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Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769022/errata-to-rapid-and-coordinated-processing-of-global-motion-images-by-local-clusters-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#1
Akihiro Matsumoto, Masao Tachibana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769021/erratum-to-mechanisms-of-organelle-division-and-inheritance-and-their-implications-regarding-the-origin-of-eukaryotic-cells
#2
Tsuneyoshi Kuroiwa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769020/activation-changes-of-the-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-for-the-factors-of-construction-and-scrambling-in-a-sentence
#3
Kyohei Tanaka, Shinri Ohta, Ryuta Kinno, Kuniyoshi L Sakai
Our previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have indicated that the left dorsal inferior frontal gyrus (L. dF3op/F3t) and left lateral premotor cortex (L. LPMC) are crucial regions for syntactic processing among the syntax-related networks. In the present study, we further examined how activations in these regions were modified by the factors of construction and scrambling (object-initial type). Using various sentence types, we clarified three major points. First, we found that the main effects of construction and scrambling consistently activated the L...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769019/intrinsic-ubiquitin-e3-ligase-activity-of-histone-acetyltransferase-hbo1-for-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE
#4
Masayoshi Iizuka, Takao Susa, Mimi Tamamori-Adachi, Hiroko Okinaga, Tomoki Okazaki
Estrogen receptors (ER) are important transcription factors to relay signals from estrogen and to regulate proliferation of some of breast cancers. The cycling of estrogen-induced DNA binding and ubiquitin-linked proteolysis of ER potentiates ER-mediated transcription. Indeed, several transcriptional coactivators for ER-dependent transcription ubiquitinate ER. Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) Hbo1/KAT7/MYST2, involved in global histone acetylation, DNA replication, transcription, and cellular proliferation, promotes proteasome-dependent degradation of ERα through ubiquitination...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769018/fluorescence-imaging-of-synapse-dynamics-in-normal-circuit-maturation-and-in-developmental-disorders
#5
Shigeo Okabe
One of the most fundamental questions in neurobiology is how proper synaptic connections are established in the developing brain. Live-cell imaging of the synaptic structure and functional molecules can reveal the time course of synapse formation, molecular dynamics, and functional maturation. Using postsynaptic scaffolding proteins as a marker of synapse development, fluorescence time-lapse imaging revealed rapid formation of individual synapses that occurred within hours and their remodeling in culture preparations...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769017/trp-channels-in-oxygen-physiology-distinctive-functional-properties-and-roles-of-trpa1-in-o2-sensing
#6
Yasuo Mori, Nobuaki Takahashi, Tatsuki Kurokawa, Shigeki Kiyonaka
Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) proteins form cation channels characterized by a wide variety of activation triggers. Here, we overview a group of TRP channels that respond to reactive redox species to transduce physiological signals, with a focus on TRPA1 and its role in oxygen physiology. Our systematic evaluation of oxidation sensitivity using cysteine-selective reactive disulphides with different redox potentials reveals that TRPA1 has the highest sensitivity to oxidants/electrophiles among the TRP channels, which enables it to sense O2...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769016/favipiravir-t-705-a-broad-spectrum-inhibitor-of-viral-rna-polymerase
#7
Yousuke Furuta, Takashi Komeno, Takaaki Nakamura
Favipiravir (T-705; 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarboxamide) is an anti-viral agent that selectively and potently inhibits the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of RNA viruses. Favipiravir was discovered through screening chemical library for anti-viral activity against the influenza virus by Toyama Chemical Co., Ltd. Favipiravir undergoes an intracellular phosphoribosylation to be an active form, favipiravir-RTP (favipiravir ribofuranosyl-5'-triphosphate), which is recognized as a substrate by RdRp, and inhibits the RNA polymerase activity...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769015/ambient-seismic-wave-field
#8
Kiwamu Nishida
The ambient seismic wave field, also known as ambient noise, is excited by oceanic gravity waves primarily. This can be categorized as seismic hum (1-20 mHz), primary microseisms (0.02-0.1 Hz), and secondary microseisms (0.1-1 Hz). Below 20 mHz, pressure fluctuations of ocean infragravity waves reach the abyssal floor. Topographic coupling between seismic waves and ocean infragravity waves at the abyssal floor can explain the observed shear traction sources. Below 5 mHz, atmospheric disturbances may also contribute to this excitation...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603211/how-the-klein-nishina-formula-was-derived-based-on-the-sangokan-nishina-source-materials
#9
Yuji Yazaki
In 1928, Klein and Nishina investigated Compton scattering based on the Dirac equation just proposed in the same year, and derived the Klein-Nishina formula for the scattering cross section of a photon. At that time the Dirac equation had the following unsettled conceptual questions: the negative energy states, its four-component wave functions, and the spin states of an electron. Hence, during their investigation struggles, they encountered various difficulties. In this article, we describe their struggles to derive the formula using the "Sangokan Nishina Source Materials" retained in the the Nishina Memorial Foundation...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603210/emerging-mechanisms-underlying-astrogenesis-in-the-developing-mammalian-brain
#10
REVIEW
Jun Takouda, Sayako Katada, Kinichi Nakashima
In the developing brain, the three major cell types, i.e., neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, are generated from common multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs). In particular, astrocytes eventually occupy a great fraction of the brain and play pivotal roles in the brain development and functions. However, NSCs cannot produce the three major cell types simultaneously from the beginning; e.g., it is known that neurogenesis precedes astrogenesis during brain development. How is this fate switching achieved? Many studies have revealed that extracellular cues and intracellular programs are involved in the transition of NSC fate specification...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603209/molecular-mechanisms-and-physiological-roles-of-atg5-atg7-independent-alternative-autophagy
#11
REVIEW
Satoko Arakawa, Shinya Honda, Hirofumi Yamaguchi, Shigeomi Shimizu
ATG5 and ATG7 are considered to be essential molecules for the induction of autophagy. However, we found that cells lacking ATG5 or ATG7 can still form autophagosomes/autolysosomes and perform autophagic protein degradation when subjected to certain types of stress. Although the lipidation of LC3 is accepted as a good indicator of autophagy, this did not occur during ATG5/ATG7-independent alternative autophagy. Unlike conventional autophagy, autophagosomes appeared to be generated in a Rab9-dependent manner by the fusion of the phagophores with vesicles derived from the trans-Golgi and late endosomes...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603208/ultra-early-phase-pathologies-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-neurodegenerative-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Hitoshi Okazawa
The concept of neurodegenerative diseases and the therapeutics targeting these intractable diseases are changing rapidly. Protein aggregation as the top of pathological cascade is now challenged, and many alternative ideas are proposed. Early molecular pathologies before microscopic detection of diseases protein aggregates, which I propose to call "Ultra-Early Phase pathologies or phase 0 pathologies", are the focus of research that might explain the failures of clinical trials with anti-Aβ antibodies against Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496055/organization-and-dynamics-of-yeast-mitochondrial-nucleoids
#13
REVIEW
Isamu Miyakawa
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is packaged by association with specific proteins in compact DNA-protein complexes named mitochondrial nucleoids (mt-nucleoids). The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to grow either aerobically or anaerobically. Due to this characteristic, S. cerevisiae has been extensively used as a model organism to study genetics, morphology and biochemistry of mitochondria for a long time. Mitochondria of S. cerevisiae frequently fuse and divide, and perform dynamic morphological changes depending on the culture conditions and the stage of life cycle of the yeast cells...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496054/days-weaving-the-lagging-strand-synthesis-of-dna-a-personal-recollection-of-the-discovery-of-okazaki-fragments-and-studies-on-discontinuous-replication-mechanism
#14
REVIEW
Tsuneko Okazaki
At DNA replication forks, the overall growth of the antiparallel two daughter DNA chains appears to occur 5'-to-3' direction in the leading-strand and 3'-to-5' direction in the lagging-strand using enzyme system only able to elongate 5'-to-3' direction, and I describe in this review how we have analyzed and proved the lagging strand multistep synthesis reactions, called Discontinuous Replication Mechanism, which involve short RNA primer synthesis, primer-dependent short DNA chains (Okazaki fragments) synthesis, primer removal from the Okazaki fragments and gap filling between Okazaki fragments by RNase H and DNA polymerase I, and long lagging strand formation by joining between Okazaki fragments with DNA ligase...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496053/chemical-and-structural-biology-of-protein-lysine-deacetylases
#15
REVIEW
Minoru Yoshida, Norio Kudo, Saori Kosono, Akihiro Ito
Histone acetylation is a reversible posttranslational modification that plays a fundamental role in regulating eukaryotic gene expression and chromatin structure/function. Key enzymes for removing acetyl groups from histones are metal (zinc)-dependent and NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs). The molecular function of HDACs have been extensively characterized by various approaches including chemical, molecular, and structural biology, which demonstrated that HDACs regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and metabolic homeostasis, and that their alterations are deeply involved in various human disorders including cancer...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496052/data-management-issues-in-mobile-ad-hoc-networks
#16
REVIEW
Takahiro Hara
Research on mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) has become a hot research topic since the middle 1990's. Over the first decade, most research focused on networking techniques, ignoring data management issues. We, however, realized early the importance of data management in MANETs, and have been conducting studies in this area for 15 years. In this review, we summarize some key technical issues related to data management in MANETs, and the studies we have done in addressing these issues, which include placement of data replicas, update management, and query processing with security management...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496051/molecular-investigations-of-development-and-diseases-of-the-brain-of-higher-mammals-using-the-ferret
#17
REVIEW
Hiroshi Kawasaki
The brains of higher mammals such as primates and carnivores contain well-developed unique brain structures. Uncovering the physiological functions, developmental mechanisms and evolution of these brain structures would greatly facilitate our understanding of the human brain and its diseases. Although the anatomical and electrophysiological features of these brain structures have been intensively investigated, our knowledge about their molecular bases is still limited. To overcome this limitation, genetic techniques for the brains of carnivores and primates have been established, and molecules whose expression patterns correspond to these brain structures were identified recently...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496050/multiple-system-atrophy-clinicopathological-characteristics-in-japanese-patients
#18
REVIEW
Tetsutaro Ozawa, Osamu Onodera
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder that has both clinical and pathological variants. Clinical examples include MSA with predominant cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C) and MSA with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P), whereas olivopontocerebellar atrophy and striatonigral degeneration represent pathological variants. We performed systematic reviews of studies that addressed the relative frequencies of clinical or pathological variants of MSA in various populations to determine the clinicopathological characteristics in Japanese MSA...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413199/rapid-and-coordinated-processing-of-global-motion-images-by-local-clusters-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#19
Akihiro Matsumoto, Masao Tachibana
Even when the body is stationary, the whole retinal image is always in motion by fixational eye movements and saccades that move the eye between fixation points. Accumulating evidence indicates that the brain is equipped with specific mechanisms for compensating for the global motion induced by these eye movements. However, it is not yet fully understood how the retina processes global motion images during eye movements. Here we show that global motion images evoke novel coordinated firing in retinal ganglion cells (GCs)...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413198/engineering-the-lodging-resistance-mechanism-of-post-green-revolution-rice-to-meet-future-demands
#20
REVIEW
Ko Hirano, Reynante Lacsamana Ordonio, Makoto Matsuoka
Traditional breeding for high-yielding rice has been dependent on the widespread cultivation of gibberellin (GA)-deficient semi-dwarf varieties. Dwarfism lowers the "center of gravity" of the plant body, which increases resistance against lodging and enables plants to support high grain yield. Although this approach was successful in latter half of the 20th century in rice and wheat breeding, this may no longer be enough to sustain rice with even higher yields. This is because relying solely on the semi-dwarf trait is subject to certain limitations, making it necessary to use other important traits to reinforce it...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
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