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Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30137997/benchmark-based-strategy-use-in-atypical-number-lines
#1
Koen Luwel, Dominique Peeters, Goedele Dierckx, Elke Sekeris, Lieven Verschaffel
Previous studies have indicated that the presence of atypical end points (e.g., 1,639 and 2,897) on a number line has a negative effect on number line estimation (NLE) performance (Booth & Newton, 2012; Hurst, Leigh Monahan, Heller, & Cordes, 2014). In the present study, we investigated whether this effect could be attributed to a disruption in the ease with which benchmarks on the number line can be determined and whether this possible disruption changes with age. Hence, we asked 5th graders and adults to perform a NLE task in a typical and an atypical condition with a number line ranging from 0 to 1,000 and from 367 to 1,367, respectively...
August 23, 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124315/attentional-capture-for-emotional-words-and-images-the-importance-of-valence-and-arousal
#2
Tina M Sutton, Ciara Lutz
Categorical negativity theory suggests that valence guides attention; whereas the arousal hypothesis suggests that arousal modulates attention. The current study examined the manner in which both valence and arousal influence the attentional capture of emotional words and images using a dot-probe task. The results revealed the standard congruency effect for negative words, but not positive words, consistent with categorical negativity theory. For the images, all of the negative images, and the positive, highly arousing images attracted attention indicating that valence and arousal interact when processing emotional images...
August 20, 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124314/multisensory-integration-of-signals-for-bodily-self-awareness-requires-minimal-cognitive-effort
#3
Samira Fahey, Lyndsey Charette, Christine Francis, Zane Zheng
Multisensory integration is considered a crucial mechanism underlying the sense of body ownership, but the everyday experience of feeling our own bodies seems automatic and effortless, which implies that the process of integrating multisensory signals for bodily self-awareness may require minimal cognitive effort. To test this, we developed an n-back rubber-hand illusion. The n-back component refers to tracking the identity of the rubber-hand fingers being stroked as the illusion is induced. This embedded n-back task allowed us to parametrically manipulate the levels of cognitive load while maintaining the integrity of the rubber-hand illusion...
August 20, 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30179036/does-the-relation-between-the-control-of-attention-and-second-language-proficiency-generalize-from-india-to-canada
#4
Jean Saint-Aubin, Matthew D Hilchey, Ramesh Mishra, Niharika Singh, Dominique Savoie, Dominic Guitard, Raymond M Klein
Over the last decades, the extralinguistic benefits of bilingualism have been intensively debated. The current study was aimed at clarifying whether bilingualism speeds attentional disengagement. Reflecting faster disengagement, Mishra, Hilchey, Singh, and Klein (2012) observed an earlier onset of inhibition of return (IOR) for high than for low-proficient bilinguals. In contrast, Hernandez, Costa, Fuentes, Vivas, and Sebastian-Galles (2010) failed to find any difference between bilinguals and monolinguals...
September 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172588/things-can-change-sentence-processing-in-consecutive-translation
#5
Jason Omar Ruiz, Pedro Macizo
Syntactic cues help individuals to assign thematic roles (agent/patient) during sentence processing. In the present study, we examined whether the use of syntactic cues changed in bilinguals depending on the task they performed. Spanish (L1)/English (L2) bilinguals read sentences in Spanish either to produce them in the same language or to translate them in English. Three syntactic cues were evaluated: animacy (Experiment 1), subject-verb agreement (Experiment 2), and word order (Experiment 3). In Experiments 1 and 2, word order was stronger than animacy and subject-verb agreement when bilinguals read for translation...
September 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172586/alpha-span-a-measure-of-working-memory
#6
Fergus I M Craik, Ellen Bialystok, Susan Gillingham, Donald T Stuss
In the alpha span test, short lists of words are presented and the participant's task is to mentally reorder the words and give them back in correct alphabetical order. Alpha span is the longest list of words correctly recalled; the article also describes a scoring method in which credit is given for partially correct answers. Alpha span provides a quick and easily completed measure of verbal-numerical working memory (WM), and evidence is presented to show that it is also a valid and reliable measure. One purpose of the article is to present data on age-related differences in WM in participants 17 to 87 years of age...
September 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172585/an-eye-tracking-examination-of-readers-sensitivity-to-pragmatic-scope-information-during-the-processing-of-conditional-inducements
#7
Jeffrey S Wood, Matthew Haigh, Andrew J Stewart
Previous research into conditional inducements has shown that readers are sensitive after reading such conditionals to pragmatic scope differences between promises and threats; specifically, threats can be referred to as promises, but promises cannot be referred to as threats. Crucially, previous work has not revealed whether such scope effects emerge while processing the conditional itself. In the experiment reported here, participants' eye movements were recorded while they read vignettes containing conditional promises and threats...
September 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481568/key-finding-by-artificial-neural-networks-that-learn-about-key-profiles
#8
Michael R W Dawson, Jasen A Z Zielinski
We explore the ability of a very simple artificial neural network, a perceptron, to assert the musical key of novel stimuli. First, perceptrons are trained to associate standardized key profiles (taken from 1 of 3 different sources) to different musical keys. After training, we measured perceptron accuracy in asserting musical keys for 296 novel stimuli. Depending upon which key profiles were used during training, perceptrons can perform as well as established key-finding algorithms on this task. Further analyses indicate that perceptrons generate higher activity in a unit representing a selected key and much lower activities in the units representing the competing keys that are not selected than does a traditional algorithm...
September 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333481/selection-of-procedures-in-mental-subtraction-use-of-eye-movements-as-a-window-on-arithmetic-processing
#9
Matthew G Huebner, Jo-Anne LeFevre
Adults who use mental procedures other than direct retrieval to solve simple arithmetic problems typically make more errors and respond more slowly than individuals who rely on retrieval. The present study examined how this extra time was distributed across problem components when adults (n = 40) solved small (e.g., 5 - 2) and large (e.g., 17 - 9) subtraction problems. Two performance groups (i.e., retrievers and procedure users) were created based on a 2-group cluster analysis using statistics derived from the ex-Gaussian model of reaction time (RT) distributions (i...
September 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902029/the-status-of-women-cognitive-scientists-in-canada-insights-from-publicly-available-nserc-funding-data
#10
Debra Titone, Mehrgol Tiv, Penny M Pexman
A crucial question within science and academia, and cognitive science specifically, is whether there is gender disparity in opportunity and advancement over the professional life span (e.g., Ceci, Ginther, Kahn, & Williams, 2014; Geraci, Balsis, & Busch, 2015; Valian, 1998). To investigate this question, we analyzed gender distributions in publicly available federal funding data from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada that are specific to cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902028/an-analysis-of-the-canadian-cognitive-psychology-job-market-2006-2016
#11
Gordon Pennycook, Valerie A Thompson
How accomplished does one need to be to compete in the Canadian cognitive psychology job market? We looked at the publication record of everyone who was hired as an assistant professor in Canadian cognitive psychology divisions with PhD programs between 2006 and 2016 (N = 64). Individuals who were hired from 2006 to 2011 averaged 10 journal-article publications up to and including the year they were hired. However, this number increased by 57% to 18 publications between 2012 and 2016. Notably, this increase (a) occurred despite an increase in the number of positions since 2010, (b) was not restricted to top-ranked institutions, (c) did not come at the cost of decreasing quality in research (based on citations), and (d) was not driven by longer postdoctoral fellowships...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389144/context-dependent-control-of-attention-capture-evidence-from-proportion-congruent-effects
#12
Matthew J C Crump, Bruce Milliken, Jason Leboe-McGowan, Launa Leboe-McGowan, Xiaoqing Gao
There are several independent demonstrations that attentional phenomena can be controlled in a context-dependent manner by cues associated with differing attentional control demands. The present set of experiments provide converging evidence that attention-capture phenomena can be modulated in a context-dependent fashion. We determined whether methods from the proportion congruent literature (listwide and item- and context-specific proportion congruent designs) that are known to modulate distractor interference effects in Stroop and flanker tasks are capable of modulating attention capture by salient feature singletons...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172587/entra%C3%A3-nement-de-la-m%C3%A3-moire-de-travail-effets-sur-la-performance-en-math%C3%A3-matiques
#13
Camille Charest-Girard, Véronique Parent
The main components of working memory (WM; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974), central executive, phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad, are related to mathematics skills (Friso-van den Bos, Van der Ven, Kroesbergen, & Van Luit, 2013). Different studies have shown that WM training can increase WM capacity (Randall & Tyldesley, 2016). In that context, this research seeks to verify the effects of WM training on the components of WM as well as on performance in arithmetic and in problem solving among students in the first grades of primary school (6 to 8 years of age)...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481569/cognitive-modeling-as-an-interface-between-brain-and-behavior-measuring-the-semantic-decline-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#14
Brendan T Johns, Vanessa Taler, David B Pisoni, Martin R Farlow, Ann Marie Hake, David A Kareken, Frederick W Unverzagt, Michael N Jones
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterised by subjective and objective memory impairment in the absence of dementia. MCI is a strong predictor for the development of Alzheimer's disease, and may represent an early stage in the disease course in many cases. A standard task used in the diagnosis of MCI is verbal fluency, where participants produce as many items from a specific category (e.g., animals) as possible. Verbal fluency performance is typically analysed by counting the number of items produced...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333479/are-lexical-factors-immune-to-response-modality-in-backward-recall-the-effects-of-imageability-and-word-frequency
#15
Olivia Beaudry, Jean Saint-Aubin, Katherine Guérard, Myriam Pâquet
In immediate serial recall, it is well established that performance is influenced by lexical factors such as imageability and word frequency. However, when participants are asked to recall the to-be-remembered items in their reverse order, known as backward recall, lexical factors produced contradictory findings. In 4 experiments, we tested the role of response modality in modulating the effects of imageability and word frequency in backward recall. The magnitude of the 2 tested lexical factors was only slightly reduced in backward compared with forward recall when participants responded manually...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847975/embodied-object-concepts-the-contribution-of-structural-and-functional-manipulability-depends-on-available-visual-information
#16
Heath E Matheson, Josh P Salmon, Michelle Tougas, Patricia A McMullen
Object identification is driven, in part, by the extent to which we have sensorimotor experience with the object. Importantly, the activation of embodied object representations depends on contextual information. In the present study, we use a visual masking paradigm to investigate how the availability of visual information modulates the role of manipulability in the representation of object concepts. Using both an object naming task (i.e., linguistic response) and a picture-word matching task (i.e., manual response), we provide evidence that structural manipulability (the ability to pick up an object with one hand) and functional manipulability (the action information that pertains to the ultimate use of the object) have dissociable effects on object identification...
May 31, 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517266/remembering-primed-words-a-counter-intuitive-effect-of-repetition-on-recognition-memory
#17
Tamara M Rosner, Raúl López-Benítez, Maria C D'Angelo, David Thomson, Bruce Milliken
The present study examines the effect of immediate repetition on recognition memory. In a series of 4 experiments, the study phase task was to name aloud a word that was immediately preceded by either the same word (repeated trials) or a different word (not-repeated trials). Across experiments, performance in the study phase demonstrated the anticipated benefit in naming times for repeated trials. More important, performance in the test phase revealed greater sensitivity for not-repeated than repeated trials...
March 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517265/remembering-primed-words-the-effect-of-prime-encoding-demands
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Robert N Collins, Tamara M Rosner, Bruce Milliken
Rosner, Lopez-Benitez, D'Angelo, Thomson, and Milliken (2017) reported a novel recognition memory effect using an immediate repetition method during the study phase. During each trial of an incidental study phase, participants named a target word that followed a prime word that had the same identity (repeated trials) or a different identity (not-repeated trials). Recognition in the following test phase was better for the not-repeated trials. In the present study, we examined the influence of prime encoding demands on this counterintuitive effect...
March 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517264/outgoing-editorial
#19
EDITORIAL
Penny M Pexman
This first issue of 2018 marks the beginning of a year of editorial transition at the Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology (CJEP). The author describes the winding down of her term as CJEP Editor. (PsycINFO Database Record
March 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726445/the-hebb-repetition-effect-as-a-laboratory-analogue-of-language-acquisition-learning-three-lists-at-no-cost
#20
Jean Saint-Aubin, Katherine Guérard
The Hebb repetition effect (i.e., the enhanced recall performance for a sequence of items that is repeated during a serial recall experiment) is considered an experimental analogue to language learning. However, although language learning occurs in a context in which multiple verbal sequences are repeated concurrently, the effect of increasing the number of repeated sequences in the Hebb repetition paradigm has received little attention, and previous studies have used tasks that depart considerably from the natural language learning experience...
March 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
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