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Radiology and Oncology

Samendra Prasad, Matthew Podgorsak, Robert Plunkett, Dheerendra Prasad
Background: Thermoplastic mask immobilization is used to perform hypo-fractionated treatments with the Gamma Knife ICON®. Materials and methods: We evaluated the curing characteristics of the ICON® Nanor mask using force sensing resistors coupled with a data logging tool designed by us. Results: For patients being treated with masks made the same day as the treatment, often in the same sitting with no removal and replacement of the patient from the treatment cradle, based on the curves 80% of the force of fixation is reached at 30 minutes...
June 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Biljana Grcar-Kuzmanov, Emanuela Bostjancic, Juan Antonio Contreras Bandres, Joze Pizem
Background: Sclerosing melanocytic lesions, which are characterized by either focal or diffuse sclerosis in the dermal component and atypical proliferation of predominantly nevoid melanocytes, remain poorly defined. Our aim was to analyze systematically their morphologic spectrum, especially the distinction between sclerosing melanocytic nevus and sclerosing melanoma, which has not been well documented. Patients and methods: We collected 90 sclerosing melanocytic lesions, occurring in 82 patients (49 male, 33 female; age range from 21 to 89 years)...
June 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Ana Ursula Gavric, Janja Ocvirk, Polona Jaki Mekjavic
Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor cobimetinib and V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) inhibitor vemurafenib have significantly improved the prognosis of BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma. Some ocular symptoms and signs were recently recognized to follow this treatment. The study was aimed to investigate ocular toxicity in patients with metastatic melanoma treated with cobimetinib in combination with vemurafenib. Patients and methods: In the prospective, observational study, patients with BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma treated with cobimetinib in combination with vemurafenib at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana were asked to participate...
June 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Tanja Marinko, Simona Borstnar, Rok Blagus, Jure Dolenc, Cvetka Bilban-Jakopin
Background: The purpose of the study was to find out whether there is a difference in the early parameters of cardiotoxicity (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]) between the two groups of patients: the patients treated for left breast cancer (left breast cancer group) and those treated for the right breast cancer (right breast cancer group), after the treatment had been completed. Patients and methods: The study included 175 consecutive patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) positive early breast cancer, treated concurrently with trastuzumab and radiotherapy (RT), between June 2005 and December 2010...
June 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Chawalit Lertbutsayanukul, Danita Kannarunimit, Anussara Prayongrat, Chakkapong Chakkabat, Sarin Kitpanit, Pokrath Hansasuta
Background: Plasma EBV DNA concentrations at the time of diagnosis (pre-EBV) and post treatment (post-EBV) have significant value for predicting the clinical outcome of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients. However, the prognostic value of the EBV concentration during radiation therapy (mid-EBV) has not been vigorously studied. Patients and methods: This was a post hoc analysis of 105 detectable pre-EBV NPC patients from a phase II/III study comparing sequential (SEQ) versus simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)...
June 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Robert Foerster, Katharina Hees, Thomas Bruckner, Tilman Bostel, Ingmar Schlampp, Tanja Sprave, Nils H Nicolay, Juergen Debus, Harald Rief
Background: The aim of the study was to analyze survival and stability of patients with urothelial cell cancer and spinal bone metastases (SBM) after radiotherapy (RT). Furthermore, to assess the effects of RT on bone mineral density (BMD) as a local response in SBM after RT. Patients and methods: Survival of 38 patients with 132 SBM from urothelial cancer, treated from January 2000 to January 2012, was calculated. Stability of irradiated thoracic and lumbar SBM was retrospectively evaluated in computed tomography (CT) scans using the validated Taneichi et al ...
June 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Chih-Yen Tu, Te-Chun Hsia, Hsin-Yuan Fang, Ji-An Liang, Su-Tso Yang, Chia-Chin Li, Chun-Ru Chien
Background: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is a promising option for non-operated early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared to conventional fractionated radiotherapy (CFRT). However, results from conclusive randomized controlled trials are not yet available. The aim of our study was to explore the effectiveness of SABR vs. CFRT for non-operated early-stage NSCLC. Patients and methods: We used a comprehensive population-based database to identify clinical stage I non-operated NSCLC patients in Taiwan diagnosed from 2007 to 2013 who were treated with either SABR or CFRT...
June 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Christina Eder-Czembirek, Birgit Erlacher, Dietmar Thurnher, Boban M Erovic, Edgar Selzer, Michael Formanek
Background: Results from publications evaluating discrepancies between clinical staging data in relation to pathological findings demonstrate that a significant number of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients are not correctly staged. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze potential discrepancies of radiological assessment versus pathological data of regional lymph node involvement and to compare the results with data published in the literature. Patients and methods: In a retrospective analysis we focused on patients with HNSCC routinely treated by surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy between 2002 and 2012...
June 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Uros Smrdel, Marija Skoblar Vidmar, Ales Smrdel
Background: Glioblastoma has in last 20 years seen the steady increase of incidence, which is most prominent in the group of older patients. These older than 70 years have significantly poorer prognosis than other patients and are considered a distinct group of glioblastoma patients. Modified prognostic factors are being used in these patients and this information is lately supplemented with the genetic and epigenetic information on tumour. The therapy is now often tailored accordingly...
June 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Danijela Strbac, Katja Goricar, Vita Dolzan, Viljem Kovac
Background: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare disease, linked to asbestos exposure in more than 80% of the cases. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been identified as modulators of the tumour microenvironment and carcinogenesis. Polymorphisms of selected MMPs have been studied as potential biomarkers of time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) in MM. The aim of our study was to investigate selected MMP polymorphisms as baseline risk predictors in MM development in combination with other well known risk factors, such as asbestos exposure...
June 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Mateja Vidic, Tina Smuc, Nika Janez, Michael Blank, Tomaz Accetto, Jan Mavri, Isis C Nascimento, Arthur A Nery, Henning Ulrich, Tamara T Lah
Background: Detection of circulating lung cancer cells with cancer-stem like characteristics would represent an improved tool for disease prognosis. However, current antibodies based methods have some disadvantages and therefore cell SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) was used to develop DNA aptamers, recognizing cell surface markers of non-small lung carcinoma (NSLC) cells. Materials and methods: The human adenocarcinoma cell line A549 was used for selection in seven cell SELEX cycles...
June 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Markus Fahlström, Erik Blomquist, Tufve Nyholm, Elna-Marie Larsson
Background: The aim of this study was assess acute and early delayed radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing brain tissue perfusion as measured with perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the dependence of these changes on the fractionated radiotherapy (FRT) dose level. Patients and methods: Seventeen patients with glioma WHO grade III-IV treated with FRT were included in this prospective study, seven were excluded because of inconsistent FRT protocol or missing examinations...
June 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Lorna Zadravec Zaletel, Matjaz Popit, Marjan Zaletel
Background: The risk for cerebrovascular late effects among childhood cancer survivors is considerable. According to recent studies it is not clear which marker could be reliable for the screening of cerebrovascular diseases among the long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The purpose of this study is to analyse arterial stiffness and intima-media thickness as possible early markers of later occurring stroke in long-term survivors of childhood cancer after neck radiotherapy. Patients and methods: Twenty-three patients, treated for Hodgkin disease (HD) in childhood, were included...
June 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Tomoya Hasegawa, Naoaki Kuji, Fumiaki Notake, Tetsu Tsukamoto, Toru Sasaki, Motohiro Shimizu, Kazunori Mukaida, Hiroe Ito, Keiichi Isaka, Hirotaka Nishi
Background: In this prospective cohort study, we examined the utility of elastography to evaluate the fetus and placenta. Patients and methods: Pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy, by which time the placenta has formed, were included in this study. A total of 111 women underwent ultrasound examinations, including elastography. Elastographic evaluation was performed using two protocols. First, the placental index (PI) was measured, which quantitatively assesses the hardness of tissue...
June 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Tomas Kazda, Adam Dziacky, Petr Burkon, Petr Pospisil, Marek Slavik, Zdenek Rehak, Radim Jancalek, Pavel Slampa, Ondrej Slaby, Radek Lakomy
Background: The current standard of care of glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor in adults, has remained unchanged for over a decade. Nevertheless, some improvements in patient outcomes have occurred as a consequence of modern surgery, improved radiotherapy and up-to-date management of toxicity. Patients from control arms (receiving standard concurrent chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide) of recent clinical trials achieve better outcomes compared to the median survival of 14...
June 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Noora Al-Hammadi, Palmira Caparrotti, Carole Naim, Jillian Hayes, Katherine Rebecca Benson, Ana Vasic, Hissa Al-Abdulla, Rabih Hammoud, Saju Divakar, Primoz Petric
Background: During radiotherapy of left-sided breast cancer, parts of the heart are irradiated, which may lead to late toxicity. We report on the experience of single institution with cardiac-sparing radiotherapy using voluntary deep inspiration breath hold (V-DIBH) and compare its dosimetric outcome with free breathing (FB) technique. Patients and methods: Left-sided breast cancer patients, treated at our department with postoperative radiotherapy of breast/chest wall +/- regional lymph nodes between May 2015 and January 2017, were considered for inclusion...
March 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Alenka Franko, Nika Kotnik, Katja Goricar, Viljem Kovac, Metoda Dodic-Fikfak, Vita Dolzan
Background: Malignant mesothelioma is a rare cancer with poor outcome, associated with asbestos exposure. Reactive oxygen species may play an important role in the mechanism of carcinogenesis; therefore, genetic variability in antioxidative defence may modify an individual's susceptibility to this cancer. This study investigated the influence of functional polymorphisms of NQO1 , CAT , SOD2 and hOGG1 genes, gene-gene interactions and gene-environment interactions on malignant mesothelioma risk...
March 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Jozko Racnik, Tanja Svara, Marko Zadravec, Mitja Gombac, Maja Cemazar, Gregor Sersa, Natasa Tozon
Background: Mast cell tumour, sebaceous gland adenoma, and less common squamous papilloma are skin tumours in ferrets ( Mustela putorius furo ), and early excisional surgery is usually the treatment of choice. The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of electrochemotherapy (ECT), a new, minimally invasive non-surgical method, as first treatment option of different types of ferret skin tumours located on surgically difficult sites. Materials and methods: A 5-year-old castrated male ferret with two cutaneous masses, presenting 4 months apart and a 7-year-old spayed female ferret with two cutaneous masses, that appeared simultaneously on two locations are presented...
March 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Catrin von Below, Cecilia Wassberg, Rafael Grzegorek, Joel Kullberg, Charlotta Gestblom, Jens Sörensen, Mauritz Waldén, Håkan Ahlström
Background: The aim of the study was to examine the value of quantitative and qualitative MRI and 11 C acetate PET/CT parameters in predicting regional lymph node (LN) metastasis of newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PCa). Patients and methods: Patients with intermediate (n = 6) and high risk (n = 47) PCa underwent 3T MRI (40 patients) and 11 C acetate PET/CT (53 patients) before extended pelvic LN dissection. For each patient the visually most suspicious LN was assessed for mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmean), maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), size and shape and the primary tumour for T stage on MRI and ADCmean and SUVmax in the index lesion...
March 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Anija Orel, Matjaz Homan, Rok Blagus, Evgen Benedik, Rok Orel, Natasa Fidler Mis
Background: Commercial enteral formulas are generally recommended for gastrostomy feeding in patients with severe neurologic impairment. However, pureed food diets are still widely used and even gaining popularity among certain groups. We tried to compare the effectiveness of gastrostomy feeding for treatment of severe malnutrition with either enteral formulas or pureed feeds. Patients and methods: A 6-month nutritional intervention was made with 37 malnourished children, adolescents and young adults (2-26 years old) with severe neurologic impairment (Gross Motor Function Classification system [GMFCS] grade V)...
March 2018: Radiology and Oncology
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