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Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872553/development-of-a-novel-test-for-simultaneous-bacterial-identification-and-antibiotic-susceptibility
#1
Jonathan Faro, Malika Mitchell, Yuh-Jue Chen, Sarah Kamal, Gerald Riddle, Sebastian Faro
Background. Elucidation of a pathogen's antimicrobial susceptibility requires subculture after the organism is first isolated. This takes several days, requiring patients to be treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. This approach contributes to the development of bacterial resistance. Methods. Microtiter wells were coated with a polyclonal antibody targeting the pathogen of interest. Bacterial suspensions were added in the presence/absence of selected antibiotics. After washing, captured bacteria were detected...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829780/bacterial-load-in-daily-urine-samples-of-patients-infected-with-mycoplasma-genitalium-mutation-analysis-and-response-to-treatment
#2
M Gossé, S A Nordbø, B Pukstad
Objective. Increasing macrolide resistant strains of Mycoplasma genitalium is a challenge, and to differentiate between treatment failure and reinfection a timely test of cure (TOC) is warranted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the best time for TOC after five days' treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium infection with azithromycin. Methods. Nineteen patients with positive PCR for Mycoplasma genitalium in urine provided urine samples daily for 2 weeks and on days 21, 28, and 35. Samples were tested by a commercial qPCR and by sequencing of the 23S rRNA gene...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672303/prevalence-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-among-childbearing-age-women-in-india-a-systematic-review
#3
Kalpana Betha, Jamie M Robertson, Gong Tang, Catherine L Haggerty
Background. Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) can lead to reproductive sequelae. Information on the general population of childbearing age women in India is sparse. We reviewed the literature on CT prevalence within the general population of reproductive aged women in order to improve the efforts of public health screening programs and interventions. Objective. To conduct a literature review to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among childbearing age women in India. Search Strategy. Ovid Medline and PubMed databases were searched for articles from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2014...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642245/factors-associated-with-hormonal-and-intrauterine-contraceptive-use-among-hiv-infected-men-and-women-in-lilongwe-malawi-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Jennifer H Tang, Sam Phiri, Wingston Ng'ambi, Jamie W Krashin, Linly Mlundira, Thom Chaweza, Bernadette Samala, Hannock Tweya, Mina C Hosseinipour, Lisa B Haddad
Background. Understanding the factors associated with the use of hormonal and intrauterine contraception among HIV-infected men and women may lead to interventions that can help reduce high unintended pregnancy rates. Materials and Methods. This study is a subanalysis of a cross-sectional survey of 289 women and 241 men who were sexually active and HIV-infected and were attending HIV care visits in Lilongwe, Malawi. We estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) to evaluate factors associated with hormonal and intrauterine contraceptive use for men and women in separate models...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578957/hepatitis-b-hiv-and-syphilis-seroprevalence-in-pregnant-women-and-blood-donors-in-cameroon
#5
Jodie Dionne-Odom, Rahel Mbah, Nicole J Rembert, Samuel Tancho, Gregory E Halle-Ekane, Comfort Enah, Thomas K Welty, Pius M Tih, Alan T N Tita
Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559272/influenza-vaccination-among-pregnant-women-patient-beliefs-and-medical-provider-practices
#6
Lauren M Stark, Michael L Power, Mark Turrentine, Renee Samelson, Maryam M Siddiqui, Michael J Paglia, Emmie R Strassberg, Elizabeth Kelly, Katie L Murtough, Jay Schulkin
ACOG's research department recruited four medical centers to participate in a study on the attitudes and practices of medical providers and pregnant patients regarding influenza vaccination. Medical providers and patients were given voluntary surveys and medical record data was collected over two flu seasons, from 2013 to 2015. Discrepancies between self-reports of medical providers and patients and medical records were observed. Nearly 80% of patients self-reported accepting the influenza vaccine, but medical record data only reported 36% of patients accepting the vaccine...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504071/management-of-hiv-infection-during-pregnancy-in-the-united-states-updated-evidence-based-recommendations-and-future-potential-practices
#7
REVIEW
Bassam H Rimawi, Lisa Haddad, Martina L Badell, Rana Chakraborty
All HIV-infected women contemplating pregnancy should initiate combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), with a goal to achieve a maternal serum HIV RNA viral load beneath the laboratory level of detection prior to conceiving, as well as throughout their pregnancy. Successfully identifying HIV infection during pregnancy through screening tests is essential in order to prevent in utero and intrapartum transmission of HIV. Perinatal HIV transmission can be less than 1% when effective cART, associated with virologic suppression of HIV, is given during the ante-, intra-, and postpartum periods...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413359/antiretroviral-resistance-and-pregnancy-characteristics-of-women-with-perinatal-and-nonperinatal-hiv-infection
#8
Gweneth B Lazenby, Okeoma Mmeje, Barbra M Fisher, Adriana Weinberg, Erika K Aaron, Maria Keating, Amneris E Luque, Denise Willers, Deborah Cohan, Deborah Money
Objective. To compare HIV drug resistance in pregnant women with perinatal HIV (PHIV) and those with nonperinatal HIV (NPHIV) infection. Methods. We conducted a multisite cohort study of PHIV and NPHIV women from 2000 to 2014. Sample size was calculated to identify a fourfold increase in antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance in PHIV women. Continuous variables were compared using Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Categorical variables were compared using χ (2) and Fisher's exact tests. Univariate analysis was used to determine factors associated with antiretroviral drug resistance...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366021/extragenital-infections-caused-by-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-a-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Philip A Chan, Ashley Robinette, Madeline Montgomery, Alexi Almonte, Susan Cu-Uvin, John R Lonks, Kimberle C Chapin, Erna M Kojic, Erica J Hardy
In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM), and men who have sex only with women (MSW), including distribution by anatomical site...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313441/pregnancy-desire-partner-serodiscordance-and-partner-hiv-disclosure-among-reproductive-age-hiv-infected-women-in-an-urban-clinic
#10
Corinne M Rhodes, Susan Cu-Uvin, Aadia I Rana
Women comprise 25% of the US HIV epidemic, with many women of reproductive age. There is a need for providers to address the reproductive needs and desires of women with HIV given that effective antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV into a chronic disease. This cross-sectional study shows high rates of partner serodiscordance (61%) and moderate HIV disclosure to partners (61%). Patients surveyed reported practitioners discuss condoms (94%) and contraception (71%) more often than pregnancy desire (38%)...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313440/a-systematic-review-of-point-of-care-testing-for-chlamydia-trachomatis-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-and-trichomonas-vaginalis
#11
REVIEW
Sasha Herbst de Cortina, Claire C Bristow, Dvora Joseph Davey, Jeffrey D Klausner
Objectives. Systematic review of point of care (POC) diagnostic tests for sexually transmitted infections: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Methods. Literature search on PubMed for articles from January 2010 to August 2015, including original research in English on POC diagnostics for sexually transmitted CT, NG, and/or TV. Results. We identified 33 publications with original research on POC diagnostics for CT, NG, and/or TV. Thirteen articles evaluated test performance, yielding at least one test for each infection with sensitivity and specificity ≥90%...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27212873/mycoplasma-genitalium-an-overlooked-sexually-transmitted-pathogen-in-women
#12
REVIEW
Samsiya Ona, Rose L Molina, Khady Diouf
Mycoplasma genitalium is a facultative anaerobic organism and a recognized cause of nongonococcal urethritis in men. In women, M. genitalium has been associated with cervicitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and adverse birth outcomes, indicating a consistent relationship with female genital tract pathology. The global prevalence of M. genitalium among symptomatic and asymptomatic sexually active women ranges between 1 and 6...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199534/influence-of-gelatin-thrombin-matrix-tissue-sealant-on-bacterial-colony-formation-and-risk-of-pelvic-infection
#13
Michael J Jarrett, Andres Vázquez-Torres, Daniel N Frank, Bruce D McCollister, Patrick K Henthorn, Diana Ir, Jeanelle Sheeder, Michael S Guy, Hiba Q Anwar, Kian Behbakht
Objective. Gelatin-thrombin matrix (GTM) tissue sealant use was previously identified as an independent predictor of pelvic infection following hysterectomies. We aim to elucidate contributing factors by assessing influence of GTM on bacterial colony formation and characterizing bacteria present at the vaginal cuff. Methods. Escherichia coli was incubated in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and pelvic washings with and without GTM to assess influence on colony formation. Pelvic washings of the vaginal cuff were collected from hysterectomies occurring from June through October 2015...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27127401/maternal-lopinavir-ritonavir-is-associated-with-fewer-adverse-events-in-infants-than-nelfinavir-or-atazanavir
#14
Christiana Smith, Adriana Weinberg, Jeri E Forster, Myron J Levin, Jill Davies, Jennifer Pappas, Kay Kinzie, Emily Barr, Suzanne Paul, Elizabeth J McFarland
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is successfully used for prevention of perinatal HIV transmission. To investigate safety, we compared adverse events (AE) among infants exposed to different maternal cART regimens. We reviewed 158 HIV-uninfected infants born between 1997 and 2009, using logistic regression to model grade ≥1 AE and grade ≥3 AE as a function of maternal cART and confounding variables (preterm, C-section, illicit drug use, race, ethnicity, infant antiretrovirals, and maternal viremia)...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110088/human-papillomavirus-infection-as-a-possible-cause-of-spontaneous-abortion-and-spontaneous-preterm-delivery
#15
REVIEW
Lea Maria Margareta Ambühl, Ulrik Baandrup, Karen Dybkær, Jan Blaakær, Niels Uldbjerg, Suzette Sørensen
Based on the current literature, we aimed to provide an overview on Human Papillomavirus prevalence in normal pregnancies and pregnancies with adverse outcome. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and Embase. Data extracted from the articles and used for analysis included HPV prevalence, pregnancy outcome, geographical location, investigated tissue types, and HPV detection methods. The overall HPV prevalence in normal full-term pregnancies was found to be 17.5% (95% CI; 17.3-17.7) for cervix, 8...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27069349/spectrum-of-maternofetal-outcomes-during-dengue-infection-in-pregnancy-an-insight
#16
Swati Sharma, Sandhya Jain, Shalini Rajaram
Dengue is a vector transmitted viral infection; tropical and subtropical countries see outbreaks of dengue each year. There is a paucity of literature on effects of dengue infection on pregnancy outcome and this prompted us to undertake a study for better understanding of pregnancy implications with dengue infection. Pregnant women admitted during the seasonal outbreak of dengue between September 2015 and October 2015 were studied and maternal and fetal outcomes in sixteen NS1Ag positive women were analysed...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989338/risk-of-adverse-infant-outcomes-associated-with-maternal-tuberculosis-in-a-low-burden-setting-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#17
Sylvia M LaCourse, Sharon A Greene, Elizabeth E Dawson-Hahn, Stephen E Hawes
BACKGROUND: Maternal tuberculosis (TB) may be associated with increased risk of adverse infant outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: We examined the risk of low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), and preterm birth (<37 weeks) associated with maternal TB in a retrospective population-based Washington State cohort using linked infant birth certificate and maternal delivery hospitalization discharge records. We identified 134 women with births between 1987 and 2012 with TB-associated ICD-9 diagnosis codes at hospital delivery discharge and 536 randomly selected women without TB, frequency matched 4 : 1 on delivery year...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989337/clinical-characteristics-associated-with-antibiotic-treatment-failure-for-tuboovarian-abscesses
#18
Huma Farid, Trevin C Lau, Anatte E Karmon, Aaron K Styer
OBJECTIVE: Although parenteral antibiotic treatment is a standard approach for tuboovarian abscesses, a significant proportion of patients fail therapy and require interventional radiology (IR) guided drainage. The objective of this study is to assess if specific clinical factors are associated with antibiotic treatment failure. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective medical record review of patients hospitalized for tuboovarian abscesses from 2001 through 2012 was performed...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949324/survey-of-obstetrics-and-gynecology-residents-regarding-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-pregnancy-education-knowledge-and-barriers-to-vaccination
#19
Emily E Fay, Kara K Hoppe, Jay Schulkin, Linda O Eckert
OBJECTIVE: The 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for adults over 65 years of age and younger adults with certain medical conditions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) state insufficient evidence to recommend routine pneumococcal vaccination during pregnancy, but the vaccine is indicated for pregnant women with certain medical conditions. We designed this project to gauge obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) resident knowledge of maternal pneumococcal vaccination...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26924918/efforts-to-improve-immunization-coverage-during-pregnancy-among-ob-gyns
#20
Katherine M Jones, Sarah Carroll, Debra Hawks, Cora-Ann McElwain, Jay Schulkin
BACKGROUND: Influenza and Tdap vaccines are vital factors for improving maternal and neonatal health outcomes. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted to determine whether the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' (ACOG's) efforts to increase ob-gyn use of their immunization toolkits and vaccination administration were successful. Pre- and postintervention questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 1,500 ACOG members between August 2012 and July 2015...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
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