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Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302962/finite-block-length-analysis-in-classical-and-quantum-information-theory
#1
Masahito Hayashi
Coding technology is used in several information processing tasks. In particular, when noise during transmission disturbs communications, coding technology is employed to protect the information. However, there are two types of coding technology: coding in classical information theory and coding in quantum information theory. Although the physical media used to transmit information ultimately obey quantum mechanics, we need to choose the type of coding depending on the kind of information device, classical or quantum, that is being used...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302961/getting-to-the-heart-of-the-matter-in-cancer-novel-approaches-to-targeting-cancer-stem-cells
#2
Hugh Colvin, Masaki Mori
Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. While cancers may initially show good response to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, it is not uncommon for them to recur at a later date. This phenomenon may be explained by the existence of a small population of cancer stem cells, which are inherently resistant to anti-cancer treatment as well as being capable of self-renewal. Therefore, while most of the tumour bulk consisting of cells that are not cancer stem cells respond to treatment, the cancer stem cells remain, leading to disease recurrence...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302960/development-of-chemical-and-chemo-enzymatic-glycosylations
#3
Shin-Ichiro Shoda
Glycosidic compounds are indispensable molecules in living systems. Biological phenomena such as cell wall formation, energy storage, and cell recognition strongly depend on the multi-functional characters of these substances. Development of highly regio- and stereoselective glycosylation reactions is necessary to provide sufficient amounts of specific compounds in basic research as well as for applications in industry. This review presents an overview of chemical and chemo-enzymatic glycosylations that have been developed during my forty-year academic career in the field of glyco-science...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190871/heating-mechanisms-of-the-solar-corona
#4
Takashi Sakurai
The solar corona is a tenuous outer atmosphere of the Sun. Its million-degree temperature was discovered spectroscopically in the 1940s, but its origin has been debated since then without complete convergence. Currently there are two classes of models; the wave theory and the microflare/nanoflare theory. Both models have merits and disadvantages, but the essential issues are nearly pinned down. Recent revival of the wave theory is one of the many contributions from Japanese solar observing satellite Hinode launched in 2006...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190870/the-complexity-of-glycoprotein-derived-glycans
#5
Johannes F G Vliegenthart
A brief review is presented of our studies on the structure of glycoprotein-derived glycans. The emphasis is on the introduction of high-resolution (1)H-NMR spectroscopy for the unambiguous determination of primary structures. For this purpose, we developed the structural reporter group concept. Structural reporters are defined as unique markers of structural elements in the NMR spectra. Application of this concept led to the discovery of numerous new structures. Furthermore, a number of structures presented in the literature could be corrected...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190869/single-molecule-detection-thermal-fluctuation-and-life
#6
Toshio Yanagida, Yoshiharu Ishii
Single molecule detection has contributed to our understanding of the unique mechanisms of life. Unlike artificial man-made machines, biological molecular machines integrate thermal noises rather than avoid them. For example, single molecule detection has demonstrated that myosin motors undergo biased Brownian motion for stepwise movement and that single protein molecules spontaneously change their conformation, for switching to interactions with other proteins, in response to thermal fluctuation. Thus, molecular machines have flexibility and efficiency not seen in artificial machines...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077808/rupture-waves-and-earthquakes
#7
Koji Uenishi
Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077807/folding-of-apomyoglobin-analysis-of-transient-intermediate-structure-during-refolding-using-quick-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-and-nmr
#8
Chiaki Nishimura
The structures of apomyoglobin folding intermediates have been widely analyzed using physical chemistry methods including fluorescence, circular dichroism, small angle X-ray scattering, NMR, mass spectrometry, and rapid mixing. So far, at least two intermediates (on sub-millisecond- and millisecond-scales) have been demonstrated for apomyoglobin folding. The combination of pH-pulse labeling and NMR is a useful tool for analyzing the kinetic intermediates at the atomic level. Its use has revealed that the latter-phase kinetic intermediate of apomyoglobin (6 ms) was composed of helices A, B, G and H, whereas the equilibrium intermediate, called the pH 4 molten-globule intermediate, was composed mainly of helices A, G and H...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077806/low-protein-diet-for-the-prevention-of-renal-failure
#9
Shaw Watanabe
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is estimated to be 8-16% worldwide, and it is increasing. CKD is a risk factor for heart attack and stroke, and it can progress to kidney failure requiring dialysis or transplantation. Recently, diabetic nephropathy has become the most common cause of CKD. In Japan, the cumulative probability of requiring hemodialysis by the age 80 years is 1/50 in males and 1/100 in females. The number of patients under hemodialysis in Japan exceeded 320,000 in 2014, among which 38,000 were newcomers and 27,000 died...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941308/both-the-transglycosylase-and-transpeptidase-functions-in-plastid-penicillin-binding-protein-are-essential-for-plastid-division-in-physcomitrella-patens
#10
Yoshiko Takahashi, Katsuaki Takechi, Susumu Takio, Hiroyoshi Takano
Class A penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are active in the final step of bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis. They possess a transglycosylase (TG) domain to polymerize the glycan chains and a transpeptidase (TP) domain to catalyze peptide cross-linking. We reported that knockout of the Pbp gene in the moss Physcomitrella patens (ΔPpPbp) results in a macrochloroplast phenotype by affecting plastid division. Here, expression of PpPBP-GFP in ΔPpPbp restored the wild-type phenotype and GFP fluorescence was observed mainly in the periphery of each chloroplast...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941307/calcium-inhibition-as-an-intracellular-signal-for-actin-myosin-interaction
#11
Kazuhiro Kohama
Intracellular signaling pathways include both the activation and the inhibition of biological processes. The activation of Ca(2+) regulation of actin-myosin interactions was examined first, whereas it took 20 years for the author to clarify the inhibitory mode by using Physarum polycephalum, a lower eukaryote. This review describes the investigation of the inhibitory mode since 1980. The inhibitory effect of Ca(2+) on myosin was detected chemically by ATPase assays and mechanically by in vitro motility assays...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941306/peroxisome-biogenesis-and-human-peroxisome-deficiency-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Yukio Fujiki
Peroxisome is a single-membrane-bounded ubiquitous organelle containing a hundred different enzymes that catalyze various metabolic pathways such as β-oxidation of very long-chain fatty acids and synthesis of plasmalogens. To investigate peroxisome biogenesis and human peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) including Zellweger syndrome, more than a dozen different complementation groups of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants impaired in peroxisome biogenesis are isolated as a model experimental system...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840392/silent-evolution
#13
Syozo Osawa, Zhi-Hui Su, Masaaki Nishikawa, Osamu Tominaga
Phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial DNA sequences of several kinds of beetles have shown that their evolution included a silent stage in which no morphological changes took place. We thus propose a new category of evolutionary process called "silent evolution".
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840391/cxcl12-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-from-oxidative-stress-by-a-nrf2-induced-increase-in-catalase-expression-and-activity
#14
Svetlana Dinić, Nevena Grdović, Aleksandra Uskoković, Miloš Đorđević, Mirjana Mihailović, Jelena Arambašić Jovanović, Goran Poznanović, Melita Vidaković
Due to intrinsically low levels of antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, insulin producing pancreatic β-cells are particularly susceptible to free radical attack. In diabetes mellitus, which is accompanied by high levels of oxidative stress, this feature of β-cells significantly contributes to their damage and dysfunction. In light of the documented pro-survival effect of chemokine C-X-C Ligand 12 (CXCL12) on pancreatic β-cells, we examined its potential role in antioxidant protection. We report that CXCL12 overexpression enhanced the resistance of rat insulinoma (Rin-5F) and primary pancreatic islet cells to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840390/maintenance-of-gut-homeostasis-by-the-mucosal-immune-system
#15
Ryu Okumura, Kiyoshi Takeda
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are represented by ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), both of which involve chronic intestinal inflammation. Recent evidence has indicated that gut immunological homeostasis is maintained by the interaction between host immunity and intestinal microbiota. A variety of innate immune cells promote or suppress T cell differentiation and activation in response to intestinal bacteria or their metabolites. Some commensal bacteria species or bacterial metabolites enhance or repress host immunity by inducing T helper (Th) 17 cells or regulatory T cells...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840389/rna-based-gene-circuits-for-cell-regulation
#16
Peter Karagiannis, Yoshihiko Fujita, Hirohide Saito
A major goal of synthetic biology is to control cell behavior. RNA-mediated genetic switches (RNA switches) are devices that serve this purpose, as they can control gene expressions in response to input signals. In general, RNA switches consist of two domains: an aptamer domain, which binds to an input molecule, and an actuator domain, which controls the gene expression. An input binding to the aptamer can cause the actuator to alter the RNA structure, thus changing access to translation machinery. The assembly of multiple RNA switches has led to complex gene circuits for cell therapies, including the selective killing of pathological cells and purification of cell populations...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840388/chloroplast-and-nuclear-photorelocation-movements
#17
Masamitsu Wada
Chloroplasts move toward weak light to increase photosynthetic efficiency, and migrate away from strong light to protect chloroplasts from photodamage and eventual cell death. These chloroplast behaviors were first observed more than 100 years ago, but the underlying mechanism has only recently been identified. Ideal plant materials, such as fern gametophytes for photobiological and cell biological approaches, and Arabidopsis thaliana for genetic analyses, have been used along with sophisticated methods, such as partial cell irradiation and time-lapse video recording under infrared light to study chloroplast movement...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725475/general-strategy-for-understanding-intracellular-molecular-interaction-cascades-that-elicit-stimulus-invoked-biological-processes
#18
Hiroto Okayama
Recent advances in biology have been driven by chemical analyses of the substances that form living organisms. Such analyses are extremely powerful as way of learning about the static properties of molecular species, but relatively powerless for understanding their dynamic behaviors even though this dynamism is essential for organisms to perform various biological processes that perpetuate their lives. Thus, attempts to identify individual species and molecular interaction cascades that drive specific responses to external stimuli or environmental changes often fail...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725474/the-2016-kumamoto-earthquake-sequence
#19
Aitaro Kato, Kouji Nakamura, Yohei Hiyama
Beginning in April 2016, a series of shallow, moderate to large earthquakes with associated strong aftershocks struck the Kumamoto area of Kyushu, SW Japan. An Mj 7.3 mainshock occurred on 16 April 2016, close to the epicenter of an Mj 6.5 foreshock that occurred about 28 hours earlier. The intense seismicity released the accumulated elastic energy by right-lateral strike slip, mainly along two known, active faults. The mainshock rupture propagated along multiple fault segments with different geometries. The faulting style is reasonably consistent with regional deformation observed on geologic timescales and with the stress field estimated from seismic observations...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725473/dynamics-of-memory-guided-choice-behavior-in-drosophila
#20
Toshiharu Ichinose, Hiromu Tanimoto
Memory retrieval requires both accuracy and speed. Olfactory learning of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster serves as a powerful model system to identify molecular and neuronal substrates of memory and memory-guided behavior. The behavioral expression of olfactory memory has traditionally been tested as a conditioned odor response in a simple T-maze, which measures the result, but not the speed, of odor choice. Here, we developed multiplexed T-mazes that allow video recording of the choice behavior. Automatic fly counting in each arm of the maze visualizes choice dynamics...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
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