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Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760317/seismic-imaging-of-mantle-wedge-corner-flow-and-arc-magmatism
#1
Akira Hasegawa
I reviewed studies on the inhomogeneous seismic structure of the mantle wedge in subduction zones, in relation to corner flow and its implications for arc magmatism. Seismic studies in Tohoku clearly imaged the descending flow portion of the corner flow as a thin seismic low-velocity layer right above the slab. Slab-derived H2 O is fixed to the layer as hydrous minerals, which are brought down by the slab and eventually decompose. The released H2 O rises and encounters the ascending flow, formed to fill the gap caused by the descending flow...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760316/unique-sex-determination-system-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori-current-status-and-beyond
#2
Susumu Katsuma, Takashi Kiuchi, Munetaka Kawamoto, Toshiaki Fujimoto, Ken Sahara
The silkworm Bombyx mori has been used for silk production for over 5,000 years. In addition to its contribution to sericulture, B. mori has played an important role in the field of genetics. Classical genetic studies revealed that a gene(s) with a strong feminizing activity is located on the W chromosome, but this W-linked feminizing gene, called Feminizer (Fem), had not been cloned despite more than 80 years of study. In 2014, we discovered that Fem is a precursor of a single W chromosome-derived PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA)...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643273/mpf-based-meiotic-cell-cycle-control-half-a-century-of-lessons-from-starfish-oocytes
#3
Takeo Kishimoto
In metazoans that undergo sexual reproduction, genomic inheritance is ensured by two distinct types of cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis maintains the genomic ploidy in somatic cells reproducing within a generation, whereas meiosis reduces by half the ploidy in germ cells to prepare for successive generations. The meiotic cell cycle is believed to be a derived form of the mitotic cell cycle; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying both of these processes remain elusive. My laboratory has long studied the meiotic cell cycle in starfish oocytes, particularly the control of meiotic M-phase by maturation- or M phase-promoting factor (MPF) and the kinase cyclin B-associated Cdk1 (cyclin B-Cdk1)...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643272/development-of-completely-dispersed-cellulose-nanofibers
#4
Akira Isogai
Plant cellulose fibers of width and length ∼0.03 mm and ∼3 mm, respectively, can be completely converted to individual cellulose nanofibers of width and length ∼3 nm and ∼1 µm, respectively, by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation under aqueous conditions and subsequent gentle mechanical disintegration of the oxidized cellulose in water. The obtained TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNs) are new bio-based, crystalline nanomaterials with applications in the high-tech and commodity product industries...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526974/adjuvant-immunotherapy-for-cancer-both-dendritic-cell-priming-and-check-point-inhibitor-blockade-are-required-for-immunotherapy
#5
Tsukasa Seya, Yohei Takeda, Ken Takashima, Sumito Yoshida, Masahiro Azuma, Misako Matsumoto
The immune system eliminates advanced cancer when treated with programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) blockade, but PD-1 therapy is effective in only ∼20% of patients with solid cancer. The PD-1 antibody mainly acts on the effector phase of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in tumors but induces no activation of the priming phase of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs). It is reasonable that both DC-priming and PD-1/L1 blocking are mandatory for efficient CTL-mediated tumor cytolysis...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526973/kinetics-of-transmitter-release-at-the-calyx-of-held-synapse
#6
Takeshi Sakaba
Synaptic contacts mediate information transfer between neurons. The calyx of Held, a large synapse in the mammalian auditory brainstem, has been used as a model system for the mechanism of transmitter release from the presynaptic terminal for the last 20 years. By applying simultaneous recordings from pre- and postsynaptic compartments, the calcium-dependence of the kinetics of transmitter release has been quantified. A single pool of readily releasable vesicles cannot explain the time course of release during repetitive activity...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434082/vibration-based-monitoring-for-performance-evaluation-of-flexible-civil-structures-in-japan
#7
Yozo Fujino
The vibration-based monitoring of flexible civil structures and performance evaluation from this monitoring are reviewed, with an emphasis on research and practice in Japan and the author's experiences. Some new findings and unexpected vibrations from the monitoring of real bridges and buildings are reported to emphasize the importance of monitoring. Future developments and applications of vibration-based monitoring to civil infrastructure management are also described. Many examples are taken from the author's past 30 years' experience of research on bridge dynamics...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434081/inorganic-scintillating-materials-and-scintillation-detectors
#8
Takayuki Yanagida
Scintillation materials and detectors that are used in many applications, such as medical imaging, security, oil-logging, high energy physics and non-destructive inspection, are reviewed. The fundamental physics understood today is explained, and common scintillators and scintillation detectors are introduced. The properties explained here are light yield, energy non-proportionality, emission wavelength, energy resolution, decay time, effective atomic number and timing resolution. For further understanding, the emission mechanisms of scintillator materials are also introduced...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434080/exploring-peptide-hormones-in-plants-identification-of-four-peptide-hormone-receptor-pairs-and-two-post-translational-modification-enzymes
#9
Yoshikatsu Matsubayashi
The identification of hormones and their receptors in multicellular organisms is one of the most exciting research areas and has lead to breakthroughs in understanding how their growth and development are regulated. In particular, peptide hormones offer advantages as cell-to-cell signals in that they can be synthesized rapidly and have the greatest diversity in their structure and function. Peptides often undergo post-translational modifications and proteolytic processing to generate small oligopeptide hormones...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434079/strength-functionality-and-beauty-of-university-buildings-in-earthquake-prone-countries
#10
Akira Wada
Strength, functionality and beauty are the three qualities identifying well-designed architecture. For buildings in earthquake-prone countries such as Japan, emphasis on seismic safety frequently leads to the sacrifice of functionality and beauty. Therefore, it is important to develop new structural technologies that can ensure the seismic performance of a building without hampering the pursuit of functionality and beauty. The moment-resisting frame structures widely used for buildings in Japan are likely to experience weak-story collapse...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321447/addendum-to-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-with-biological-agents-as-a-typical-and-common-immune-mediated-inflammatory-disease
#11
Tsutomu Takeuchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321446/chemical-characteristics-of-hadal-waters-in-the-izu-ogasawara-trench-of-the-western-pacific-ocean
#12
Toshitaka Gamo, Kiminori Shitashima
Vertical profiles of potential temperature, salinity, and some chemical components were obtained at a trench station (29°05'N, 142°51'E; depth = 9768 m) in the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) Trench in 1984 and 1994 to characterize the hadal waters below ∼6000 m depth. We compared portions of both the 1984 and 1994 profiles with nearby data obtained between 1976 and 2013. Results demonstrated that the hadal waters had slightly higher potential temperature and nitrate and lower dissolved oxygen than waters at sill depths (∼6000 m) outside the trench, probably due to the effective accumulation of geothermal heat and active biological processes inside the trench...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321445/negative-regulation-of-b-cell-responses-and-self-tolerance-to-rna-related-lupus-self-antigen
#13
Takeshi Tsubata
The antibody response to RNA-related antigens such as Sm/RNP requires the endosomal RNA sensor TLR7, and this process is crucial in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus at least in animal models. The inhibitory B cell receptor CD72 is unique because it recognizes Sm/RNP and specifically inhibits the activation of Sm/RNP-reactive B cells by activating SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1). In the normal immune system, Sm/RNP-reactive B cells are tolerized by a unique mechanism that probably involves SHP-1...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321444/agricultural-aspects-of-radiocontamination-induced-by-the-fukushima-nuclear-accident-a-survey-of-studies-by-the-univ-of-tokyo-agricultural-dept-2011-2016
#14
Tomoko M Nakanishi
Immediately after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, a team of 40-50 researchers at the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Tokyo began to analyze the behavior of radioactive materials in the fallout regions. The fallout has remained in situ and become strongly adsorbed within the soil over time. 137 Cs was found to bind strongly to the fine clay, weathered biotite, and organic matter in the soil; therefore, it has not mobilized from mountainous regions, even after heavy rainfall...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321443/a-new-arena-in-cardiac-surgery-pediatric-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery
#15
Soichiro Kitamura
Prior to the 1970s, pediatric coronary artery bypass surgery (PCABS) was seldomly performed due to the lack of compelling surgical indications. The advent of coronary sequelae secondary to Kawasaki disease (KD) and the occurrence of coronary artery complications due to newly developed procedures, such as the arterial switch operation and early repair for intrinsic congenital coronary malformations, necessitated the development of PCABS. Because children grow rapidly and their life expectancy is very long, with increasing exercise capability requirements, the strategy for PCABS should differ from that for bypass surgery in adults...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225310/molecular-chirality-a-new-approach-from-a-dynamical-point-of-view
#16
Eizi Hirota
The double minimum potential (DMP), which Hund assumed to explain the quantum-mechanical stability of enantiomers, was discussed, by citing three typical examples of DMP: inversion, internal rotation, and puckering. They expanded the classical scope of chirality, as defined by Kelvin, and indicated that a new bridge could be formed between the three low-frequency DMP modes and the asymmetric syntheses of chiral molecules.
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225309/cell-size-for-commitment-to-cell-division-and-number-of-successive-cell-divisions-in-multicellular-volvocine-green-algae-tetrabaena-socialis-and-gonium-pectorale
#17
Lin Wei Jong, Takayuki Fujiwara, Hisayoshi Nozaki, Shin-Ya Miyagishima
Volvocine algae constitute a green algal lineage comprising unicellular Chlamydomonas, four-celled Tetrabaena, eight to 32-celled Gonium, and others up to Volvox spp., which consist of up to 50,000 cells. These algae proliferate by multiple fissions with cellular growth up to several fold in size and subsequent successive cell divisions. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells produce two to 32 daughter cells by one to five divisions, depending on cellular growth in the G1 phase. By contrast, in this study, we found that Tetrabaena socialis and Gonium pectorale cells mostly produced four and eight daughter cells by two and three successive divisions, respectively...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225308/evaluation-of-radioactivity-in-the-bodies-of-mice-induced-by-neutron-exposure-from-an-epi-thermal-neutron-source-of-an-accelerator-based-boron-neutron-capture-therapy-system
#18
Satoshi Nakamura, Shoji Imamichi, Kazuyoshi Masumoto, Masashi Ito, Akihisa Wakita, Hiroyuki Okamoto, Shie Nishioka, Kotaro Iijima, Kazuma Kobayashi, Yoshihisa Abe, Hiroshi Igaki, Kazuyoshi Kurita, Teiji Nishio, Mitsuko Masutani, Jun Itami
This study aimed to evaluate the residual radioactivity in mice induced by neutron irradiation with an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) system using a solid Li target. The radionuclides and their activities were evaluated using a high-purity germanium (HP-Ge) detector. The saturated radioactivity of the irradiated mouse was estimated to assess the radiation protection needs for using the accelerator-based BNCT system.24 Na,38 Cl,80m Br,82 Br,56 Mn, and42 K were identified, and their saturated radioactivities were (1...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225307/millisecond-ca-2-dynamics-activate-multiple-protein-cascades-for-synaptic-vesicle-control
#19
Sumiko Mochida
For reliable transmission at chemical synapses, neurotransmitters must be released dynamically in response to neuronal activity in the form of action potentials. Stable synaptic transmission is dependent on the efficacy of transmitter release and the rate of resupplying synaptic vesicles to their release sites. Accurate regulation is conferred by proteins sensing Ca2+ entering through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels opened by an action potential. Presynaptic Ca2+ concentration changes are dynamic functions in space and time, with wide fluctuations associated with different rates of neuronal activity...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225306/what-do-eye-movements-tell-us-about-patients-with-neurological-disorders-an-introduction-to-saccade-recording-in-the-clinical-setting
#20
Yasuo Terao, Hideki Fukuda, Okihide Hikosaka
Non-invasive and readily implemented in the clinical setting, eye movement studies have been conducted extensively not only in healthy human subjects but also in patients with neurological disorders. The purpose of saccade studies is to "read out" the pathophysiology underlying neurological disorders from the saccade records, referring to known primate physiology. In the current review, we provide an overview of studies in which we attempted to elucidate the patterns of saccade abnormalities in over 250 patients with neurological disorders, including cerebellar ataxia and brainstem pathology due to neurodegenerative disorders, and what they tell about the pathophysiology of patients with neurological disorders...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
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