy males. Fifteen participants (25.1±4.4 years) completed 2 experimental sessions in a randomized order: (a) low-volume HIIE: 10 x 60 s at 90% of maximal velocity (MV) interspersed with 60s of active recovery at 30% of MV; and (b) CE: 20 min at 60% of MV. Pressure-pain threshold (PPT), pressure-pain tolerance (PPTol) and perceived pain intensity (PPI) were assessed in the rectus femoris, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius before and 24 hours post-exercise...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614162/validity-of-heart-rate-based-indices-to-measure-training-load-and-intensity-in-elite-football-players
#7
Pedro Silva, Eduardo Dos Santos, Mikhail Grishin, José Mário Rocha
This study aimed to identify the most sensible heart rate-based indices to physical measures of training load and intensity. Twenty professional football players competing in the Russian league and in the UEFA Champions League were monitored during 15 training sessions (270 individual records) using GPS devices (10 Hz) and heart rate telemetry. Expert knowledge and a collinearity r < .5 were used initially to select the external physical markers for the final analysis. A multivariate-adjusted within-subjects model was employed to quantify the correlations between heart rate indices with various measures of training intensity and load...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595239/changes-in-sprint-related-outcomes-during-a-period-of-systematic-training-in-a-girls-soccer-academy
#8
Matthew David Wright, Greg Atkinson
Longitudinal data tracking performance indicators collected during structured training are lacking in young female soccer players. Therefore, changes in 5-m acceleration, 20-m speed, change-of-direction speed and repeated-sprint ability were quantified during a three-year period in an FA Centre of Excellence. Fourteen players (mean age = 12.1 years, SD = ±0.9) were recruited and their best performance scores from pre-season and in-season testing were averaged. Players were typically exposed to soccer (2 x 90 min per week) and strength and conditioning training (1 x 70 min per week) and played 20 soccer matches (50-80 min) during 35-week seasons...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595238/distinguishing-playing-status-through-a-functionally-relevant-performance-measure-in-female-division-i-collegiate-soccer-athletes
#9
Mitchel A Magrini, Ryan J Colquhoun, John H Sellers, Eric C Conchola, Garrett M Hester, Ryan M Thiele, Zach K Pope, Doug B Smith
Although soccer is predominately an endurance sport, high velocity movements may be an important indicator of athletic success. The purpose of this investigation was to establish whether squat jumps (SJ) can differentiate starters from non-starters with a female collegiate division I soccer team. Eighteen female division I soccer athletes were separated into two groups: 9 starters (age: 19.5 ± 1.0; mass = 64.8 ± 11.5 kg; height = 167.5 ± 7.7 cm; games started = 18.2 ± 4.7; minutes played = 1633.8 ± 478...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595237/a-comparison-of-muscle-activation-between-back-squats-and-belt-squats
#10
Thomas W Evans, Cherilyn N McLester, Jonathan H Howard, John R McLester, Jimmy P Calloway
A machine belt squat is a piece of equipment designed to allow the performance of squats while loading weight on the lifter's hips using a belt. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if belt squats differ from back squats in activation of the primary movers, and to determine the predictive capabilities of back squat load, training status, and anthropometric data on belt squat load. Thirty-one participants (16 males and 15 females) completed anthropometric measurements, a demographic questionnaire, a familiarization visit, and two testing visits, completing a 5 repetition maximum test for back squat and belt squat...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595236/comparison-of-serum-cytokine-levels-in-obese-and-lean-men-effects-of-nonlinear-periodized-resistance-training-and-obesity
#11
Mahmoud Nikseresht
This study examined the capacity of nonlinear resistance training (NRT) to alter some cytokines and markers of insulin resistance in men who are obese. An additional aim was to compare these variables between obese and lean men. Age- and fitness-matched obese men were randomly allocated to NRT (n=12) and control (CON, n=10) groups. An age- and fitness-matched control group of lean men (n=11) were also recruited for baseline comparison. The NRT (12 weeks, 3 d/wk, 5-11 exercises) performed at different intensities (40-95% of IRM) with flexible periodization...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595235/a-warm-up-routine-that-incorporates-a-plyometric-protocol-potentiates-the-force-generating-capacity-of-the-quadriceps-muscles
#12
Mariska Johnson, J Pierre Baudin, Alejandro L Ley, David F Collins
This study was designed to investigate whether a warm-up routine that incorporates drop jumps, induces post-activation potentiation (PAP), and if so, assess the magnitude and time course of the induced PAP. Participants performed a standard warm-up that incorporated either drop jumps (plyometric protocol) or a low-paced walk (control protocol). PAP was assessed by changes in electrically-evoked isometric muscle twitches recorded throughout both protocols. The plyometric protocol increased peak twitch torque (PTT), rate of force development (RTD) and impulse significantly (by 23%, 39% and 46%, respectively) with no change in the amplitude of simultaneously-evoked M-waves, indicating that the augmented torque was due to PAP...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570496/the-effect-of-training-load-distribution-on-aerobic-fitness-measures-in-hurling-players
#13
Shane Malone, Brian Hughes, Kieran Collins
The aim of the current investigation was to quantify the training intensity distribution of hurling players and their association to changes in aerobic fitness measures within hurling players. Thirty hurling players (n = 30; age 25.5 ± 3.2 years; height 178.9 ± 3.2 cm; body mass 78.5 30 ± 4.5 kg) were observed during the pre-championship training period (12 weeks). Aerobic fitness measures (VO2max), peak treadmill velocity (PVT; km·h) and heart rates (HR) at 2 and 4 mmol·L blood-lactate concentrations, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance (Yo-YoIR1) were assessed pre and post the training period...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570495/power-profiles-of-competitive-and-non-competitive-mountain-bikers
#14
Andrew R Novak, Kyle J M Bennett, Matthew A Pluss, Job Fransen, Mark L Watsford, Ben J Dascombe
The performance of Olympic distance cross-country mountain bikers (XCO-MTB) is affected by constraints such as erosion of track surfaces and mass start congestion which can affect race results. Standardised laboratory assessments quantify inter-seasonal and intra-seasonal cycling potential through the assessment of multiple physiological capacities. Therefore, this study examined whether the power profile assessment could discriminate between competitive XCO-MTB and non-competitive mountain bikers (NC-MTB)...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570494/endurance-running-training-individually-guided-by-hrv-in-untrained-women
#15
Danilo F da Silva, Zachary M Ferraro, Kristi B Adamo, Fabiana A Machado
The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of HRV-guided training compared to a standardized prescription on i) time to complete 5-km running performance (t5km), ii) peak treadmill running speed (Vpeak) and its time limit (tlim at Vpeak), and iii) autonomic cardiac modulation (i.e., parasympathetic activity and recovery) in untrained women. Additionally, we correlated changes in t5km with changes in Vpeak, tlim at Vpeak and autonomic cardiac modulation. Thirty-six untrained women were divided into a HRV-guided training group (HRVG) and a control group (CG)...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570493/effects-of-intra-cyclic-velocity-variations-on-the-drag-exerted-by-different-swimming-parachutes
#16
Matteo Cortesi, Rocco Di Michele, Giorgio Gatta
Swimming parachutes are often used as a tool for resisted swimming training. However, little is known on their behavior in terms of exerted drag as a consequence of intra-cyclic velocity fluctuations. This study aimed to assess the drag provided by two swimming parachutes of different shape, also characterized by different volumes and cross-sectional areas, under conditions of velocity variations in the range of those occurring in swimming. A flat square shaped parachute (FLAT, cross-sectional area and volume: 400 cm; 0...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570492/estimation-of-peak-muscle-power-from-a-countermovement-vertical-jump-in-children-and-adolescents
#17
Alejandro Gomez-Bruton, Leigh Gabel, Lindsay Nettlefold, Heather Macdonald, Douglas Race, Heather McKay
Several equations to predict muscle power (MP) from vertical jump height (VJH) have been developed in adults. However, few have been derived in children. We therefore aimed to: 1) evaluate the validity of existing MP estimation equations from a vertical countermovement jump (CMJ) in children and adolescents, and 2) develop and validate a new MP estimation equation for use in children and adolescents. We measured peak MP (Watts) and VJH (cm) during a CMJ using a force platform in 249 children and adolescents (9-17 years; 119 boys)...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570491/effects-of-a-6-week-upper-extremity-low-volume-high-intensity-interval-training-on-oxygen-uptake-peak-power-output-and-total-exercise-time
#18
Nicole Pinto, James W Salassi, Ayla Donlin, Jan Schroeder, Ralph Rozenek
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of upper extremity (UE) high intensity interval training (HIIT) to UE continuous training (CT) when training at a similar intensity. 20 participants (mean age = 23 ± 3 yrs) were randomly assigned to either a HIIT (n = 10) or CT (n = 10) group. Participants completed a graded exercise test utilizing arm cranking prior to and following 6 wks (2 sessions · wk-1) of UE training. During sessions, HIIT performed 10 repetitions of 60 s of work at 92.3 ± 1.0% of the arm HRpeak (%aHRpeak) and 60 s of passive recovery (%aHRpeak = 73...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570490/a-review-of-the-biomechanical-differences-between-the-high-bar-and-low-bar-back-squat
#19
Daniel J Glassbrook, Eric R Helms, Scott R Brown, Adam G Storey
The back-squat is a common exercise in strength and conditioning, for a variety of sports. It is widely regarded as a fundamental movement to increase and measure lower-body and trunk function, as well as an effective injury rehabilitation exercise. There are typically two different bar positions used when performing the back-squat; the traditional 'high-bar' back-squat (HBBS) and the 'low-bar' back-squat (LBBS). Different movement strategies are employed to ensure that the center-of-mass remains in the base-of-support for balance during the execution of these lifts...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570489/possible-hormone-predictors-of-physical-performance-in-adolescent-team-sport-athletes
#20
Alanna C Martin, Ian T Heazlewood, Cecilia M Kitic, Isabelle Lys, Liam Johnson
The research aim of this study was to determine possible hormone predictors of physical performance in adolescent team sport athletes. Saliva samples were collected immediately prior to performance testing sessions from 114 state squad athletes (77 male, 37 female) participating in either Australian football, basketball, hockey, or netball. Participants completed tests of aerobic and anaerobic capacity, agility, power and speed. Samples were collected over 22 months at quarterly, six-monthly and/or yearly intervals depending on the testing schedule of the athlete...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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