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Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333481/selection-of-procedures-in-mental-subtraction-use-of-eye-movements-as-a-window-on-arithmetic-processing
#1
Matthew G Huebner, Jo-Anne LeFevre
Adults who use mental procedures other than direct retrieval to solve simple arithmetic problems typically make more errors and respond more slowly than individuals who rely on retrieval. The present study examined how this extra time was distributed across problem components when adults (n = 40) solved small (e.g., 5 - 2) and large (e.g., 17 - 9) subtraction problems. Two performance groups (i.e., retrievers and procedure users) were created based on a 2-group cluster analysis using statistics derived from the ex-Gaussian model of reaction time (RT) distributions (i...
March 23, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333480/underestimation-in-linear-function-learning-anchoring-to-zero-or-x-y-similarity
#2
Mark A Brown, Guy Lacroix
Function learning research has shown that people tend to underestimate positive linear functions when extrapolating Y for X-values below the training range. Kwantes and Neal (2006) proposed that this underestimation occurs because people anchor their Y-estimates at zero. It is equally plausible, however, that people are biased to make Y-estimates similar to the presented X-value. To differentiate these 2 explanations, 135 participants extrapolated positive linear functions with a y-intercept either greater than or less than zero...
March 23, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333479/are-lexical-factors-immune-to-response-modality-in-backward-recall-the-effects-of-imageability-and-word-frequency
#3
Olivia Beaudry, Jean Saint-Aubin, Katherine Guérard, Myriam Pâquet
In immediate serial recall, it is well established that performance is influenced by lexical factors such as imageability and word frequency. However, when participants are asked to recall the to-be-remembered items in their reverse order, known as backward recall, lexical factors produced contradictory findings. In 4 experiments, we tested the role of response modality in modulating the effects of imageability and word frequency in backward recall. The magnitude of the 2 tested lexical factors was only slightly reduced in backward compared with forward recall when participants responded manually...
March 23, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192010/the-relationship-between-flash-based-illusory-line-motion-and-exogenous-visual-attention
#4
HyunYoung Ha, Don Li, Bradley Patten, Jeff P Hamm
If a bar suddenly appears between 2 squares after 1 of the squares flashes the bar appears to shoot away from the flashed square toward the other. This occurs despite the bar actually having been presented all at once. This illusory motion is sufficiently strong to cancel real motion drawn in the opposite direction. One explanation for the illusion in these displays is based upon the prior entry benefits generated by exogenous attention at the flashed location. These prior entry benefits can be offset by real motion in the opposite direction, which enables 1 to quantify the illusion based upon the area between the response curves following left and right flashes...
February 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192009/%C3%A3-tude-des-strat%C3%A3-gies-de-raisonnement-causal-dans-l-estimation-de-la-probabilit%C3%A3-diagnostique-%C3%A3-travers-un-paradigme-exp%C3%A3-rimental-de-production-de-r%C3%A3-gle
#5
Jean-Louis Stilgenbauer, Jean Baratgin
The objective of this research was to test for the existence of reasoning strategies in the estimation of the diagnostic probability: P(cause|effect). In two experiments, we show that estimation of this probability can be achieved by two paths that are formally distinct. The most intuitive approach (default strategy) consists in evaluating P(cause|effect) by means of retractable deduction type reasoning based on a retractable Modus Ponens (EFFECT; if EFFECT then CAUSE is probable; thus CAUSE is probable). The second strategy consists in estimating diagnostic probability using abductive reasoning corresponding to the affirmation of consequent argument (EFFECT; if CAUSE then EFFECT is probable; thus CAUSE is probable)...
February 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192008/the-brain-s-representations-may-be-compatible-with-convolution-based-memory-models
#6
Kenichi Kato, Jeremy B Caplan
Convolution is a mathematical operation used in vector-models of memory that have been successful in explaining a broad range of behaviour, including memory for associations between pairs of items, an important primitive of memory upon which a broad range of everyday memory behaviour depends. However, convolution models have trouble with naturalistic item representations, which are highly auto-correlated (as one finds, e.g., with photographs), and this has cast doubt on their neural plausibility. Consequently, modellers working with convolution have used item representations composed of randomly drawn values, but introducing so-called noise-like representation raises the question how those random-like values might relate to actual item properties...
February 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252996/sliding-into-happiness-a-new-tool-for-measuring-affective-responses-to-words
#7
Amy Beth Warriner, David I Shore, Louis A Schmidt, Constance L Imbault, Victor Kuperman
Reliable measurement of affective responses is critical for research into human emotion. Affective evaluation of words is most commonly gauged on multiple dimensions-including valence (positivity) and arousal-using a rating scale. Despite its popularity, this scale is open to criticism: It generates ordinal data that is often misinterpreted as interval, it does not provide the fine resolution that is essential by recent theoretical accounts of emotion, and its extremes may not be properly calibrated. In 5 experiments, the authors introduce a new slider tool for affective evaluation of words on a continuous, well-calibrated and high-resolution scale...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252995/training-perceptual-experts-feedback-labels-and-contrasts
#8
Rachel A Searston, Jason M Tangen
Are strategies for learning in education effective for learning in applied visual domains, such as fingerprint identification? We compare the effect of practice with immediate corrective feedback (feedback training), generating labels for features of matching and mismatching fingerprints (labels training), and contrasting matching and mismatching fingerprints (contrast training). We benchmark these strategies against a baseline of regular practice discriminating fingerprints. We found that all 3 training protocols-feedback, labels, and contrasts-resulted in a significantly greater ability to discriminate new pairs of prints (independent of response bias) than the baseline training protocol...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252994/reading-homophone-puns-evidence-from-eye-tracking
#9
Debra Jared, Sarah Bainbridge
We investigated how readers make sense of homophone puns (e.g., The butcher was very glad we could meat up) by tracking their eye movements as they read. Comparison sentences included homophone-error sentences in which the presented homophone was also not correct (e.g., The lawyer was very glad we could meat up) and sentences in which the homophone was correct for the context (e.g., The butcher was very glad to chop meat up for the stew). An effect of the frequency of the unpresented homophone mate (e.g., meet) was found on first-pass reading times for homophones, indicating that participants activated the meaning of the homophone mate through shared phonology...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252993/cjep-will-offer-open-science-badges
#10
Penny M Pexman
This editorial announces the decision of the Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology (CJEP) to offer Open Science Framework (OSF) Badges. The Centre for Open Science provides tools to facilitate open science practices. These include the OSF badges. The badges acknowledge papers that meet standards for openness of data, methods, or research process. They are now described in the CJEP Submission Guidelines, and are provided in the editorial. (PsycINFO Database Record
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977230/time-out-for-conflict-monitoring-theory-preventing-rhythmic-biases-eliminates-the-list-level-proportion-congruent-effect
#11
James R Schmidt
The proportion congruent (PC) effect is the observation that congruency effects are smaller when most trials are incongruent rather than congruent. The list-level PC (LLPC) effect is the finding that a PC effect can transfer from biased inducer items to unbiased diagnostic items. Such effects are generally interpreted as resulting from conflict monitoring and attentional adaptation. An alternative view proposes that PC effects result from simple learning biases unrelated to conflict. The temporal learning account proposes that LLPC effects stem from a different task rhythm in the mostly congruent and mostly incongruent conditions...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936837/using-the-locus-of-slack-logic-to-determine-whether-inhibition-of-return-in-a-cue-target-paradigm-is-delaying-early-or-late-stages-of-processing
#12
Maryam Kavyani, Alireza Farsi, Behrouz Abdoli, Raymond M Klein
Inhibition of return (IOR) is a phenomenon characterized by slower responses to targets at cued locations relative to those at uncued locations. Based on the results of previous research, it has been suggested that IOR affects a process at the input end of the processing continuum when it is generated while the reflexive oculomotor system is suppressed (cf. Satel, Hilchey, Wang, Story, & Klein, 2013). To test this theory, we employed a modified psychological refractory period paradigm designed to elicit input IOR with visual stimuli, allowing us to use the locus-of-slack logic to determine whether an early or late stage of processing was inhibited by IOR...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936836/conflicting-effects-of-context-in-change-detection-and-visual-search-a-dual-process-account
#13
Mitchell R P LaPointe, Bruce Milliken
Congruent contexts often facilitate performance in visual search and categorisation tasks using natural scenes. A congruent context is thought to contain predictive information about the types of objects likely to be encountered, as well as their location. However, in change detection tasks, changes embedded in congruent contexts often produce impaired performance relative to incongruent contexts. Using a stimulus set controlled for object perceptual salience, we compare performance across change detection and visual search tasks, as well as a hybrid of these 2 tasks...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455062/the-automatic-visual-simulation-of-words-a-memory-reactivated-mask-slows-down-conceptual-access
#14
Amandine E Rey, Benoit Riou, Guillaume T Vallet, Rémy Versace
How do we represent the meaning of words? The present study assesses whether access to conceptual knowledge requires the reenactment of the sensory components of a concept. The reenactment-that is, simulation-was tested in a word categorisation task using an innovative masking paradigm. We hypothesised that a meaningless reactivated visual mask should interfere with the simulation of the visual dimension of concrete words. This assumption was tested in a paradigm in which participants were not aware of the link between the visual mask and the words to be processed...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281676/the-effect-of-lexical-factors-on-recall-from-working-memory-generalizing-the-neighborhood-size-effect
#15
Lesley S Derraugh, Ian Neath, Aimée M Surprenant, Olivia Beaudry, Jean Saint-Aubin
The word-length effect, the finding that lists of short words are better recalled than lists of long words, is 1 of the 4 benchmark phenomena that guided development of the phonological loop component of working memory. However, previous work has noted a confound in word-length studies: The short words used had more orthographic neighbors (valid words that can be made by changing a single letter in the target word) than long words. The confound is that words with more neighbors are better recalled than otherwise comparable words with fewer neighbors...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936843/abstracts-of-the-2016-csbbcs-annual-meeting-r%C3%A3-sum%C3%A3-s-du-congr%C3%A3-s-annuel-2016-de-la-scccsc
#16
(no author information available yet)
Provides a collection of abstracts from the 2016 CSBBCS Annual Meeting. (PsycINFO Database Record
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936842/comprendre-le-stade-compensatoire-de-la-maladie-d-alzheimer-et-agir-pour-promouvoir-la-cognition-et-la-plasticit%C3%A3-c%C3%A3-r%C3%A3-brale
#17
Sylvie Belleville, Benjamin Boller
Alzheimer's disease begins with a phase of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), characterized by the presence of minor symptoms that have little or no impact on functional independence. The study of patients with MCI has led to spectacular advances in understanding the prodrome of the disease. It has also produced a typical cognitive profile: an impairment of episodic memory, especially delayed recall and associative memory, deficit in executive functions or working memory and certain semantic problems. Recent studies have also examined compensatory processes that take place during the early phase of the disease...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936841/a-career-of-harnessing-group-variability
#18
REVIEW
Donald T Stuss
Neuroscience research, particularly in brain-injured patients, is often hampered by the problems of variability of performance among the individuals included in what seems like a well-defined supposedly homogeneous group. This review presents examples from the author's research in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the effects of frontal lobe focal pathology to illustrate how variability was explored and "harnessed" to advance the understanding of specific brain-behaviour relations and the role of the frontal lobes in human behaviour...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548115/r%C3%A3-le-des-aff%C3%A3-rences-proprioceptives-dans-le-d%C3%A3-veloppement-de-l-imagerie-motrice-chez-l-enfant
#19
Jessica Guilbert, Michèle Molina, François Jouen
To which extent is motor imagery (MI) development, commonly observed between the ages of 5 and 9, related to the increasing ability to integrate proprioceptive afferences for the control of action? This question was addressed in a study evaluating MI performance of 108 children aged 5, 7 and 9 years old. A mental chronometry paradigm based on a walking task was used. Integration of proprioceptive information was evaluated by comparing MI performance when children held an external load (5 % of the children weight) to when they did not...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269769/single-step-simple-roc-curve-fitting-via-pca
#20
John R Vokey
A simple approach to fitting curves to receiver operating characteristic rating data is presented. It is based on the first principal component of the covariance space of the inverse normal integral of the cumulative rating data of the targets and distractors. It provides for 2 new associated d' estimates, dp' and dYNp'. A Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that the parameter estimates are unbiased and produce estimates comparable to the iterative, maximum likelihood approach. The corresponding computational and plotting functions in the R programming language are also provided...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
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