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Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840392/silent-evolution
#1
Syozo Osawa, Zhi-Hui Su, Masaaki Nishikawa, Osamu Tominaga
Phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial DNA sequences of several kinds of beetles have shown that their evolution included a silent stage in which no morphological changes took place. We thus propose a new category of evolutionary process called "silent evolution".
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840391/cxcl12-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-from-oxidative-stress-by-a-nrf2-induced-increase-in-catalase-expression-and-activity
#2
Svetlana Dinić, Nevena Grdović, Aleksandra Uskoković, Miloš Đorđević, Mirjana Mihailović, Jelena Arambašić Jovanović, Goran Poznanović, Melita Vidaković
Due to intrinsically low levels of antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, insulin producing pancreatic β-cells are particularly susceptible to free radical attack. In diabetes mellitus, which is accompanied by high levels of oxidative stress, this feature of β-cells significantly contributes to their damage and dysfunction. In light of the documented pro-survival effect of chemokine C-X-C Ligand 12 (CXCL12) on pancreatic β-cells, we examined its potential role in antioxidant protection. We report that CXCL12 overexpression enhanced the resistance of rat insulinoma (Rin-5F) and primary pancreatic islet cells to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840390/maintenance-of-gut-homeostasis-by-the-mucosal-immune-system
#3
Ryu Okumura, Kiyoshi Takeda
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are represented by ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), both of which involve chronic intestinal inflammation. Recent evidence has indicated that gut immunological homeostasis is maintained by the interaction between host immunity and intestinal microbiota. A variety of innate immune cells promote or suppress T cell differentiation and activation in response to intestinal bacteria or their metabolites. Some commensal bacteria species or bacterial metabolites enhance or repress host immunity by inducing T helper (Th) 17 cells or regulatory T cells...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840389/rna-based-gene-circuits-for-cell-regulation
#4
Peter Karagiannis, Yoshihiko Fujita, Hirohide Saito
A major goal of synthetic biology is to control cell behavior. RNA-mediated genetic switches (RNA switches) are devices that serve this purpose, as they can control gene expressions in response to input signals. In general, RNA switches consist of two domains: an aptamer domain, which binds to an input molecule, and an actuator domain, which controls the gene expression. An input binding to the aptamer can cause the actuator to alter the RNA structure, thus changing access to translation machinery. The assembly of multiple RNA switches has led to complex gene circuits for cell therapies, including the selective killing of pathological cells and purification of cell populations...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840388/chloroplast-and-nuclear-photorelocation-movements
#5
Masamitsu Wada
Chloroplasts move toward weak light to increase photosynthetic efficiency, and migrate away from strong light to protect chloroplasts from photodamage and eventual cell death. These chloroplast behaviors were first observed more than 100 years ago, but the underlying mechanism has only recently been identified. Ideal plant materials, such as fern gametophytes for photobiological and cell biological approaches, and Arabidopsis thaliana for genetic analyses, have been used along with sophisticated methods, such as partial cell irradiation and time-lapse video recording under infrared light to study chloroplast movement...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725475/general-strategy-for-understanding-intracellular-molecular-interaction-cascades-that-elicit-stimulus-invoked-biological-processes
#6
Hiroto Okayama
Recent advances in biology have been driven by chemical analyses of the substances that form living organisms. Such analyses are extremely powerful as way of learning about the static properties of molecular species, but relatively powerless for understanding their dynamic behaviors even though this dynamism is essential for organisms to perform various biological processes that perpetuate their lives. Thus, attempts to identify individual species and molecular interaction cascades that drive specific responses to external stimuli or environmental changes often fail...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725474/the-2016-kumamoto-earthquake-sequence
#7
Aitaro Kato, Kouji Nakamura, Yohei Hiyama
Beginning in April 2016, a series of shallow, moderate to large earthquakes with associated strong aftershocks struck the Kumamoto area of Kyushu, SW Japan. An Mj 7.3 mainshock occurred on 16 April 2016, close to the epicenter of an Mj 6.5 foreshock that occurred about 28 hours earlier. The intense seismicity released the accumulated elastic energy by right-lateral strike slip, mainly along two known, active faults. The mainshock rupture propagated along multiple fault segments with different geometries. The faulting style is reasonably consistent with regional deformation observed on geologic timescales and with the stress field estimated from seismic observations...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725473/dynamics-of-memory-guided-choice-behavior-in-drosophila
#8
Toshiharu Ichinose, Hiromu Tanimoto
Memory retrieval requires both accuracy and speed. Olfactory learning of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster serves as a powerful model system to identify molecular and neuronal substrates of memory and memory-guided behavior. The behavioral expression of olfactory memory has traditionally been tested as a conditioned odor response in a simple T-maze, which measures the result, but not the speed, of odor choice. Here, we developed multiplexed T-mazes that allow video recording of the choice behavior. Automatic fly counting in each arm of the maze visualizes choice dynamics...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725472/toward-the-detection-of-gravitational-waves-under-non-gaussian-noises-ii-independent-component-analysis
#9
Soichiro Morisaki, Jun'ichi Yokoyama, Kazunari Eda, Yousuke Itoh
We introduce a new analysis method to deal with stationary non-Gaussian noises in gravitational wave detectors in terms of the independent component analysis. First, we consider the simplest case where the detector outputs are linear combinations of the inputs, consisting of signals and various noises, and show that this method may be helpful to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Next, we take into account the time delay between the inputs and the outputs. Finally, we extend our method to nonlinearly correlated noises and show that our method can identify the coupling coefficients and remove non-Gaussian noises...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725471/enhanced-diffraction-properties-of-photoinduced-gratings-in-nematic-liquid-crystals-doped-with-disperse-red-1
#10
Hongjing Li, Jianhao Wang, Changshun Wang, Pengfei Zeng, Yujia Pan, Yifei Yang
Diffraction properties of photoinduced gratings recorded by overlapping two coherent beams at 532 nm in nematic liquid crystals doped with Disperse Red 1 were investigated with a probe beam at 632.8 nm. The grating was formed due to the alignment of dye molecules that leaded to the reorientation of the liquid crystal phase. The diffraction efficiency of the photoinduced grating was found to increase rapidly when the sample temperature was close to the clearing point in the nematic phase and a nearly 30-fold enhancement of the first-order diffraction efficiency was obtained...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725470/total-synthesis-and-related-studies-of-large-strained-and-bioactive-natural-products
#11
Masahiro Hirama
Our chemical syntheses and related scientific investigations of natural products with complex architectures and powerful biological activities are described, focusing on the very large 3 nm-long polycyclic ethers called the ciguatoxins, highly strained and labile chromoprotein antitumor antibiotics featuring nine-membered enediyne cores, and extremely potent anthelmintic macrolides called the avermectins.
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725469/radiography-with-cosmic-ray-and-compact-accelerator-muons-exploring-inner-structure-of-large-scale-objects-and-landforms
#12
Kanetada Nagamine
Cosmic-ray muons (CRM) arriving from the sky on the surface of the earth are now known to be used as radiography purposes to explore the inner-structure of large-scale objects and landforms, ranging in thickness from meter to kilometers scale, such as volcanic mountains, blast furnaces, nuclear reactors etc. At the same time, by using muons produced by compact accelerators (CAM), advanced radiography can be realized for objects with a thickness in the sub-millimeter to meter range, with additional exploration capability such as element identification and bio-chemical analysis...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725468/theoretical-approaches-for-the-dynamics-of-complex-biological-systems-from-information-of-networks
#13
Atsushi Mochizuki
Modern biology has provided many examples of large networks describing the interactions between multiple species of bio-molecules. It is believed that the dynamics of molecular activities based on such networks are the origin of biological functions. On the other hand, we have a limited understanding for dynamics of molecular activity based on networks. To overcome this problem, we have developed two structural theories, by which the important aspects of the dynamical properties of the system are determined only from information on the network structure, without assuming other quantitative details...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477458/microglial-phospholipase-d4-deficiency-influences-myelination-during-brain-development
#14
Terumasa Chiba, Yoshinori Otani, Yoshihide Yamaguchi, Tomoko Ishibashi, Akiko Hayashi, Kenji F Tanaka, Maya Yamazaki, Kenji Sakimura, Hiroko Baba
Phospholipase D4 (PLD4) is expressed in activated microglia that transiently appear in white matter during postnatal brain development. Previous knockdown experiments using cultured microglia showed PLD4 involvement in phagocytosis and proliferation. To elucidate the role of PLD4 in vivo, PLD4-deficient mice were generated and the cerebella were examined at postnatal day 5 (P5) and P7, when PLD4 expression is highest in microglia. Wild type microglia showed strong immunoreactivity for microglial marker CD68 at P5, whereas CD68 signals were weak in PLD4-deficient microglia, suggesting that loss of PLD4 affects microglial activation...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477457/overview-on-poly-adp-ribose-immuno-biomedicine-and-future-prospects
#15
Yoshiyuki Kanai
Poly(ADP-ribose), identified in 1966 independently by three groups Strassbourg, Kyoto and Tokyo, is synthesized by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP) from NAD(+) as a substrate in the presence of Mg(2+). The structure was unique in that it has ribose-ribose linkage. In the early-1970s, however, its function in vivo/in vitro was still controversial and the antibody against it was desired to help clear its significance. Thereupon, the author tried to produce antibody against poly(ADP-ribose) in rabbits and succeeded in it for the first time in the world...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477456/what-can-we-learn-from-noise-mesoscopic-nonequilibrium-statistical-physics
#16
Kensuke Kobayashi
Mesoscopic systems - small electric circuits working in quantum regime - offer us a unique experimental stage to explorer quantum transport in a tunable and precise way. The purpose of this Review is to show how they can contribute to statistical physics. We introduce the significance of fluctuation, or equivalently noise, as noise measurement enables us to address the fundamental aspects of a physical system. The significance of the fluctuation theorem (FT) in statistical physics is noted. We explain what information can be deduced from the current noise measurement in mesoscopic systems...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477455/toward-the-development-of-an-in-silico-human-model-for-indoor-environmental-design
#17
Kazuhide Ito
In modern society where people spend more than 90% of their time in indoor spaces, the indoor air quality (IAQ) created by buildings has the potential of greatly influencing quality of life. Because the time spent by workers/residents in indoor spaces has increased over time, the importance of IAQ issues in terms of public health is also increasing. Additionally, the quality of the indoor thermal environment also has great impact on human comfort and performance; hence, the development of a comprehensive prediction method integrating indoor air quality/thermal environment assessment and human physiological responses, is crucial for creating a healthy, comfortable, and productive indoor environment...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302069/potential-uses-of-stable-isotope-ratios-of-sr-nd-and-pb-in-geological-materials-for-environmental-studies
#18
Takanori Nakano
The ratios of stable isotopes of certain elements in rocks and minerals have strong regional characteristics that are reflected in atmospheric components, in water, and in the living organisms that form Earth's surface environment as well as in agricultural and fishery products. Geologically derived stable isotope ratios can be used as a tracer for the source of many kinds of substances, with current geochemical techniques allowing the precise determination of numerous stable isotope ratios in both natural and manmade objects...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27169349/development-of-novel-drug-delivery-systems-using-phage-display-technology-for-clinical-application-of-protein-drugs
#19
Kazuya Nagano, Yasuo Tsutsumi
Attempts are being made to develop therapeutic proteins for cancer, hepatitis, and autoimmune conditions, but their clinical applications are limited, except in the cases of drugs based on erythropoietin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, interferon-alpha, and antibodies, owing to problems with fundamental technologies for protein drug discovery. It is difficult to identify proteins useful as therapeutic seeds or targets. Another problem in using bioactive proteins is pleiotropic actions through receptors, making it hard to elicit desired effects without side effects...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27169348/x-ray-studies-of-neutron-stars-and-their-magnetic-fields
#20
Kazuo Makishima
Utilizing results obtained over the past quarter century mainly with Japanese X-ray astronomy satellites, a review is given to some aspects of neutron stars (NSs), with a particular emphasis on the magnetic fields (MFs) of mass-accreting NSs and magnetars. Measurements of electron cyclotron resonance features in binary X-ray pulsars, using the Ginga and Suzaku observatories, clarified that their surface MFs are concentrated in a narrow range of (1-7) × 10(8) T. Extensive studies of magnetars with Suzaku reinforced their nature as neutron stars with truly strong MFs, and revealed several important clues to their formation, evolution, and physical states...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
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