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Journal of Applied Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651910/head-impact-exposure-in-practices-correlates-with-exposure-in-games-for-youth-football-players
#1
Srinidhi Bellamkonda, Samantha J Woodward, Eamon Campolettano, Ryan Gellner, Mireille E Kelley, Derek A Jones, Amaris Genemaras, Jonathan G Beckwith, Richard M Greenwald, Arthur C Maerlender, Steven Rowson, Stefan M Duma, Jillian E Urban, Joel D Stitzel, Joseph J Crisco
This study aimed to compare head impact exposures between practices and games in football players ages 9 to 14, who account for approximately 70% of all football players in the US. Over a period of two seasons, 136 players were enrolled from three youth programs and 49,847 head impacts were recorded from 345 practices and 137 games. During the study, individual players sustained a median of 211 impacts per season, with a maximum of 1226 impacts. Players sustained 50th (95th ) percentile peak linear acceleration of 18...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651903/the-kinetics-of-swinging-a-baseball-bat
#2
Joseph J Crisco, Nikolas J Osvalds, Michael J Rainbow
The purpose of this study was to compute the three-dimensional kinetics required to swing three youth baseball bats of varying moments of inertia (MOI). 306 swings by 22 male players (13-18 yrs.) were analyzed. Inverse dynamics with respect to the batter's hands were computed given the known kinematics and physical properties of the bats. We found that peak force increased with larger bat MOI and was strongly correlated with bat tip speed. In contrast, peak moments were weakly correlated with bat MOI and bat tip speed...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651902/shoulder-and-lower-back-joint-reaction-forces-in-seated-double-poling
#3
Marie Lund Ohlsson, Jonas Danvind, L Joakim Holmberg
Overuse injuries in the shoulders and lower back are hypothesized to be common in cross-country sit-skiing. Athletes with reduced trunk muscle control mainly sits with their knees higher than hips (KH). To reduce spinal flexion, a position with the knees below the hips (KL) was enabled for these athletes using a frontal trunk support. The aim of the study was to compare the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) and L4-L5 joint reactions between the sitting positions KL and KH. Five able-bodied female athletes performed submaximal and maximal exercise tests in the sitting positions KL and KH on a ski-ergometer...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651897/the-effect-of-uphill-and-downhill-slopes-on-weight-transfer-alignment-and-shot-outcome-in-golf
#4
Glen M Blenkinsop, Ying Liang, Nicholas J Gallimore, Michael J Hiley
The aim of the study was to examine changes in weight transfer, alignment and shot outcome during golf shots from flat, uphill, and downhill slopes. Twelve elite male golfers hit 30 shots with a six-iron from a computer assisted rehabilitation environment (CAREN) used to create 5° slopes while collecting 3D kinematics and kinetics of the swing. A launch monitor measured performance outcomes. A shift in the centre of pressure was found throughout the swing when performed on a slope, with the mean position moving approximately 9% closer to the lower foot...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651893/differences-among-overhand-three-quarter-and-sidearm-pitching-biomechanics-in-professional-baseball-players
#5
Rafael F Escamilla, Jonathan S Slowik, Alek Z Diffendaffer, Glenn S Fleisig
The purpose of this study was to assess biomechanical differences among overhand, three-quarter, and sidearm arm-slot professional baseball pitchers. It was hypothesized that kinematic-and-kinetic differences would be found among the three groups, with sidearm pitchers demonstrating greater movement along the transverse plane, and overhead pitchers demonstrating greater movement along the sagittal plane. Based upon arm-slot-angle at ball-release, 30-overhand, 156-three-quarter, and 21-sidearm pitchers were tested using a 240-Hz-motion-analysis-system, and 37 kinematic-and-kinetic parameters were calculated...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091524/postural-control-and-head-impact-exposure-in-youth-football-players-comparison-of-the-balance-error-scoring-system-and-a-force-plate-protocol
#6
Eamon T Campolettano, Gunnar Brolinson, Steven Rowson
Postural control testing is often used by clinicians and athletic trainers to assess the health of athletes during recovery from a concussion. Characterization of postural control as a clinical tool for use with youth athletes is limited though. The objective of this study was to compare performance on the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) and a force plate protocol at the beginning and end of a season of football within a cohort of 34 healthy youth football players (average age of 9.9 ± 0.6 y). A secondary aim was to investigate if changes in measures of balance from the postseason to the preseason were correlated with head impact exposure...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613824/laboratory-evaluation-of-low-cost-wearable-sensors-for-measuring-head-impacts-in-sports
#7
Abigail M Tyson, Stefan M Duma, Steven Rowson
Advances in low-cost wearable head impact sensor technology provide potential benefits regarding sports safety for both consumers and researchers. However, previous laboratory evaluations are not directly comparable and don't incorporate test conditions representative of unhelmeted impacts. This study addresses those limitations. The xPatch by X2 Biosystems and the SIM-G by Triax Technologies were placed on a NOCSAE headform with a Hybrid III neck which underwent impacts tests using a pendulum. Impact conditions included helmeted, padded impactor to bare head, and rigid impactor to bare head to represent long and short-duration impacts seen in helmeted and unhelmeted sports...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613822/a-practical-estimation-method-for-center-of-mass-velocity-in-swimming-direction-during-front-crawl-swimming
#8
Yuji Matsuda, Yoshihisa Sakurai, Keita Akashi, Yasuyuki Kubo
Center of mass (CoM) velocity variation in swimming direction is related to swimming performance and efficiency. However, it is difficult to calculate the CoM velocity during swimming. Therefore, we aimed to establish a practical estimation method for the CoM velocity in swimming direction during front-crawl swimming with underwater cameras. Ten swimmers were recorded during front-crawl swimming (25 m, maximal effort) using a motion capture system with 18 underwater and 9 land cameras. Three CoM velocity estimation methods were constructed (single-hip velocity, both-hips velocity, and both-hips velocity with simulated arm velocity correction)...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613821/lower-extremity-kinematics-differed-between-a-controlled-drop-jump-and-volleyball-takeoffs
#9
Bradley S Beardt, Myranda R McCollum, Taylour J Hinshaw, Jacob S Layer, Margaret A Wilson, Qin Zhu, Boyi Dai
Previous studies utilizing jump-landing biomechanics to predict anterior cruciate ligament injuries have shown inconsistent findings. The purpose of this study was to quantify the differences and correlations in jump-landing kinematics between a drop-jump, a controlled volleyball-takeoff, and a simulated-game volleyball-takeoff. Seventeen female volleyball players performed these three tasks on a volleyball court while three-dimensional kinematic data were collected by three calibrated camcorders. Participants demonstrated significantly increased jump height, shorter stance time, increased time differences in initial contact between two feet, increased knee and hip flexion at initial contact and decreased peak knee and hip flexion for both left and right legs, and decreased knee-ankle distance ratio at the lowest height of mid-hip for the two volleyball-takeoffs compared with the drop-jump (p < 0...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613820/the-effects-of-walking-workstations-on-biomechanical-performance
#10
Daniel M Grindle, Lauren Baker, Mike Furr, Tim Puterio, Brian Knarr, Jill Higginson
Prolonged sitting has been associated with negative health effects. Walking workstations have become increasingly popular in the workplace. There is a lack of research on the biomechanical effect of walking workstations. This study analyzed whether walking while working alters normal gait patterns. Nine participants completed four walking trials at 2.4 km·h-1 and 4.0 km·h-1 : baseline walking condition, walking while performing a math task, a reading task, and a typing task. Biomechanical data were collected using standard motion capture procedures...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543108/upper-trunk-pelvis-coordination-during-running-using-the-continuous-relative-fourier-phase-method
#11
Yumeng Li, Rumit S Kakar, Marika A Walker, Li Guan, Kathy J Simpson
The upper trunk - pelvic coordination patterns used in running are not well understood. The purposes of our study are to (a) test the running speed effect on the upper trunk - pelvis axial rotation coordination; (b) present a step-by-step guide of the relative Fourier phase algorithm as well as some further issues to consider. Twenty healthy young adults were tested under three treadmill running speeds using a 3D motion capture system. The upper trunk and pelvic segmental angles in axial rotation were calculated and the coordination was quantified using the relative Fourier phase method...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543107/individuals-with-knee-osteoarthritis-demonstrate-interlimb-asymmetry-in-pedaling-power-during-stationary-cycling
#12
Harsh H Buddhadev, Daniel L Crisafulli, David N Suprak, Jun G San Juan
Cycling is commonly prescribed for physical rehabilitation of individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Despite the known therapeutic benefits, no research has examined interlimb symmetry of power output during cycling in these individuals. We investigated the effects of external workload and cadence on interlimb symmetry of crank power output in individuals with knee OA versus healthy controls. Twelve older participants with knee OA and 12 healthy sex- and age-matched controls were recruited. Participants performed 2-minute bouts of stationary cycling at four workload-cadence conditions (75 W-60 rpm, 75 W-90 rpm, 100 W-60 rpm, and 100 W-90 rpm)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485362/runners-with-patellofemoral-pain-exhibit-greater-peak-patella-cartilage-stress-compared-to-pain-free-runners
#13
Tzu-Chieh Liao, Joyce H Keyak, Christopher M Powers
The purpose of this study is to determine whether recreational runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP) exhibit greater peak patella cartilage stress compared to pain-free runners. A secondary purpose was to determine the kinematic and/or kinetic predictors of peak patella cartilage stress during running. Twenty-two female recreational runners participated (12 with PFP and 10 pain-free controls). Patella cartilage stress profiles were quantified using subject-specific finite element models simulating the maximum knee flexion angle during stance phase of running...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485360/center-of-pressure-and-perceived-stability-in-basketball-shoes-with-soft-and-hard-midsoles
#14
Hin Fong Leong, Wing Kai Lam, Wei Xuan Ng, Pui Wah Kong
This study aimed to investigate the effects of varying midsole hardness on center of pressure (COP) and perceived stability during basketball-specific tasks, as well as the correlation between COP and perception measurements. Twenty male basketball players performed 45° cutting and lay-up while wearing basketball shoes with soft and hard midsoles. COP trajectories were obtained from the Pedar insole system. Stability perceptions at the forefoot and rearfoot were assessed using 150-mm visual analogue scales (VAS)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485344/kinetic-and-electromyographic-sub-phase-characteristics-with-relation-to-countermovement-vertical-jump-performance
#15
John R Harry, Max R Paquette, Brian K Schilling, Leland A Barker, C Roger James, Janet S Dufek
This study sought to identify kinetic and electromyographic (EMG) sub-phase characteristics distinguishing good from poor jumpers during countermovement vertical jumps (CMVJ), as defined by the reactive strength index (CMVJ displacement divided by jump time; RSI; cutoff=.46 m/s). Fifteen men (1.8±.6 m; 84.5±8.5 kg; 24±2 y) were stratified by RSI into good (n=6; RSI=.57±.07 m/s) and poor (n=9; RSI=.39±.06 m/s) performance groups. The following variables were compared between groups using independent t-tests (α=...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485335/intermittent-treadmill-running-induces-kinematic-compensations-to-maintain-soccer-kick-foot-speed-despite-no-change-in-knee-extensor-strength
#16
Matt Greig
Kicking is a fundamental skill and a primary non-contact mechanism of injury in soccer, with injury incidence increasing during the latter stages of match-play. Ten male professional soccer players completed a 90min treadmill protocol based on the velocity profile of soccer match-play. Pre-exercise, and at 15 min intervals, players completed a maximal velocity kick subjected to kinematic analysis at 200 Hz. Pre-exercise, and at the end of each half, players also completed isokinetic concentric knee extensor repetitions at 180, 300 and 60 °·s-1 ...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485310/discriminatory-ability-of-lower-extremity-peak-torque-and-rate-of-torque-development-in-the-identification-of-older-women-with-slow-gait-speed
#17
Mary Hellen Morcelli, Dain Patrick LaRoche, Luciano Fernandes Crozara, Nise Ribeiro Marques, Camilla Zamfolini Hallal, Mauro Gonçalves, Marcelo Tavella Navega
The aim was to compare torque and rate of torque development of lower limb muscles between older women with functional and slow gait speeds to determine which muscle group is the best predictor of functional gait speed, and to establish strength thresholds needed for functional walking speed. Torque and rate of torque development of hip, knee and ankle muscles were measured in older women who were divided in two groups according to gait speed: slow gait speed (< 1.22 m s-1 ) and functional gait speed (≥ 1...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485306/ankle-and-midfoot-power-during-walking-and-stair-ascent-in-healthy-adults
#18
Frank E DiLiberto, Deborah A Nawoczenski, Jeff Houck
Ankle power dominates forward propulsion of gait, but midfoot power generation is also important for successful push off. However, it is unclear if midfoot power generation increases or stays the same in response to propulsive activities that induce larger external loads and require greater ankle power. The purpose of this study was to examine ankle and midfoot power in healthy adults during progressively more demanding functional tasks. Multi-segment foot motion (tibia, calcaneus, forefoot) and ground reaction forces were recorded as participants (N=12) walked, ascended a standard step, and ascended a high step...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431559/the-effects-of-filter-cutoff-frequency-on-musculoskeletal-simulations-of-high-impact-movements
#19
Sebastian Tomescu, Ryan Bakker, Tyson A C Beach, Naveen Chandrashekar
Estimation of muscle forces through musculoskeletal simulation is important in understanding human movement and injury. Unmatched filter frequencies used to low-pass filter marker and force platform data can create artifacts during inverse dynamics analysis, but their effects on muscle force calculations are unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of filter cutoff frequency on simulation parameters and magnitudes of lower extremity muscle and resultant joint contact forces during a high-impact maneuver...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952871/female-athletes-with-varying-levels-of-vertical-stiffness-display-kinematic-and-kinetic-differences-during-single-leg-hopping
#20
Justin P Waxman, Kevin R Ford, Anh-Dung Nguyen, Jeffrey B Taylor
Vertical stiffness may contribute to lower-extremity injury risk; however, it is unknown whether athletes with different stiffness levels display differences in biomechanics. This study compared differences in biomechanics between female athletes (n = 99) with varying stiffness levels during a repetitive, single-leg, vertical hopping task. Vertical stiffness was calculated as the ratio of peak vertical ground-reaction force to maximum center-of-mass displacement. Tertiles were established using stiffness values, and separate 1-way ANOVAs were used to evaluate between-group differences...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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