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Journal of Applied Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787248/validation-of-an-inertial-sensor-system-for-physical-therapists-to-quantify-movement-coordination-during-functional-tasks
#1
Lindsey Tulipani, Mark G Boocock, Karen V Lomond, Mahmoud El-Gohary, Duncan A Reid, Sharon M Henry
Physical therapists evaluate patients' movement patterns during functional tasks; yet, their ability to interpret these observations consistently and accurately is unclear. Physical therapists would benefit from a clinic friendly method for accurately quantifying movement patterns during functional tasks. Inertial sensors, which are inexpensive, portable sensors capable of monitoring multiple body segments simultaneously, are a relatively new rehabilitation technology. We sought to validate an inertial sensor system by comparing lower limb and lumbar spine kinematic data collected simultaneously with a commercial inertial sensor system and a motion camera system while ten subjects performed functional tasks...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787232/a-dxa-validated-geometric-model-for-the-calculation-of-body-segment-inertial-parameters-of-young-females
#2
Samantha L Winter, Sarah M Forrest, Joanne Wallace, John H Challis
The purpose of this study was to validate a new geometric solids model, developed to address the lack of female specific models for body segment inertial parameter estimation. A second aim was to determine the effect of reducing the number of geometric solids used to model the limb segments on model accuracy. The 'full' model comprised 56 geometric solids, the 'reduced' 31, and the 'basic' 16. Predicted whole-body inertial parameters were compared with direct measurements (reaction board, scales), and predicted segmental parameters with those estimated from whole-body DXA scans for 28 females...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787221/non-uniform-deformation-of-the-patellar-tendon-during-passive-knee-flexion
#3
Laura C Slane, Stijn Bogaerts, Darryl G Thelen, Lennart Scheys
The purpose of this study was to evaluate localized patterns of patellar tendon deformation during passive knee flexion. Ultrasound radiofrequency data were collected from the patellar tendons of twenty healthy young adults during knee flexion over a range of motion of 50˚-90˚of flexion. A speckle tracking approach was used to compute proximal and distal tendon displacements and elongations. Non-uniform tissue displacements were visible in the proximal tendon (p < .001), with the deep tendon undergoing more distal displacement than the superficial tendon...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771113/active-ankle-circumduction-to-identify-mobility-deficits-in-sub-acute-ankle-sprain-patients
#4
Clément Theurillat, Ilona Punt, Stéphane Armand, Alice Bonnefoy-Mazure, Lara Allet
Assessment of ankle mobility is complex and of clinical relevance after an ankle sprain. This study develops and tests a biomechanical model to assess active ankle circumduction and its reliability. The model was then applied to compare individuals' ankle mobility between injured and non-injured ankles after a sprain episode. Twenty patients with sub-acute unilateral ankle sprain were assessed at 4 and 10 weeks after the injury. They underwent a clinical exam and an ankle circumduction test during which the kinematics were recorded with an optoelectronic device...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771082/effects-of-bmi-on-bone-loading-due-to-physical-activity
#5
Tina Smith, Sue Reeves, Lewis Halsye, Jörg Huber, Jin Luo
The aim of the current study was to compare bone loading due to physical activity between lean and, overweight and obese individuals. Fifteen participants (lower BMI group: BMI < 25 kg/m(2), n=7; higher BMI group: 25 kg/m(2) < BMI < 36.35 kg/m(2), n=8) wore a tri-axial accelerometer on one day to collect data for the calculation of bone loading. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short form) was used to measure time spent at different physical activity levels. Daily step counts were measured using a pedometer...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714840/shoulder-strength-requirements-for-upper-limb-functional-tasks-do-age-and-rotator-cuff-tear-status-matter
#6
Anthony C Santago, Meghan E Vidt, Xiaotong Li, Christopher J Tuohy, Gary G Poehling, Michael T Freehill, Katherine R Saul
Understanding upper limb strength requirements for daily tasks is imperative for early detection of strength loss that may progress to disability due to age or rotator cuff tear. We quantified shoulder strength requirements for five upper limb tasks performed by three groups: uninjured young adults and older adults, and older adults with a degenerative supraspinatus tear prior to repair. Musculoskeletal models were developed for each group representing age, sex, and tear-related strength losses. Percentage of available strength used was quantified for the subset of tasks requiring the largest amount of shoulder strength...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714755/foot-and-ankle-kinematics-during-descent-from-varying-step-heights
#7
Emily E Gerstle, Kristian O'Connor, Kevin G Keenan, Stephen C Cobb
In the general population, one-third of incidences during step negotiation occur during the transition to level walking. Furthermore, falls during curb negotiation are a common cause injury in older adults. Distal foot kinematics may be an important factor in determining injury risk associated with transition step negotiation. The purpose of this study was to identify foot and ankle kinematics of uninjured individuals during descent from varying step heights. A seven-segment foot model was used to quantify kinematics as participants walked on a level walkway, stepped down a single step (heights: 5 cm, 15 cm, 25 cm) and continued walking...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657855/errors-associated-with-utilizing-prescribed-scapular-kinematics-to-estimate-unconstrained-natural-upper-extremity-motion-in-musculoskeletal-modeling
#8
R Tyler Richardson, Elizabeth A Rapp, R Garry Quinton, Kristen F Nicholson, Brian A Knarr, Stephanie A Russo, Jill S Higginson, James G Richards
Musculoskeletal modeling is capable of estimating physiological parameters that cannot be directly measured, however, the validity of the results must be assessed. Several models utilize a scapular rhythm to prescribe kinematics, yet it is unknown how well they replicate natural scapular motion. This study evaluated kinematic errors associated with a model that employs a scapular rhythm using two shoulder movements - abduction and forward reach. Two versions of the model were tested - the original MoBL ARMS model that utilizes a scapular rhythm, and a modified MoBL ARMS model that permits unconstrained scapular motion...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657852/iterative-assessment-of-statistically-oriented-and-standard-algorithms-for-determining-muscle-onset-with-intramuscular-electromyography
#9
Matthew S Tenan, Andrew J Tweedell, Courtney A Haynes
The onset of muscle activity, as measured by electromyography (EMG), is a commonly applied metric in biomechanics. Intramuscular EMG is often used to examine deep musculature and there are currently no studies examining the effectiveness of algorithms for intramuscular EMG onset. The present study examines standard surface EMG onset algorithms (linear envelope, Teager-Kaiser Energy Operator, and Sample Entropy) and novel algorithms (time series mean-variance analysis, sequential/batch processing with parametric and nonparametric methods, and Bayesian changepoint analysis)...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657839/intra-trunk-coordination-during-high-effort-treadmill-running-in-individuals-with-spinal-fusion-for-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#10
Yumeng Li, Rumit S Kakar, Marika A Walker, Yang-Chieh Fu, Timothy S Oswald, Cathleen N Brown, Kathy J Simpson
The purpose of the study was to determine if the intra-trunk coordination of axial rotation exhibited by individuals with spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (SF-AIS) during running varies from healthy individuals and how the coordination differs among adjacent trunk-segment pairs. Axial rotations of trunk segments (upper, middle, lower trunk) and pelvis were collected for 11 SF-AIS participants and 11 matched controls during running. Cross-correlation determined the phase lag between the adjacent segment motions...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657790/magnitude-and-spatial-distribution-of-impact-intensity-under-the-foot-relates-to-initial-foot-contact-pattern
#11
Bastiaan Breine, Philippe Malcolm, Veerle Segers, Joeri Gerlo, Rud Derie, Todd Pataky, Edward C Frederick, Dirk De Clercq
In running, foot contact patterns (rear-, mid- or forefoot contact) influence impact intensity and initial ankle and foot kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare impact intensity and its spatial distribution under the foot between different foot contact patterns. Forty-nine subjects ran at 3.2 m·s(-1) over a level runway while ground reaction forces (GRF) and shoe-surface pressures were recorded and foot contact pattern was determined. A four-zone footmask (forefoot, midfoot, medial and lateral rearfoot) assessed the spatial distribution of the vertical GRF under the foot...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992254/an-investigation-of-structure-flexibility-and-function-variables-that-discriminate-asymptomatic-foot-types
#12
Sarah P Shultz, Jinsup Song, Andrew P Kraszewski, Jocelyn F Hafer, Smita Rao, Sherry Backus, Rajshree M Hillstrom, Howard J Hillstrom
It has been suggested that foot type considers not only foot structure (high, normal, low arch), but also function (overpronation, normal, oversupination) and flexibility (reduced, normal, excessive). Therefore, this study used canonical regression analyses to assess which variables of foot structure, function, and flexibility can accurately discriminate between clinical foot type classifications. The feet of 61 asymptomatic, healthy adults (18-77 years) were classified as cavus (N = 24), rectus (N = 54), or planus (N = 44) using standard clinical measures...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992250/impact-of-a-long-run-on-injury-related-biomechanics-with-relation-to-weekly-mileage-in-trained-male-runners
#13
Max R Paquette, Daniel A Melcher
The purposes of this study were to compare selected biomechanical variables before and after a long run, and to assess the relationship between weekly running volume and changes in lower limb biomechanics after the run. Twelve trained habitual rearfoot strike male runners ran overground before and after a treadmill long run while kinematic and kinetic data were recorded. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to compare kinematic and kinetic variables before and after the run...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992248/deltoid-electromyography-is-reliable-during-submaximal-isometric-ramp-contractions
#14
David Phillips, Andrew Karduna
The EMG and load relationship is commonly measured with multiple submaximal isometric contractions. This method is both time consuming and may introduce fatigue. The purpose of this study was to determine if the electromyography (EMG) amplitude from the middle deltoid was reliable during isometric ramp contractions (IRCs) at different angles of elevation and rates of force application. Surface EMG was measured at 3 shoulder elevation angles during IRCs at 4 submaximal levels of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992244/averaging-trials-versus-averaging-trial-peaks-impact-on-study-outcomes
#15
Kevin D Dames, Jeremy D Smith, Gary D Heise
Gait data are commonly presented as an average of many trials or as an average across participants. Discrete data points (eg, maxima or minima) are identified and used as dependent variables in subsequent statistical analyses. However, the approach used for obtaining average data from multiple trials is inconsistent and unclear in the biomechanics literature. This study compared the statistical outcomes of averaging peaks from multiple trials versus identifying a single peak from an average profile. A series of paired-samples t tests were used to determine whether there were differences in average dependent variables from these 2 methods...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992243/the-effect-of-teeth-clenching-on-dynamic-balance-at-jump-landing-a-pilot-study
#16
Tomomasa Nakamura, Yuriko Yoshida, Hiroshi Churei, Junya Aizawa, Kenji Hirohata, Takehiro Ohmi, Shunsuke Ohji, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Mitsuhiro Enomoto, Toshiaki Ueno, Kazuyoshi Yagishita
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of teeth clenching on dynamic balance at jump landing. Twenty-five healthy subjects performed jump-landing tasks with or without teeth clenching. The first 3 trials were performed with no instruction; subsequently, subjects were ordered to clench at the time of landing in the following 3 trials. We collected the data of masseter muscle activity by electromyogram, the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax) and center of pressure (CoP) parameters by force plate during jump-landing...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918701/coefficient-of-friction-at-the-fingertips-in-type-ii-diabetics-compared-to-healthy-adults
#17
Beatriz H Thames, Stacey L Gorniak
Clinical observations suggest that type II diabetes patients are more susceptible to skin changes, which may be associated with reduced coefficient of friction at the fingertips. Reduced coefficient of friction may explain recent reports of fine motor dysfunction in diabetic patients. Coefficient of friction was evaluated using slip force evaluation in a cross-sectional cohort of diabetic patients and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Covariates of tactile sensation, disease duration, glycated hemoglobin, and clinical diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy were also assessed...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918692/the-validity-and-reliability-of-an-iphone-app-for-measuring-running-mechanics
#18
Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández, Hovannes Agopyan, Jean-Benoit Morin
The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the validity of an iPhone application (Runmatic) for measuring running mechanics. To do this, 96 steps from 12 different runs at speeds ranging from 2.77-5.55 m·s(-1) were recorded simultaneously with Runmatic, as well as with an opto-electronic device installed on a motorized treadmill to measure the contact and aerial time of each step. Additionally, several running mechanics variables were calculated using the contact and aerial times measured, and previously validated equations...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918690/the-advantages-of-normalizing-electromyography-to-ballistic-rather-than-isometric%C3%A2-or-isokinetic-tasks
#19
Stephen M Suydam, Kurt Manal, Thomas S Buchanan
Isometric tasks have been a standard for electromyography (EMG) normalization stemming from anatomic and physiologic stability observed during contraction. Ballistic dynamic tasks have the benefit of eliciting maximum EMG signals for normalization, despite having the potential for greater signal variability. It is the purpose of this study to compare maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) to nonisometric tasks with increasing degrees of extrinsic variability, ie, joint range of motion, velocity, rate of contraction, etc...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918680/is-there-an-optimal-pole-length-for-double-poling-in-cross-country-skiing
#20
Franziska Onasch, Anthony Killick, Walter Herzog
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pole length on energy cost and kinematics in cross country double poling. Seven sub-elite male athletes were tested using pole sets of different lengths (ranging between 77% and 98% of participants' body height). Tests were conducted on a treadmill, set to a 2% incline and an approximate racing speed. Poling forces, contact times, and oxygen uptake were measured throughout the testing. Pole length was positively correlated with ground contact time (r = ...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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