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Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Leilah Zahedi-Spung, Marisa Young, Lisa B Haddad, Martina L Badell
Introduction: Although rare, perinatal HIV transmission still occurs in the United States and most transmissions are preventable. We aim to identify patient barriers to antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence during pregnancy and assess patient understanding of perinatal transmission. Methods: This cross-sectional survey recruited HIV positive postpartum women at a large safety net hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, between January 2016 and February 2018. Survey questions included demographic characteristics, HIV history, knowledge of perinatal transmission, and ART adherence...
2018: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Sunila Shakya, Solveig Thingulstad, Unni Syversen, Svein Arne Nordbø, Surendra Madhup, Krista Vaidya, Biraj Man Karmacharya, Bjørn Olav Åsvold, Jan Egil Afset
Introduction: We have previously determined the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women in rural Nepal. In the current study, we also wanted to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the same population. Methods: Population-based study of nonpregnant women ≥ 15 years who were married or had a history of marriage in the past, residing in five rural villages in Nepal. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, reproductive history, and genitourinary symptoms were collected, and a gynecological examination was conducted...
2018: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Catalina Latorre Uriza, Juliana Velosa-Porras, Nelly S Roa, Stephani Margarita Quiñones Lara, Jaime Silva, Alvaro J Ruiz, Francina Maria Escobar Arregoces
Periodontal disease is an infection that, in pregnant women, can act as a risk factor for preterm delivery by increasing local and systemic inflammatory responses. Objective . To analyze the presence of periodontal disease, proinflammatory cytokines, and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE2 ) in pregnant patients at high risk for preterm delivery. Materials and Methods . Pilot study for a case-control study. We included 46 pregnant patients (23 patients at risk of preterm delivery as cases and 23 patients without risk of preterm delivery as controls)...
2018: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Maria Bullarbo, Martina Barnisin, Nina Vukas Radulovic, Åsa Mellgren
Objective: Studies on the prevalence of active tuberculosis (TB) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among high-risk pregnant and postpartum women are few and prevalence is not well known. The methods used for diagnosing and treating TB and LTBI also differ both within and between countries. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of TB and LTBI among high-risk pregnant and postpartum women in a Western Region of Sweden using tuberculin skin test (TST) as screening method...
2018: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ivana Randjelovic, Amir Moghaddam, Birgitte Freiesleben de Blasio, Harald Moi
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) inflammatory response in women with nongonococcal lower genital tract infection (LGTI) can be used to optimize criteria for syndromic treatment. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 375 women attending the STI clinic in Oslo. Urethral, cervical, and vaginal specimens underwent microscopy for PMNLs. Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and other STIs were detected in the cervical/vaginal swabs and urine, using nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)...
2018: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ammar Algburi, Saskia Zehm, Victoria Netrebov, Richard Weeks, Konstantin Zubovskiy, Michael L Chikindas
Infection recurrence and antibiotic resistance of bacterial vaginosis-associated pathogenic biofilms underline the need for novel and effective treatment strategies. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and quorum sensing inhibitory effects of benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid against Gardnerella vaginalis ATCC 14018, the predominant pathogen of bacterial vaginosis. While the highest tested concentrations of 250 and 125 μ g/mL for both compounds were not sufficient in completely inhibiting the growth of G...
2018: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
M Jaalama, O Palomäki, R Vuento, A Jokinen, J Uotila
Objectives: Little is known about the significance of Streptococcus G or C colonization in pregnant women. The objective of this study was to assess whether vaginal Streptococcus group G or C colonization detected in late pregnancy increases the infectious morbidity of the mother or newborn. Methods: A total of 15,114 rectovaginal cultures taken at 35-37 weeks of pregnancy were analyzed at Tampere University Hospital, Finland, between 2012 and 2014. From this laboratory data, all Streptococcus G or C-positive cultures were included to study maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity after delivery...
2018: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
E Morikawa, M Mudau, D Olivier, L de Vos, D Joseph Davey, C Price, J A McIntyre, R P Peters, J D Klausner, A Medina-Marino
Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) , Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) , and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infections may increase the risk of vertical transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In resource-limited settings, symptomatic screening, and syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during pregnancy continue to be the standard of care. In the absence of diagnostic testing, asymptomatic infections in pregnant women go untreated. Objective: To describe the acceptability and feasibility of integrating diagnostic STI screening into first antenatal care visits for HIV-infected pregnant women...
2018: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Aaron M Harris, Cheryl Isenhour, Sarah Schillie, Claudia Vellozzi
Introduction: Pregnant women should receive hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), but it is unclear whether HBV-infected pregnant women are linked to care. Methods: We analyzed MarketScan™ commercial insurance claims. We included pregnant women, aged 10-50 years, with 42 weeks of continuous enrollment before (predelivery) and 6 months after (postdelivery) the first delivery claim for each unique pregnancy between 1/1/2011 and 6/30/2014...
2018: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Rachel K Scott, Stacia Crochet, Chun-Chih Huang
Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of universal maternal HIV screening at time of delivery to decrease mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), by comparing the cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of universal rapid HIV screening at time of delivery to two current standards of care for prenatal HIV screening in the United States. Study Design: We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare the cost and QALY of universal intrapartum rapid HIV screening with two current standards of care: (I) opt-out rapid HIV testing limited to patients without previous third-trimester screening and (II) opt-out rapid HIV testing limited to patients without any prenatal screening...
2018: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jeffrey B Locke, Amanda L Almaguer, Joanna L Donatelli, Ken F Bartizal
Background: While echinocandins demonstrate excellent efficacy against Candida species in disseminated infections and demonstrate potent minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values under standard susceptibility testing conditions, investigation under conditions relevant to the vaginal environment was needed. We assessed the antifungal activity and time-kill kinetics of the novel echinocandin rezafungin (formerly CD101) under such conditions, against Candida species relevant to vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)...
2018: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Quinton Katler, Prachi Godiwala, Charles Macri, Beth Pineles, Gary Simon, Aileen Chang, Homa Ahmadzia
Objective: Our team created a knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) survey in order to assess changes over time in healthcare provider and community member awareness of Zika virus symptoms, transmission, treatment, and current and future concerns. Study Design: The cross-sectional survey was issued at an academic medical center in Washington, DC, and via an online link to healthcare providers and community members between June and August 2016. Survey distribution was then repeated the following year, from March to April 2017...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Infectious Diseases In Obstetrics And Gynecology
[This retracts the article DOI: 10.1155/S1064744999000046.].
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Pedro Vieira-Baptista, Svitrigaile Grinceviciene, Gert Bellen, Carlos Sousa, Conceição Saldanha, Davy Vanden Broeck, John-Paul Bogers, Gilbert Donders
Objective: To characterize the vaginal microbiome and the rate of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the women of Príncipe (São Tomé and Príncipe). Methods: Cross-sectional study of 100 consecutive women, invited for a free appointment and cervical cancer screening. A vaginal slide (wet mount microscopy) and a cervical sample (ThinPrep®) (Pap test, high risk human papillomavirus [HR-HPV], N . gonorrhea [NG], T . vaginalis [TV], and C . trachomatis [CT]) were obtained...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Yohei Maki, Midori Fujisaki, Yuichiro Sato, Hiroshi Sameshima
Candida chorioamnionitis is rare but can lead to neonatal infection, high mortality, and neurodevelopmental impairment. We aimed to investigate maternal clinical features and perinatal outcomes and discuss future management strategies. We reviewed the medical records of women with Candida chorioamnionitis at our hospital over a 10-year period ( n = 9) and previous published case reports and case series. The most prevalent Candida species was C. albicans (71.3% of the all cases). The most prevalent predisposing condition was preterm premature rupture of membranes (31/123, 25...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Meike Schild-Suhren, Amr A Soliman, Eduard Malik
Objective: The risk factors for vulvar dysplasia and infections are not fully known. In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between pubic hair shaving and the occurrence of vulvar inflammation, dysplasia, and cancer. Methods: This study was performed between January 2013 and December 2016 in which a standardized questionnaire concerning genital hair shaving was administered to vulvar dysplasia and cancer patients and healthy participants. The presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and the occurrence of genital inflammation were documented...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Alexandra Aserlind, Karla Maguire, Lunthita Duthely, Stefan Wennin, JoNell Potter
OBJECTIVE: Women living with HIV are at increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which can lead to cervical cancer. New guidelines recommend indefinite screening. The objective of this study is to describe cervical cancer screening practices and colposcopy results in a cohort of women living with HIV over age of 65 who were followed before the new guidelines. Comorbidities, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and other risk factors were evaluated. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review on 75 women aged 65 or older living with HIV with at least one Pap smear...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Maria Mazzitelli, Mariella Micieli, Carmela Votino, Federica Visconti, Paola Quaresima, Alessio Strazzulla, Carlo Torti, Fulvio Zullo
Currently, the only efficient way to prevent human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in pregnancy is primary prophylaxis through hygienic measures. So, we evaluated knowledge of HCMV and its prevention in a group of pregnant women. An anonymous questionnaire with multiple-choice answers was administered to all pregnant women who were followed up at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of "Pugliese-Ciaccio Hospital," a third-level hospital in Catanzaro (Southern Italy), from November 2015 to March 2016...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Dawn M Kopp, Jennifer H Tang, Gretchen S Stuart, William C Miller, Michele S O'Shea, Mina C Hosseinipour, Phylos Bonongwe, Mwawi Mwale, Nora E Rosenberg
Dual method use, use of condoms plus another effective contraceptive method, is important in settings with high rates of unintended pregnancy and HIV infection. We evaluated the association of HIV status with dual method use in a cohort of postpartum women. Women completed baseline surveys in the postpartum ward and telephone surveys about contraceptive use 3, 6, and 12 months later. Nonpregnant women who completed at least one follow-up survey were eligible for this secondary analysis. Prevalence ratios were calculated using generalized estimating equations...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Paola Dalgo Aguilar, Cisne Loján González, Ana Córdova Rodríguez, Katherine Acurio Páez, Ana Paulina Arévalo, Jana Bobokova
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary infectious agent for the development of cervical cancer, although the presence of the virus alone is insufficient for viral development and proliferation; this can be attributed to the increase in potential oncogenic risk, along with other risk factors. In the present investigation, the prevalence of high-risk HPV was determined from samples of premalignant or malignant cervical cytology in women from the southern region of Ecuador. The kit we used was able to detect genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
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