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Journal of Applied Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714840/shoulder-strength-requirements-for-upper-limb-functional-tasks-do-age-and-rotator-cuff-tear-status-matter
#1
Anthony C Santago, Meghan E Vidt, Xiaotong Li, Christopher J Tuohy, Gary G Poehling, Michael T Freehill, Katherine R Saul
Understanding upper limb strength requirements for daily tasks is imperative for early detection of strength loss that may progress to disability due to age or rotator cuff tear. We quantified shoulder strength requirements for five upper limb tasks performed by three groups: uninjured young adults and older adults, and older adults with a degenerative supraspinatus tear prior to repair. Musculoskeletal models were developed for each group representing age, sex, and tear-related strength losses. Percentage of available strength used was quantified for the subset of tasks requiring the largest amount of shoulder strength...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714755/foot-and-ankle-kinematics-during-descent-from-varying-step-heights
#2
Emily E Gerstle, Kristian O'Connor, Kevin G Keenan, Stephen C Cobb
In the general population, one-third of incidences during step negotiation occur during the transition to level walking. Furthermore, falls during curb negotiation are a common cause injury in older adults. Distal foot kinematics may be an important factor in determining injury risk associated with transition step negotiation. The purpose of this study was to identify foot and ankle kinematics of uninjured individuals during descent from varying step heights. A seven-segment foot model was used to quantify kinematics as participants walked on a level walkway, stepped down a single step (heights: 5 cm, 15 cm, 25 cm) and continued walking...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657855/errors-associated-with-utilizing-prescribed-scapular-kinematics-to-estimate-unconstrained-natural-upper-extremity-motion-in-musculoskeletal-modeling
#3
R Tyler Richardson, Elizabeth A Rapp, R Garry Quinton, Kristen F Nicholson, Brian A Knarr, Stephanie A Russo, Jill S Higginson, James G Richards
Musculoskeletal modeling is capable of estimating physiological parameters that cannot be directly measured, however, the validity of the results must be assessed. Several models utilize a scapular rhythm to prescribe kinematics, yet it is unknown how well they replicate natural scapular motion. This study evaluated kinematic errors associated with a model that employs a scapular rhythm using two shoulder movements - abduction and forward reach. Two versions of the model were tested - the original MoBL ARMS model that utilizes a scapular rhythm, and a modified MoBL ARMS model that permits unconstrained scapular motion...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657852/iterative-assessment-of-statistically-oriented-and-standard-algorithms-for-determining-muscle-onset-with-intramuscular-electromyography
#4
Matthew S Tenan, Andrew J Tweedell, Courtney A Haynes
The onset of muscle activity, as measured by electromyography (EMG), is a commonly applied metric in biomechanics. Intramuscular EMG is often used to examine deep musculature and there are currently no studies examining the effectiveness of algorithms for intramuscular EMG onset. The present study examines standard surface EMG onset algorithms (linear envelope, Teager-Kaiser Energy Operator, and Sample Entropy) and novel algorithms (time series mean-variance analysis, sequential/batch processing with parametric and nonparametric methods, and Bayesian changepoint analysis)...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657839/intra-trunk-coordination-during-high-effort-treadmill-running-in-individuals-with-spinal-fusion-for-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#5
Yumeng Li, Rumit S Kakar, Marika A Walker, Yang-Chieh Fu, Timothy S Oswald, Cathleen N Brown, Kathy J Simpson
The purpose of the study was to determine if the intra-trunk coordination of axial rotation exhibited by individuals with spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (SF-AIS) during running varies from healthy individuals and how the coordination differs among adjacent trunk-segment pairs. Axial rotations of trunk segments (upper, middle, lower trunk) and pelvis were collected for 11 SF-AIS participants and 11 matched controls during running. Cross-correlation determined the phase lag between the adjacent segment motions...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657790/magnitude-and-spatial-distribution-of-impact-intensity-under-the-foot-relates-to-initial-foot-contact-pattern
#6
Bastiaan Breine, Philippe Malcolm, Veerle Segers, Joeri Gerlo, Rud Derie, Todd Pataky, Edward C Frederick, Dirk De Clercq
In running, foot contact patterns (rear-, mid- or forefoot contact) influence impact intensity and initial ankle and foot kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare impact intensity and its spatial distribution under the foot between different foot contact patterns. Forty-nine subjects ran at 3.2 m·s(-1) over a level runway while ground reaction forces (GRF) and shoe-surface pressures were recorded and foot contact pattern was determined. A four-zone footmask (forefoot, midfoot, medial and lateral rearfoot) assessed the spatial distribution of the vertical GRF under the foot...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992254/an-investigation-of-structure-flexibility-and-function-variables-that-discriminate-asymptomatic-foot-types
#7
Sarah P Shultz, Jinsup Song, Andrew P Kraszewski, Jocelyn F Hafer, Smita Rao, Sherry Backus, Rajshree M Hillstrom, Howard J Hillstrom
It has been suggested that foot type considers not only foot structure (high, normal, low arch), but also function (overpronation, normal, oversupination) and flexibility (reduced, normal, excessive). Therefore, this study used canonical regression analyses to assess which variables of foot structure, function, and flexibility can accurately discriminate between clinical foot type classifications. The feet of 61 asymptomatic, healthy adults (18-77 years) were classified as cavus (N = 24), rectus (N = 54), or planus (N = 44) using standard clinical measures...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992250/impact-of-a-long-run-on-injury-related-biomechanics-with-relation-to-weekly-mileage-in-trained-male-runners
#8
Max R Paquette, Daniel A Melcher
The purposes of this study were to compare selected biomechanical variables before and after a long run, and to assess the relationship between weekly running volume and changes in lower limb biomechanics after the run. Twelve trained habitual rearfoot strike male runners ran overground before and after a treadmill long run while kinematic and kinetic data were recorded. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to compare kinematic and kinetic variables before and after the run...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992248/deltoid-electromyography-is-reliable-during-submaximal-isometric-ramp-contractions
#9
David Phillips, Andrew Karduna
The EMG and load relationship is commonly measured with multiple submaximal isometric contractions. This method is both time consuming and may introduce fatigue. The purpose of this study was to determine if the electromyography (EMG) amplitude from the middle deltoid was reliable during isometric ramp contractions (IRCs) at different angles of elevation and rates of force application. Surface EMG was measured at 3 shoulder elevation angles during IRCs at 4 submaximal levels of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992244/averaging-trials-versus-averaging-trial-peaks-impact-on-study-outcomes
#10
Kevin D Dames, Jeremy D Smith, Gary D Heise
Gait data are commonly presented as an average of many trials or as an average across participants. Discrete data points (eg, maxima or minima) are identified and used as dependent variables in subsequent statistical analyses. However, the approach used for obtaining average data from multiple trials is inconsistent and unclear in the biomechanics literature. This study compared the statistical outcomes of averaging peaks from multiple trials versus identifying a single peak from an average profile. A series of paired-samples t tests were used to determine whether there were differences in average dependent variables from these 2 methods...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992243/the-effect-of-teeth-clenching-on-dynamic-balance-at-jump-landing-a-pilot-study
#11
Tomomasa Nakamura, Yuriko Yoshida, Hiroshi Churei, Junya Aizawa, Kenji Hirohata, Takehiro Ohmi, Shunsuke Ohji, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Mitsuhiro Enomoto, Toshiaki Ueno, Kazuyoshi Yagishita
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of teeth clenching on dynamic balance at jump landing. Twenty-five healthy subjects performed jump-landing tasks with or without teeth clenching. The first 3 trials were performed with no instruction; subsequently, subjects were ordered to clench at the time of landing in the following 3 trials. We collected the data of masseter muscle activity by electromyogram, the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax) and center of pressure (CoP) parameters by force plate during jump-landing...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918701/coefficient-of-friction-at-the-fingertips-in-type-ii-diabetics-compared-to-healthy-adults
#12
Beatriz H Thames, Stacey L Gorniak
Clinical observations suggest that type II diabetes patients are more susceptible to skin changes, which may be associated with reduced coefficient of friction at the fingertips. Reduced coefficient of friction may explain recent reports of fine motor dysfunction in diabetic patients. Coefficient of friction was evaluated using slip force evaluation in a cross-sectional cohort of diabetic patients and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Covariates of tactile sensation, disease duration, glycated hemoglobin, and clinical diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy were also assessed...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918692/the-validity-and-reliability-of-an-iphone-app-for-measuring-running-mechanics
#13
Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández, Hovannes Agopyan, Jean-Benoit Morin
The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the validity of an iPhone application (Runmatic) for measuring running mechanics. To do this, 96 steps from 12 different runs at speeds ranging from 2.77-5.55 m·s(-1) were recorded simultaneously with Runmatic, as well as with an opto-electronic device installed on a motorized treadmill to measure the contact and aerial time of each step. Additionally, several running mechanics variables were calculated using the contact and aerial times measured, and previously validated equations...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918690/the-advantages-of-normalizing-electromyography-to-ballistic-rather-than-isometric%C3%A2-or-isokinetic-tasks
#14
Stephen M Suydam, Kurt Manal, Thomas S Buchanan
Isometric tasks have been a standard for electromyography (EMG) normalization stemming from anatomic and physiologic stability observed during contraction. Ballistic dynamic tasks have the benefit of eliciting maximum EMG signals for normalization, despite having the potential for greater signal variability. It is the purpose of this study to compare maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) to nonisometric tasks with increasing degrees of extrinsic variability, ie, joint range of motion, velocity, rate of contraction, etc...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918680/is-there-an-optimal-pole-length-for-double-poling-in-cross-country-skiing
#15
Franziska Onasch, Anthony Killick, Walter Herzog
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pole length on energy cost and kinematics in cross country double poling. Seven sub-elite male athletes were tested using pole sets of different lengths (ranging between 77% and 98% of participants' body height). Tests were conducted on a treadmill, set to a 2% incline and an approximate racing speed. Poling forces, contact times, and oxygen uptake were measured throughout the testing. Pole length was positively correlated with ground contact time (r = ...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605279/the-effect-of-shoulder-muscle-fatigue-on-acromiohumeral-distance-and-scapular-dyskinesis-in-women-with-generalized-joint-hypermobility
#16
Razie J Alibazi, Afsun Nodehi Moghadam, Ann M Cools, Enayatollah Bakhshi, Alireza Aziz Ahari
Muscle fatigue is considered to be one cause of shoulder pain, and subjects with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) are affected more by shoulder pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of muscle fatigue on acromiohumeral distance (AHD) and scapular dyskinesis in women with GJH. Thirty-six asymptomatic participants were assigned to either a GJH (n=20) or control group (n=16) using the Beighton scale. Before and after elevation fatigue trials, AHD was measured with ultrasonography at rest and when the arm was in 90° active elevation...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605277/ground-reaction-forces-during-sprinting-in-unilateral-transfemoral-amputees
#17
Atsushi Makimoto, Yoko Sano, Satoru Hashizume, Akihiko Murai, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Hiroshi Takemura, Hiroaki Hobara
Understanding the characteristics of ground reaction forces (GRFs) on both limbs during sprinting in unilateral amputees wearing running-specific prostheses would provide important information that could be utilized in the evaluation of athletic performance and development of training methods in this population. The purpose of this study was to compare GRFs between intact and prosthetic limbs during sprinting in unilateral transfemoral amputees wearing running-specific prostheses. Nine sprinters with unilateral transfemoral amputation wearing the same type of prosthesis performed maximal sprinting on a 40 m of runway...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605248/noncircular-chainrings-do-not-influence-maximum-cycling-power
#18
Chee-Hoi Leong, Steven J Elmer, James C Martin
Noncircular chainrings could increase cycling power by prolonging the powerful leg extension/flexion phases, and curtailing the low-power transition phases. We compared maximal cycling power-pedaling rate relationships, and joint-specific kinematics and powers across three chainring eccentricities (CON=1.0; LOWecc=1.13; HIGHecc=1.24). Part I: Thirteen cyclists performed maximal inertial-load cycling under three chainring conditions. Maximum cycling power and optimal pedaling rate were determined. Part II: Ten cyclists performed maximal isokinetic cycling (120rpm) under the same three chainring conditions...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605225/effect-of-shoes-on-stiffness-and-energy-efficiency-of-ankle-foot-orthosis-bench-testing-analysis
#19
Toshiki Kobayashi, Fan Gao, Nicholas LeCursi, K Bo Foreman, Michael S Orendurff
Understanding the mechanical properties of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) is important to maximize their benefit for those with movement disorders during gait. Though mechanical properties such as stiffness and/or energy efficiency of AFOs have been extensively studied, it remains unknown how and to what extent shoes influence their properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shoes on stiffness and energy efficiency of an AFO using a custom mechanical testing device. Stiffness and energy efficiency of the AFO were measured in the plantarflexion and dorsiflexion range, respectively, under AFO-alone and AFO-Shoe combination conditions...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605220/age-stratification-and-sample-entropy-analysis-enhance-the-limits-of-stability-test-for-older-adults
#20
Senia Smoot Reinert, Allison L Kinney, Kurt Jackson, Wiebke Diestelkamp, Kimberly Bigelow
The objective of this study was to determine if a foam testing condition and/or non-linear analysis methods can be used to identify differences between age stratified sub groups of older adults when conducting the Limits of Stability assessment. Ninety older adults participated in this study. A force plate was used to record center of pressure data during Limits of Stability testing on a firm and foam surface. Participants were grouped into three age-stratified sub-groups: young-old (60-69 years), middle-old (70-79 years), and old-old (80+ years)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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