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Radiology and Oncology

Erik Škof, Sebastjan Merlo, Gasper Pilko, Borut Kobal
BACKGROUND: Primary treatment of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer consists of chemotherapy either before (neoadjuvant chemotherapy, NACT) or after primary surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy). The goal of primary treatment is no residual disease after surgery (R0 resection) what is associated with an improvement in survival of patients. There is, however, no evidence of survival benefits in patients with R0 resections after prior NACT. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who were treated with diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer at Institute of Oncology Ljubljana in the years 2005-2007...
September 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Dirk Rades, Antonio J Conde-Moreno, Jon Cacicedo, Barbara Segedin, Volker Rudat, Steven E Schild
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty exists whether patients with spinal cord compression (SCC) from a highly radiosensitive tumor require decompressive spinal surgery in addition to radiotherapy (RT). This study addressed the question by evaluating patients receiving RT alone for SCC from myeloma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of 238 patients were retrospectively analyzed for response to RT and local control of SCC. In addition, the effect of RT on motor function (improvement, no further progression, deterioration) was evaluated...
September 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Arndt-Christian Müller, Johannes Mischinger, Theodor Klotz, Bernd Gagel, Gregor Habl, Gencay Hatiboglu, Michael Pinkawa
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to reach a consensus on indication and application of a hydrogel spacer based on multicentre experience and give new users important information to shorten the learning curve for this innovative technique. METHODS: The interdisciplinary meeting was attended by radiation oncologists and urologists, each with experience of 23 - 138 hydrogel injections (SpaceOAR®) in prostate cancer patients before dose-escalated radiotherapy. User experience was discussed and questions were defined to comprise practical information relevant for successful hydrogel injection and treatment...
September 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Vojko Flis, Stojan Potrc, Nina Kobilica, Arpad Ivanecz
BACKGROUND: Recent reports have shown that patients with vascular tumour invasion who undergo concurrent vascular resection can achieve long-term survival rates equivalent to those without vascular involvement requiring pancreaticoduodenectomy alone. There is no consensus about which patients benefit from the portal-superior mesenteric vein resection and there is no consensus about the best surgical technique of vessel reconstruction (resection with or without graft reconstruction). As published series are small the aim of this study was to evaluate our experience in pancreatectomies with en bloc vascular resection and reconstruction of vessels...
September 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Mariarosa Pascale, Cinzia Aversa, Renzo Barbazza, Barbara Marongiu, Salvatore Siracusano, Flavio Stoffel, Sando Sulfaro, Enrico Roggero, Serena Bonin, Giorgio Stanta
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine markers, which could indicate for aggressive variants of prostate cancer and Ki67 (a well-known marker in oncology for defining tumor proliferation), have already been associated with clinical outcome in prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of those markers in primary prostate cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: NSE (neuron specific enolase), ChrA (chromogranin A), Syp (Synaptophysin) and Ki67 staining were performed by immunohistochemistry...
September 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Simone Ribero, Eugenio Sportoletti Baduel, Matteo Brizio, Franco Picciotto, Emi Dika, Maria Teresa Fierro, Giuseppe Macripò, Pietro Quaglino
BACKGROUND: Metastatic extraorbital sebaceous carcinoma is a rare event that could involve the head and neck. The treatment of choice for the initial stage of the disease is surgery and/or radiotherapy. The treatment of recurrent or advanced disease is still controversial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Extensive literature search was done, and the treatment options are discussed. RESULTS: Results. The literature search found several treatment modalities in use for the treatment of metastatic extraorbital sebaceous carcinoma...
September 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Petra Hudler, Nina Kocevar Britovsek, Snjezana Frkovic Grazio, Radovan Komel
BACKGROUND: Malignant transformation of normal gastric cells is a complex and multistep process, resulting in development of heterogeneous tumours. Susceptible genetic background, accumulation of genetic changes, and environmental factors play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in mitotic segregation genes could be responsible for inducing the slow process of accumulation of genetic changes, leading to genome instability. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a case-control study of polymorphisms in mitotic kinases TTK rs151658 and BUB1B rs1031963 and rs1801376 to assess their effects on gastric cancer risk...
September 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Blaz Krhin, Katja Goricar, Barbara Gazic, Vita Dolzan, Nikola Besic
BACKGROUND: Hurthle cells of the thyroid gland are very rich in mitochondria and oxidative enzymes. As a high level oxidative metabolism may lead to higher level of oxidative stress and can be associated with an increased risk for cancer, we investigated whether common functional polymorphisms in antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, GPX, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1) are associated with the development or clinical course of Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC). METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in 139 patients treated by thyroid surgery for a Hurthle cell neoplasm...
September 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Ivana Steiner, Nikolina Stojanovic, Aljosa Bolje, Anamaria Brozovic, Denis Polancec, Andreja Ambriovic-Ristov, Marijana Radic Stojkovic, Ivo Piantanida, Domagoj Eljuga, Janez Kosmrlj, Maja Osmak
BACKGROUND: In order to increase the effectiveness of cancer treatment, new compounds with potential anticancer activities are synthesized and screened. Here we present the screening of a new class of compounds, 1-(2-picolyl)-, 4-(2-picolyl)-, 1-(2-pyridyl)-, and 4-(2-pyridyl)-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazolium salts and 'parent' 1,2,3-triazole precursors. METHODS: Cytotoxic activity of new compounds was determined by spectrophotometric MTT assay on several tumour and one normal cell line...
September 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Tanja Dolinsek, Lara Prosen, Maja Cemazar, Tjasa Potocnik, Gregor Sersa
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the effectiveness of electrochemotherapy (ECT) during the treatment of melanoma patients with BRAF inhibitors. Its effectiveness was tested on BRAF mutated and non-mutated melanoma cells in vitro and in combination with BRAF inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ECT with bleomycin was performed on two human melanoma cell lines, with (SK-MEL-28) or without (CHL-1) BRAF V600E mutation. Cell survival was determined using clonogenic assay to determine the effectiveness of ECT in melanoma cells of different mutation status...
September 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Andrej Vogrin, Hana Besic, Nikola Besic, Maja Marolt Music
BACKGROUND: Preoperative ultrasound (US) evaluation of central and lateral neck compartments is recommended for all patients undergoing a thyroidectomy for malignant or suspicious for malignancy cytologic or molecular findings. Our aim was to find out how frequent was recurrence in regional lymph nodes in patients with follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasm and usefulness of preoperative neck US investigation in patients with neoplasm. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Altogether 737 patients were surgically treated because of follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasms from 1995 to 2014 at our cancer comprehensive center, among them 207 patients (163 females, 44 males; mean age 52 years) had thyroid carcinoma...
September 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Jernej Avsenik, Janja Pretnar Oblak, Katarina Surlan Popovic
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) in the diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). Methods. Screening our neurological department database, we identified 53 patients who were admitted to neurological emergency department with clinical signs of CVST. Two independent observers assessed the NCCT scans for the presence of CVST. CT venography and/or MR venography were used as a reference standard...
September 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Barbara Segedin, Primoz Petric
BACKGROUND: Modern radiotherapy techniques enable delivery of high doses to the target volume without escalating dose to organs at risk, offering the possibility of better local control while preserving good quality of life. Uncertainties in target volume delineation have been demonstrated for most tumour sites, and various studies indicate that inconsistencies in target volume delineation may be larger than errors in all other steps of the treatment planning and delivery process. The aim of this paper is to summarize the degree of delineation uncertainties for different tumour sites reported in the literature and review the effect of strategies to minimize them...
September 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Marina Hodolic, Raffi Topakian, Robert Pichler
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by epileptic seizures as a result of excessive neuronal activity in the brain. Approximately 65 million people worldwide suffer from epilepsy; 20-40% of them are refractory to medication therapy. Early detection of disease is crucial in the management of patients with epilepsy. Correct localization of the ictal onset zone is associated with a better surgical outcome. The modern non-invasive techniques used for structural-functional localization of the seizure focus includes electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)...
September 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Mahdi Ghorbani, Mohammad Mehrpouyan, David Davenport, Toktam Ahmadi Moghaddas
AIM: The aim of this study is to quantify the influence of the photon energy spectrum of brachytherapy sources on task group No. 43 (TG-43) dosimetric parameters. BACKGROUND: Different photon spectra are used for a specific radionuclide in Monte Carlo simulations of brachytherapy sources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MCNPX code was used to simulate 125I, 103Pd, 169Yb, and 192Ir brachytherapy sources. Air kerma strength per activity, dose rate constant, radial dose function, and two dimensional (2D) anisotropy functions were calculated and isodose curves were plotted for three different photon energy spectra...
June 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Henry Kleiner, Matthew B Podgorsak
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to analyse the dosimetric differences when using 10 MV instead of 6 MV for VMAT treatment plans for post-prostatectomy irradiation of the prostate bed. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ten post-prostatectomy prostate bed irradiation cases previously treated using 6 MV with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were re-planned using 10 MV with VMAT. Prescription dose was 66.6 Gy with 1.8 Gy per fraction for 37 daily fractions. The same structure set, number of arcs, field sizes, and minimum dose to the Planning Target Volume (PTV) were used for both 6 MV and 10 MV plans...
June 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Janja Ocvirk, Maja Ebert Moltara, Tanja Mesti, Marko Boc, Martina Rebersek, Neva Volk, Jernej Benedik, Zvezdana Hlebanja
BACKGROUND: Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is mainly a disease of elderly, however, geriatric population is underrepresented in clinical trials. Patient registries represent a tool to assess and follow treatment outcomes in this patient population. The aim of the study was with the help of the patients' register to determine the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in elderly patients who had previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The registry of patients with mCRC was designed to prospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy as well as selection of patients in routine clinical practice...
June 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Lei Du, Xin Xin Zhang, Lin Chun Feng, Jing Chen, Jun Yang, Hai Xia Liu, Shou Ping Xu, Chuan Bin Xie, Lin Ma
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate short-term safety and efficacy of simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy (SMART) delivered via helical tomotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: Between August 2011 and September 2013, 132 newly diagnosed NPC patients were enrolled for a prospective phase II study. The prescription doses delivered to the gross tumor volume (pGTVnx) and positive lymph nodes (pGTVnd), the high risk planning target volume (PTV1), and the low risk planning target volume (PTV2), were 67...
June 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Sara Jereb, Blaz Trotovsek, Breda Skrbinc
BACKGROUND: Hepatic splenosis is rare condition, preceded by splenectomy or spleen trauma, the term refers to nodular implantation of normal splenic tissue in the liver. In patients with history of malignancy in particular, it can be mistaken for metastases and can lead to unnecessary diagnostic procedures or inappropriate treatment. CASE REPORT: Twenty-two-year old male was treated for immature teratoma linked to undescended right testicle after birth. On regular follow-up examinations no signs of disease relapse or long-term consequences were observed...
June 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Tomaz Jagric, Stojan Potrc, Katarina Mis, Mojca Plankl, Tomaz Mars
BACKGROUND: We explored the prognostic value of the up-regulated carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) in node-negative patients with gastric cancer as a surrogate marker for micrometastases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Micrometastases were determined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for a subgroup of 30 node-negative patients. This group was used to determine the cut-off for preoperative CA19-9 serum levels as a surrogate marker for micrometastases...
June 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
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