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Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30416176/evolutionary-history-of-carabid-ground-beetles-with-special-reference-to-morphological-variations-of-the-hind-wings
#1
Yûki Imura, Osamu Tominaga, Zhi-Hui Su, Nobuo Kashiwai, Munehiro Okamoto, Syozo Osawa
Most beetles belonging to the subfamily Carabinae of the family Carabidae (so-called carabid ground beetles) cannot fly, because their hind-wings are highly degenerated. However, about half of the species in the subtribe Calosomina within the same subfamily can fly. From extensive morphological examinations of the hind-wings of Carabinae species in conjunction with DNA molecular phylogenetic trees, the process and possible causes of hind-wing degeneration in the Carabinae are discussed.
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30416175/studies-on-single-molecule-bridging-metal-electrodes-development-of-new-characterization-technique-and-functionalities
#2
Manabu Kiguchi
A single molecular junction is a nanoscale structure prepared by bridging a single molecule between macroscopic metal electrodes. It has attracted significant attention due to its unique structure and potential applications in ultra-small single molecular electronic devices. It has two metal-molecule interfaces, and thus the electronic structure of the molecule can be significantly modulated from its original one. The single molecular junction can be regarded as a new material that includes metal electrodes, a so-called "double interface material"...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30416174/cytoskeletal-control-of-nuclear-migration-in-neurons-and-non-neuronal-cells
#3
Mineko Kengaku
Cell migration is a complex molecular event that requires translocation of a large, stiff nucleus, oftentimes through interstitial pores of submicron size in tissues. Remarkable progress in the past decade has uncovered an ever-increasing array of diverse nuclear dynamics and underlying cytoskeletal control in various cell models. In many cases, the microtubule motors dynein and kinesin directly interact with the nucleus via the LINC complex and steer directional nuclear movement, while actomyosin contractility and its global flow exert forces to deform and move the nucleus...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305478/transcriptional-regulation-of-the-26s-proteasome-by-nrf1
#4
REVIEW
Shun Koizumi, Jun Hamazaki, Shigeo Murata
The 26S proteasome is a large protease complex that selectively degrades ubiquitinated proteins. It comprises 33 distinct subunits, each of which differ in function and structure, and which cannot be substituted by the other subunits. Owing to its complicated structure, the biogenesis of the 26S proteasome is elaborately regulated at the transcription, translation, and molecular assembly levels. Recent studies revealed that Nrf1 (NFE2L1) is a transcription factor that upregulates the expression of all the proteasome subunit genes in a concerted manner, especially during proteasome impairment in mammalian cells...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078829/development-of-social-systems-neuroscience-using-macaques
#5
REVIEW
Masaki Isoda, Atsushi Noritake, Taihei Ninomiya
This paper reviews the literature on social neuroscience studies using macaques in the hope of encouraging as many researchers as possible to participate in this field of research and thereby accelerate the system-level understanding of social cognition and behavior. We describe how different parts of the primate brain are engaged in different aspects of social information processing, with particular emphasis on the use of experimental paradigms involving more than one monkey in laboratory settings. The description begins with how individual neurons are used for evaluating socially relevant information, such as the identity, face, and focus of attention of others in various social contexts...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078828/functions-and-dysfunctions-of-the-basal-ganglia-in-humans
#6
REVIEW
Nobuo Yanagisawa
Involuntary movements and parkinsonism have been interesting and important topics in neurology since the last century. The development of anatomical and physiological studies of the neural circuitry of motor systems has encouraged the study of movement disorders by means of pathophysiology and brain imaging.Multichannel electromyography from affected muscles has generated objective and analytical data on chorea, ballism, athetosis, and dystonia. Studies using floor reaction forces revealed the pathophysiology of freezing of gait in parkinsonism...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078827/importin-%C3%AE-functions-as-a-nuclear-transport-factor-and-beyond
#7
REVIEW
Masahiro Oka, Yoshihiro Yoneda
Nucleocytoplasmic transport is an essential process in eukaryotes. The molecular mechanisms underlying nuclear transport that involve the nuclear transport receptor, small GTPase Ran, and the nuclear pore complex are highly conserved from yeast to humans. On the other hand, it has become clear that the nuclear transport system diverged during evolution to achieve various physiological functions in multicellular eukaryotes. In this review, we first summarize the molecular mechanisms of nuclear transport and how these were elucidated...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887569/post-transcriptional-regulation-of-immune-responses-by-rna-binding-proteins
#8
REVIEW
Takashi Mino, Osamu Takeuchi
Cytokines are critical mediators of inflammation and host immune defense. Cytokine production is regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Post-transcriptional damping of inflammatory mRNAs is mediated by a set of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) interacting with cis-elements, such as AU-rich elements (ARE) and stem-loop structures. Whereas ARE-binding proteins such as tristetraprolin and a stem-loop recognizing protein, Roquin, downregulate cytokine mRNA abundance by recruiting a CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex, another stem-loop RBP, Regnase-1, acts as an endoribonuclease, directly degrading target cytokine mRNAs...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887568/the-causal-relationship-between-epigenetic-abnormality-and-cancer-development-in-vivo-reprogramming-and-its-future-application
#9
REVIEW
Yosuke Yamada, Yasuhiro Yamada
There is increasing evidence that cancer cells acquire epigenetic abnormalities as well as genetic mutations during cancer initiation, maintenance, and progression. However, the role of epigenetic regulation in cancer development, especially at the organismal level, remains to be elucidated. Here, we describe the causative role of epigenetic abnormalities in cancer, referring to our in vivo studies using induced pluripotent stem cell technology. We first summarize epigenetic reorganization during cellular reprogramming and introduce our in vivo reprogramming system for investigating the impact of dedifferentiation-driven epigenetic disruption in cancer development...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760317/seismic-imaging-of-mantle-wedge-corner-flow-and-arc-magmatism
#10
Akira Hasegawa
I reviewed studies on the inhomogeneous seismic structure of the mantle wedge in subduction zones, in relation to corner flow and its implications for arc magmatism. Seismic studies in Tohoku clearly imaged the descending flow portion of the corner flow as a thin seismic low-velocity layer right above the slab. Slab-derived H2 O is fixed to the layer as hydrous minerals, which are brought down by the slab and eventually decompose. The released H2 O rises and encounters the ascending flow, formed to fill the gap caused by the descending flow...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760316/unique-sex-determination-system-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori-current-status-and-beyond
#11
REVIEW
Susumu Katsuma, Takashi Kiuchi, Munetaka Kawamoto, Toshiaki Fujimoto, Ken Sahara
The silkworm Bombyx mori has been used for silk production for over 5,000 years. In addition to its contribution to sericulture, B. mori has played an important role in the field of genetics. Classical genetic studies revealed that a gene(s) with a strong feminizing activity is located on the W chromosome, but this W-linked feminizing gene, called Feminizer (Fem), had not been cloned despite more than 80 years of study. In 2014, we discovered that Fem is a precursor of a single W chromosome-derived PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA)...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643273/mpf-based-meiotic-cell-cycle-control-half-a-century-of-lessons-from-starfish-oocytes
#12
REVIEW
Takeo Kishimoto
In metazoans that undergo sexual reproduction, genomic inheritance is ensured by two distinct types of cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis maintains the genomic ploidy in somatic cells reproducing within a generation, whereas meiosis reduces by half the ploidy in germ cells to prepare for successive generations. The meiotic cell cycle is believed to be a derived form of the mitotic cell cycle; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying both of these processes remain elusive. My laboratory has long studied the meiotic cell cycle in starfish oocytes, particularly the control of meiotic M-phase by maturation- or M phase-promoting factor (MPF) and the kinase cyclin B-associated Cdk1 (cyclin B-Cdk1)...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643272/development-of-completely-dispersed-cellulose-nanofibers
#13
REVIEW
Akira Isogai
Plant cellulose fibers of width and length ∼0.03 mm and ∼3 mm, respectively, can be completely converted to individual cellulose nanofibers of width and length ∼3 nm and ∼1 µm, respectively, by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation under aqueous conditions and subsequent gentle mechanical disintegration of the oxidized cellulose in water. The obtained TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNs) are new bio-based, crystalline nanomaterials with applications in the high-tech and commodity product industries...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526974/adjuvant-immunotherapy-for-cancer-both-dendritic-cell-priming-and-check-point-inhibitor-blockade-are-required-for-immunotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Tsukasa Seya, Yohei Takeda, Ken Takashima, Sumito Yoshida, Masahiro Azuma, Misako Matsumoto
The immune system eliminates advanced cancer when treated with programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) blockade, but PD-1 therapy is effective in only ∼20% of patients with solid cancer. The PD-1 antibody mainly acts on the effector phase of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in tumors but induces no activation of the priming phase of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs). It is reasonable that both DC-priming and PD-1/L1 blocking are mandatory for efficient CTL-mediated tumor cytolysis...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526973/kinetics-of-transmitter-release-at-the-calyx-of-held-synapse
#15
REVIEW
Takeshi Sakaba
Synaptic contacts mediate information transfer between neurons. The calyx of Held, a large synapse in the mammalian auditory brainstem, has been used as a model system for the mechanism of transmitter release from the presynaptic terminal for the last 20 years. By applying simultaneous recordings from pre- and postsynaptic compartments, the calcium-dependence of the kinetics of transmitter release has been quantified. A single pool of readily releasable vesicles cannot explain the time course of release during repetitive activity...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434082/vibration-based-monitoring-for-performance-evaluation-of-flexible-civil-structures-in-japan
#16
Yozo Fujino
The vibration-based monitoring of flexible civil structures and performance evaluation from this monitoring are reviewed, with an emphasis on research and practice in Japan and the author's experiences. Some new findings and unexpected vibrations from the monitoring of real bridges and buildings are reported to emphasize the importance of monitoring. Future developments and applications of vibration-based monitoring to civil infrastructure management are also described. Many examples are taken from the author's past 30 years' experience of research on bridge dynamics...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434081/inorganic-scintillating-materials-and-scintillation-detectors
#17
REVIEW
Takayuki Yanagida
Scintillation materials and detectors that are used in many applications, such as medical imaging, security, oil-logging, high energy physics and non-destructive inspection, are reviewed. The fundamental physics understood today is explained, and common scintillators and scintillation detectors are introduced. The properties explained here are light yield, energy non-proportionality, emission wavelength, energy resolution, decay time, effective atomic number and timing resolution. For further understanding, the emission mechanisms of scintillator materials are also introduced...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434080/exploring-peptide-hormones-in-plants-identification-of-four-peptide-hormone-receptor-pairs-and-two-post-translational-modification-enzymes
#18
REVIEW
Yoshikatsu Matsubayashi
The identification of hormones and their receptors in multicellular organisms is one of the most exciting research areas and has lead to breakthroughs in understanding how their growth and development are regulated. In particular, peptide hormones offer advantages as cell-to-cell signals in that they can be synthesized rapidly and have the greatest diversity in their structure and function. Peptides often undergo post-translational modifications and proteolytic processing to generate small oligopeptide hormones...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434079/strength-functionality-and-beauty-of-university-buildings-in-earthquake-prone-countries
#19
REVIEW
Akira Wada
Strength, functionality and beauty are the three qualities identifying well-designed architecture. For buildings in earthquake-prone countries such as Japan, emphasis on seismic safety frequently leads to the sacrifice of functionality and beauty. Therefore, it is important to develop new structural technologies that can ensure the seismic performance of a building without hampering the pursuit of functionality and beauty. The moment-resisting frame structures widely used for buildings in Japan are likely to experience weak-story collapse...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321447/addendum-to-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-with-biological-agents-as-a-typical-and-common-immune-mediated-inflammatory-disease
#20
Tsutomu Takeuchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
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