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Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726445/the-hebb-repetition-effect-as-a-laboratory-analogue-of-language-acquisition-learning-three-lists-at-no-cost
#1
Jean Saint-Aubin, Katherine Guérard
The Hebb repetition effect (i.e., the enhanced recall performance for a sequence of items that is repeated during a serial recall experiment) is considered an experimental analogue to language learning. However, although language learning occurs in a context in which multiple verbal sequences are repeated concurrently, the effect of increasing the number of repeated sequences in the Hebb repetition paradigm has received little attention, and previous studies have used tasks that depart considerably from the natural language learning experience...
July 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604031/spontaneous-gaze-selection-and-following-during-naturalistic-social-interactions-in-school-aged-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Elina Birmingham, Krista Haley Smith Johnston, Grace Iarocci
Using a novel naturalistic paradigm allowing participants the freedom to spontaneously select and follow gaze cues in their environment, this study extends previous research conducted with younger children to determine whether school-age children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 17) demonstrate abnormal gaze following relative to typically developing (TD, n = 15) children. The participant and experimenter played a series of games, during which the experimenter pseudorandomly averted her gaze toward a social target (person) or a nonsocial target (object)...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604033/how-different-cultures-look-at-faces-depends-on-the-interpersonal-context
#3
Matthias S Gobel, Alyssa Chen, Daniel C Richardson
Culture can influence how we see and experience the world, and recent research shows that it even determines how we look at each other. Yet, most of these laboratory studies use images of faces that are deprived of any social context. In the real world, we not only look at people's faces to perceive who they are, but also to signal information back to them. It is unknown, therefore, within which interpersonal contexts cultural differences in looking at faces emerge. In the current study, we manipulated one aspect of the interpersonal context of faces: whether the target face either established mutual gaze looking directly into the camera as if talking to the viewer or averted gaze slightly to the side as if talking to another person...
June 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604032/gaze-behavior-to-faces-during-dyadic-interaction
#4
Roy S Hessels, Tim H W Cornelissen, Ignace T C Hooge, Chantal Kemner
A long-standing hypothesis is that humans have a bias for fixating the eye region in the faces of others. Most studies have tested this hypothesis with static images or videos of faces, yet recent studies suggest that the use of such "nonresponsive" stimuli might overlook an influence of social context. The present study addressed whether the bias for fixating the eye region in faces would persist in a situation that allowed for social interaction. In Experiment 1, we demonstrate a setup in which a duo could engage in social interaction while their eye movements were recorded...
June 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604030/chatting-in-the-face-of-the-eyewitness-the-impact-of-extraneous-cell-phone-conversation-on-memory-for-a-perpetrator
#5
John E Marsh, Krupali Patel, Katherine Labonté, Emma Threadgold, Faye C Skelton, Cristina Fodarella, Rachel Thorley, Kirsty L Battersby, Charlie D Frowd, Linden J Ball, François Vachon
Cell-phone conversation is ubiquitous within public spaces. The current study investigates whether ignored cell-phone conversation impairs eyewitness memory for a perpetrator. Participants viewed a video of a staged crime in the presence of 1 side of a comprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningful halfalogue), 2 sides of a comprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningful dialogue), 1 side of an incomprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningless halfalogue), or quiet. Between 24 and 28 hr later, participants freely described the perpetrator's face, constructed a single composite image of the perpetrator from memory, and attempted to identify the perpetrator from a sequential lineup...
June 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604029/staring-reality-in-the-face-a-comparison-of-social-attention-across-laboratory-and-real-world-measures-suggests-little-common-ground
#6
Dana A Hayward, Willa Voorhies, Jenna L Morris, Francesca Capozzi, Jelena Ristic
The ability to attend to someone else's gaze is thought to represent 1 of the essential building blocks of the human sociocognitive system. This behavior, termed social attention, has traditionally been assessed using laboratory procedures in which participants' response time and/or accuracy performance indexes attentional function. Recently, a parallel body of emerging research has started to examine social attention during real life social interactions using naturalistic and observational methodologies. The main goal of the present work was to begin connecting these two lines of inquiry...
June 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604028/re-reading-after-mind-wandering
#7
Trish L Varao-Sousa, Grayden J F Solman, Alan Kingstone
Though much research has been conducted on the causes and processes underlying mind wandering, relatively little has addressed what happens after an episode of mind wandering. We explore this issue in the context of reading. Specifically, by examining re-reading behaviours following mind wandering episodes. Results from 2 studies reveal that after mind wandering, participants re-read nearly half the time. This re-reading occurs whether mind wandering is self-caught or probe-caught, and it typically involves retracing a line or 2 of text...
June 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604027/load-theory-behind-the-wheel-perceptual-cognitive-load-effects
#8
Gillian Murphy, Ciara M Greene
Perceptual Load Theory has been proposed as a resolution to the longstanding early versus late selection debate in cognitive psychology. There is much evidence in support of Load Theory but very few applied studies, despite the potential for the model to shed light on everyday attention and distraction. Using a driving simulator, the effect of perceptual and cognitive load on drivers' visual search was assessed. The findings were largely in line with Load Theory, with reduced distractor processing under high perceptual load, but increased distractor processing under high cognitive load...
June 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604053/are-fixations-in-static-natural-scenes-a-useful-predictor-of-attention-in-the-real-world
#9
Tom Foulsham, Alan Kingstone
Research investigating scene perception normally involves laboratory experiments using static images. Much has been learned about how observers look at pictures of the real world and the attentional mechanisms underlying this behaviour. However, the use of static, isolated pictures as a proxy for studying everyday attention in real environments has led to the criticism that such experiments are artificial. We report a new study that tests the extent to which the real world can be reduced to simpler laboratory stimuli...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604052/lifespan-changes-in-attention-revisited-everyday-visual-search
#10
Allison A Brennan, Alison J Bruderer, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Todd C Handy, James T Enns
This study compared visual search under everyday conditions among participants across the life span (healthy participants in 4 groups, with average age of 6 years, 8 years, 22 years, and 75 years, and 1 group averaging 73 years with a history of falling). The task involved opening a door and stepping into a room find 1 of 4 everyday objects (apple, golf ball, coffee can, toy penguin) visible on shelves. The background for this study included 2 well-cited laboratory studies that pointed to different cognitive mechanisms underlying each end of the U-shaped pattern of visual search over the life span (Hommel et al...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604051/safe-or-out-does-the-location-of-attention-affect-judgments-at-first-base-in-baseball
#11
Ralph S Redden, Ghislain d'Entremont, Raymond M Klein
Titchener's law of prior entry states that attended stimuli are perceived before unattended stimuli. Prior entry effects measured with visual stimuli have been generated with both endogenous and exogenous attentional deployment (e.g., by Shore, Spence, & Klein, 2001). In theory, the endogenous form of prior entry may have implications for baseball umpire judgments. Conventionally, umpires are instructed to first attend to the ball when it is hit into play; however, where they attend at the imperative instant of the play at first base can vary between individuals and across scenarios...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604050/coordinating-vision-and-action-in-natural-behaviour-differences-in-spatiotemporal-coupling-in-everyday-tasks
#12
Sharon Scrafton, Matthew J Stainer, Benjamin W Tatler
Vision and action are tightly coupled in space and time: for many tasks we must look at the right place at the right time to gather the information that we need to complete our behavioural goals. Vision typically leads action by about 0.5 seconds in many natural tasks. However, the factors that influence this temporal coordination are not well understood, and variations have been found previously between two domestic tasks each with similar constraints: tea making and sandwich making. This study offers a systematic exploration of the factors that govern spatiotemporal coordination of vision and action within complex real-world activities...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604049/wandering-minds-and-wavering-goals-examining-the-relation-between-mind-wandering-and-grit-in-everyday-life-and-the-classroom
#13
Brandon C W Ralph, Jeffrey D Wammes, Nathaniel Barr, Daniel Smilek
Here we examined the relation between mind wandering and the personality trait of 'grit.' Our hypothesis was that because mind wandering leads to a disruption of momentary goal completion, the tendency to mind wander might be inversely related to the completion of long-term goals that require sustained interest and effort (i.e., grittiness). In Study 1 we used online questionnaires and found that in everyday life, the propensity to mind wander was negatively correlated with individuals' self-reported grittiness...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604048/talking-is-harder-than-listening-the-time-course-of-dual-task-costs-during-naturalistic-conversation
#14
April M C Lee, Stefania Cerisano, Karin R Humphreys, Scott Watter
Many studies have shown that the cognitive demands of language use are a substantial cause of central dual-task costs, including costs on concurrent driving performance. More recently, several studies have considered whether language production or comprehension is inherently more difficult with respect to costs on concurrent performance, with mixed results. This assessment is particularly difficult given the open question of how one should best equate and compare production and comprehension demands and performance...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604047/the-smartphone-and-the-driver-s-cognitive-workload-a-comparison-of-apple-google-and-microsoft-s-intelligent-personal-assistants
#15
David L Strayer, Joel M Cooper, Jonna Turrill, James R Coleman, Rachel J Hopman
The goal of this research was to examine the impact of voice-based interactions using 3 different intelligent personal assistants (Apple's Siri, Google's Google Now for Android phones, and Microsoft's Cortana) on the cognitive workload of the driver. In 2 experiments using an instrumented vehicle on suburban roadways, we measured the cognitive workload of drivers when they used the voice-based features of each smartphone to place a call, select music, or send text messages. Cognitive workload was derived from primary task performance through video analysis, secondary-task performance using the Detection Response Task (DRT), and subjective mental workload...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604046/everyday-attention
#16
Evan F Risko, Alan Kingstone
Understanding the basic mechanisms underlying attentional function using naturalistic stimuli, tasks, and/or settings is the focus of everyday attention research. Interest in everyday approaches to attention research has increased recently-arguably riding a more general wave of support for such considerations in experimental psychology. This special issue of the Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology attempts to capture the emerging enthusiasm for studying everyday attention by bringing together work from a wide array of attentional domains (e...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493740/independent-learning-of-spatial-and-nonspatial-sequences
#17
Gilbert Remillard
A small number of studies have examined whether learning the structures of two uncorrelated sequences can proceed independently of one another. Limitations in those studies have left their results open to alternative explanations. The present study addressed the limitations. The visuospatial serial reaction time task, initially introduced by Mayr (1996), was used to examine whether learning the structure of a sequence of visuospatial target locations (spatial sequence) and learning the structure of a sequence of target identities and responses (nonspatial sequence) can proceed independently of one another...
May 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481569/cognitive-modeling-as-an-interface-between-brain-and-behavior-measuring-the-semantic-decline-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#18
Brendan T Johns, Vanessa Taler, David B Pisoni, Martin R Farlow, Ann Marie Hake, David A Kareken, Frederick W Unverzagt, Michael N Jones
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterised by subjective and objective memory impairment in the absence of dementia. MCI is a strong predictor for the development of Alzheimer's disease, and may represent an early stage in the disease course in many cases. A standard task used in the diagnosis of MCI is verbal fluency, where participants produce as many items from a specific category (e.g., animals) as possible. Verbal fluency performance is typically analysed by counting the number of items produced...
May 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481568/key-finding-by-artificial-neural-networks-that-learn-about-key-profiles
#19
Michael R W Dawson, Jasen A Z Zielinski
We explore the ability of a very simple artificial neural network, a perceptron, to assert the musical key of novel stimuli. First, perceptrons are trained to associate standardized key profiles (taken from 1 of 3 different sources) to different musical keys. After training, we measured perceptron accuracy in asserting musical keys for 296 novel stimuli. Depending upon which key profiles were used during training, perceptrons can perform as well as established key-finding algorithms on this task. Further analyses indicate that perceptrons generate higher activity in a unit representing a selected key and much lower activities in the units representing the competing keys that are not selected than does a traditional algorithm...
May 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394168/the-development-of-haptic-processing-skills-from-childhood-to-adulthood-by-means-of-two-dimensional-materials
#20
Anaïs Mazella, Jean-Michel Albaret, Delphine Picard
Research into haptic perception has mostly focused on 3-dimensional objects, and more needs to be known about the processing of 2-dimensional materials (e.g., raised dots and lines and raised-line shapes, patterns and pictures). This study examines the age-related changes in various skills related to the haptic exploration of 2-dimensional raised-line and dot materials and how these skills are related to haptic picture perception. Ninety-one participants, aged 4 years to adult, were asked to perform a series of haptic tasks that entailed (a) finding dots and following lines; (b) matching elements based on texture, shape, and size; (c) matching elements based on spatial location and orientation; (d) memorising sequences of dots and shapes; and (e) identifying complete and incomplete raised-line pictures...
April 10, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
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