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Journal of Applied Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338382/does-foot-anthropometry-predict-metabolic-cost-during-running
#1
Herman van Werkhoven, Stephen J Piazza
Several recent investigations have linked running economy to heel length, with shorter heels being associated with less metabolic energy consumption. It has been hypothesized that shorter heels require larger plantarflexor muscle forces, thus increasing tendon energy storage and reducing metabolic cost. The goal of this study was to investigate this possible mechanism for metabolic cost reduction. Fifteen male subjects ran at 16 km·h(-1) on a treadmill and subsequently on a force-plate instrumented runway...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338381/a-novel-method-to-compute-breathing-volumes-via-motion-capture-systems-design-and-experimental-trials
#2
Carlo Massaroni, Eugenio Cassetta, Sergio Silvestri
Respiratory assessment can be carried out by using motion capture systems. A geometrical model is mandatory in order to compute the breathing volume as a function of time from the markers trajectories. This study describes a novel model to compute volume changes and calculate respiratory parameters by using a motion capture system. The novel method, i.e. prism-based method, computes the volume enclosed within the chest by defining 82 prisms from the 89 markers attached to the subject chest. Volumes computed with this method are compared to spirometry volumes and to volumes computed by a conventional method based on the tetrahedrons decomposition of the chest wall and integrated in a commercial motion capture system...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338379/head-neck-trunk-and-pelvis-tissue-mass-predictions-for-young-adults-using-anthropometric-measures-and-dxa
#3
Danielle L Gyemi, Charles Kahelin, Nicole C George, David M Andrews
Accurate prediction of wobbling mass (WM), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and bone mineral content (BMC) of living people using regression equations developed from anthropometric measures (lengths, circumferences, breadths, skinfolds) has previously been reported, but only for the extremities. Multiple linear stepwise regression was used to generate comparable equations for the head, neck, trunk and pelvis of young adults (38 males, 38 females). Equations were validated using actual tissue masses from an independent sample of 13 males and 13 females by manually segmenting full body Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scans...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290751/comparison-of-thoracic-and-lumbar-erector-spinae-muscle-activation-before-and-after-a-golf-practice-session
#4
Graeme G Sorbie, Fergal M Grace, Yaodong Gu, Julien S Baker, Ukadike C Ugbolue
Lower back pain is commonly associated with golfers. The study aimed: to determine whether thoracic- and lumbar-erector-spinae muscle display signs of muscular fatigue after completing a golf practice session, and to examine the effect of the completed practice session on club head speed, ball speed and absolute carry distance performance variables. Fourteen right-handed male golfers participated in the laboratory-based-study. Surface electromyography (EMG) data was collected from the lead and trail sides of the thoracic- and lumbar-erector-spinae muscle...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290736/accuracy-and-reliability-of-marker-based-approaches-to-scale-the-pelvis-thigh-and-shank-segments-in-musculoskeletal-models
#5
Hans Kainz, Hoa Hoang, Chris Stockton, Roslyn R Boyd, David G Lloyd, Christopher P Carty
Gait analysis together with musculoskeletal modelling is widely used for research. In the absence of medical images, surface marker locations are used to scale a generic model to the individual's anthropometry. Studies evaluating the accuracy and reliability of different scaling approaches in a paediatric and/or clinical population have not yet been conducted and, therefore, formed the aim of this study. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) and motion capture data were collected from twelve participants with cerebral palsy and six typically developed participants...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253068/in-vitro-quantification-of-medial-collateral-ligament-tension-in-the-elbow
#6
Louis M Ferreira, Graham J W King, James A Johnson
The anterior bundle of the medial collateral ligament (AMCL) of the elbow is commonly injured in patients with elbow dislocations and in throwing athletes. This in-vitro study quantified tension in the native AMCL throughout elbow flexion for different arm positions. We conducted passive and simulated active elbow flexion in seven fresh-frozen cadaveric upper extremities using an established motion simulator. Motions were performed in the valgus and vertical positions from 20-120º while measuring AMCL tension using a custom transducer...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253053/kinematic-gait-patterns-in-competitive-and-recreational-runners
#7
Christian A Clermont, Sean T Osis, Angkoon Phinyomark, Reed Ferber
Certain homogeneous running subgroups demonstrate distinct kinematic patterns in running; however, the running mechanics of competitive and recreational runners are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether we could separate and classify competitive and recreational runners according to gait kinematics using multivariate analyses and a machine learning approach. Participants were allocated to the 'competitive' (n=20) or 'recreational' group (n=15) based on age, gender, and recent race performance...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253044/wearing-an-inflatable-vest-alters-muscle-activation-and-trunk-angle-while-paddling-a-surfboard
#8
Jeff A Nessler, Thomas Hastings, Kevin Greer, Sean C Newcomer
Low back pain is a commonly reported problem among recreational surfers. Some individuals report that wearing a vest with an inflatable bladder that alters trunk angle may help to alleviate pain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such a vest has an effect on muscle activation and extension of the lower back. Twelve recreational surfers completed 12 paddling trials at 1.1 m/s in a swim flume on both a shortboard and a longboard on two separate days. Three conditions of no vest, vest uninflated, and vest inflated were presented to participants in random order...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181833/influence-of-a-full-body-compression-suit-on-trunk-positioning-and-knee-joint-mechanics-during-lateral-movements
#9
Guillaume Mornieux, Elmar Weltin, Monika Pauls, Franz Rott, Albert Gollhofer
Trunk positioning has been shown to be associated with knee joint loading during athletic tasks, especially changes of direction. The purpose of the present study was to test whether a full body compression suit (FBCS) would improve trunk positioning and knee joint control during lateral movements. Twelve female athletes performed lateral reactive jumps (LRJ) and unanticipated cuttings with and without the customized FBCS, while 3D kinematics and kinetics were measured. FBCS did not influence trunk positioning during LRJ and led to increased trunk lateral lean during cuttings (P < ...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121227/reliability-of-a-new-medicine-ball-throw-power-test
#10
Mark G L Sayers, Stephen Bishop
The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of a new upper body medicine ball push-press (MBP-P) test. Twenty-three strength trained volunteers performed a series of supine MBP-P throws using loads representing 5% and10% of their 5RM bench press (5 repetitions at each load). Throws were performed on a force platform (2000 Hz), with medicine ball kinematic data collected using a high-speed motion capture (500 Hz). Testing was repeated after 7-10 days to quantify inter-test reliability. Maximal force (Fmax), impulse at Fmax, time to Fmax, maximum rate of force development (RFDmax) were all calculated from the force platform outputs, with maximum ball velocity (Velmax) and maximum ball acceleration (Accelmax) developed from the kinematic data...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084875/reliability-and-validity-of-kinetic-and-kinematic-parameters-determined-with-force-plates-embedded-under-soil-filled-baseball-mound
#11
Toshimasa Yanai, Akifumi Matsuo, Akira Maeda, Hiroki Nakamoto, Mirai Mizutani, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga
We developed a force measurement system in a soil-filled mound for measuring ground reaction forces (GRFs) acting on baseball pitchers and examined the reliability and validity of kinetic and kinematic parameters determined from the GRFs. Three soil-filled trays of dimensions that satisfied the official baseball rules were fixed onto three force platforms. Eight collegiate pitchers wearing baseball shoes with metal cleats were asked to throw 5 fastballs with maximum effort from the mound toward a catcher. The reliability of each parameter was determined for each subject as the coefficient of variation across the 5 pitches...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084870/reliability-of-achilles-tendon-moment-arm-measured-in-vivo-using-freehand-three-dimensional-ultrasound
#12
Steven J Obst, Lee Barber, Ashton Miller, Rod S Barrett
This study investigated reliability of freehand three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) measurement of in vivo human Achilles tendon (AT) moment arm. Sixteen healthy adults were scanned on two separate occasions by a single investigator. 3DUS scans were performed over the free AT, medial malleolus and lateral malleolus with the ankle passively positioned in maximal dorsiflexion, mid dorsiflexion, neutral, mid plantar flexion and maximal plantar flexion. 3D reconstructions of the AT, medial malleolus and lateral malleolus were created from manual segmentation of the ultrasound images and used to geometrically determine the AT moment arm using both a straight (straight ATMA) and curved (curved ATMA) tendon line-of-action...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084868/physiological-and-biomechanical-responses-to-prolonged-heavy-load-carriage-during-level-treadmill-walking-in-females
#13
Daniel E Lidstone, Justin A Stewart, Reed Gurchiek, Alan R Needle, Herman van Werkhoven, Jeffrey M McBride
Heavy load carriage has been identified as a main contributing factor to the high incidence of overuse injuries in soldiers. Peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRFMAX) and maximal vertical loading rates (VLRMAX) may increase during heavy prolonged load carriage with the development of muscular fatigue and reduced shock attenuation capabilities. The objectives of the current study were (1) to examine physiological and biomechanical changes that occur during a prolonged heavy load carriage task, and (2) to examine if this task induces neuromuscular fatigue and changes in muscle architecture...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084864/inverse-dynamics-modelling-of-paralympic-wheelchair-curling
#14
Brock Laschowski, Naser Mehrabi, John McPhee
Paralympic wheelchair curling is an adapted version of Olympic curling played by individuals with spinal cord injuries, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and lower extremity amputations. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there has been no experimental or computational research published regarding the biomechanics of wheelchair curling. Accordingly, the objective of this research was to quantify the angular joint kinematics and dynamics of a Paralympic wheelchair curler throughout the delivery. The angular joint kinematics of the upper extremity were experimentally measured using an inertial measurement unit system; the translational kinematics of the curling stone were additionally evaluated with optical motion capture...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084863/load-accommodation-strategies-and-movement-variability-in-single-leg-landing
#15
Andrew D Nordin, Janet S Dufek
Our purpose was to examine changes in participant-specific single-leg landing strategies and intra-individual movement variability following alterations in mechanical task demands via external load and landing height. Nineteen healthy volunteers (15M, 4F, age: 24.3 ± 4.9 y, mass: 78.5 ± 14.7 kg, height: 1.73 ± 0.08 m) were analyzed among 9 single-leg drop landing trials in each of 6 experimental conditions (3 load and 2 landing height) computed as percentages of participant bodyweight (BW, BW+12.5%, BW+25%) and height (H12...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084861/split-belt-treadmill-walking-alters-lower-extremity-frontal-plane-mechanics
#16
Jaimie A Roper, Ryan T Roemmich, Mark D Tillman, Matthew J Terza, Chris J Hass
Interventions that manipulate gait speed may also affect the control of frontal plane mechanics. Expanding the current knowledge of frontal plane adaptations during split-belt treadmill walking could advance our understanding of the influence of asymmetries in gait speed on frontal plane mechanics and provide insight into the breadth of adaptations required by split-belt walking. Thirteen young, healthy participants, free from lower extremity injury walked on a split-belt treadmill with belts moving simultaneously at different speeds...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206851/a-note-from-michael-madigan-jab-s-new-editor-in-chief
#17
Michael Madigan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735232/lower-extremity-joint-work-during-acceleration-deceleration-and-steady-state-running
#18
D S Blaise Williams, Jonathan H Cole, Douglas W Powell
Running during sports and for physical activity often requires changes in velocity through acceleration and deceleration. While it is clear that lower extremity biomechanics vary during these accelerations and decelerations, the work requirements of the individual joints are not well understood. The purpose of this investigation was to measure the sagittal plane mechanical work of the individual lower extremity joints during acceleration, deceleration, and steady-state running. Ten runners were compared during acceleration, deceleration, and steady-state running using three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics measures...
February 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735224/use-of-the-nintendo-wii-balance-board-for-studying-standing-static-balance-control-technical-considerations-force-plate-congruency-and-the-effect-of-battery-life
#19
Tyler B Weaver, Christine Ma, Andrew C Laing
The Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) has become popular as a low-cost alternative to research-grade force plates. The purposes of this study were to characterize a series of technical specifications for the WBB, to compare balance control metrics derived from time-varying center of pressure (COP) signals collected simultaneously from a WBB and a research-grade force plate, and to investigate the effects of battery life. Drift, linearity, hysteresis, mass accuracy, uniformity of response, and COP accuracy were assessed from a WBB...
February 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735222/methodology-to-customize-maximal-isometric-forces-for-hill-type-muscle-models
#20
Fabien Dal Maso, Mickaël Begon, Maxime Raison
One approach to increasing the confidence of muscle force estimation via musculoskeletal models is to minimize the root mean square error (RMSE) between joint torques estimated from electromyographic-driven musculoskeletal models and those computed using inverse dynamics. We propose a method that reduces RMSE by selecting subsets of combinations of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trials that minimize RMSE. Twelve participants performed 3 elbow MVIC in flexion and in extension. An upper-limb electromyographic-driven musculoskeletal model was created to optimize maximum muscle stress and estimate the maximal isometric force of the biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis, and triceps brachii...
February 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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