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Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172588/things-can-change-sentence-processing-in-consecutive-translation
#1
Jason Omar Ruiz, Pedro Macizo
Syntactic cues help individuals to assign thematic roles (agent/patient) during sentence processing. In the present study, we examined whether the use of syntactic cues changed in bilinguals depending on the task they performed. Spanish (L1)/English (L2) bilinguals read sentences in Spanish either to produce them in the same language or to translate them in English. Three syntactic cues were evaluated: animacy (Experiment 1), subject-verb agreement (Experiment 2), and word order (Experiment 3). In Experiments 1 and 2, word order was stronger than animacy and subject-verb agreement when bilinguals read for translation...
November 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172587/entra%C3%A3-nement-de-la-m%C3%A3-moire-de-travail-effets-sur-la-performance-en-math%C3%A3-matiques
#2
Camille Charest-Girard, Véronique Parent
The main components of working memory (WM; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974), central executive, phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad, are related to mathematics skills (Friso-van den Bos, Van der Ven, Kroesbergen, & Van Luit, 2013). Different studies have shown that WM training can increase WM capacity (Randall & Tyldesley, 2016). In that context, this research seeks to verify the effects of WM training on the components of WM as well as on performance in arithmetic and in problem solving among students in the firsts grades of primary school (6 to 8 years of age)...
November 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172586/alpha-span-a-measure-of-working-memory
#3
Fergus I M Craik, Ellen Bialystok, Susan Gillingham, Donald T Stuss
In the alpha span test, short lists of words are presented and the participant's task is to mentally reorder the words and give them back in correct alphabetical order. Alpha span is the longest list of words correctly recalled; the article also describes a scoring method in which credit is given for partially correct answers. Alpha span provides a quick and easily completed measure of verbal-numerical working memory (WM), and evidence is presented to show that it is also a valid and reliable measure. One purpose of the article is to present data on age-related differences in WM in participants 17 to 87 years of age...
November 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172585/an-eye-tracking-examination-of-readers-sensitivity-to-pragmatic-scope-information-during-the-processing-of-conditional-inducements
#4
Jeffrey S Wood, Matthew Haigh, Andrew J Stewart
Previous research into conditional inducements has shown that readers are sensitive after reading such conditionals to pragmatic scope differences between promises and threats; specifically, threats can be referred to as promises, but promises cannot be referred to as threats. Crucially, previous work has not revealed whether such scope effects emerge while processing the conditional itself. In the experiment reported here, participants' eye movements were recorded while they read vignettes containing conditional promises and threats...
November 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215908/chronom%C3%A3-trage-et-perception-temporelle
#5
Simon Grondin
This article provides an overview of some contemporary research avenues in the field of timing and time perception. After a brief description of different categories of temporal experiences, the article describes how research on psychological time falls within a psychophysical perspective. Next, some factors changing sensitivity to time or perceived duration are reported. Four main sources affecting this sensitivity are identified : the modality in which the intervals to be estimated are marked, the length of the markers, the number of intervals presented, and whether people are counting explicitly or not when estimating time...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215907/chemotherapy-and-cognitive-impairment-an-animal-model-approach
#6
Gordon Winocur
A substantial number of cancer survivors who undergo chemotherapy report cognitive disturbances that severely limit daily function (chemobrain). Despite supportive neuropsychological evidence, there is controversy over whether cognitive impairment is caused by the chemotherapy or is the result of potentially confounding factors that include the disease itself, age, and psychological stress. Our research program, conducted on rodents, has confirmed that a range of cognitive processes, mediated in particular by hippocampal and prefrontal brain regions, are affected by anticancer drugs in combination with tumor development and that many of the effects are long lasting...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604031/spontaneous-gaze-selection-and-following-during-naturalistic-social-interactions-in-school-aged-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Elina Birmingham, Krista Haley Smith Johnston, Grace Iarocci
Using a novel naturalistic paradigm allowing participants the freedom to spontaneously select and follow gaze cues in their environment, this study extends previous research conducted with younger children to determine whether school-age children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 17) demonstrate abnormal gaze following relative to typically developing (TD, n = 15) children. The participant and experimenter played a series of games, during which the experimenter pseudorandomly averted her gaze toward a social target (person) or a nonsocial target (object)...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604027/load-theory-behind-the-wheel-perceptual-and-cognitive-load-effects
#8
Gillian Murphy, Ciara M Greene
Perceptual Load Theory has been proposed as a resolution to the longstanding early versus late selection debate in cognitive psychology. There is much evidence in support of Load Theory but very few applied studies, despite the potential for the model to shed light on everyday attention and distraction. Using a driving simulator, the effect of perceptual and cognitive load on drivers' visual search was assessed. The findings were largely in line with Load Theory, with reduced distractor processing under high perceptual load, but increased distractor processing under high cognitive load...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726445/the-hebb-repetition-effect-as-a-laboratory-analogue-of-language-acquisition-learning-three-lists-at-no-cost
#9
Jean Saint-Aubin, Katherine Guérard
The Hebb repetition effect (i.e., the enhanced recall performance for a sequence of items that is repeated during a serial recall experiment) is considered an experimental analogue to language learning. However, although language learning occurs in a context in which multiple verbal sequences are repeated concurrently, the effect of increasing the number of repeated sequences in the Hebb repetition paradigm has received little attention, and previous studies have used tasks that depart considerably from the natural language learning experience...
July 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604033/how-different-cultures-look-at-faces-depends-on-the-interpersonal-context
#10
Matthias S Gobel, Alyssa Chen, Daniel C Richardson
Culture can influence how we see and experience the world, and recent research shows that it even determines how we look at each other. Yet, most of these laboratory studies use images of faces that are deprived of any social context. In the real world, we not only look at people's faces to perceive who they are, but also to signal information back to them. It is unknown, therefore, within which interpersonal contexts cultural differences in looking at faces emerge. In the current study, we manipulated one aspect of the interpersonal context of faces: whether the target face either established mutual gaze looking directly into the camera as if talking to the viewer or averted gaze slightly to the side as if talking to another person...
June 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604032/gaze-behavior-to-faces-during-dyadic-interaction
#11
Roy S Hessels, Tim H W Cornelissen, Ignace T C Hooge, Chantal Kemner
A long-standing hypothesis is that humans have a bias for fixating the eye region in the faces of others. Most studies have tested this hypothesis with static images or videos of faces, yet recent studies suggest that the use of such "nonresponsive" stimuli might overlook an influence of social context. The present study addressed whether the bias for fixating the eye region in faces would persist in a situation that allowed for social interaction. In Experiment 1, we demonstrate a setup in which a duo could engage in social interaction while their eye movements were recorded...
June 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604030/chatting-in-the-face-of-the-eyewitness-the-impact-of-extraneous-cell-phone-conversation-on-memory-for-a-perpetrator
#12
John E Marsh, Krupali Patel, Katherine Labonté, Emma Threadgold, Faye C Skelton, Cristina Fodarella, Rachel Thorley, Kirsty L Battersby, Charlie D Frowd, Linden J Ball, François Vachon
Cell-phone conversation is ubiquitous within public spaces. The current study investigates whether ignored cell-phone conversation impairs eyewitness memory for a perpetrator. Participants viewed a video of a staged crime in the presence of 1 side of a comprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningful halfalogue), 2 sides of a comprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningful dialogue), 1 side of an incomprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningless halfalogue), or quiet. Between 24 and 28 hr later, participants freely described the perpetrator's face, constructed a single composite image of the perpetrator from memory, and attempted to identify the perpetrator from a sequential lineup...
June 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604029/staring-reality-in-the-face-a-comparison-of-social-attention-across-laboratory-and-real-world-measures-suggests-little-common-ground
#13
Dana A Hayward, Willa Voorhies, Jenna L Morris, Francesca Capozzi, Jelena Ristic
The ability to attend to someone else's gaze is thought to represent 1 of the essential building blocks of the human sociocognitive system. This behavior, termed social attention, has traditionally been assessed using laboratory procedures in which participants' response time and/or accuracy performance indexes attentional function. Recently, a parallel body of emerging research has started to examine social attention during real life social interactions using naturalistic and observational methodologies. The main goal of the present work was to begin connecting these two lines of inquiry...
June 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604028/re-reading-after-mind-wandering
#14
Trish L Varao-Sousa, Grayden J F Solman, Alan Kingstone
Though much research has been conducted on the causes and processes underlying mind wandering, relatively little has addressed what happens after an episode of mind wandering. We explore this issue in the context of reading. Specifically, by examining re-reading behaviours following mind wandering episodes. Results from 2 studies reveal that after mind wandering, participants re-read nearly half the time. This re-reading occurs whether mind wandering is self-caught or probe-caught, and it typically involves retracing a line or 2 of text...
June 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604053/are-fixations-in-static-natural-scenes-a-useful-predictor-of-attention-in-the-real-world
#15
Tom Foulsham, Alan Kingstone
Research investigating scene perception normally involves laboratory experiments using static images. Much has been learned about how observers look at pictures of the real world and the attentional mechanisms underlying this behaviour. However, the use of static, isolated pictures as a proxy for studying everyday attention in real environments has led to the criticism that such experiments are artificial. We report a new study that tests the extent to which the real world can be reduced to simpler laboratory stimuli...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604052/lifespan-changes-in-attention-revisited-everyday-visual-search
#16
Allison A Brennan, Alison J Bruderer, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Todd C Handy, James T Enns
This study compared visual search under everyday conditions among participants across the life span (healthy participants in 4 groups, with average age of 6 years, 8 years, 22 years, and 75 years, and 1 group averaging 73 years with a history of falling). The task involved opening a door and stepping into a room find 1 of 4 everyday objects (apple, golf ball, coffee can, toy penguin) visible on shelves. The background for this study included 2 well-cited laboratory studies that pointed to different cognitive mechanisms underlying each end of the U-shaped pattern of visual search over the life span (Hommel et al...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604051/safe-or-out-does-the-location-of-attention-affect-judgments-at-first-base-in-baseball
#17
Ralph S Redden, Ghislain d'Entremont, Raymond M Klein
Titchener's law of prior entry states that attended stimuli are perceived before unattended stimuli. Prior entry effects measured with visual stimuli have been generated with both endogenous and exogenous attentional deployment (e.g., by Shore, Spence, & Klein, 2001). In theory, the endogenous form of prior entry may have implications for baseball umpire judgments. Conventionally, umpires are instructed to first attend to the ball when it is hit into play; however, where they attend at the imperative instant of the play at first base can vary between individuals and across scenarios...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604050/coordinating-vision-and-action-in-natural-behaviour-differences-in-spatiotemporal-coupling-in-everyday-tasks
#18
Sharon Scrafton, Matthew J Stainer, Benjamin W Tatler
Vision and action are tightly coupled in space and time: for many tasks we must look at the right place at the right time to gather the information that we need to complete our behavioural goals. Vision typically leads action by about 0.5 seconds in many natural tasks. However, the factors that influence this temporal coordination are not well understood, and variations have been found previously between two domestic tasks each with similar constraints: tea making and sandwich making. This study offers a systematic exploration of the factors that govern spatiotemporal coordination of vision and action within complex real-world activities...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604049/wandering-minds-and-wavering-goals-examining-the-relation-between-mind-wandering-and-grit-in-everyday-life-and-the-classroom
#19
Brandon C W Ralph, Jeffrey D Wammes, Nathaniel Barr, Daniel Smilek
Here we examined the relation between mind wandering and the personality trait of 'grit.' Our hypothesis was that because mind wandering leads to a disruption of momentary goal completion, the tendency to mind wander might be inversely related to the completion of long-term goals that require sustained interest and effort (i.e., grittiness). In Study 1 we used online questionnaires and found that in everyday life, the propensity to mind wander was negatively correlated with individuals' self-reported grittiness...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604048/talking-is-harder-than-listening-the-time-course-of-dual-task-costs-during-naturalistic-conversation
#20
April M C Lee, Stefania Cerisano, Karin R Humphreys, Scott Watter
Many studies have shown that the cognitive demands of language use are a substantial cause of central dual-task costs, including costs on concurrent driving performance. More recently, several studies have considered whether language production or comprehension is inherently more difficult with respect to costs on concurrent performance, with mixed results. This assessment is particularly difficult given the open question of how one should best equate and compare production and comprehension demands and performance...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
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