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Journal of Applied Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834573/minimum-detectable-change-in-medial-tibiofemoral-contact-force-parameters-derivation-and-application-to-a-load-altering-intervention
#1
Joaquin Barrios, John Willson
Medial tibiofemoral joint contact forces can be estimated using musculoskeletal models. To assess change in these forces that accompany load-modifying interventions, minimum detectable change (MDC) thresholds must be established. The primary study purpose was to derive MDCs for medial tibiofemoral peak force and force impulse during walking. The secondary purpose was to identify the proportions of individuals exhibiting reductions greater than these MDCs when walking with lateral foot wedging. Eight healthy individuals provided three-dimensional gait data over three test sessions to serve as inputs for an inverse dynamics-driven medial tibiofemoral contact force model, from which MDCs for peak force and impulse were derived...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834563/upper-extremity-and-cue-kinematics-and-shoulder-muscles-emg-activity-of-novus-players-of-different-skill-levels
#2
Viire Talts, Jaan Ereline, Tatjana Kums, Mati Pääsuke, Helena Gapeyeva
Our aim with the present study was to compare upper extremity and cue kinematics, and electromyographic (EMG) activation of shoulder muscles, during novus (a special form of billiards) shots of different difficulty levels. Ten proficient and ten less-skilled novus players performed three types of novus shots (penalties, cuts, rebounds) ten times each. During each shot, elbow flexion and cue-forearm angles (using a movement analysis system), and surface EMG activity of the trapezius, posterior and lateral deltoid muscles of each subject's dominant side, were measured...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834561/relative-contribution-of-lower-body-work-as-a-biomechanical-determinant-of-spine-sparing-technique-during-common-paramedic-lifting-tasks
#3
Paul J Makhoul, Kathryn E Sinden, Renée S MacPhee, Steven L Fischer
Paramedics represent a unique occupational group where the nature of their work providing pre-hospital emergency care makes workplace modifications to manage and control injury risks, difficult. Therefore, the provision of workplace education and training to support safe lifting remains a viable and important approach. There is, however, a lack of evidence describing movement strategies that may be optimal for paramedic work. The purpose of this study was to determine if a strategy leveraging a greater contribution of work from the lower body relative to the torso was associated with lower biomechanical exposures on the spine...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834549/differential-strength-and-endurance-parameters-of-the-craniocervical-and-cervicothoracic-extensors-and-flexors-in-healthy-individuals
#4
Shaun O Leary, Charlotte Loraas Fagermoen, Hiroyuki Hasegawa, Ann-Sofi Slettevold Thorsen, Luke Van Wyk
This study examined isometric strength (maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)) and endurance of cervical flexor and extensor muscles in healthy individuals at the craniocervical (CC) and cervicothoracic (CT) axes. MVC and endurance measures (time to task failure in seconds (s)) at 50% MVC were recorded in 4 directions (CC flexion, CC extension, CT flexion and CT extension) in 20 males and 20 females and six strength and endurance ratios were calculated. The findings showed that the cervical extensor muscles are not only much stronger than the flexors (1...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834548/test-retest-reliability-and-reproducibility-of-laser-vs-contact-displacement-sensors-in-mechanomyography-implications-for-musculoskeletal-research
#5
Laura Seidl, Danijel Tosovic, J Mark Brown
Whole muscle mechanomyography (MMG) has gained considerable interest in recent years for its ability to non-invasively determine muscle contractile properties (i.e., contraction time [Tc], half-relaxation time [½Tr], and maximal displacement [Dmax)]). The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of two fairly novel MMG transducers; a laser-displacement sensor (LDS) and contact-displacement sensor (CDS). MMG was conducted on the rectus femoris muscle of 30 healthy individuals on four separate occasions...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735232/lower-extremity-joint-work-during-acceleration-deceleration-and-steady-state-running
#6
D S Blaise Williams, Jonathan H Cole, Douglas W Powell
Running during sports and for physical activity often requires changes in velocity through acceleration and deceleration. While it is clear that lower extremity biomechanics vary during these accelerations and decelerations, the work requirements of the individual joints are not well understood. The purpose of this investigation was to measure the sagittal plane mechanical work of the individual lower extremity joints during acceleration, deceleration and steady state running. 10 runners were compared during acceleration, deceleration and steady state running using three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics measures...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735229/reliability-of-leg-and-vertical-stiffness-during-high-speed-treadmill-running
#7
Panagiotis Pappas, Giorgos Dallas, Giorgos Paradisis
In research, the accurate and reliable measurement of leg and vertical stiffness could contribute to valid interpretations. The current study aimed at determining the intra-participant variability (i.e. intra-day and inter-day reliabilities) of leg and vertical stiffness, as well as related parameters, during high speed treadmill running, using the "sine-wave" method. Thirty-one males ran on a treadmill at 6.67 m∙s(-1), and the contact and flight times were measured. To determine the intra-day reliability three 10-s running bouts with 10-min recovery were performed...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735227/shoulder-muscle-activation-levels-during-exercises-with-axial-and-rotational-load-on-stable-and-unstable-surfaces
#8
Vinícius Yan Santos Nacimento, Rafaela Joyce Barbosa Torres, Natália Barros Beltrão, Priscila Soares Dos Santos, André Luiz Torres Pirauá, Valéria Mayaly Alves de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Rodarti Pitangui, Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo
This study evaluated the effects of instability on the EMG activity of scapular stabilizing and upper limb muscles during exercises with axial and rotational load. 20 male volunteers (20.9 ± 1.8 years, 174.1 ± 0.04 cm, 73.17 ± 8.77 kg) experienced in strength training participated in a crossover design. Muscle activation of anterior deltoid (AD), posterior deltoid (PD), pectoralis major (PM), biceps brachii (BB), triceps brachii (TB), upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA) were determined on both conditions...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735224/use-of-the-nintendo-wii-balance-board-for-studying-standing-static-balance-control-technical-considerations-force-plate-congruency-and-the-effect-of-battery-life
#9
Tyler B Weaver, Christine Ma, Andrew C Laing
The Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) has become popular as a low-cost alternative to research-grade force plates. The purposes of this study were to characterize a series of technical specifications for the WBB, to compare balance control metrics derived from time-varying center of pressure (COP) signals collected simultaneously from a WBB and a research-grade force plate, and to investigate the effects of battery life. Drift, linearity, hysteresis, mass accuracy, uniformity of response and COP accuracy were assessed from a WBB...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735223/associations-between-bipedal-stance-stability-and-locomotor-stability-following-a-trip-in-unilateral-vestibulopathy
#10
Christopher McCrum, Katrin Eysel-Gosepath, Gaspar Epro, Kenneth Meijer, Hans H C M Savelberg, Gert-Peter Brüggemann, Kiros Karamanidis
Posturography is used to assess balance in clinical settings, but its relationship to gait stability is unclear. We assessed if dynamic gait stability is associated with standing balance in 12 patients with unilateral vestibulopathy. Participants were unexpectedly tripped during treadmill walking and the change in the margin of stability (MoSchange) and base of support (BoSchange) relative to non-perturbed walking was calculated for the perturbed and first recovery steps. The centre of pressure (COP) path during 30s stance with eyes open and closed, and the distance between the most anterior point of the COP and the anterior BoS boundary during forward leaning (ADist) were assessed using a force plate...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735222/methodology-to-customize-maximal-isometric-forces-for-hill-type-muscle-models
#11
Fabien Dal Maso, Mickaël Begon, Maxime Raison
One approach to increasing the confidence of muscle force estimation via musculoskeletal models is to minimize the root mean square error (RMSE) between joint torques estimated from electromyographic-driven musculoskeletal models and those computed using inverse dynamics. We propose a method that reduces RMSE by selecting subsets of combinations of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trials that minimize RMSE. Twelve participants performed three elbow MVIC in flexion and in extension of both sides...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735221/effects-of-muscle-fatigue-induced-by-cmj-on-efficacy-parameters-of-instep-ball-kicking-in-soccer
#12
Víctor Torreblanca-Martínez, Fernando M Otero-Saborido, José A González-Jurado
The purpose was to study the effects of muscle fatigue induced by countermovement jumps (CMJ) on instep kick foot velocity in young male soccer players. Fifteen under-18 soccer players of a professional club, performed maximal velocity instep kicks before and after a fatigue protocol that consisted of continuous CMJ (countermovement jump). Foot velocity at impact without fatigue, foot velocity at impact with fatigue, CMJ height without fatigue, maximum jump height in fatigue test, and CMJ height change in fatigue test on a dynamometric platform, were measured...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705076/single-task-and-dual-task-gait-among-collegiate-athletes-of-different-sport-classifications-implications-for-concussion-management
#13
David R Howell, Jessie R Oldham, Melissa DiFabio, Srikant Vallabhajosula, Eric E Hall, Caroline J Ketcham, William P Meehan, Thomas A Buckley
Gait impairments have been documented following sport-related concussion. Whether pre-existing gait pattern differences exist among athletes who participate in different sport classifications, however, remains unclear. Dual-task gait examinations probe the simultaneous performance of everyday tasks (i.e. walking and thinking), and can quantify gait performance using inertial sensors. The purpose of this study was to compare the single-task and dual-task gait performance of collision/contact and non-contact athletes...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705063/a-comparison-of-body-segment-inertial-parameter-estimation-methods-and-joint-moment-and-power-calculations-during-a-drop-vertical-jump-in-collegiate-female-soccer-players
#14
Sara L Arena, Kelsey McLaughlin, Anh-Dung Nguyen, James M Smoliga, Kevin R Ford
Athletic individuals may differ in body segment inertial parameter (BSIP) estimates due to differences in body composition, and this may influence calculation of joint kinetics. The purposes of this study were to 1) compare BSIPs predicted by the method introduced by de Leva(1) with DXA-derived BSIPs in collegiate female soccer players, and 2) examine the effects of these BSIPs estimation methods on joint moment and power calculations during a drop vertical jump (DVJ). Twenty female NCAA Division 1 soccer players were recruited...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705062/decoupling-the-wrist-a-cadaveric-experiment-examining-wrist-kinematics-following-midcarpal-fusion-and-scaphoid-excision
#15
Jennifer A Nichols, Michael S Bednar, Robert M Havey, Wendy M Murray
At the wrist, kinematic coupling (the relationship between flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation) facilitates function. Although the midcarpal joint is critical for kinematic coupling, many surgeries, such as four-corner fusion (4CF) and scaphoid-excision four-corner fusion (SE4CF), modify the midcarpal joint. This study examines how 4CF and SE4CF influence kinematic coupling by quantifying wrist axes of rotation. Wrist axes of rotation were quantified in eight cadaveric specimens using an optimization algorithm, which fit a two-revolute joint model to experimental data...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705061/errors-in-shoulder-joint-position-sense-mainly-come-from-the-glenohumeral-joint
#16
Yin-Liang Lin, Andrew Karduna
While synchronous movement of glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints has been emphasized in previous kinematics studies, most investigations of shoulder joint position sense have treated the shoulder complex as a single joint. The purposes of this study were to investigate the joint position sense errors of the humerothoracic, glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints at different elevation angles and to examine whether the errors of the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints contribute to the errors of the humerothoracic joint...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705060/effective-propulsion-in-swimming-grasping-the-hydrodynamics-of-hand-and-arm-movements
#17
Josje van Houwelingen, Sander Schreven, Jeroen B J Smeets, Herman J H Clercx, Peter J Beek
A literature review is presented about the hydrodynamic effects of different hand and arm movements during swimming with the aim to identify lacunae in current methods and knowledge, and to distil practical guidelines for coaches and swimmers seeking to increase swimming speed. Experimental and numerical studies are discussed examining the effects of hand orientation, thumb position, finger spread, sculling movements and hand accelerations during swimming, as well as unsteady properties of vortices due to changes in hand orientation...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705059/accuracy-of-a-wearable-sensor-for-measures-of-head-kinematics-and-calculation-of-brain-tissue-strain
#18
Brooklynn M Knowles, Henry Yu, Christopher R Dennison
Wearable kinematic sensors can be used to study head injury biomechanics based on kinematics and, more recently, based on tissue strain metrics using kinematics-driven brain models. These sensors require in-situ calibration and there is currently no data conveying wearable ability to estimate tissue strain. We simulated head impact (n=871) to a 50(th) percentile Hybrid III (H-III) head wearing a hockey helmet instrumented with wearable GForceTracker (GFT) sensors measuring linear acceleration and angular velocity...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705058/estimates-of-running-ground-reaction-force-parameters-from-motion-analysis
#19
Gaspare Pavei, Elena Seminati, Jorge Ll Storniolo, Leonardo A Peyré-Tartaruga
We compared running mechanics parameters determined from ground reaction force (GRF) measurements with estimated forces obtained from double differentiation of kinematic (K) data from motion analysis in a broad spectrum of running speeds (1.94-5.56 m·s(-1)). Data were collected through a force-instrumented treadmill and compared at different sampling frequencies (900 and 300 Hz for GRF, 300 and 100 Hz for K). Vertical force peak, shape, and impulse were similar between K methods and GRF. Contact time, flight time and vertical stiffness (kvert) obtained from K showed the same trend as GRF with differences <5%, whereas leg stiffness (kleg) was not correctly computed by kinematics...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705057/reliability-and-validity-of-quantitative-video-analysis-of-baseball-pitching-motion
#20
Sakiko Oyama, Araceli Sosa, Rebekah Campbell, Alexandra Correa
Video recordings are used to quantitatively analyze pitchers' technique. However, reliability and validity of such analysis is unknown. The purpose of the study was to investigate the reliability and validity of joint and segment angles identified during a pitching motion using video analysis. Thirty high school baseball pitchers participated. The pitching motion was captured using two high-speed video cameras and a motion capture system. Two raters reviewed the videos to digitize the body segments to calculate two-dimensional angles...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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