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Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845542/adapting-to-change-the-role-of-the-right-hemisphere-in-mental-model-building-and-updating
#1
Alex Filipowicz, Britt Anderson, James Danckert
We recently proposed that the right hemisphere plays a crucial role in the processes underlying mental model building and updating. Here, we review the evidence we and others have garnered to support this novel account of right hemisphere function. We begin by presenting evidence from patient work that suggests a critical role for the right hemisphere in the ability to learn from the statistics in the environment (model building) and adapt to environmental change (model updating). We then provide a review of neuroimaging research that highlights a network of brain regions involved in mental model updating...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845541/how-the-baby-learns-to-see-donald-o-hebb-award-lecture-canadian-society-for-brain-behaviour-and-cognitive-science-ottawa-june-2015
#2
Daphne Maurer
Hebb's (1949) book The Organisation of Behaviour presented a novel hypothesis about how the baby learns to see. This article summarizes the results of my research program that evaluated Hebb's hypothesis: first, by studying infants' eye movements and initial perceptual abilities and second, by studying the effect of visual deprivation (e.g., congenital cataracts) on later perceptual development. Collectively, the results support Hebb's hypothesis that the baby does indeed learn to see. Early visual experience not only drives the baby's initial scanning of objects, but also sets up the neural architecture that will come to underlie adults' perception...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548115/r%C3%A3-le-des-aff%C3%A3-rences-proprioceptives-dans-le-d%C3%A3-veloppement-de-l-imagerie-motrice-chez-l-enfant
#3
Jessica Guilbert, Michèle Molina, François Jouen
To which extent is motor imagery (MI) development, commonly observed between the ages of 5 and 9, related to the increasing ability to integrate proprioceptive afferences for the control of action? This question was addressed in a study evaluating MI performance of 108 children aged 5, 7 and 9 years old. A mental chronometry paradigm based on a walking task was used. Integration of proprioceptive information was evaluated by comparing MI performance when children held an external load (5 % of the children weight) to when they did not...
August 15, 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455062/the-automatic-visual-simulation-of-words-a-memory-reactivated-mask-slows-down-conceptual-access
#4
Amandine E Rey, Benoit Riou, Guillaume T Vallet, Rémy Versace
How do we represent the meaning of words? The present study assesses whether access to conceptual knowledge requires the reenactment of the sensory components of a concept. The reenactment-that is, simulation-was tested in a word categorisation task using an innovative masking paradigm. We hypothesised that a meaningless reactivated visual mask should interfere with the simulation of the visual dimension of concrete words. This assumption was tested in a paradigm in which participants were not aware of the link between the visual mask and the words to be processed...
July 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281676/the-effect-of-lexical-factors-on-recall-from-working-memory-generalizing-the-neighborhood-size-effect
#5
Lesley S Derraugh, Ian Neath, Aimée M Surprenant, Olivia Beaudry, Jean Saint-Aubin
The word-length effect, the finding that lists of short words are better recalled than lists of long words, is 1 of the 4 benchmark phenomena that guided development of the phonological loop component of working memory. However, previous work has noted a confound in word-length studies: The short words used had more orthographic neighbors (valid words that can be made by changing a single letter in the target word) than long words. The confound is that words with more neighbors are better recalled than otherwise comparable words with fewer neighbors...
June 9, 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269769/single-step-simple-roc-curve-fitting-via-pca
#6
John R Vokey
A simple approach to fitting curves to receiver operating characteristic rating data is presented. It is based on the first principal component of the covariance space of the inverse normal integral of the cumulative rating data of the targets and distractors. It provides for 2 new associated d' estimates, dp' and dYNp'. A Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that the parameter estimates are unbiased and produce estimates comparable to the iterative, maximum likelihood approach. The corresponding computational and plotting functions in the R programming language are also provided...
June 6, 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244360/evaluating-the-basis-of-the-between-group-production-effect-in-recognition
#7
Alexander Taikh, Glen E Bodner
Reading a list of words aloud can improve recognition over silently reading them. This between-groups production effect (PE) cannot be due to relative distinctiveness because each group studies only 1 type of item. We tested 2 other possibilities. By a strategy account, a pure-aloud group might benefit from use of a production-based distinctiveness strategy at test (e.g., "Did I say this word aloud?"). By a strength account, aloud items may simply be more strongly encoded than silent items. To evaluate these accounts, we tested whether a between-group PE occurs when participants experience a salient within-group manipulation of font size, generation, or imagery at study...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244359/influence-of-retrieval-mode-on-effects-of-production-evidence-for-costs-in-free-recall
#8
Yaniv Mama, Michal Icht
Study modality (visual, auditory) of words as well as production mode (reading aloud, writing down) have been shown to influence the production effect (PE). When study words are presented visually, reading them aloud yields superior memory. However, when the same study words are presented aurally, writing them down leads to superior memory. Missing in PE studies is the variable of retrieval mode (written, aloud), which was addressed in the present study. In a pair of experiments, we manipulated the 3 variables-study modality, production mode, and retrieval mode-in a factorial fashion...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244358/the-production-effect-in-long-list-recall-in-no-particular-order
#9
Angela M Lambert, Glen E Bodner, Alexander Taikh
The production effect reflects a memory advantage for words read aloud versus silently. We investigated how production influences free recall of a single long list of words. In each of 4 experiments, a production effect occurred in a mixed-list group but not across pure-list groups. When compared to the pure-list groups, the mixed-list effects typically reflected a cost to silent words rather than a benefit to aloud words. This cost persisted when participants had to perform a generation or imagery task for the silent items, ruling out a lazy reading explanation...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244357/a-computational-account-of-the-production-effect-still-playing-twenty-questions-with-nature
#10
Randall K Jamieson, D J K Mewhort, William E Hockley
People remember words that they read aloud better than words that they read silently, a result known as the production effect. The standing explanation for the production effect is that producing a word renders it distinctive in memory and, thus, memorable at test. By 1 key account, distinctiveness is defined in terms of sensory feedback. We formalize the sensory-feedback account using MINERVA 2, a standard model of memory. The model accommodates the basic result in recognition as well as the fact that the mixed-list production effect is larger than its pure-list counterpart, that the production effect is robust to forgetting, and that the production and generation effects have additive influences on performance...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244356/production-does-not-improve-memory-for-face-name-associations
#11
Kathleen L Hourihan, Alexis R S Smith
Strategies for learning face-name associations are generally difficult and time-consuming. However, research has shown that saying a word aloud improves our memory for that word relative to words from the same set that were read silently. Such production effects have been shown for words, pictures, text material, and even word pairs. Can production improve memory for face-name associations? In Experiment 1, participants studied face-name pairs by reading half of the names aloud and half of the names silently, and were tested with cued recall...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244355/a-preliminary-investigation-into-the-neural-basis-of-the-production-effect
#12
Cameron D Hassall, Chelsea K Quinlan, David J Turk, Tracy L Taylor, Olave E Krigolson
Items that are produced (e.g., read aloud) during encoding typically are better remembered than items that are not produced (e.g., read silently). This "production effect" has been explained by distinctiveness: Produced items have more distinct features than nonproduced items, leading to enhanced retrieval. The goal of the current study was to use electroencephalography (EEG) to examine the neural basis of the production effect. During study, participants were presented with words that they were required to read silently, read aloud, or sing while EEG data were recorded...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244354/order-information-is-used-to-guide-recall-of-long-lists-further-evidence-for-the-item-order-account
#13
Noah D Forrin, Colin M MacLeod
Differences in memory for item order have been used to explain the absence of between-subjects (i.e., pure-list) effects in free recall for several encoding techniques, including the production effect, the finding that reading aloud benefits memory compared with reading silently. Notably, however, evidence in support of the item-order account (Nairne, Riegler, & Serra, 1991) has derived primarily from short-list paradigms. We provide novel evidence that the item-order account also applies when recalling long lists...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244353/auditory-presentation-at-test-does-not-diminish-the-production-effect-in-recognition
#14
Noah D Forrin, Colin M MacLeod
Three experiments investigated whether auditory information at test would undermine the relational distinctiveness of vocal production at study, diminishing the production effect. In Experiment 1, with visual presentation during study, the production effect was equivalently large regardless of whether participants read each test word out loud prior to making their recognition decision. In Experiment 2, incorporating auditory presentation during study, the production effect was unaltered by whether recognition test words were presented visually or auditorily...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244352/familiarity-but-not-recollection-supports-the-between-subject-production-effect-in-recognition-memory
#15
Jonathan M Fawcett, Jason D Ozubko
Five experiments explored the basis of the between-subjects production effect in recognition memory as represented by differences in the recollection and familiarity of produced (read aloud) and nonproduced (read silently) words. Using remember-know judgments (Experiment 1b) and a dual-process signal-detection approach applied to confidence ratings (Experiments 2b and 3), we observed that production influences familiarity but not recollection when manipulated between-subjects. This is in contrast to within-subject designs, which reveal a clear effect of production on both recollection and familiarity (Experiments 1a and 2a)...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244351/the-production-effect-in-recognition-memory-weakening-strength-can-strengthen-distinctiveness
#16
Glen E Bodner, Randall K Jamieson, David T Cormack, Dawn-Leah McDonald, Daniel M Bernstein
Producing items (e.g., by saying them aloud or typing them) can improve recognition memory. To evaluate whether production increases item distinctiveness and/or memory strength we compared this effect as a function of the percentage of items that participants typed at encoding (i.e., 0%, 20%, 50%, 80%, and 100%). Experiment 1 revealed a strength-based pattern: The production effect was similar across pure-list (i.e., 0% vs. 100%) and mixed-list (i.e., 20%, 50%, 80%) designs, and there was no observed influence of statistical distinctiveness (i...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244350/the-benefits-of-studying-by-production-and-of-studying-production-introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-the-production-effect-in-memory
#17
Glen E Bodner, Colin M MacLeod
The production effect refers to enhanced memory for materials that were produced at study (e.g., those read aloud) relative to materials that were not produced (e.g., those read silently). The effect has generated a wave of interest since being named in 2010 (MacLeod, Gopie, Hourihan, Neary, and Ozubko, 2010)-likely because of the simplicity of production tasks and of the substantial memory improvements that they can yield. This special issue of the Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology brings together 10 new studies on the production effect in memory...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27228334/priming-effects-between-spatial-meaning-of-verbs-and-numbers-are-modulated-by-time-intervals-early-interference-and-late-facilitation
#18
Martin Lachmair, Susana Ruiz Fernández, Peter Gerjets
In 2 recent studies it has been shown that processing high or low number primes (8, 9 vs. 1, 2) affect the processing of subsequent target words with an implicit spatial cue up or down (e.g., sky, to rise vs. floor, to fall) (Lachmair, Dudschig, de la Vega, & Kaup, 2014a; Lachmair, Dudschig, Ruiz Fernández, & Kaup, 2014b). It has been argued that the interactions for number-noun and number-verb pairs are due to overlapping representations of numbers and words. If this is true, one should find similar interactions by using words as primes and numbers as targets (neuronal-overlap-of-meaning hypothesis)...
May 26, 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27176819/conceptual-knowledge-of-arithmetic-for-chinese-and-canadian-educated-adults
#19
Katherine M Robinson, Jacqueline-Ann Beatch
This study investigated whether Canadian- and Chinese-educated adults differ in their understanding of simple arithmetic concepts. Participants (n = 21 per group) solved 3-term addition and subtraction (e.g., 5 + 22 - 22 and 3 + 24 - 26) and multiplication and division (e.g., 2 × 28 ÷ 28 and 4 × 39 ÷ 13) problems. All problems could be solved more easily if conceptual knowledge of the relationship between the 2 operations in each problem was understood and applied. Accuracy, solution time, and immediately retrospective self-reports of problem-solving strategy data were collected...
May 12, 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124292/dancing-with-the-snarc-measuring-spatial-numerical-associations-on-a-digital-dance-mat
#20
Ursula Fischer, Korbinian Moeller, Friderike Class, Stefan Huber, Ulrike Cress, Hans-Christoph Nuerk
According to the concept of embodied numerosity, bodily experiences influence the way in which we process numerical magnitude. The development of this influence could be anchored in the spatial ordering of numbers along a mental number line representation, which is measured by effects of spatial-numerical associations. The aim of this study was to investigate whether horizontally oriented full-body movement and visual presentation of a number line both contribute to spatial-numerical associations in children...
April 28, 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
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