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Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977230/time-out-for-conflict-monitoring-theory-preventing-rhythmic-biases-eliminates-the-list-level-proportion-congruent-effect
#1
James R Schmidt
The proportion congruent (PC) effect is the observation that congruency effects are smaller when most trials are incongruent rather than congruent. The list-level PC (LLPC) effect is the finding that a PC effect can transfer from biased inducer items to unbiased diagnostic items. Such effects are generally interpreted as resulting from conflict monitoring and attentional adaptation. An alternative view proposes that PC effects result from simple learning biases unrelated to conflict. The temporal learning account proposes that LLPC effects stem from a different task rhythm in the mostly congruent and mostly incongruent conditions...
December 15, 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936837/using-the-locus-of-slack-logic-to-determine-whether-inhibition-of-return-in-a-cue-target-paradigm-is-delaying-early-or-late-stages-of-processing
#2
Maryam Kavyani, Alireza Farsi, Behrouz Abdoli, Raymond M Klein
Inhibition of return (IOR) is a phenomenon characterized by slower responses to targets at cued locations relative to those at uncued locations. Based on the results of previous research, it has been suggested that IOR affects a process at the input end of the processing continuum when it is generated while the reflexive oculomotor system is suppressed (cf. Satel, Hilchey, Wang, Story, & Klein, 2013). To test this theory, we employed a modified psychological refractory period paradigm designed to elicit input IOR with visual stimuli, allowing us to use the locus-of-slack logic to determine whether an early or late stage of processing was inhibited by IOR...
December 12, 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936836/conflicting-effects-of-context-in-change-detection-and-visual-search-a-dual-process-account
#3
Mitchell R P LaPointe, Bruce Milliken
Congruent contexts often facilitate performance in visual search and categorisation tasks using natural scenes. A congruent context is thought to contain predictive information about the types of objects likely to be encountered, as well as their location. However, in change detection tasks, changes embedded in congruent contexts often produce impaired performance relative to incongruent contexts. Using a stimulus set controlled for object perceptual salience, we compare performance across change detection and visual search tasks, as well as a hybrid of these 2 tasks...
December 12, 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936843/abstracts-of-the-2016-csbbcs-annual-meeting-r%C3%A3-sum%C3%A3-s-du-congr%C3%A3-s-annuel-2016-de-la-scccsc
#4
(no author information available yet)
Provides a collection of abstracts from the 2016 CSBBCS Annual Meeting. (PsycINFO Database Record
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936842/comprendre-le-stade-compensatoire-de-la-maladie-d-alzheimer-et-agir-pour-promouvoir-la-cognition-et-la-plasticit%C3%A3-c%C3%A3-r%C3%A3-brale
#5
Sylvie Belleville, Benjamin Boller
Alzheimer's disease begins with a phase of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), characterized by the presence of minor symptoms that have little or no impact on functional independence. The study of patients with MCI has led to spectacular advances in understanding the prodrome of the disease. It has also produced a typical cognitive profile: an impairment of episodic memory, especially delayed recall and associative memory, deficit in executive functions or working memory and certain semantic problems. Recent studies have also examined compensatory processes that take place during the early phase of the disease...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936841/a-career-of-harnessing-group-variability
#6
Donald T Stuss
Neuroscience research, particularly in brain-injured patients, is often hampered by the problems of variability of performance among the individuals included in what seems like a well-defined supposedly homogeneous group. This review presents examples from the author's research in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the effects of frontal lobe focal pathology to illustrate how variability was explored and "harnessed" to advance the understanding of specific brain-behaviour relations and the role of the frontal lobes in human behaviour...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548115/r%C3%A3-le-des-aff%C3%A3-rences-proprioceptives-dans-le-d%C3%A3-veloppement-de-l-imagerie-motrice-chez-l-enfant
#7
Jessica Guilbert, Michèle Molina, François Jouen
To which extent is motor imagery (MI) development, commonly observed between the ages of 5 and 9, related to the increasing ability to integrate proprioceptive afferences for the control of action? This question was addressed in a study evaluating MI performance of 108 children aged 5, 7 and 9 years old. A mental chronometry paradigm based on a walking task was used. Integration of proprioceptive information was evaluated by comparing MI performance when children held an external load (5 % of the children weight) to when they did not...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269769/single-step-simple-roc-curve-fitting-via-pca
#8
John R Vokey
A simple approach to fitting curves to receiver operating characteristic rating data is presented. It is based on the first principal component of the covariance space of the inverse normal integral of the cumulative rating data of the targets and distractors. It provides for 2 new associated d' estimates, dp' and dYNp'. A Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that the parameter estimates are unbiased and produce estimates comparable to the iterative, maximum likelihood approach. The corresponding computational and plotting functions in the R programming language are also provided...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27228334/priming-effects-between-spatial-meaning-of-verbs-and-numbers-are-modulated-by-time-intervals-early-interference-and-late-facilitation
#9
Martin Lachmair, Susana Ruiz Fernández, Peter Gerjets
In 2 recent studies it has been shown that processing high or low number primes (8, 9 vs. 1, 2) affect the processing of subsequent target words with an implicit spatial cue up or down (e.g., sky, to rise vs. floor, to fall) (Lachmair, Dudschig, de la Vega, & Kaup, 2014a; Lachmair, Dudschig, Ruiz Fernández, & Kaup, 2014b). It has been argued that the interactions for number-noun and number-verb pairs are due to overlapping representations of numbers and words. If this is true, one should find similar interactions by using words as primes and numbers as targets (neuronal-overlap-of-meaning hypothesis)...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27176819/conceptual-knowledge-of-arithmetic-for-chinese-and-canadian-educated-adults
#10
Katherine M Robinson, Jacqueline-Ann Beatch
This study investigated whether Canadian- and Chinese-educated adults differ in their understanding of simple arithmetic concepts. Participants (n = 21 per group) solved 3-term addition and subtraction (e.g., 5 + 22 - 22 and 3 + 24 - 26) and multiplication and division (e.g., 2 × 28 ÷ 28 and 4 × 39 ÷ 13) problems. All problems could be solved more easily if conceptual knowledge of the relationship between the 2 operations in each problem was understood and applied. Accuracy, solution time, and immediately retrospective self-reports of problem-solving strategy data were collected...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124292/dancing-with-the-snarc-measuring-spatial-numerical-associations-on-a-digital-dance-mat
#11
Ursula Fischer, Korbinian Moeller, Friderike Class, Stefan Huber, Ulrike Cress, Hans-Christoph Nuerk
According to the concept of embodied numerosity, bodily experiences influence the way in which we process numerical magnitude. The development of this influence could be anchored in the spatial ordering of numbers along a mental number line representation, which is measured by effects of spatial-numerical associations. The aim of this study was to investigate whether horizontally oriented full-body movement and visual presentation of a number line both contribute to spatial-numerical associations in children...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26654387/when-is-inhibition-of-return-input-or-output-based-it-depends-on-how-you-look-at-it
#12
Matthew D Hilchey, Deniz Dohmen, Nathan A Crowder, Raymond M Klein
Two important diagnostics have been used to infer whether the effect of inhibition of return, when preceded by a saccade, is primarily upon input (i.e., attentional/perceptual level) or output (i.e., response/decision level) processes. Data from antisaccade paradigms involving luminance targets in peripheral vision suggest input effects whereas data from spatially compatible manual responses to centrally presented arrow targets suggest output effects. Here, we combine these diagnostics to resolve the discrepancy...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26640974/the-processing-of-singular-and-plural-nouns-in-english-french-and-dutch-new-insights-from-megastudies
#13
Manuel Gimenes, Marc Brysbaert, Boris New
In this study, we explored the processing of singular and plural word forms, using megastudies in French, English, and Dutch. For singulars, we observed a base frequency effect but no surface frequency effect. For plurals, the effect depended on the frequency of the word form. When the word form had a frequency above a threshold value, we observed both surface and base frequency effects; for the frequencies below the threshold, we found a base frequency effect only, suggesting full decomposition for these words...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845542/adapting-to-change-the-role-of-the-right-hemisphere-in-mental-model-building-and-updating
#14
Alex Filipowicz, Britt Anderson, James Danckert
We recently proposed that the right hemisphere plays a crucial role in the processes underlying mental model building and updating. Here, we review the evidence we and others have garnered to support this novel account of right hemisphere function. We begin by presenting evidence from patient work that suggests a critical role for the right hemisphere in the ability to learn from the statistics in the environment (model building) and adapt to environmental change (model updating). We then provide a review of neuroimaging research that highlights a network of brain regions involved in mental model updating...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845541/how-the-baby-learns-to-see-donald-o-hebb-award-lecture-canadian-society-for-brain-behaviour-and-cognitive-science-ottawa-june-2015
#15
Daphne Maurer
Hebb's (1949) book The Organisation of Behaviour presented a novel hypothesis about how the baby learns to see. This article summarizes the results of my research program that evaluated Hebb's hypothesis: first, by studying infants' eye movements and initial perceptual abilities and second, by studying the effect of visual deprivation (e.g., congenital cataracts) on later perceptual development. Collectively, the results support Hebb's hypothesis that the baby does indeed learn to see. Early visual experience not only drives the baby's initial scanning of objects, but also sets up the neural architecture that will come to underlie adults' perception...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27077956/automatic-effects-of-no-go-instructions
#16
Baptist Liefooghe, Jasper Degryse, Marijke Theeuwes
Previous research has indicated that stimulus-response mappings that have been instructed but never applied overtly before can lead to automatic response biases when they are irrelevant. In the present study, we investigated whether the same applies to no-go instructions, which relate a stimulus to a no-go response. The results of 2 experiments suggest that a no-go instruction that has never been practiced overtly before can automatically bias responding when it is irrelevant. In addition, the automatic effect of a no-go instruction was similar in size to the automatic effect of a go instruction...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26881865/an-attentional-bias-for-lego%C3%A2-people-using-a-change-detection-task-are-lego%C3%A2-people-animate
#17
Mitchell R P LaPointe, Rachael Cullen, Bianca Baltaretu, Melissa Campos, Natalie Michalski, Suja Sri Satgunarajah, Michelle L Cadieux, Matthew V Pachai, David I Shore
Animate objects have been shown to elicit attentional priority in a change detection task. This benefit has been seen for both human and nonhuman animals compared with inanimate objects. One explanation for these results has been based on the importance animate objects have served over the course of our species' history. In the present set of experiments, we present stimuli, which could be perceived as animate, but with which our distant ancestors would have had no experience, and natural selection could have no direct pressure on their prioritization...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26751082/cluttered-environments-differential-effects-of-obstacle-position-on-grasp-and-gaze-locations
#18
Jonathan J Marotta, Timothy J Graham
Previous research has investigated the effects of nontarget objects (NTOs) on reach trajectories, but their effects on eye-hand coordination remain to be determined. The current investigation utilized an eye-hand coordination paradigm, where a reaching and grasping task was performed in the presence of an NTO positioned exclusively in the right or left workspace of each right-handed participant. NTOs varied in their closeness to the subject and reach-path, between the starting location of the hand and the target-object of the reach...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26569141/competitive-retrieval-is-not-a-prerequisite-for-forgetting-in-the-retrieval-practice-paradigm
#19
Gino Camp, Sander Dalm
Retrieving information from memory can lead to forgetting of other, related information. The inhibition account of this retrieval-induced forgetting effect predicts that this form of forgetting occurs when competition arises between the practiced information and the related information, leading to inhibition of the related information. In the standard retrieval practice paradigm, a retrieval practice task is used in which participants retrieve the items based on a category-plus-stem cue (e.g., FRUIT-or___)...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26569140/constructing-a-group-distribution-from-individual-distributions
#20
Denis Cousineau, Jean-Philippe Thivierge, Bradley Harding, Yves Lacouture
A group distribution is a synthesis of a set of individual distributions. To be adequate, a method for creating group distributions should not introduce characteristics that are not present in the individual distributions and preserve those that are present. A method occasionally used is quantile averaging (sometimes called vincentizations), applied generally to response time distributions. However, it is shown here using quantile-quantile plots on empirical response times that this method is inadequate. As shown by Thomas and Ross (1980, Journal of Mathematical Psychology), to solve this problem, quantile averaging can be generalised using an appropriate nonlinear transformation of the data...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
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