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Journal of Applied Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140144/joint-moment-angle-properties-of-the-hip-extensors-in-subjects-with-and-without-patellofemoral-pain
#1
Curtis Kindel, John Challis
Strength deficits of hip extension in individuals with patellofemoral syndrome are commonly reported in the literature. No literature to date has examined these deficits with variable positions of the knee and hip; altering knee angle alters the length and therefore potentially the force produced by the biarticular muscles. Beyond strength, neuromuscular control can also be assessed through the analysis of isometric joint moment steadiness. Subjects consisted of a group of individuals with patellofemoral syndrome (n=9), and a group of age and size matched controls with no symptoms (n=9)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139321/effects-of-white-noise-achilles-tendon-vibration-on-quiet-standing-and-active-postural-positioning
#2
Carly C Sacco, Erin M Gaffney, Jesse C Dean
Applying white noise vibration to the ankle tendons has previously been used to improve passive movement detection and alter postural control, likely by enhancing proprioceptive feedback. The aim of the present study was to determine if similar methods focused on the ankle plantarflexors affect the performance of both quiet standing and an active postural positioning task, in which participants may be more reliant on proprioceptive feedback from actively contracting muscles. Twenty young, healthy participants performed quiet standing trials and active postural positioning trials designed to encourage reliance on plantarflexor proprioception...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139316/association-of-gastrocnemius-muscle-stiffness-with-passive-ankle-joint-stiffness-and-sex-related-difference-in-the-joint-stiffness
#3
Kintaro Chino, Hideyuki Takashi
Passive ankle joint stiffness is affected by all structures located within and over the joint, and is greater in men than in women. Localized muscle stiffness can be assessed by ultrasound shear wave elastography, and muscle architecture such as fascicle length and pennation angle can be measured by B-mode ultrasonography. Thus, we assessed localized muscle stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) with consideration of individual variability in the muscle architecture, and examined the association of the muscle stiffness with passive ankle joint stiffness and the sex-related difference in the joint stiffness...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714840/shoulder-strength-requirements-for-upper-limb-functional-tasks-do-age-and-rotator-cuff-tear-status-matter
#4
Anthony C Santago Ii, Meghan E Vidt, Xiaotong Li, Christopher J Tuohy, Gary G Poehling, Michael T Freehill, Katherine R Saul
Understanding upper limb strength requirements for daily tasks is imperative for early detection of strength loss that may progress to disability due to age or rotator cuff tear. We quantified shoulder strength requirements for 5 upper limb tasks performed by 3 groups: uninjured young adults and older adults, and older adults with a degenerative supraspinatus tear prior to repair. Musculoskeletal models were developed for each group representing age, sex, and tear-related strength losses. Percentage of available strength used was quantified for the subset of tasks requiring the largest amount of shoulder strength...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714755/foot-and-ankle-kinematics-during-descent-from-varying-step-heights
#5
Emily E Gerstle, Kristian O'Connor, Kevin G Keenan, Stephen C Cobb
In the general population, one-third of incidences during step negotiation occur during the transition to level walking. Furthermore, falls during curb negotiation are a common cause of injury in older adults. Distal foot kinematics may be an important factor in determining injury risk associated with transition step negotiation. The purpose of this study was to identify foot and ankle kinematics of uninjured individuals during descent from varying step heights. A 7-segment foot model was used to quantify kinematics as participants walked on a level walkway, stepped down a single step (heights: 5 cm, 15 cm, 25 cm), and continued walking...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657852/iterative-assessment-of-statistically-oriented-and-standard-algorithms-for-determining-muscle-onset-with-intramuscular-electromyography
#6
Matthew S Tenan, Andrew J Tweedell, Courtney A Haynes
The onset of muscle activity, as measured by electromyography (EMG), is a commonly applied metric in biomechanics. Intramuscular EMG is often used to examine deep musculature and there are currently no studies examining the effectiveness of algorithms for intramuscular EMG onset. The present study examines standard surface EMG onset algorithms (linear envelope, Teager-Kaiser Energy Operator, and sample entropy) and novel algorithms (time series mean-variance analysis, sequential/batch processing with parametric and nonparametric methods, and Bayesian changepoint analysis)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657790/magnitude-and-spatial-distribution-of-impact-intensity-under-the-foot-relates-to-initial-foot-contact-pattern
#7
Bastiaan Breine, Philippe Malcolm, Veerle Segers, Joeri Gerlo, Rud Derie, Todd Pataky, Edward C Frederick, Dirk De Clercq
In running, foot contact patterns (rear-, mid-, or forefoot contact) influence impact intensity and initial ankle and foot kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare impact intensity and its spatial distribution under the foot between different foot contact patterns. Forty-nine subjects ran at 3.2 m·s(-1) over a level runway while ground reaction forces (GRF) and shoe-surface pressures were recorded and foot contact pattern was determined. A 4-zone footmask (forefoot, midfoot, medial and lateral rearfoot) assessed the spatial distribution of the vertical GRF under the foot...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605279/the-effect-of-shoulder-muscle-fatigue-on-acromiohumeral-distance-and-scapular-dyskinesis-in-women-with-generalized-joint-hypermobility
#8
Razie J Alibazi, Afsun Nodehi Moghadam, Ann M Cools, Enayatollah Bakhshi, Alireza Aziz Ahari
Muscle fatigue is considered to be one cause of shoulder pain, and subjects with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) are affected more by shoulder pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of muscle fatigue on acromiohumeral distance (AHD) and scapular dyskinesis in women with GJH. Thirty-six asymptomatic participants were assigned to either a GJH (n = 20) or control group (n = 16) using the Beighton scale. Before and after elevation fatigue trials, AHD was measured with ultrasonography at rest and when the arm was in 90° active elevation...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605277/ground-reaction-forces-during-sprinting-in-unilateral-transfemoral-amputees
#9
Atsushi Makimoto, Yoko Sano, Satoru Hashizume, Akihiko Murai, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Hiroshi Takemura, Hiroaki Hobara
Understanding the characteristics of ground reaction forces (GRFs) on both limbs during sprinting in unilateral amputees wearing running-specific prostheses would provide important information that could be utilized in the evaluation of athletic performance and development of training methods in this population. The purpose of this study was to compare GRFs between intact and prosthetic limbs during sprinting in unilateral transfemoral amputees wearing running-specific prostheses. Nine sprinters with unilateral transfemoral amputation wearing the same type of prosthesis performed maximal sprinting on a 40-m runway...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605248/noncircular-chainrings-do-not-influence-maximum-cycling-power
#10
Chee-Hoi Leong, Steven J Elmer, James C Martin
Noncircular chainrings could increase cycling power by prolonging the powerful leg extension/flexion phases, and curtailing the low-power transition phases. We compared maximal cycling power-pedaling rate relationships, and joint-specific kinematics and powers across 3 chainring eccentricities (CON = 1.0; LOWecc = 1.13; HIGHecc = 1.24). Part I: Thirteen cyclists performed maximal inertial-load cycling under 3 chainring conditions. Maximum cycling power and optimal pedaling rate were determined. Part II: Ten cyclists performed maximal isokinetic cycling (120 rpm) under the same 3 chainring conditions...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605220/age-stratification-and-sample-entropy-analysis-enhance-the-limits-of-stability-tests-for-older-adults
#11
Senia Smoot Reinert, Allison L Kinney, Kurt Jackson, Wiebke Diestelkamp, Kimberly Bigelow
The objective of this study was to determine if a foam testing condition and/or nonlinear analysis methods can be used to identify differences between age stratified subgroups of older adults when conducting the Limits of Stability assessment. Ninety older adults participated in this study. A force plate was used to record center of pressure data during Limits of Stability testing on a firm and foam surface. Participants were grouped into age-stratified subgroups: young-old (60-69 years), middle-old (70-79 years), and old-old (80+ years)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530482/the-effect-of-backpack-load-carriage-on-the-kinetics-and-kinematics-of-ankle-and-knee-joints-during-uphill-walking
#12
Jinkyu Lee, Yong-Jin Yoon, Choongsoo S Shin
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of load carriage on the kinematics and kinetics of the ankle and knee joints during uphill walking, including joint work, range of motion (ROM), and stance time. Fourteen males walked at a self-selected speed on an uphill (15°) slope wearing military boots and carrying a rifle in hand without a backpack (control condition) and with a backpack. The results showed that the stance time significantly decreased with backpack carriage (p < .05). The mediolateral impulse significantly increased with backpack carriage (p < ...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091540/modulation-of-vertical-ground-reaction-impulse-with-real-time-biofeedback-a-feasibility-study
#13
Pawel R Golyski, Elizabeth M Bell, Elizabeth M Husson, Erik J Wolf, Brad D Hendershot
Given its apparent representation of cumulative (vs. peak) loads, this feasibility study investigates vertical ground reaction impulse (vGRI) as a real-time biofeedback variable for gait training aimed at reducing lower limb loading. Fifteen uninjured participants (mean age = 27 yrs) completed twelve 2-min trials, one at each combination of four walking speeds (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6m/s) and three targeted reductions in vGRI (5, 10, and 15%) of the assigned ("target") limb, with the latter specified relative to an initial baseline (no feedback) condition at each speed...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091539/do-bilateral-vertical-jumps-with-reactive-jump-landings-achieve-osteogenic-thresholds-with-and-without-instruction-in-premenopausal-women
#14
Tracey L Clissold, Paul W Winwood, John B Cronin, Mary Jane De Souza
Jumps have been investigated as a stimulus for bone development, however effects of instruction, jump type and jump-landing techniques need investigation. This study sought to identify whether ground reaction forces (GRF's) for bilateral vertical jumps (countermovement jumps and drop jumps) with reactive jump-landings (i.e. jumping immediately after initial jump-landing), with instruction and with instruction withdrawn, achieve magnitudes and rates of strain previously shown to improve bone mass among premenopausal women...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091536/scapular-kinematics-by-sex-across-elevation-planes
#15
Bryan R Picco, Meghan E Vidt, Clark R Dickerson
Scapular kinematics are important indicators of dyskinesis, often suggesting underlying shoulder pathology, but the influence of sex is unknown. This study's objective was to examine scapular kinematics in healthy males and females. Positions of surface-mounted reflective markers were tracked during arm elevation movements in 0°/30°/40°/60°/90°/120° planes. Scapulothoracic rotations (protraction/retraction, medial/lateral rotation, posterior/anterior tilt) were calculated. ANOVA analysis evaluated main and interaction effects of sex, plane, phase, elevation angle...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091524/postural-control-and-head-impact-exposure-in-youth-football-players-comparison-of-the-balance-error-scoring-system-and-a-force-plate-protocol
#16
Eamon T Campolettano, Gunnar Brolinson, Steven Rowson
Postural control testing is often used by clinicians and athletic trainers to assess the health of athletes during recovery from a concussion. Characterization of postural control as a clinical tool for use with youth athletes is limited though. The objective of this study was to compare performance on the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) and a force plate protocol at the beginning and end of a season of football within a cohort of 34 healthy youth football players (average age of 9.9 ± 0.6 years). A secondary aim was to investigate if changes in measures of balance from the postseason to the preseason were correlated with head impact exposure...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657839/intratrunk-coordination-during-high-effort-treadmill-running-in-individuals-with-spinal-fusion-for-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#17
Yumeng Li, Rumit S Kakar, Marika A Walker, Yang-Chieh Fu, Timothy S Oswald, Cathleen N Brown, Kathy J Simpson
The purpose of the study was to determine if the intratrunk coordination of axial rotation exhibited by individuals with spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (SF-AIS) during running varies from healthy individuals and how the coordination differs among adjacent trunk-segment pairs. Axial rotations of trunk segments (upper, middle, lower trunk) and pelvis were collected for 11 SF-AIS participants and 11 matched controls during running. Cross-correlation determined the phase lag between the adjacent segment motions...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605225/effect-of-shoes-on-stiffness-and-energy-efficiency-of-ankle-foot-orthosis-bench-testing-analysis
#18
Toshiki Kobayashi, Fan Gao, Nicholas LeCursi, K Bo Foreman, Michael S Orendurff
Understanding the mechanical properties of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) is important to maximize their benefit for those with movement disorders during gait. Though mechanical properties such as stiffness and/or energy efficiency of AFOs have been extensively studied, it remains unknown how and to what extent shoes influence their properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shoes on stiffness and energy efficiency of an AFO using a custom mechanical testing device. Stiffness and energy efficiency of the AFO were measured in the plantar flexion and dorsiflexion range, respectively, under AFO-alone and AFO-Shoe combination conditions...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017410/effects-of-knee-position-on-the-reliability-and-production-of-maximal-and-rapid-strength-characteristics-during-an-isometric-squat-test
#19
Ty B Palmer, Jose G Pineda, Rachel M Durham
This study aimed to examine the effects of knee position on the reliability and production of peak force (PF) and rate of force (RFD) development characteristics during an isometric squat. Fourteen resistance-trained females performed isometric squats at 90, 120, and 150° knee angles (corresponding to parallel, half, and quarter squat positions, respectively) on two different occasions, from which PF, peak RFD, and early (RFD30,RFD50,RFD100) and late (RFD200) phase RFD variables were extracted. PF and RFD200 were highly consistent across trials for all three squat positions, with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranging between 0...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952906/association-of-sprint-performance-with-ground-reaction-forces-during-acceleration-and-maximal-speed-phases-in-a-single-sprint
#20
Ryu Nagahara, Mirai Mizutani, Akifumi Matsuo, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga
We aimed to clarify the mechanical determinants of sprinting performance during acceleration and maximal speed phases of a single sprint, using ground reaction forces (GRFs). While 18 male athletes performed a 60-m sprint, GRF was measured at every step over a 50-m distance from the start. Variables during the entire acceleration phase were approximated with a fourth-order polynomial. Subsequently, accelerations at 55%, 65%, 75%, 85%, and 95% of maximal speed, and running speed during the maximal speed phase were determined as sprinting performance variables...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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