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Journal of Applied Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345514/design-and-validation-of-an-instrumented-uneven-terrain-treadmill
#1
Alexandra S Voloshina, Daniel P Ferris
Studying human and animal locomotion on uneven terrain can be beneficial to basic science and applied studies for clinical and robotic applications. Traditional biomechanical analysis of human locomotion has often been limited to laboratory environments with flat, smooth runways and treadmills. We modified a regular exercise treadmill by attaching wooden blocks to the treadmill belt to yield an uneven locomotion surface. To ensure that these treadmill modifications facilitated biomechanical measurements, we compared ground reaction force data collected during running on the modified instrumented treadmill with a smooth surface to data collected using a conventional instrumented treadmill...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283748/femoral-neck-stress-in-older-adults-during-stair-ascent-and-descent
#2
Chen Deng, Jason C Gillette, Timothy R Derrick
A detailed understanding of the hip loading environment is needed to help prevent hip fractures, minimize hip pain, rehabilitate hip injuries and design osteogenic exercises for the hip. The purpose of this study was to compare femoral neck stress during stair ascent and descent and to identify the contribution of muscles and reaction forces to the stress environment in mature adult subjects (n=17; age: 50-65 years). Motion analysis and inverse dynamics were combined with musculoskeletal modelling and optimization, then used as input to an elliptical femoral neck cross-section model to estimate femoral neck stress...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252083/effect-of-trunk-segment-boundary-definitions-on-frontal-plane-segment-inertial-calculations
#3
Zachary Merrill, Grace Bova, April Chambers, Rakié Cham
When defining trunk body segment parameters such as segment length, mass, center of mass location, and radius of gyration, it is necessary to understand and define consistent, anatomically relevant segment boundaries. In addition to the differences in reported trunk parameters due to different data collection and analysis methods (such as cadaver studies, and imaging methods), many previous publications have also used differing definitions of the trunk segment. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of differences in trunk segment definitions and obesity on the calculated mass, center of mass, and radius of gyration using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) anthropometry calculations...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252060/reliability-of-the-load-velocity-relationship-obtained-through-linear-and-polynomial-regression-models-to-predict-the-one-repetition-maximum-load
#4
Francisco Luis Pestaña-Melero, G Gregory Haff, Francisco Javier Rojas, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Amador García-Ramos
This study aimed to compare the between-session reliability of the load-velocity relationship between (1) linear vs. polynomial regression models, (2) concentric-only vs. eccentric-concentric bench press variants, as well as (3) the within-participants vs. the between-participants variability of the velocity attained at each percentage of the one-repetition maximum (%1RM). The load-velocity relationship of 30 men (age: 21.2±3.8 y; height: 1.78±0.07 m, body mass: 72.3±7.3 kg; bench press 1RM: 78.8±13.2 kg) were evaluated by means of linear and polynomial regression models in the concentric-only and eccentric-concentric bench press variants in a Smith Machine...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182433/an-experimental-method-to-estimate-upper-limbs-inertia-parameters-during-handcycling
#5
Ghazaleh Azizpour, Matteo Lancini, Giovanni Incerti, Paolo Gaffurini, Giovanni Legnani
This study proposes an experimental method to estimate personalized inertia parameters of upper limbs during handcycling by using a planar dynamic model. The handle forces are expressed as a product of a matrix describing the kinematics terms and a vector of inertial parameters of arm and forearm. The parameters are estimated by measuring the handle forces during a suitable "passive test" and inverting the mentioned matrix. The data was acquired while an operator actuated the handle, and the subject's muscles were relaxed...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140144/joint-moment-angle-properties-of-the-hip-extensors-in-subjects-with-and-without-patellofemoral-pain
#6
Curtis Kindel, John Challis
Strength deficits of hip extension in individuals with patellofemoral syndrome are commonly reported in the literature. No literature to date has examined these deficits with variable positions of the knee and hip; altering knee angle alters the length and therefore potentially the force produced by the biarticular muscles. Beyond strength, neuromuscular control can also be assessed through the analysis of isometric joint moment steadiness. Subjects consisted of a group of individuals with patellofemoral syndrome (n=9), and a group of age and size matched controls with no symptoms (n=9)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139321/effects-of-white-noise-achilles-tendon-vibration-on-quiet-standing-and-active-postural-positioning
#7
Carly C Sacco, Erin M Gaffney, Jesse C Dean
Applying white noise vibration to the ankle tendons has previously been used to improve passive movement detection and alter postural control, likely by enhancing proprioceptive feedback. The aim of the present study was to determine if similar methods focused on the ankle plantarflexors affect the performance of both quiet standing and an active postural positioning task, in which participants may be more reliant on proprioceptive feedback from actively contracting muscles. Twenty young, healthy participants performed quiet standing trials and active postural positioning trials designed to encourage reliance on plantarflexor proprioception...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139316/association-of-gastrocnemius-muscle-stiffness-with-passive-ankle-joint-stiffness-and-sex-related-difference-in-the-joint-stiffness
#8
Kintaro Chino, Hideyuki Takashi
Passive ankle joint stiffness is affected by all structures located within and over the joint, and is greater in men than in women. Localized muscle stiffness can be assessed by ultrasound shear wave elastography, and muscle architecture such as fascicle length and pennation angle can be measured by B-mode ultrasonography. Thus, we assessed localized muscle stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) with consideration of individual variability in the muscle architecture, and examined the association of the muscle stiffness with passive ankle joint stiffness and the sex-related difference in the joint stiffness...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714840/shoulder-strength-requirements-for-upper-limb-functional-tasks-do-age-and-rotator-cuff-tear-status-matter
#9
Anthony C Santago Ii, Meghan E Vidt, Xiaotong Li, Christopher J Tuohy, Gary G Poehling, Michael T Freehill, Katherine R Saul
Understanding upper limb strength requirements for daily tasks is imperative for early detection of strength loss that may progress to disability due to age or rotator cuff tear. We quantified shoulder strength requirements for 5 upper limb tasks performed by 3 groups: uninjured young adults and older adults, and older adults with a degenerative supraspinatus tear prior to repair. Musculoskeletal models were developed for each group representing age, sex, and tear-related strength losses. Percentage of available strength used was quantified for the subset of tasks requiring the largest amount of shoulder strength...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714755/foot-and-ankle-kinematics-during-descent-from-varying-step-heights
#10
Emily E Gerstle, Kristian O'Connor, Kevin G Keenan, Stephen C Cobb
In the general population, one-third of incidences during step negotiation occur during the transition to level walking. Furthermore, falls during curb negotiation are a common cause of injury in older adults. Distal foot kinematics may be an important factor in determining injury risk associated with transition step negotiation. The purpose of this study was to identify foot and ankle kinematics of uninjured individuals during descent from varying step heights. A 7-segment foot model was used to quantify kinematics as participants walked on a level walkway, stepped down a single step (heights: 5 cm, 15 cm, 25 cm), and continued walking...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657852/iterative-assessment-of-statistically-oriented-and-standard-algorithms-for-determining-muscle-onset-with-intramuscular-electromyography
#11
Matthew S Tenan, Andrew J Tweedell, Courtney A Haynes
The onset of muscle activity, as measured by electromyography (EMG), is a commonly applied metric in biomechanics. Intramuscular EMG is often used to examine deep musculature and there are currently no studies examining the effectiveness of algorithms for intramuscular EMG onset. The present study examines standard surface EMG onset algorithms (linear envelope, Teager-Kaiser Energy Operator, and sample entropy) and novel algorithms (time series mean-variance analysis, sequential/batch processing with parametric and nonparametric methods, and Bayesian changepoint analysis)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657790/magnitude-and-spatial-distribution-of-impact-intensity-under-the-foot-relates-to-initial-foot-contact-pattern
#12
Bastiaan Breine, Philippe Malcolm, Veerle Segers, Joeri Gerlo, Rud Derie, Todd Pataky, Edward C Frederick, Dirk De Clercq
In running, foot contact patterns (rear-, mid-, or forefoot contact) influence impact intensity and initial ankle and foot kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare impact intensity and its spatial distribution under the foot between different foot contact patterns. Forty-nine subjects ran at 3.2 m·s(-1) over a level runway while ground reaction forces (GRF) and shoe-surface pressures were recorded and foot contact pattern was determined. A 4-zone footmask (forefoot, midfoot, medial and lateral rearfoot) assessed the spatial distribution of the vertical GRF under the foot...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605279/the-effect-of-shoulder-muscle-fatigue-on-acromiohumeral-distance-and-scapular-dyskinesis-in-women-with-generalized-joint-hypermobility
#13
Razie J Alibazi, Afsun Nodehi Moghadam, Ann M Cools, Enayatollah Bakhshi, Alireza Aziz Ahari
Muscle fatigue is considered to be one cause of shoulder pain, and subjects with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) are affected more by shoulder pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of muscle fatigue on acromiohumeral distance (AHD) and scapular dyskinesis in women with GJH. Thirty-six asymptomatic participants were assigned to either a GJH (n = 20) or control group (n = 16) using the Beighton scale. Before and after elevation fatigue trials, AHD was measured with ultrasonography at rest and when the arm was in 90° active elevation...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605277/ground-reaction-forces-during-sprinting-in-unilateral-transfemoral-amputees
#14
Atsushi Makimoto, Yoko Sano, Satoru Hashizume, Akihiko Murai, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Hiroshi Takemura, Hiroaki Hobara
Understanding the characteristics of ground reaction forces (GRFs) on both limbs during sprinting in unilateral amputees wearing running-specific prostheses would provide important information that could be utilized in the evaluation of athletic performance and development of training methods in this population. The purpose of this study was to compare GRFs between intact and prosthetic limbs during sprinting in unilateral transfemoral amputees wearing running-specific prostheses. Nine sprinters with unilateral transfemoral amputation wearing the same type of prosthesis performed maximal sprinting on a 40-m runway...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605248/noncircular-chainrings-do-not-influence-maximum-cycling-power
#15
Chee-Hoi Leong, Steven J Elmer, James C Martin
Noncircular chainrings could increase cycling power by prolonging the powerful leg extension/flexion phases, and curtailing the low-power transition phases. We compared maximal cycling power-pedaling rate relationships, and joint-specific kinematics and powers across 3 chainring eccentricities (CON = 1.0; LOWecc = 1.13; HIGHecc = 1.24). Part I: Thirteen cyclists performed maximal inertial-load cycling under 3 chainring conditions. Maximum cycling power and optimal pedaling rate were determined. Part II: Ten cyclists performed maximal isokinetic cycling (120 rpm) under the same 3 chainring conditions...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605220/age-stratification-and-sample-entropy-analysis-enhance-the-limits-of-stability-tests-for-older-adults
#16
Senia Smoot Reinert, Allison L Kinney, Kurt Jackson, Wiebke Diestelkamp, Kimberly Bigelow
The objective of this study was to determine if a foam testing condition and/or nonlinear analysis methods can be used to identify differences between age stratified subgroups of older adults when conducting the Limits of Stability assessment. Ninety older adults participated in this study. A force plate was used to record center of pressure data during Limits of Stability testing on a firm and foam surface. Participants were grouped into age-stratified subgroups: young-old (60-69 years), middle-old (70-79 years), and old-old (80+ years)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530482/the-effect-of-backpack-load-carriage-on-the-kinetics-and-kinematics-of-ankle-and-knee-joints-during-uphill-walking
#17
Jinkyu Lee, Yong-Jin Yoon, Choongsoo S Shin
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of load carriage on the kinematics and kinetics of the ankle and knee joints during uphill walking, including joint work, range of motion (ROM), and stance time. Fourteen males walked at a self-selected speed on an uphill (15°) slope wearing military boots and carrying a rifle in hand without a backpack (control condition) and with a backpack. The results showed that the stance time significantly decreased with backpack carriage (p < .05). The mediolateral impulse significantly increased with backpack carriage (p < ...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091540/modulation-of-vertical-ground-reaction-impulse-with-real-time-biofeedback-a-feasibility-study
#18
Pawel R Golyski, Elizabeth M Bell, Elizabeth M Husson, Erik J Wolf, Brad D Hendershot
Given its apparent representation of cumulative (vs. peak) loads, this feasibility study investigates vertical ground reaction impulse (vGRI) as a real-time biofeedback variable for gait training aimed at reducing lower limb loading. Fifteen uninjured participants (mean age = 27 yrs) completed twelve 2-min trials, one at each combination of four walking speeds (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6m/s) and three targeted reductions in vGRI (5, 10, and 15%) of the assigned ("target") limb, with the latter specified relative to an initial baseline (no feedback) condition at each speed...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091539/do-bilateral-vertical-jumps-with-reactive-jump-landings-achieve-osteogenic-thresholds-with-and-without-instruction-in-premenopausal-women
#19
Tracey L Clissold, Paul W Winwood, John B Cronin, Mary Jane De Souza
Jumps have been investigated as a stimulus for bone development, however effects of instruction, jump type and jump-landing techniques need investigation. This study sought to identify whether ground reaction forces (GRF's) for bilateral vertical jumps (countermovement jumps and drop jumps) with reactive jump-landings (i.e. jumping immediately after initial jump-landing), with instruction and with instruction withdrawn, achieve magnitudes and rates of strain previously shown to improve bone mass among premenopausal women...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091536/scapular-kinematics-by-sex-across-elevation-planes
#20
Bryan R Picco, Meghan E Vidt, Clark R Dickerson
Scapular kinematics are important indicators of dyskinesis, often suggesting underlying shoulder pathology, but the influence of sex is unknown. This study's objective was to examine scapular kinematics in healthy males and females. Positions of surface-mounted reflective markers were tracked during arm elevation movements in 0°/30°/40°/60°/90°/120° planes. Scapulothoracic rotations (protraction/retraction, medial/lateral rotation, posterior/anterior tilt) were calculated. ANOVA analysis evaluated main and interaction effects of sex, plane, phase, elevation angle...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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