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Journal of Applied Biomechanics

Shelby A Peel, Lauren E Schroeder, Zachary A Sievert, Joshua T Weinhandl
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ACL injury risk factors in unanticipated cutting and decelerating. Three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction forces were collected on eleven females (22±2yrs, 1.67±0.08m, 68.5±9.8kg) during two unanticipated tasks. Paired samples t-tests were performed to compare dependent variables between tasks. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated to analyze the relationship between peak internal knee adduction moment and peak anterior tibial shear force during two unanticipated tasks...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Anna Bjerkefors, Johanna S Rosén, Olga Tarassova, Anton Arndt
Trunk, pelvis and leg movement are important for performance in sprint kayaking. Para-kayaking is a new Paralympic sport in which athletes with trunk and/or leg impairment compete in three classification groups. The purpose of this study was to identify how physical impairments impact on performance by examining: differences in three-dimensional joint range of motion (RoM) between 10 (4 females, 6 males) elite able-bodied kayakers and 41 (13 females, 28 males) elite para-kayakersfrom the three classification groups, and which joint angles were correlated with power output during high intensity kayak ergometer paddling...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Christopher D Ramos, Melvin Ramey, Rand R Wilcox, Jill L McNitt-Gray
This study investigates the effect of initial leg angle on horizontal jump performance. Eleven highly skilled male and female long jumpers (national and Olympic level) performed a series of horizontal jumps for distance. Within-jumper differences in initial leg angle, normalized horizontal and net vertical impulses, contact time, and average reaction force during the impact interval, post-impact interval, and in total were measured using highspeed video (240 or 300 Hz) and a force plate (1200 Hz). Pearson correlations, Winsorized correlations, and the HC4 method were used to determine significant correlations between variables (α = 0...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Alif Laila Tisha, Ashley Allison Armstrong, Amy Wagoner Johnson, Citlali Lopez-Ortiz
This literature review focuses on the primary morphological and structural characteristics, and mechanical properties identified in muscles affected by spastic cerebral palsy (CP). CP is a non-progressive neurological disorder caused by brain damage and is commonly diagnosed at birth. Although the brain damage is not progressive, subsequent neuro-physiological developmental adaptations may initiate changes in muscle structure, function, and composition, causing abnormal muscle activity and coordination. The symptoms of CP vary among patients...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Wataru Kawakami, Makoto Takahashi, Yoshitaka Iwamoto, Koichi Shinakoda
An important step in the management of hallux valgus is the objective analysis of foot mechanics in dynamic conditions. However, the manner which hallux valgus affects the foot motion is poorly understood. Moreover, hallux valgus deformity may affect foot intersegmental coordination patterns. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative motion and intersegmental foot coordination patterns, considering the midfoot, during gait in individuals with hallux valgus. Fifteen females with hallux valgus and 13 females without hallux valgus were recruited in this study...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Katherine L Hsieh, Yaejin Moon, Vignesh Ramkrishnan, Rama Ratnam, Jacob J Sosnoff
Virtual time to contact (VTC) is a measure of postural stability that estimates the virtual time it would take to reach an individual's stability boundary. This study aimed to validate VTC as measured by a depth sensor, and to determine if VTC from the depth sensor distinguishes between older adult fallers and non-fallers compared to a force platform. VTC was assessed in 10 young and 20 older adults by having participants lean in a circular direction followed by five balance tests: eyes open, dual task, eyes open foam, eyes closed, and eyes closed foam...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Ricardo Pires, Thays Falcari, Alexandre B Campo, Bárbara C Pulcineli, Joseph Hamill, Ulysses F Ervilha
The present study aimed to use a Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm to identify and classify shod and barefoot running as well as rearfoot and forefoot landings. Ten habitually shod runners ran at self-selected speed. Thigh and leg muscle surface electromyography (EMG) were recorded. Discrete Wavelet transformation (DWT) and Fast Fourier transformation (FFT) were used for the assembly of vectors for training and classification of a SVM. Using the FFT coefficients for the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles presented the best results for differentiating between rearfoot/forefoot running in the window before foot-floor contact possibly due to these muscles' critical role in determining which part of the foot will first touch the floor...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Logan A Lucas, Benjamin S England, Travis W Mason, Christopher R Lanning, Taylor M Miller, Alexander M Morgan, Thomas Gus Almonroeder
Lower-extremity musculoskeletal injuries are common in sports such as basketball and soccer. Athletes competing in sports of this nature must maneuver in response to the actions of their teammates, opponents, etc. This limits their ability to preplan movements. The purpose of this study was to compare impact accelerations during preplanned versus unplanned lateral cutting. A total of 30 subjects (15 males and 15 females) performed preplanned and unplanned cuts while the authors analyzed impact accelerations using an accelerometer secured to their tibia...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Jason Lake, Peter Mundy, Paul Comfort, John J McMahon, Timothy J Suchomel, Patrick Carden
This study examined concurrent validity of countermovement vertical jump reactive strength index modified and force-time characteristics recorded using a 1-dimensional portable and laboratory force plate system. Twenty-eight men performed bilateral countermovement vertical jumps on 2 portable force plates placed on top of 2 in-ground force plates, both recording vertical ground reaction force at 1000 Hz. Time to takeoff; jump height; reactive strength index modified; and braking and propulsion impulse, mean net force, and duration were calculated from the vertical force from both force plate systems...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
John R Harry, Leland A Barker, Jeffrey D Eggleston, Janet S Dufek
The ability to rapidly complete a jump landing has received little attention in the literature despite the need for rapid performance in a number of sports. As such, our purpose was to investigate differences between groups of individuals who land quickly (FAST) and slowly (SLOW) relative to peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRFs), loading rates, rates of vGRF attenuation, contributions to lower extremity mechanical energy absorption at the involved joints, and the onsets of preparatory joint flexion/dorsiflexion...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Christopher M Saliba, Allison L Clouthier, Scott C E Brandon, Michael J Rainbow, Kevin J Deluzio
Abnormal loading of the knee joint contributes to the pathogenesis of knee osteoarthritis. Gait retraining is a noninvasive intervention that aims to reduce knee loads by providing audible, visual, or haptic feedback of gait parameters. The computational expense of joint contact force prediction has limited real-time feedback to surrogate measures of the contact force, such as the knee adduction moment. We developed a method to predict knee joint contact forces using motion analysis and a statistical regression model that can be implemented in near real-time...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Lydia R Vollavanh, Kathleen M O'Day, Elizabeth M Koehling, James M May, Katherine M Breedlove, Evan L Breedlove, Eric A Nauman, Debbie A Bradney, J Eric Goff, Thomas G Bowman
Quantifying head impacts is a vital component to understanding and preventing head trauma in sport. Our objective was to establish the frequency and magnitude of head impact mechanisms in men's lacrosse athletes. Eleven male lacrosse athletes wore xPatch sensors during activity. Video footage of practices and games was analyzed to verify impacts and code them with impact mechanisms. The authors calculated incidence rates (IRs) per 1000 exposures with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used multivariate analysis of variances to compare the linear (g) and rotational (rad/s2 ) accelerations between mechanisms...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Elisa S Arch, Sarah Colón, James G Richards
Breast and bra motion research aims to understand how the breasts/bra move to aid development of apparel that minimizes motion. Most previously published research has tracked nipple motion to represent bra motion. However, this method does not provide information regarding regional tissue motion. A more comprehensive approach might facilitate understanding how the entire soft-tissue mass moves during physical activities. This study developed and tested an objective method to comprehensively measure 3-dimensional bra motion, including regional displacement and velocity, displacement phasing, and surface stretch...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Srinidhi Bellamkonda, Samantha J Woodward, Eamon Campolettano, Ryan Gellner, Mireille E Kelley, Derek A Jones, Amaris Genemaras, Jonathan G Beckwith, Richard M Greenwald, Arthur C Maerlender, Steven Rowson, Stefan M Duma, Jillian E Urban, Joel D Stitzel, Joseph J Crisco
This study aimed to compare head impact exposures between practices and games in football players ages 9 to 14 years, who account for approximately 70% of all football players in the United States. Over a period of 2 seasons, 136 players were enrolled from 3 youth programs, and 49,847 head impacts were recorded from 345 practices and 137 games. During the study, individual players sustained a median of 211 impacts per season, with a maximum of 1226 impacts. Players sustained 50th (95th) percentile peak linear acceleration of 18...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Joseph J Crisco, Nikolas J Osvalds, Michael J Rainbow
The purpose of this study was to compute the 3-dimensional kinetics required to swing 3 youth baseball bats of varying moments of inertia. The 306 swings by 22 male players (age 13-18 y) were analyzed. Inverse dynamics with respect to the batter's hands were computed given the known kinematics and physical properties of the bats. Peak force increased with larger bat moments of inertia and was strongly correlated with bat tip speed. By contrast, peak moments were weakly correlated with bat moments of inertia and bat tip speed...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Marie Lund Ohlsson, Jonas Danvind, L Joakim Holmberg
Overuse injuries in the shoulders and lower back are hypothesized to be common in cross-country sit-skiing. Athletes with reduced trunk muscle control mainly sit with the knees higher than the hips (KH). To reduce spinal flexion, a position with the knees below the hips (KL) was enabled for these athletes using a frontal trunk support. The aim of the study was to compare the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) and L4-L5 joint reactions of the KL and KH sitting positions. Five able-bodied female athletes performed submaximal and maximal exercise tests in the sitting positions KL and KH on a ski ergometer...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Glen M Blenkinsop, Ying Liang, Nicholas J Gallimore, Michael J Hiley
The aim of the study was to examine changes in weight transfer, alignment, and shot outcome during golf shots from flat, uphill, and downhill slopes. Twelve elite male golfers hit 30 shots with a 6-iron from a computer-assisted rehabilitation environment used to create 5° slopes while collecting 3-dimensional kinematics and kinetics of the swing. A launch monitor measured performance outcomes. A shift in the center of pressure was found throughout the swing when performed on a slope, with the mean position moving approximately 9% closer to the lower foot...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Rafael F Escamilla, Jonathan S Slowik, Alek Z Diffendaffer, Glenn S Fleisig
The purpose of this study was to assess biomechanical differences among overhand, 3-quarter, and sidearm arm slot professional baseball pitchers. It was hypothesized that kinematic and kinetic differences would be found among the 3 groups, with sidearm pitchers demonstrating greater movement along the transverse plane and overhead pitchers demonstrating greater movement along the sagittal plane. Based upon arm slot angle at ball release, 30 overhand, 156 three-quarter, and 21 sidearm pitchers were tested using a 240-Hz motion analysis system, and 37 kinematic and kinetic parameters were calculated...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Daniel M Grindle, Lauren Baker, Mike Furr, Tim Puterio, Brian Knarr, Jill Higginson
Prolonged sitting has been associated with negative health effects. Walking workstations have become increasingly popular in the workplace. There is a lack of research on the biomechanical effect of walking workstations. This study analyzed whether walking while working alters normal gait patterns. A total of 9 participants completed 4 walking trials at 2.4 and 4.0 km·h-1 : baseline walking condition, walking while performing a math task, a reading task, and a typing task. Biomechanical data were collected using standard motion capture procedures...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Leigh J Allin, Maury A Nussbaum, Michael L Madigan
Task-specific balance training is an approach to fall prevention that has the potential to reduce the number of slip-induced falls. However, a limitation of current task-specific training methods is that they require non-trivial financial and/or equipment resources. This pilot study evaluated the efficacy of two low-cost, low-tech methods for slip recovery training in improving balance recovery ability. The two methods were: 1) repeated unexpected slip training (UST), which involved repeated unexpected slips while walking (similar to current methods of task-specific slip recovery training); and 2) volitional slip-recovery training (VST), which involved practicing a slip recovery response after volitionally stepping to induce a slip-like perturbation...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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