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Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901648/a-new-drug-design-strategy-killing-drug-resistant-bacteria-by-deactivating-their-hypothetical-genes
#1
Tit-Yee Wong, Jimmy Kuo
Despite a bacterial genome is complicated by large numbers of horizontally transferred (HT) genes and function unknown hypothetical (FUN) genes, the Genic-Transcriptional-Stop-Signals-Ratio (TSSR) of a genome shows that HT and FUN genes are complementary to all other genes in the genome. When HT or certain FUN genes are omitted from the Escherichia coli K-12 genome, its Genomic-TSSR value becomes totally incomparable to other E. coli strains. The Genic-TSSR correlation tree of a pathogen shows that some FUN genes would form a unique cluster...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717290/mycotoxin-in-the-food-supply-chain-implications-for-public-health-program
#2
D Milićević, I Nastasijevic, Z Petrovic
Mycotoxins are a group of naturally occurring toxic chemical substances, produced mainly by microscopic filamentous fungal species. Regarding potential synergisms or even mitigating effects between toxic elements, mycotoxin contamination will continue to be an area of concern for producers, manufacturers, regulatory agencies, researchers and consumers in the future. In Serbia, recent drought and then flooding confirmed that mycotoxins are one of the foodborne hazards most susceptible to climate change. In this article, we review key aspects of mycotoxin contamination of the food supply chain and implications for public health from the Serbian perspective...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635858/arsenic-and-its-compounds-in-mushrooms-a-review
#3
Jerzy Falandysz, Leela M Rizal
The purpose of this paper is to review the detail concentration of arsenic in some species of mushrooms, and organic and inorganic forms of arsenic in the substrates where wild and cultivated edible mushrooms grow, are discussed. We also briefly reviewed the molecular forms of arsenic in mushrooms. There is still a lack of experimental data from the environment for a variety of species from different habitats and for different levels of geogenic arsenic in soil. This information will be useful for mushrooms consumers, nutritionists and food regulatory agencies by describing ways to minimize arsenic content in edible mushrooms and arsenic intake from mushroom meals...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635691/azo-dyes-and-human-health-a-review
#4
King-Thom Chung
Synthetic azo dyes are widely used in industries. Gerhardt Domagk discovered that the antimicrobial effect of red azo dye Prontosil was due to the reductively cleaved (azo reduction) product sulfanilamine. The significance of azo reduction is thus revealed. Azo reduction can be accomplished by human intestinal microflora, skin microflora, environmental microorganisms, to a lesser extent by human liver azoreductase, and by non-biological means. Some azo dyes can be carcinogenic without being cleaved into aromatic amines...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635466/review-of-electronic-cigarettes-as-tobacco-cigarette-substitutes-their-potential-human-health-impact
#5
Ki-Hyun Kim, Ehsanul Kabir, Shamin Ara Jahan
Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are devised to deliver nicotine in a vapor rather than in smoke without tar. ECs are hence advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarette products as the chemical compounds inhaled in the former are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those of the latter. Hazardous chemicals (e.g., formaldehyde) are nonetheless found to be generated incidentally by contacting the heated wire (i.e., the oxidation of glycerol/glycol in e-liquid). Although the extent of their release varies by several variables (e...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27333452/a-systematic-review-on-human-exposure-to-organophosphorus-pesticides-in-iran
#6
Amir Shadboorestan, Hossein Molavi Vardanjani, Mohammad Abdollahi, Mohammad Hadi Goharbari, Narges Khanjani
Human exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides is a serious health challenge. We conducted a systematic review by searching international and national databases for published literature on any human exposure to OPs in Iran from 1990 to March, 2015. Qualified papers were in two categories including studies in which bio-markers of exposure were assessed (n = 13; total no. of subject = 759) and studies which had reported prevalence of OPs-induced poisoning (OPP) and mortality (n = 26; total no. of subject = 5428)...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323213/toxicity-of-nanoparticle-surface-coating-agents-structure-cytotoxicity-relationship
#7
Ying Zhang, Xiaoping Li, Hongtao Yu
Surface coating agents for metal nanoparticles, cationic alkyl ammonium bromides and anionic alkyl sulfates were tested against human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and blood T lymphocytes (TIB-152). The surfactants of short chain (C8) are not cytotoxic, but as their chain length increases, their cytotoxicity increases and levels off at C12 for cationic surfactants against both cell lines and for anionic surfactants against the TIB-152, but C14 for anionic surfactants against HaCaT. The cationic surfactants are more toxic than the anionic surfactants for HaCaT; while with similar cytotoxicity for TIB-152 cells...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27229761/toxicology-of-freshwater-cyanobacteria
#8
H M Liyanage, D N Magana Arachchi, T Abeysekara, L Guneratne
A number of chemical contaminants in drinking water have been shown to cause adverse health effects in humans after prolonged exposure. Cyanobacteria are one of the most potent and diverse groups of photosynthetic prokaryotes. One key component of cyanobacterial success in the environment is the production of potent toxins as secondary metabolites, which have been responsible for numerous adverse health impacts in humans. Anthropogenic activities have led to the increase of eutrophication in freshwater bodies' worldwide, causing cyanobacterial blooms to become more frequent...
May 26, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27229631/genotoxicity-and-immunotoxic-effects-of-1-2-dichloroethane-in-wistar-rats
#9
Mohammad Iqbal Lone, Nazia Nazam, Aashiq Hussain, Shashank K Singh, Abid Hamid Dar, Rauf Ahmad Najar, Mohammed Hussein Al-Qahtani, Waseem Ahmad
Dichloroethane is widely used as solvent, degreasing agent and in a variety of commercial products and is known for being a ubiquitous contaminant in the environment. Important sources principally include the emissions from industrial processes, improper consumption, storage and disposal methods. In view of the fact that the mechanism of its genotoxicity has not been satisfactorily elucidated; therefore, the acute in vivo toxicological impact is assessed in Rattus norvegicus. A systematic investigation has been made involving the use of conventional methods along with molecular and flow cytometric approaches...
May 26, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26986491/new-clues-on-carcinogenicity-related-substructures-derived-from-mining-two-large-datasets-of-chemical-compounds
#10
Azadi Golbamaki, Emilio Benfenati, Nazanin Golbamaki, Alberto Manganaro, Erinc Merdivan, Alessandra Roncaglioni, Giuseppina Gini
In this study, new molecular fragments associated with genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens are introduced to estimate the carcinogenic potential of compounds. Two rule-based carcinogenesis models were developed with the aid of SARpy: model R (from rodents' experimental data) and model E (from human carcinogenicity data). Structural alert extraction method of SARpy uses a completely automated and unbiased manner with statistical significance. The carcinogenicity models developed in this study are collections of carcinogenic potential fragments that were extracted from two carcinogenicity databases: the ANTARES carcinogenicity dataset with information from bioassay on rats and the combination of ISSCAN and CGX datasets, which take into accounts human-based assessment...
April 2, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26986231/aloe-vera-a-review-of-toxicity-and-adverse-clinical-effects
#11
Xiaoqing Guo, Nan Mei
The Aloe plant is employed as a dietary supplement in a variety of foods and as an ingredient in cosmetic products. The widespread human exposure and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities raise safety concerns. Chemical analysis reveals that the Aloe plant contains various polysaccharides and phenolic chemicals, notably anthraquinones. Ingestion of Aloe preparations is associated with diarrhea, hypokalemia, pseudomelanosis coli, kidney failure, as well as phototoxicity and hypersensitive reactions...
April 2, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26963720/the-mycotoxin-definition-reconsidered-towards-fungal-cyclic-depsipeptides
#12
Lien Taevernier, Evelien Wynendaele, Leen De Vreese, Christian Burvenich, Bart De Spiegeleer
Currently, next to the major classes, cyclic depsipeptides beauvericin and enniatins are also positioned as mycotoxins. However, as there are hundreds more fungal cyclic depsipeptides already identified, should these not be considered as mycotoxins as well? The current status of the mycotoxin definition revealed a lack of consistency, leading to confusion about what compounds should be called mycotoxins. Because this is of pivotal importance in risk assessment prioritization, a clear and quantitatively expressed mycotoxin definition is proposed, based on data of widely accepted mycotoxins...
April 2, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26761716/7-cysteine-pyrrole-conjugate-a-new-potential-dna-reactive-metabolite-of-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids
#13
Xiaobo He, Qingsu Xia, Liang Ma, Peter P Fu
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) require metabolic activation to exert cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. We previously reported that (±)-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts are responsible for PA-induced liver tumor formation in rats. In this study, we determined that metabolism of riddelliine and monocrotaline by human or rat liver microsomes produced 7-cysteine-DHP and DHP. The metabolism of 7-glutathionyl-DHP by human and rat liver microsomes also generated 7-cysteine-DHP...
2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26669465/to-quit-or-not-vulnerability-of-women-to-smoking-tobacco
#14
REVIEW
Se-Jung Park, Bitna Yi, Ho-Sun Lee, Woo-Yeon Oh, Hyun-Kyung Na, Minjeong Lee, Mihi Yang
Tobacco smoking is currently on the rise among women, and can pose a greater health risk. In order to understand the nature of the increase in smoking prevalence among women, we focused on the vulnerability of women to smoking behaviors--smoking cessation or tobacco addiction--and performed a systematic review of the socioeconomic and intrinsic factors as well as tobacco ingredients that affect women's susceptibility to smoking tobacco. We observed that nicotine and other tobacco components including cocoa-relatives, licorice products, and menthol aggravate tobacco addiction in women rather than in men...
2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26398402/toxic-and-genotoxic-effects-of-hexavalent-chromium-in-environment-and-its-bioremediation-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Sandhya Mishra, Ram Naresh Bharagava
Chromium is one of the major inorganic environmental pollutants, which is added in the environment through various natural and anthropogenic activities and exists mainly in two forms: Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Cr(VI) is considered to be more toxic than Cr(III) due to its high solubility and mobility. It is a well-reported occupational carcinogen associated with lung, nasal, and sinus cancers. Thus, this review article provides the detailed information on the occurrence, sources of chromium contamination in the environment and their toxicological effects in human, animal, plants as well as in microorganisms, and bioremediation strategies to minimize the toxic effects...
2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26403277/hierarchical-rules-for-read-across-and-in-silico-models-of-mutagenicity
#16
Emilio Benfenati, Serena Manganelli, Sabrina Giordano, Giuseppa Raitano, Alberto Manganaro
A broad set of rules has been implemented within the ToxRead software for read-across of chemicals for bacterial mutagenicity. These rules were obtained by manually analyzing more than 6000 chemicals and the associated chemical classes. A hierarchy of rules was established to identify those most specifically relating to the target compounds, linked in sequence to the other, more generic ones, which may match with the target compound. Rules related to both mutagenicity and lack of mutagenicity were found. Some of the latter are exceptions to the mutagenicity rules, while others are modulators of activity...
2015: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26398275/blood-pyrrole-protein-adducts-a-biomarker-of-pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-induced-liver-injury-in-humans
#17
Jianqing Ruan, Hong Gao, Na Li, Junyi Xue, Jie Chen, Changqiang Ke, Yang Ye, Peter Pi-Cheng Fu, Jiang Zheng, Jiyao Wang, Ge Lin
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) induce liver injury (PA-ILI) and is very likely to contribute significantly to drug-induced liver injury (DILI). In this study we used a newly developed ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS)-based method to detect and quantitate blood pyrrole-protein adducts in DILI patients. Among the 46 suspected DILI patients, 15 were identified as PA-ILI by the identification of PA-containing herbs exposed. Blood pyrrole-protein adducts were detected in all PA-ILI patients (100%)...
2015: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26398111/alternative-toxicity-testing-analyses-on-skin-sensitization-toxcast-phases-i-and-ii-and-carcinogenicity-provide-indications-on-how-to-model-mechanisms-linked-to-adverse-outcome-pathways
#18
Romualdo Benigni, Chiara Laura Battistelli, Cecilia Bossa, Alessandro Giuliani, Olga Tcheremenskaia
This article studies alternative toxicological approaches, with new (skin sensitization, ToxCast) and previous (carcinogenicity) analyses. Quantitative modeling of rate-limiting steps in skin sensitization and carcinogenicity predicts the majority of toxicants. Similarly, successful (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships models exploit the quantification of only one, or few rate-limiting steps. High-throughput assays within ToxCast point to promising associations with endocrine disruption, whereas markers for pathways intermediate events have limited correlation with most endpoints...
2015: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26087060/protein-mis-termination-initiates-genetic-diseases-cancers-and-restricts-bacterial-genome-expansion
#19
REVIEW
Tit-Yee Wong, Steve D Schwartzbach
Protein termination is an important cellular process. Protein termination relies on the stop-codons in the mRNA interacting properly with the releasing factors on the ribosome. One third of inherited diseases, including cancers, are associated with the mutation of the stop-codons. Many pathogens and viruses are able to manipulate their stop-codons to express their virulence. The influence of stop-codons is not limited to the primary reading frame of the genes. Stop-codons in the second and third reading frames are referred as premature stop signals (PSC)...
2015: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26074278/selenium-and-human-health-witnessing-a-copernican-revolution
#20
REVIEW
Ewa Jablonska, Marco Vinceti
In humans, selenium was hypothesized to lower the risk of several chronic diseases, mainly due to the antioxidant activity of selenium-containing proteins. Recent epidemiologic and laboratory studies, however, are changing our perception of the biological effects of this nutritionally essential trace element. We reviewed the most recent epidemiologic and biochemical literature on selenium, synthesizing the findings from these studies into a unifying view. Randomized trials have shown that selenium did not protect against cancer and other chronic diseases, but even increased the risk of specific neoplasms such as advanced prostate cancer and skin cancer, in addition to type 2 diabetes...
2015: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
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