Read by QxMD icon Read

Journal of Applied Biomechanics

Yumeng Li, Rumit S Kakar, Marika A Walker, Li Guan, Kathy J Simpson
The upper trunk - pelvic coordination patterns used in running are not well understood. The purposes of our study are to (a) test the running speed effect on the upper trunk - pelvis axial rotation coordination; (b) present a step-by-step guide of the relative Fourier phase algorithm as well as some further issues to consider. Twenty healthy young adults were tested under three treadmill running speeds using a 3D motion capture system. The upper trunk and pelvic segmental angles in axial rotation were calculated and the coordination was quantified using the relative Fourier phase method...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Harsh H Buddhadev, Daniel L Crisafulli, David N Suprak, Jun G San Juan
Cycling is commonly prescribed for physical rehabilitation of individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Despite the known therapeutic benefits, no research has examined interlimb symmetry of power output during cycling in these individuals. We investigated the effects of external workload and cadence on interlimb symmetry of crank power output in individuals with knee OA versus healthy controls. Twelve older participants with knee OA and 12 healthy sex- and age-matched controls were recruited. Participants performed 2-minute bouts of stationary cycling at four workload-cadence conditions (75 W-60 rpm, 75 W-90 rpm, 100 W-60 rpm, and 100 W-90 rpm)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Tzu-Chieh Liao, Joyce H Keyak, Christopher M Powers
The purpose of this study is to determine whether recreational runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP) exhibit greater peak patella cartilage stress compared to pain-free runners. A secondary purpose was to determine the kinematic and/or kinetic predictors of peak patella cartilage stress during running. Twenty-two female recreational runners participated (12 with PFP and 10 pain-free controls). Patella cartilage stress profiles were quantified using subject-specific finite element models simulating the maximum knee flexion angle during stance phase of running...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Hin Fong Leong, Wing Kai Lam, Wei Xuan Ng, Pui Wah Kong
This study aimed to investigate the effects of varying midsole hardness on center of pressure (COP) and perceived stability during basketball-specific tasks, as well as the correlation between COP and perception measurements. Twenty male basketball players performed 45° cutting and lay-up while wearing basketball shoes with soft and hard midsoles. COP trajectories were obtained from the Pedar insole system. Stability perceptions at the forefoot and rearfoot were assessed using 150-mm visual analogue scales (VAS)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
John R Harry, Max R Paquette, Brian K Schilling, Leland A Barker, C Roger James, Janet S Dufek
This study sought to identify kinetic and electromyographic (EMG) sub-phase characteristics distinguishing good from poor jumpers during countermovement vertical jumps (CMVJ), as defined by the reactive strength index (CMVJ displacement divided by jump time; RSI; cutoff=.46 m/s). Fifteen men (1.8±.6 m; 84.5±8.5 kg; 24±2 y) were stratified by RSI into good (n=6; RSI=.57±.07 m/s) and poor (n=9; RSI=.39±.06 m/s) performance groups. The following variables were compared between groups using independent t-tests (α=...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Matt Greig
Kicking is a fundamental skill and a primary non-contact mechanism of injury in soccer, with injury incidence increasing during the latter stages of match-play. Ten male professional soccer players completed a 90min treadmill protocol based on the velocity profile of soccer match-play. Pre-exercise, and at 15 min intervals, players completed a maximal velocity kick subjected to kinematic analysis at 200 Hz. Pre-exercise, and at the end of each half, players also completed isokinetic concentric knee extensor repetitions at 180, 300 and 60 °·s-1 ...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Mary Hellen Morcelli, Dain Patrick LaRoche, Luciano Fernandes Crozara, Nise Ribeiro Marques, Camilla Zamfolini Hallal, Mauro Gonçalves, Marcelo Tavella Navega
The aim was to compare torque and rate of torque development of lower limb muscles between older women with functional and slow gait speeds to determine which muscle group is the best predictor of functional gait speed, and to establish strength thresholds needed for functional walking speed. Torque and rate of torque development of hip, knee and ankle muscles were measured in older women who were divided in two groups according to gait speed: slow gait speed (< 1.22 m s-1 ) and functional gait speed (≥ 1...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Frank E DiLiberto, Deborah A Nawoczenski, Jeff Houck
Ankle power dominates forward propulsion of gait, but midfoot power generation is also important for successful push off. However, it is unclear if midfoot power generation increases or stays the same in response to propulsive activities that induce larger external loads and require greater ankle power. The purpose of this study was to examine ankle and midfoot power in healthy adults during progressively more demanding functional tasks. Multi-segment foot motion (tibia, calcaneus, forefoot) and ground reaction forces were recorded as participants (N=12) walked, ascended a standard step, and ascended a high step...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Sebastian Tomescu, Ryan Bakker, Tyson A C Beach, Naveen Chandrashekar
Estimation of muscle forces through musculoskeletal simulation is important in understanding human movement and injury. Unmatched filter frequencies used to low-pass filter marker and force platform data can create artifacts during inverse dynamics analysis, but their effects on muscle force calculations are unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of filter cutoff frequency on simulation parameters and magnitudes of lower extremity muscle and resultant joint contact forces during a high-impact maneuver...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Jared R Fletcher, Brian R MacIntosh
The length of a muscle's moment arm can be estimated non-invasively using ultrasound, and the tendon excursion method. The main assumption with the tendon excursion method, however, is that the force acting on the tendon during passive rotation is constant. However, passive force changes through the range of motion, and moment arm is underestimated. We attempted to account for passive force on the measurement of Achilles tendon moment arm using the tendon excursion method in 8 male and female runners. Tendon excursion was measured using ultrasound while the ankle was passively rotated at 0...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Paige E Rice, Herman van Werkhoven, Edward K Merritt, Jeffrey M McBride
Greater levels of bone ultimate fracture load, bone stress-strain index, muscle cross-sectional area, and maximal voluntary isometric plantarflexion strength of the lower leg may be adaptations from chronic exposure to stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) actions. Dancers, a population that habitually performs SSC movements primarily about the ankle-joint, may serve as a novel population to gain broader understanding of SSC function. Ten female collegiate dancers and ten untrained controls underwent peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of both lower legs and performed maximal voluntary isometric plantarflexions, countermovement hops and drop hops at 20 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm on a custom-made inclined sled...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Neil Chapman, John Whitting, Suzanne Broadbent, Zachary Crowley-McHattan, Rudi Meir
A systematic literature search was conducted to review evidence of residual force enhancement (RFE) in vivo human muscle. The search, adhered to the PRISMA statement, of CINAHL, Ebsco, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Scopus (inception - July 2017). Full text English articles that assessed at least one measure of RFE in in vivo voluntarily contracted human skeletal muscle were selected. The methodologies of included articles were assessed against the Downs and Black checklist. Twenty-four studies were included (N = 424...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Xingda Qu, Jianxin Jiang, Xinyao Hu
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of sub-sensory noise and fatigue on knee biomechanics during the athletic task of landing followed by cross-over cutting. Thirty-two healthy male athletes participated in the study. They were evenly divided into two groups: no fatigue group and fatigue group. Fatigue was induced to the lower extremity by a repetitive squatting exercise in the fatigue group. Sub-sensory noise was generated by linear miniature vibrators bilaterally placed around the knee joints...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Julia Freedman Silvernail, Richard Ea van Emmerik, Katherine Boyer, Michael A Busa, Joseph Hamill
The development of a methodology to assess movement coordination has provided gait researchers a tool to assess movement organization. A challenge in analyzing movement coordination via vector coding lies within the inherent circularity of data garnered from this technique. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine if accurate group comparisons can be made with varying techniques of vector coding analyses. Thigh-shank coordination was analyzed using a modified vector coding technique on data from two groups of runners...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Sean J Maloney, Joanna Richards, Iain M Fletcher
The current study sought to compare vertical stiffness during bilateral and unilateral drop jumping. Specifically, the inter-session reliabilities and force-deformation profiles associated with each task were to be examined. On three occasions, following familiarisation, fourteen healthy males (age: 22 ± 2 years; height: 1.77 ± 0.08 m; body mass: 73.5 ± 8.0 kg) performed three bilateral, left leg and right leg drop jumps. All jumps were performed from a drop height of 0.18 m on to a dual force plate system...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Alexandra S Voloshina, Daniel P Ferris
Studying human and animal locomotion on uneven terrain can be beneficial to basic science and applied studies for clinical and robotic applications. Traditional biomechanical analysis of human locomotion has often been limited to laboratory environments with flat, smooth runways and treadmills. We modified a regular exercise treadmill by attaching wooden blocks to the treadmill belt to yield an uneven locomotion surface. To ensure that these treadmill modifications facilitated biomechanical measurements, we compared ground reaction force data collected during running on the modified instrumented treadmill with a smooth surface to data collected using a conventional instrumented treadmill...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Chen Deng, Jason C Gillette, Timothy R Derrick
A detailed understanding of the hip loading environment is needed to help prevent hip fractures, minimize hip pain, rehabilitate hip injuries and design osteogenic exercises for the hip. The purpose of this study was to compare femoral neck stress during stair ascent and descent and to identify the contribution of muscles and reaction forces to the stress environment in mature adult subjects (n=17; age: 50-65 years). Motion analysis and inverse dynamics were combined with musculoskeletal modelling and optimization, then used as input to an elliptical femoral neck cross-section model to estimate femoral neck stress...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Zachary Merrill, Grace Bova, April Chambers, Rakié Cham
When defining trunk body segment parameters such as segment length, mass, center of mass location, and radius of gyration, it is necessary to understand and define consistent, anatomically relevant segment boundaries. In addition to the differences in reported trunk parameters due to different data collection and analysis methods (such as cadaver studies, and imaging methods), many previous publications have also used differing definitions of the trunk segment. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of differences in trunk segment definitions and obesity on the calculated mass, center of mass, and radius of gyration using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) anthropometry calculations...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Francisco Luis Pestaña-Melero, G Gregory Haff, Francisco Javier Rojas, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Amador García-Ramos
This study aimed to compare the between-session reliability of the load-velocity relationship between (1) linear vs. polynomial regression models, (2) concentric-only vs. eccentric-concentric bench press variants, as well as (3) the within-participants vs. the between-participants variability of the velocity attained at each percentage of the one-repetition maximum (%1RM). The load-velocity relationship of 30 men (age: 21.2±3.8 y; height: 1.78±0.07 m, body mass: 72.3±7.3 kg; bench press 1RM: 78.8±13.2 kg) were evaluated by means of linear and polynomial regression models in the concentric-only and eccentric-concentric bench press variants in a Smith Machine...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
R Tyler Richardson, Elizabeth A Rapp, R Garry Quinton, Kristen F Nicholson, Brian A Knarr, Stephanie A Russo, Jill S Higginson, James G Richards
Musculoskeletal modeling is capable of estimating physiological parameters that cannot be directly measured, however, the validity of the results must be assessed. Several models utilize a scapular rhythm to prescribe kinematics, yet it is unknown how well they replicate natural scapular motion. This study evaluated kinematic errors associated with a model that employs a scapular rhythm using 2 shoulder movements: abduction and forward reach. Two versions of the model were tested: the original MoBL ARMS model that utilizes a scapular rhythm, and a modified MoBL ARMS model that permits unconstrained scapular motion...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"