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Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831237/knowledge-of-human-cytomegalovirus-infection-and-prevention-in-pregnant-women-a-baseline-operational-survey
#1
Maria Mazzitelli, Mariella Micieli, Carmela Votino, Federica Visconti, Paola Quaresima, Alessio Strazzulla, Carlo Torti, Fulvio Zullo
Currently, the only efficient way to prevent human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in pregnancy is primary prophylaxis through hygienic measures. So, we evaluated knowledge of HCMV and its prevention in a group of pregnant women. An anonymous questionnaire with multiple-choice answers was administered to all pregnant women who were followed up at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of "Pugliese-Ciaccio Hospital," a third-level hospital in Catanzaro (Southern Italy), from November 2015 to March 2016. Previously prescribed serology results for HCMV were also evaluated...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804240/dual-method-use-among-postpartum-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-malawian-women-a-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Dawn M Kopp, Jennifer H Tang, Gretchen S Stuart, William C Miller, Michele S O'Shea, Mina C Hosseinipour, Phylos Bonongwe, Mwawi Mwale, Nora E Rosenberg
Dual method use, use of condoms plus another effective contraceptive method, is important in settings with high rates of unintended pregnancy and HIV infection. We evaluated the association of HIV status with dual method use in a cohort of postpartum women. Women completed baseline surveys in the postpartum ward and telephone surveys about contraceptive use 3, 6, and 12 months later. Nonpregnant women who completed at least one follow-up survey were eligible for this secondary analysis. Prevalence ratios were calculated using generalized estimating equations...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717342/prevalence-of-high-risk-genotypes-of-human-papillomavirus-women-diagnosed-with-premalignant-and-malignant-pap-smear-tests-in-southern-ecuador
#3
Paola Dalgo Aguilar, Cisne Loján González, Ana Córdova Rodríguez, Katherine Acurio Páez, Ana Paulina Arévalo, Jana Bobokova
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary infectious agent for the development of cervical cancer, although the presence of the virus alone is insufficient for viral development and proliferation; this can be attributed to the increase in potential oncogenic risk, along with other risk factors. In the present investigation, the prevalence of high-risk HPV was determined from samples of premalignant or malignant cervical cytology in women from the southern region of Ecuador. The kit we used was able to detect genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408795/epidemiology-and-molecular-typing-of-pregnancy-associated-listeriosis-cases-in-lombardy-italy-over-a-10-year-period-2005-2014
#4
Virginia Filipello, Ettore Amato, Maria Gori, Pol Huedo, Giulia Ciceri, Sara Lomonaco, Mirella Pontello
In developed countries, pregnancy-related listeriosis accounts for 20-43% of total invasive listeriosis. This work describes the first pregnancy-related listeriosis survey in Italy based on two data sources, that is, mandatory notification system and regional laboratory-based network. Out of 610 listeriosis cases reported over a 10-year period, 40 were pregnancy-related (6.6%). Among these, 29 pregnancy-related isolates were available and have been analysed with serotyping, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and Multi-Virulence-Locus Sequence Typing...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325959/perinatal-mortality-associated-with-positive-postmortem-cultures-for-common-oral-flora
#5
Mai He, Alison R Migliori, Patricia Lauro, C James Sung, Halit Pinar
Introduction. To investigate whether maternal oral flora might be involved in intrauterine infection and subsequent stillbirth or neonatal death and could therefore be detected in fetal and neonatal postmortem bacterial cultures. Methods. This retrospective study of postmortem examinations from 1/1/2000 to 12/31/2010 was searched for bacterial cultures positive for common oral flora from heart blood or lung tissue. Maternal age, gestational age, age at neonatal death, and placental and fetal/neonatal histopathological findings were collected...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293099/a-comparison-of-colorimetric-assessment-of-vaginal-ph-with-nugent-score-for-the-detection-of-bacterial-vaginosis
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Matthew K Hoffman, Mrutyunjaya B Bellad, Umesh S Charantimath, Avinash Kavi, Jyoti M Nagmoti, Mahantesh B Nagmoti, Ashalata A Mallapur, Geetanjali M Katageri, Umesh Y Ramadurg, Sheshidhar G Bannale, Amit P Revankar, M S Ganachari, Richard J Derman, Shivaprasad S Goudar
Background. A Nugent score > 7 has been defined as the gold standard for the diagnosis for bacterial vaginosis (BV), though it is resource intensive and impractical as point of care testing. We sought to determine if colorimetric assessment of vaginal pH can accurately predict the occurrence of BV. Methods. We performed a planned subanalysis of 1,216 pregnant women between 13 0/7 and 19 6/7 weeks who underwent vaginal examination as part of a randomized controlled trial. Using a standardized technique, specimens were obtained for colorimetric assessment and two separate slides for Gram staining...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280293/cervicovaginal-bacteriology-and-antibiotic-sensitivity-patterns-among-women-with-premature-rupture-of-membranes-in-mulago-hospital-kampala-uganda-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Milton W Musaba, Mike N Kagawa, Charles Kiggundu, Paul Kiondo, Julius Wandabwa
Background. A 2013 Cochrane review concluded that the choice of antibiotics for prophylaxis in PROM is not clear. In Uganda, a combination of oral erythromycin and amoxicillin is the 1st line for prophylaxis against ascending infection. Our aim was to establish the current cervicovaginal bacteriology and antibiotic sensitivity patterns. Methods. Liquor was collected aseptically from the endocervical canal and pool in the posterior fornix of the vagina using a pipette. Aerobic cultures were performed on blood, chocolate, and MacConkey agar and incubated at 35-37°C for 24-48 hrs...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260847/effect-of-genital-sampling-site-on-the-detection-and-quantification-of-ureaplasma-species-with-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction-during-pregnancy
#8
Gilles Faron, Ellen Vancutsem, Anne Naessens, Ronald Buyl, Leonardo Gucciardo, Walter Foulon
Objective. This study aimed to compare the qualitative and quantitative reproducibility of quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Ureaplasma species (Ureaplasma spp.) throughout pregnancy and according to the genital sampling site. Study Design. Between 5 and 14 weeks of gestation (T1), vaginal, fornix, and two cervical samples were taken. Sampling was repeated during the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) trimester in randomly selected T1 positive and negative women. Qualitative and quantitative reproducibility were evaluated using, respectively, Cohen's kappa (κ) and interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and repeated measures ANOVA on the log-transformed mean number of DNA copies for each sampling site...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872553/development-of-a-novel-test-for-simultaneous-bacterial-identification-and-antibiotic-susceptibility
#9
Jonathan Faro, Malika Mitchell, Yuh-Jue Chen, Sarah Kamal, Gerald Riddle, Sebastian Faro
Background. Elucidation of a pathogen's antimicrobial susceptibility requires subculture after the organism is first isolated. This takes several days, requiring patients to be treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. This approach contributes to the development of bacterial resistance. Methods. Microtiter wells were coated with a polyclonal antibody targeting the pathogen of interest. Bacterial suspensions were added in the presence/absence of selected antibiotics. After washing, captured bacteria were detected...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829780/bacterial-load-in-daily-urine-samples-of-patients-infected-with-mycoplasma-genitalium-mutation-analysis-and-response-to-treatment
#10
M Gossé, S A Nordbø, B Pukstad
Objective. Increasing macrolide resistant strains of Mycoplasma genitalium is a challenge, and to differentiate between treatment failure and reinfection a timely test of cure (TOC) is warranted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the best time for TOC after five days' treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium infection with azithromycin. Methods. Nineteen patients with positive PCR for Mycoplasma genitalium in urine provided urine samples daily for 2 weeks and on days 21, 28, and 35. Samples were tested by a commercial qPCR and by sequencing of the 23S rRNA gene...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672303/prevalence-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-among-childbearing-age-women-in-india-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Kalpana Betha, Jamie M Robertson, Gong Tang, Catherine L Haggerty
Background. Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) can lead to reproductive sequelae. Information on the general population of childbearing age women in India is sparse. We reviewed the literature on CT prevalence within the general population of reproductive aged women in order to improve the efforts of public health screening programs and interventions. Objective. To conduct a literature review to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among childbearing age women in India. Search Strategy. Ovid Medline and PubMed databases were searched for articles from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2014...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642245/factors-associated-with-hormonal-and-intrauterine-contraceptive-use-among-hiv-infected-men-and-women-in-lilongwe-malawi-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Jennifer H Tang, Sam Phiri, Wingston Ng'ambi, Jamie W Krashin, Linly Mlundira, Thom Chaweza, Bernadette Samala, Hannock Tweya, Mina C Hosseinipour, Lisa B Haddad
Background. Understanding the factors associated with the use of hormonal and intrauterine contraception among HIV-infected men and women may lead to interventions that can help reduce high unintended pregnancy rates. Materials and Methods. This study is a subanalysis of a cross-sectional survey of 289 women and 241 men who were sexually active and HIV-infected and were attending HIV care visits in Lilongwe, Malawi. We estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) to evaluate factors associated with hormonal and intrauterine contraceptive use for men and women in separate models...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578957/hepatitis-b-hiv-and-syphilis-seroprevalence-in-pregnant-women-and-blood-donors-in-cameroon
#13
Jodie Dionne-Odom, Rahel Mbah, Nicole J Rembert, Samuel Tancho, Gregory E Halle-Ekane, Comfort Enah, Thomas K Welty, Pius M Tih, Alan T N Tita
Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559272/influenza-vaccination-among-pregnant-women-patient-beliefs-and-medical-provider-practices
#14
Lauren M Stark, Michael L Power, Mark Turrentine, Renee Samelson, Maryam M Siddiqui, Michael J Paglia, Emmie R Strassberg, Elizabeth Kelly, Katie L Murtough, Jay Schulkin
ACOG's research department recruited four medical centers to participate in a study on the attitudes and practices of medical providers and pregnant patients regarding influenza vaccination. Medical providers and patients were given voluntary surveys and medical record data was collected over two flu seasons, from 2013 to 2015. Discrepancies between self-reports of medical providers and patients and medical records were observed. Nearly 80% of patients self-reported accepting the influenza vaccine, but medical record data only reported 36% of patients accepting the vaccine...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504071/management-of-hiv-infection-during-pregnancy-in-the-united-states-updated-evidence-based-recommendations-and-future-potential-practices
#15
REVIEW
Bassam H Rimawi, Lisa Haddad, Martina L Badell, Rana Chakraborty
All HIV-infected women contemplating pregnancy should initiate combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), with a goal to achieve a maternal serum HIV RNA viral load beneath the laboratory level of detection prior to conceiving, as well as throughout their pregnancy. Successfully identifying HIV infection during pregnancy through screening tests is essential in order to prevent in utero and intrapartum transmission of HIV. Perinatal HIV transmission can be less than 1% when effective cART, associated with virologic suppression of HIV, is given during the ante-, intra-, and postpartum periods...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413359/antiretroviral-resistance-and-pregnancy-characteristics-of-women-with-perinatal-and-nonperinatal-hiv-infection
#16
Gweneth B Lazenby, Okeoma Mmeje, Barbra M Fisher, Adriana Weinberg, Erika K Aaron, Maria Keating, Amneris E Luque, Denise Willers, Deborah Cohan, Deborah Money
Objective. To compare HIV drug resistance in pregnant women with perinatal HIV (PHIV) and those with nonperinatal HIV (NPHIV) infection. Methods. We conducted a multisite cohort study of PHIV and NPHIV women from 2000 to 2014. Sample size was calculated to identify a fourfold increase in antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance in PHIV women. Continuous variables were compared using Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Categorical variables were compared using χ (2) and Fisher's exact tests. Univariate analysis was used to determine factors associated with antiretroviral drug resistance...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366021/extragenital-infections-caused-by-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-a-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Philip A Chan, Ashley Robinette, Madeline Montgomery, Alexi Almonte, Susan Cu-Uvin, John R Lonks, Kimberle C Chapin, Erna M Kojic, Erica J Hardy
In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM), and men who have sex only with women (MSW), including distribution by anatomical site...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313441/pregnancy-desire-partner-serodiscordance-and-partner-hiv-disclosure-among-reproductive-age-hiv-infected-women-in-an-urban-clinic
#18
Corinne M Rhodes, Susan Cu-Uvin, Aadia I Rana
Women comprise 25% of the US HIV epidemic, with many women of reproductive age. There is a need for providers to address the reproductive needs and desires of women with HIV given that effective antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV into a chronic disease. This cross-sectional study shows high rates of partner serodiscordance (61%) and moderate HIV disclosure to partners (61%). Patients surveyed reported practitioners discuss condoms (94%) and contraception (71%) more often than pregnancy desire (38%)...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313440/a-systematic-review-of-point-of-care-testing-for-chlamydia-trachomatis-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-and-trichomonas-vaginalis
#19
REVIEW
Sasha Herbst de Cortina, Claire C Bristow, Dvora Joseph Davey, Jeffrey D Klausner
Objectives. Systematic review of point of care (POC) diagnostic tests for sexually transmitted infections: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Methods. Literature search on PubMed for articles from January 2010 to August 2015, including original research in English on POC diagnostics for sexually transmitted CT, NG, and/or TV. Results. We identified 33 publications with original research on POC diagnostics for CT, NG, and/or TV. Thirteen articles evaluated test performance, yielding at least one test for each infection with sensitivity and specificity ≥90%...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27212873/mycoplasma-genitalium-an-overlooked-sexually-transmitted-pathogen-in-women
#20
REVIEW
Samsiya Ona, Rose L Molina, Khady Diouf
Mycoplasma genitalium is a facultative anaerobic organism and a recognized cause of nongonococcal urethritis in men. In women, M. genitalium has been associated with cervicitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and adverse birth outcomes, indicating a consistent relationship with female genital tract pathology. The global prevalence of M. genitalium among symptomatic and asymptomatic sexually active women ranges between 1 and 6...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
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