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Journal of Applied Biomechanics

D S Blaise Williams, Jonathan H Cole, Douglas W Powell
Running during sports and for physical activity often requires changes in velocity through acceleration and deceleration. While it is clear that lower extremity biomechanics vary during these accelerations and decelerations, the work requirements of the individual joints are not well understood. The purpose of this investigation was to measure the sagittal plane mechanical work of the individual lower extremity joints during acceleration, deceleration and steady state running. 10 runners were compared during acceleration, deceleration and steady state running using three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics measures...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Panagiotis Pappas, Giorgos Dallas, Giorgos Paradisis
In research, the accurate and reliable measurement of leg and vertical stiffness could contribute to valid interpretations. The current study aimed at determining the intra-participant variability (i.e. intra-day and inter-day reliabilities) of leg and vertical stiffness, as well as related parameters, during high speed treadmill running, using the "sine-wave" method. Thirty-one males ran on a treadmill at 6.67 m∙s(-1), and the contact and flight times were measured. To determine the intra-day reliability three 10-s running bouts with 10-min recovery were performed...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Vinícius Yan Santos Nacimento, Rafaela Joyce Barbosa Torres, Natália Barros Beltrão, Priscila Soares Dos Santos, André Luiz Torres Pirauá, Valéria Mayaly Alves de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Rodarti Pitangui, Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo
This study evaluated the effects of instability on the EMG activity of scapular stabilizing and upper limb muscles during exercises with axial and rotational load. 20 male volunteers (20.9 ± 1.8 years, 174.1 ± 0.04 cm, 73.17 ± 8.77 kg) experienced in strength training participated in a crossover design. Muscle activation of anterior deltoid (AD), posterior deltoid (PD), pectoralis major (PM), biceps brachii (BB), triceps brachii (TB), upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA) were determined on both conditions...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Tyler B Weaver, Christine Ma, Andrew C Laing
The Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) has become popular as a low-cost alternative to research-grade force plates. The purposes of this study were to characterize a series of technical specifications for the WBB, to compare balance control metrics derived from time-varying center of pressure (COP) signals collected simultaneously from a WBB and a research-grade force plate, and to investigate the effects of battery life. Drift, linearity, hysteresis, mass accuracy, uniformity of response and COP accuracy were assessed from a WBB...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Christopher McCrum, Katrin Eysel-Gosepath, Gaspar Epro, Kenneth Meijer, Hans H C M Savelberg, Gert-Peter Brüggemann, Kiros Karamanidis
Posturography is used to assess balance in clinical settings, but its relationship to gait stability is unclear. We assessed if dynamic gait stability is associated with standing balance in 12 patients with unilateral vestibulopathy. Participants were unexpectedly tripped during treadmill walking and the change in the margin of stability (MoSchange) and base of support (BoSchange) relative to non-perturbed walking was calculated for the perturbed and first recovery steps. The centre of pressure (COP) path during 30s stance with eyes open and closed, and the distance between the most anterior point of the COP and the anterior BoS boundary during forward leaning (ADist) were assessed using a force plate...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Fabien Dal Maso, Mickaël Begon, Maxime Raison
One approach to increasing the confidence of muscle force estimation via musculoskeletal models is to minimize the root mean square error (RMSE) between joint torques estimated from electromyographic-driven musculoskeletal models and those computed using inverse dynamics. We propose a method that reduces RMSE by selecting subsets of combinations of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trials that minimize RMSE. Twelve participants performed three elbow MVIC in flexion and in extension of both sides...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Víctor Torreblanca-Martínez, Fernando M Otero-Saborido, José A González-Jurado
The purpose was to study the effects of muscle fatigue induced by countermovement jumps (CMJ) on instep kick foot velocity in young male soccer players. Fifteen under-18 soccer players of a professional club, performed maximal velocity instep kicks before and after a fatigue protocol that consisted of continuous CMJ (countermovement jump). Foot velocity at impact without fatigue, foot velocity at impact with fatigue, CMJ height without fatigue, maximum jump height in fatigue test, and CMJ height change in fatigue test on a dynamometric platform, were measured...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
David R Howell, Jessie R Oldham, Melissa DiFabio, Srikant Vallabhajosula, Eric E Hall, Caroline J Ketcham, William P Meehan, Thomas A Buckley
Gait impairments have been documented following sport-related concussion. Whether pre-existing gait pattern differences exist among athletes who participate in different sport classifications, however, remains unclear. Dual-task gait examinations probe the simultaneous performance of everyday tasks (i.e. walking and thinking), and can quantify gait performance using inertial sensors. The purpose of this study was to compare the single-task and dual-task gait performance of collision/contact and non-contact athletes...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Sara L Arena, Kelsey McLaughlin, Anh-Dung Nguyen, James M Smoliga, Kevin R Ford
Athletic individuals may differ in body segment inertial parameter (BSIP) estimates due to differences in body composition, and this may influence calculation of joint kinetics. The purposes of this study were to 1) compare BSIPs predicted by the method introduced by de Leva(1) with DXA-derived BSIPs in collegiate female soccer players, and 2) examine the effects of these BSIPs estimation methods on joint moment and power calculations during a drop vertical jump (DVJ). Twenty female NCAA Division 1 soccer players were recruited...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Jennifer A Nichols, Michael S Bednar, Robert M Havey, Wendy M Murray
At the wrist, kinematic coupling (the relationship between flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation) facilitates function. Although the midcarpal joint is critical for kinematic coupling, many surgeries, such as four-corner fusion (4CF) and scaphoid-excision four-corner fusion (SE4CF), modify the midcarpal joint. This study examines how 4CF and SE4CF influence kinematic coupling by quantifying wrist axes of rotation. Wrist axes of rotation were quantified in eight cadaveric specimens using an optimization algorithm, which fit a two-revolute joint model to experimental data...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Yin-Liang Lin, Andrew Karduna
While synchronous movement of glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints has been emphasized in previous kinematics studies, most investigations of shoulder joint position sense have treated the shoulder complex as a single joint. The purposes of this study were to investigate the joint position sense errors of the humerothoracic, glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints at different elevation angles and to examine whether the errors of the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints contribute to the errors of the humerothoracic joint...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Josje van Houwelingen, Sander Schreven, Jeroen B J Smeets, Herman J H Clercx, Peter J Beek
A literature review is presented about the hydrodynamic effects of different hand and arm movements during swimming with the aim to identify lacunae in current methods and knowledge, and to distil practical guidelines for coaches and swimmers seeking to increase swimming speed. Experimental and numerical studies are discussed examining the effects of hand orientation, thumb position, finger spread, sculling movements and hand accelerations during swimming, as well as unsteady properties of vortices due to changes in hand orientation...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Brooklynn M Knowles, Henry Yu, Christopher R Dennison
Wearable kinematic sensors can be used to study head injury biomechanics based on kinematics and, more recently, based on tissue strain metrics using kinematics-driven brain models. These sensors require in-situ calibration and there is currently no data conveying wearable ability to estimate tissue strain. We simulated head impact (n=871) to a 50(th) percentile Hybrid III (H-III) head wearing a hockey helmet instrumented with wearable GForceTracker (GFT) sensors measuring linear acceleration and angular velocity...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Gaspare Pavei, Elena Seminati, Jorge Ll Storniolo, Leonardo A Peyré-Tartaruga
We compared running mechanics parameters determined from ground reaction force (GRF) measurements with estimated forces obtained from double differentiation of kinematic (K) data from motion analysis in a broad spectrum of running speeds (1.94-5.56 m·s(-1)). Data were collected through a force-instrumented treadmill and compared at different sampling frequencies (900 and 300 Hz for GRF, 300 and 100 Hz for K). Vertical force peak, shape, and impulse were similar between K methods and GRF. Contact time, flight time and vertical stiffness (kvert) obtained from K showed the same trend as GRF with differences <5%, whereas leg stiffness (kleg) was not correctly computed by kinematics...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Sakiko Oyama, Araceli Sosa, Rebekah Campbell, Alexandra Correa
Video recordings are used to quantitatively analyze pitchers' technique. However, reliability and validity of such analysis is unknown. The purpose of the study was to investigate the reliability and validity of joint and segment angles identified during a pitching motion using video analysis. Thirty high school baseball pitchers participated. The pitching motion was captured using two high-speed video cameras and a motion capture system. Two raters reviewed the videos to digitize the body segments to calculate two-dimensional angles...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Satoshi Hamai, Ken Okazaki, Satoru Ikebe, Koji Murakami, Hidehiko Higaki, Hiroyuki Nakahara, Takeshi Shimoto, Hideki Mizu-Uchi, Yukio Akasaki, Yukihide Iwamoto
The purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo kinematics in healthy and osteoarthritic (OA) knees during stepping using image-matching techniques. Six healthy volunteers and fourteen patients with medial OA knee before undergoing total knee arthroplasty performed stepping under periodic anteroposterior X-ray images. We analyzed the three-dimensional kinematic parameters of knee joints using X-ray images and CT-derived digitally reconstructed radiographs. The average extension/flexion angle ranged 6°/53° and 16°/44° in healthy and OA knees with significant difference in extension (p = ...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Kurt L Mudie, Amitabh Gupta, Simon Green, Hiroaki Hobara, Peter J Clothier
This study assessed the agreement between Kvert calculated from four different methods of estimating vertical displacement of the centre of mass (COM) during single-leg hopping. Healthy participants (N=38) completed a 10 s single-leg hopping effort on a force plate, with 3D motion of the lower limb, pelvis and trunk captured. Derived variables were calculated for a total of 753 hop cycles using four methods including: double integration of the vertical ground reaction force, law of falling bodies, a marker cluster on the sacrum and a segmental analysis method...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Bernard Liew, Susan Morris, Kevin Netto
The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of bilaterally symmetrical backpack systems borne on the posterior trunk on walking biomechanics, as backpacks represent the most prevalent methods of load carriage in the military and civilian population. A search of electronic databases was performed for studies that only investigated posteriorly borne backpack carriage during level grade walking (treadmill and over ground). Methodology of studies was assessed, and both meta-analysis and qualitative synthesis were completed...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Stephen C Cobb, Mukta N Joshi, Robin L Pomeroy
In-vitro and invasive in-vivo studies have reported relatively independent motion in the medial and lateral forefoot segments during gait. However, most current surface-based models have not defined medial and lateral forefoot or midfoot segments. The purpose of the current study was to determine the reliability of a seven segment foot model that includes medial and lateral midfoot and forefoot segments during walking gait. Three-dimensional positions of marker clusters located on the leg and six foot segments were tracked as ten participants completed five walking trials...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Luiz Henrique Palucci Vieira, Felipe de Souza Serenza, Vitor Luiz de Andrade, Lucas de Paula Oliveira, Fábio Pamplona Mariano, Juliana Exel Santana, Paulo Roberto Pereira Santiago
The aims of the present study were to analyze a kick from 10 meters in a futsal context and the parameters of muscular strength using an isokinetic dynamometer in a laboratory environment, performed with the dominant (DL) and non-dominant lower limbs (NDL). Seventeen professional elite players participated. Kicking performance was evaluated from the second penalty mark. Next, athletes completed a strength evaluation with an isokinetic dynamometer at speeds of 60, 180 and 300°.s(-1). Significant differences were observed for hip (15...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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