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Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413199/rapid-and-coordinated-processing-of-global-motion-images-by-local-clusters-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#1
Akihiro Matsumoto, Masao Tachibana
Even when the body is stationary, the whole retinal image is always in motion by fixational eye movements and saccades that move the eye between fixation points. Accumulating evidence indicates that the brain is equipped with specific mechanisms for compensating for the global motion induced by these eye movements. However, it is not yet fully understood how the retina processes global motion images during eye movements. Here we show that global motion images evoke novel coordinated firing in retinal ganglion cells (GCs)...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413198/engineering-the-lodging-resistance-mechanism-of-post-green-revolution-rice-to-meet-future-demands
#2
REVIEW
Ko Hirano, Reynante Lacsamana Ordonio, Makoto Matsuoka
Traditional breeding for high-yielding rice has been dependent on the widespread cultivation of gibberellin (GA)-deficient semi-dwarf varieties. Dwarfism lowers the "center of gravity" of the plant body, which increases resistance against lodging and enables plants to support high grain yield. Although this approach was successful in latter half of the 20th century in rice and wheat breeding, this may no longer be enough to sustain rice with even higher yields. This is because relying solely on the semi-dwarf trait is subject to certain limitations, making it necessary to use other important traits to reinforce it...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413197/structure-and-function-of-helicobacter-pylori-caga-the-first-identified-bacterial-protein-involved-in-human-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Masanori Hatakeyama
Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori cagA-positive strains is the strongest risk factor of gastric cancer. The cagA gene-encoded CagA protein is delivered into gastric epithelial cells via bacterial type IV secretion, where it undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation at the Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) motifs. Delivered CagA then acts as a non-physiological scaffold/hub protein by interacting with multiple host signaling molecules, most notably the pro-oncogenic phosphatase SHP2 and the polarity-regulating kinase PAR1/MARK, in both tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent and -independent manners...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413196/the-molecular-cues-regulating-immune-cell-trafficking
#4
REVIEW
Akira Takeda, Naoko Sasaki, Masayuki Miyasaka
Lymphocyte recirculation between the blood and the lymphoid/non-lymphoid tissues is an essential homeostatic mechanism that regulates humoral and cellular immune responses in vivo. This system promotes the encounter of naïve T and B cells with their specific cognate antigen presented by dendritic cells, and with the regulatory cells with which they need to interact to initiate, maintain, and terminate immune responses. The constitutive lymphocyte trafficking is mediated by particular types of blood vessels, including the high endothelial venules (HEVs) in lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, and the flat-walled venules in non-lymphoid tissues including the skin...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413195/purinergic-signaling-in-microglia-in-the-pathogenesis-of-neuropathic-pain
#5
REVIEW
Kazuhide Inoue
Nerve injury often causes debilitating chronic pain, referred to as neuropathic pain, which is refractory to currently available analgesics including morphine. Many reports indicate that activated spinal microglia evoke neuropathic pain. The P2X4 receptor (P2X4R), a subtype of ionotropic ATP receptors, is upregulated in spinal microglia after nerve injury by several factors, including CC chemokine receptor CCR2, the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin in the spinal cord, interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) and IRF5...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413194/dual-role-of-cellular-prion-protein-in-normal-host-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Takashi Onodera
Using PrP(C)-knockout cell lines, it has been shown that the inhibition of apoptosis through STI1 is mediated by PrP(C)-dependent SOD activation. Antioxidant PrP(C) may contribute to suppression of inflammasome activation. PrP(C) is functionally involved in copper metabolism, signal transduction, neuroprotection, and cell maturation. Recently several reports have shown that PrP(C) participates in trans-membrane signaling processes associated with hematopoietic stem cell replication and neuronal differentiation...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302962/finite-block-length-analysis-in-classical-and-quantum-information-theory
#7
REVIEW
Masahito Hayashi
Coding technology is used in several information processing tasks. In particular, when noise during transmission disturbs communications, coding technology is employed to protect the information. However, there are two types of coding technology: coding in classical information theory and coding in quantum information theory. Although the physical media used to transmit information ultimately obey quantum mechanics, we need to choose the type of coding depending on the kind of information device, classical or quantum, that is being used...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302961/getting-to-the-heart-of-the-matter-in-cancer-novel-approaches-to-targeting-cancer-stem-cells
#8
REVIEW
Hugh Colvin, Masaki Mori
Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. While cancers may initially show good response to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, it is not uncommon for them to recur at a later date. This phenomenon may be explained by the existence of a small population of cancer stem cells, which are inherently resistant to anti-cancer treatment as well as being capable of self-renewal. Therefore, while most of the tumour bulk consisting of cells that are not cancer stem cells respond to treatment, the cancer stem cells remain, leading to disease recurrence...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302960/development-of-chemical-and-chemo-enzymatic-glycosylations
#9
REVIEW
Shin-Ichiro Shoda
Glycosidic compounds are indispensable molecules in living systems. Biological phenomena such as cell wall formation, energy storage, and cell recognition strongly depend on the multi-functional characters of these substances. Development of highly regio- and stereoselective glycosylation reactions is necessary to provide sufficient amounts of specific compounds in basic research as well as for applications in industry. This review presents an overview of chemical and chemo-enzymatic glycosylations that have been developed during my forty-year academic career in the field of glyco-science...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190871/heating-mechanisms-of-the-solar-corona
#10
REVIEW
Takashi Sakurai
The solar corona is a tenuous outer atmosphere of the Sun. Its million-degree temperature was discovered spectroscopically in the 1940s, but its origin has been debated since then without complete convergence. Currently there are two classes of models; the wave theory and the microflare/nanoflare theory. Both models have merits and disadvantages, but the essential issues are nearly pinned down. Recent revival of the wave theory is one of the many contributions from Japanese solar observing satellite Hinode launched in 2006...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190870/the-complexity-of-glycoprotein-derived-glycans
#11
REVIEW
Johannes F G Vliegenthart
A brief review is presented of our studies on the structure of glycoprotein-derived glycans. The emphasis is on the introduction of high-resolution (1)H-NMR spectroscopy for the unambiguous determination of primary structures. For this purpose, we developed the structural reporter group concept. Structural reporters are defined as unique markers of structural elements in the NMR spectra. Application of this concept led to the discovery of numerous new structures. Furthermore, a number of structures presented in the literature could be corrected...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190869/single-molecule-detection-thermal-fluctuation-and-life
#12
REVIEW
Toshio Yanagida, Yoshiharu Ishii
Single molecule detection has contributed to our understanding of the unique mechanisms of life. Unlike artificial man-made machines, biological molecular machines integrate thermal noises rather than avoid them. For example, single molecule detection has demonstrated that myosin motors undergo biased Brownian motion for stepwise movement and that single protein molecules spontaneously change their conformation, for switching to interactions with other proteins, in response to thermal fluctuation. Thus, molecular machines have flexibility and efficiency not seen in artificial machines...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077808/rupture-waves-and-earthquakes
#13
REVIEW
Koji Uenishi
Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077807/folding-of-apomyoglobin-analysis-of-transient-intermediate-structure-during-refolding-using-quick-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-and-nmr
#14
REVIEW
Chiaki Nishimura
The structures of apomyoglobin folding intermediates have been widely analyzed using physical chemistry methods including fluorescence, circular dichroism, small angle X-ray scattering, NMR, mass spectrometry, and rapid mixing. So far, at least two intermediates (on sub-millisecond- and millisecond-scales) have been demonstrated for apomyoglobin folding. The combination of pH-pulse labeling and NMR is a useful tool for analyzing the kinetic intermediates at the atomic level. Its use has revealed that the latter-phase kinetic intermediate of apomyoglobin (6 ms) was composed of helices A, B, G and H, whereas the equilibrium intermediate, called the pH 4 molten-globule intermediate, was composed mainly of helices A, G and H...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077806/low-protein-diet-for-the-prevention-of-renal-failure
#15
REVIEW
Shaw Watanabe
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is estimated to be 8-16% worldwide, and it is increasing. CKD is a risk factor for heart attack and stroke, and it can progress to kidney failure requiring dialysis or transplantation. Recently, diabetic nephropathy has become the most common cause of CKD. In Japan, the cumulative probability of requiring hemodialysis by the age 80 years is 1/50 in males and 1/100 in females. The number of patients under hemodialysis in Japan exceeded 320,000 in 2014, among which 38,000 were newcomers and 27,000 died...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941308/both-the-transglycosylase-and-transpeptidase-functions-in-plastid-penicillin-binding-protein-are-essential-for-plastid-division-in-physcomitrella-patens
#16
Yoshiko Takahashi, Katsuaki Takechi, Susumu Takio, Hiroyoshi Takano
Class A penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are active in the final step of bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis. They possess a transglycosylase (TG) domain to polymerize the glycan chains and a transpeptidase (TP) domain to catalyze peptide cross-linking. We reported that knockout of the Pbp gene in the moss Physcomitrella patens (ΔPpPbp) results in a macrochloroplast phenotype by affecting plastid division. Here, expression of PpPBP-GFP in ΔPpPbp restored the wild-type phenotype and GFP fluorescence was observed mainly in the periphery of each chloroplast...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941307/calcium-inhibition-as-an-intracellular-signal-for-actin-myosin-interaction
#17
Kazuhiro Kohama
Intracellular signaling pathways include both the activation and the inhibition of biological processes. The activation of Ca(2+) regulation of actin-myosin interactions was examined first, whereas it took 20 years for the author to clarify the inhibitory mode by using Physarum polycephalum, a lower eukaryote. This review describes the investigation of the inhibitory mode since 1980. The inhibitory effect of Ca(2+) on myosin was detected chemically by ATPase assays and mechanically by in vitro motility assays...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941306/peroxisome-biogenesis-and-human-peroxisome-deficiency-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Yukio Fujiki
Peroxisome is a single-membrane-bounded ubiquitous organelle containing a hundred different enzymes that catalyze various metabolic pathways such as β-oxidation of very long-chain fatty acids and synthesis of plasmalogens. To investigate peroxisome biogenesis and human peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) including Zellweger syndrome, more than a dozen different complementation groups of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants impaired in peroxisome biogenesis are isolated as a model experimental system...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840392/silent-evolution
#19
Syozo Osawa, Zhi-Hui Su, Masaaki Nishikawa, Osamu Tominaga
Phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial DNA sequences of several kinds of beetles have shown that their evolution included a silent stage in which no morphological changes took place. We thus propose a new category of evolutionary process called "silent evolution".
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840391/cxcl12-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-from-oxidative-stress-by-a-nrf2-induced-increase-in-catalase-expression-and-activity
#20
Svetlana Dinić, Nevena Grdović, Aleksandra Uskoković, Miloš Đorđević, Mirjana Mihailović, Jelena Arambašić Jovanović, Goran Poznanović, Melita Vidaković
Due to intrinsically low levels of antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, insulin producing pancreatic β-cells are particularly susceptible to free radical attack. In diabetes mellitus, which is accompanied by high levels of oxidative stress, this feature of β-cells significantly contributes to their damage and dysfunction. In light of the documented pro-survival effect of chemokine C-X-C Ligand 12 (CXCL12) on pancreatic β-cells, we examined its potential role in antioxidant protection. We report that CXCL12 overexpression enhanced the resistance of rat insulinoma (Rin-5F) and primary pancreatic islet cells to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
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