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Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434082/vibration-based-monitoring-for-performance-evaluation-of-flexible-civil-structures-in-japan
#1
Yozo Fujino
The vibration-based monitoring of flexible civil structures and performance evaluation from this monitoring are reviewed, with an emphasis on research and practice in Japan and the author's experiences. Some new findings and unexpected vibrations from the monitoring of real bridges and buildings are reported to emphasize the importance of monitoring. Future developments and applications of vibration-based monitoring to civil infrastructure management are also described. Many examples are taken from the author's past 30 years' experience of research on bridge dynamics...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434081/inorganic-scintillating-materials-and-scintillation-detectors
#2
Takayuki Yanagida
Scintillation materials and detectors that are used in many applications, such as medical imaging, security, oil-logging, high energy physics and non-destructive inspection, are reviewed. The fundamental physics understood today is explained, and common scintillators and scintillation detectors are introduced. The properties explained here are light yield, energy non-proportionality, emission wavelength, energy resolution, decay time, effective atomic number and timing resolution. For further understanding, the emission mechanisms of scintillator materials are also introduced...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434080/exploring-peptide-hormones-in-plants-identification-of-four-peptide-hormone-receptor-pairs-and-two-post-translational-modification-enzymes
#3
Yoshikatsu Matsubayashi
The identification of hormones and their receptors in multicellular organisms is one of the most exciting research areas and has lead to breakthroughs in understanding how their growth and development are regulated. In particular, peptide hormones offer advantages as cell-to-cell signals in that they can be synthesized rapidly and have the greatest diversity in their structure and function. Peptides often undergo post-translational modifications and proteolytic processing to generate small oligopeptide hormones...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434079/strength-functionality-and-beauty-of-university-buildings-in-earthquake-prone-countries
#4
Akira Wada
Strength, functionality and beauty are the three qualities identifying well-designed architecture. For buildings in earthquake-prone countries such as Japan, emphasis on seismic safety frequently leads to the sacrifice of functionality and beauty. Therefore, it is important to develop new structural technologies that can ensure the seismic performance of a building without hampering the pursuit of functionality and beauty. The moment-resisting frame structures widely used for buildings in Japan are likely to experience weak-story collapse...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321447/addendum-to-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-with-biological-agents-as-a-typical-and-common-immune-mediated-inflammatory-disease
#5
Tsutomu Takeuchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321446/chemical-characteristics-of-hadal-waters-in-the-izu-ogasawara-trench-of-the-western-pacific-ocean
#6
Toshitaka Gamo, Kiminori Shitashima
Vertical profiles of potential temperature, salinity, and some chemical components were obtained at a trench station (29°05'N, 142°51'E; depth = 9768 m) in the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) Trench in 1984 and 1994 to characterize the hadal waters below ∼6000 m depth. We compared portions of both the 1984 and 1994 profiles with nearby data obtained between 1976 and 2013. Results demonstrated that the hadal waters had slightly higher potential temperature and nitrate and lower dissolved oxygen than waters at sill depths (∼6000 m) outside the trench, probably due to the effective accumulation of geothermal heat and active biological processes inside the trench...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321445/negative-regulation-of-b-cell-responses-and-self-tolerance-to-rna-related-lupus-self-antigen
#7
Takeshi Tsubata
The antibody response to RNA-related antigens such as Sm/RNP requires the endosomal RNA sensor TLR7, and this process is crucial in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus at least in animal models. The inhibitory B cell receptor CD72 is unique because it recognizes Sm/RNP and specifically inhibits the activation of Sm/RNP-reactive B cells by activating SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1). In the normal immune system, Sm/RNP-reactive B cells are tolerized by a unique mechanism that probably involves SHP-1...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321444/agricultural-aspects-of-radiocontamination-induced-by-the-fukushima-nuclear-accident-a-survey-of-studies-by-the-univ-of-tokyo-agricultural-dept-2011-2016
#8
Tomoko M Nakanishi
Immediately after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, a team of 40-50 researchers at the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Tokyo began to analyze the behavior of radioactive materials in the fallout regions. The fallout has remained in situ and become strongly adsorbed within the soil over time. 137Cs was found to bind strongly to the fine clay, weathered biotite, and organic matter in the soil; therefore, it has not mobilized from mountainous regions, even after heavy rainfall...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321443/a-new-arena-in-cardiac-surgery-pediatric-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery
#9
Soichiro Kitamura
Prior to the 1970s, pediatric coronary artery bypass surgery (PCABS) was seldomly performed due to the lack of compelling surgical indications. The advent of coronary sequelae secondary to Kawasaki disease (KD) and the occurrence of coronary artery complications due to newly developed procedures, such as the arterial switch operation and early repair for intrinsic congenital coronary malformations, necessitated the development of PCABS. Because children grow rapidly and their life expectancy is very long, with increasing exercise capability requirements, the strategy for PCABS should differ from that for bypass surgery in adults...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225310/molecular-chirality-a-new-approach-from-a-dynamical-point-of-view
#10
Eizi Hirota
The double minimum potential (DMP), which Hund assumed to explain the quantum-mechanical stability of enantiomers, was discussed, by citing three typical examples of DMP: inversion, internal rotation, and puckering. They expanded the classical scope of chirality, as defined by Kelvin, and indicated that a new bridge could be formed between the three low-frequency DMP modes and the asymmetric syntheses of chiral molecules.
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225309/cell-size-for-commitment-to-cell-division-and-number-of-successive-cell-divisions-in-multicellular-volvocine-green-algae-tetrabaena-socialis-and-gonium-pectorale
#11
Lin Wei Jong, Takayuki Fujiwara, Hisayoshi Nozaki, Shin-Ya Miyagishima
Volvocine algae constitute a green algal lineage comprising unicellular Chlamydomonas, four-celled Tetrabaena, eight to 32-celled Gonium, and others up to Volvox spp., which consist of up to 50,000 cells. These algae proliferate by multiple fissions with cellular growth up to several fold in size and subsequent successive cell divisions. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells produce two to 32 daughter cells by one to five divisions, depending on cellular growth in the G1 phase. By contrast, in this study, we found that Tetrabaena socialis and Gonium pectorale cells mostly produced four and eight daughter cells by two and three successive divisions, respectively...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225308/evaluation-of-radioactivity-in-the-bodies-of-mice-induced-by-neutron-exposure-from-an-epi-thermal-neutron-source-of-an-accelerator-based-boron-neutron-capture-therapy-system
#12
Satoshi Nakamura, Shoji Imamichi, Kazuyoshi Masumoto, Masashi Ito, Akihisa Wakita, Hiroyuki Okamoto, Shie Nishioka, Kotaro Iijima, Kazuma Kobayashi, Yoshihisa Abe, Hiroshi Igaki, Kazuyoshi Kurita, Teiji Nishio, Mitsuko Masutani, Jun Itami
This study aimed to evaluate the residual radioactivity in mice induced by neutron irradiation with an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) system using a solid Li target. The radionuclides and their activities were evaluated using a high-purity germanium (HP-Ge) detector. The saturated radioactivity of the irradiated mouse was estimated to assess the radiation protection needs for using the accelerator-based BNCT system. 24Na, 38Cl, 80mBr, 82Br, 56Mn, and 42K were identified, and their saturated radioactivities were (1...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225307/millisecond-ca2-dynamics-activate-multiple-protein-cascades-for-synaptic-vesicle-control
#13
Sumiko Mochida
For reliable transmission at chemical synapses, neurotransmitters must be released dynamically in response to neuronal activity in the form of action potentials. Stable synaptic transmission is dependent on the efficacy of transmitter release and the rate of resupplying synaptic vesicles to their release sites. Accurate regulation is conferred by proteins sensing Ca2+ entering through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels opened by an action potential. Presynaptic Ca2+ concentration changes are dynamic functions in space and time, with wide fluctuations associated with different rates of neuronal activity...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225306/what-do-eye-movements-tell-us-about-patients-with-neurological-disorders-an-introduction-to-saccade-recording-in-the-clinical-setting
#14
Yasuo Terao, Hideki Fukuda, Okihide Hikosaka
Non-invasive and readily implemented in the clinical setting, eye movement studies have been conducted extensively not only in healthy human subjects but also in patients with neurological disorders. The purpose of saccade studies is to "read out" the pathophysiology underlying neurological disorders from the saccade records, referring to known primate physiology. In the current review, we provide an overview of studies in which we attempted to elucidate the patterns of saccade abnormalities in over 250 patients with neurological disorders, including cerebellar ataxia and brainstem pathology due to neurodegenerative disorders, and what they tell about the pathophysiology of patients with neurological disorders...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225305/the-past-present-and-future-of-disease-modifying-therapies-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Kazushi Suzuki, Atsushi Iwata, Takeshi Iwatsubo
The development of disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an urgent issue. Progress in the understanding of AD pathophysiology based on the amyloid hypothesis has led to the development of numerous candidate disease-modifying therapies over the past 15 years. The therapeutic target, amyloid β (Aβ), starts to accumulate in AD brains long before the onset of cognitive decline. γ-secretase inhibitors, γ-secretase modulators, and β-secretase inhibitors aim to reduce the production of toxic Aβ species by modifying the processing of amyloid precursor protein...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129853/erratum-to-biological-control-for-grapevine-crown-gall-using-nonpathogenic-rhizobium-vitis-strain-ark-1
#16
Akira Kawaguchi, Koji Inoue, Koji Tanina, Mizuho Nita
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129852/one-year-egfr-decline-rate-is-a-good-predictor-of-prognosis-of-renal-failure-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#17
Jun Nojima, Shu Meguro, Naoto Ohkawa, Michiaki Furukoshi, Toshihide Kawai, Hiroshi Itoh
It is difficult to distinguish the onset of renal function decline from the typical variation in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements in clinical practice. In this study, we used data analysis incorporating smoothing techniques to identify significant trends despite large amounts of noise. We identified the starting points of meaningful eGFR decline based on eGFR trajectories. This was a retrospective observational study of 2533 type 2 diabetes patients. We calculated 1-year eGFR decline rates from the difference between each eGFR value and that of the previous year...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129851/ancient-chinese-capital-models-measurement-system-in-urban-planning
#18
Shuji Funo
Measurement systems are very important in urban design. This article reviews the theories of grid plans, particularly with respect to the spatial formations of ancient capital cities in Asia, and clarifies three Chinese Capital Models. The "Zhōu lǐ" Capital Model (Z) is based on the ancient text "Zhōu lǐ" that makes mention of the ideal city. However, because the description of the physical plan of the city is very brief and includes contradictory elements, conclusions regarding the specifics of the city design are extremely difficult to reach...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129850/prostaglandin-terminal-synthases-as-novel-therapeutic-targets
#19
Shuntaro Hara
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exert their anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects by reducing prostaglandin (PG) production via the inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX). However, the gastrointestinal, renal and cardiovascular side effects associated with the pharmacological inhibition of the COX enzymes have focused renewed attention onto other potential targets for NSAIDs. PGH2, a COX metabolite, is converted to each PG species by species-specific PG terminal synthases. Because of their potential for more selective modulation of PG production, PG terminal synthases are now being investigated as a novel target for NSAIDs...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129849/lipoquality-control-by-phospholipase-a2-enzymes
#20
Makoto Murakami
The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family comprises a group of lipolytic enzymes that typically hydrolyze the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids to give rise to fatty acids and lysophospholipids. The mammalian genome encodes more than 50 PLA2s or related enzymes, which are classified into several subfamilies on the basis of their structures and functions. From a general viewpoint, the PLA2 family has mainly been implicated in signal transduction, producing bioactive lipid mediators derived from fatty acids and lysophospholipids...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
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