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Journal of Applied Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084875/reliability-and-validity-of-kinetic-and-kinematic-parameters-determined-with-force-plates-embedded-under-soil-filled-baseball-mound
#1
Toshimasa Yanai, Akifumi Matsuo, Akira Maeda, Hiroki Nakamoto, Mirai Mizutani, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga
We developed a force measurement system in a soil-filled mound for measuring ground reaction forces (GRFs) acting on baseball pitchers and examined the reliability and validity of kinetic and kinematic parameters determined from the GRFs. Three soil-filled trays of dimensions that satisfied the official baseball rules were fixed onto three force platforms. Eight collegiate pitchers wearing baseball shoes with metal cleats were asked to throw 5 fastballs with maximum effort from the mound toward a catcher. The reliability of each parameter was determined for each subject as the coefficient of variation across the 5 pitches...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084870/reliability-of-achilles-tendon-moment-arm-measured-in-vivo-using-freehand-three-dimensional-ultrasound
#2
Steven J Obst, Lee Barber, Ashton Miller, Rod S Barrett
This study investigated reliability of freehand three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) measurement of in vivo human Achilles tendon (AT) moment arm. Sixteen healthy adults were scanned on two separate occasions by a single investigator. 3DUS scans were performed over the free AT, medial malleolus and lateral malleolus with the ankle passively positioned in maximal dorsiflexion, mid dorsiflexion, neutral, mid plantar flexion and maximal plantar flexion. 3D reconstructions of the AT, medial malleolus and lateral malleolus were created from manual segmentation of the ultrasound images and used to geometrically determine the AT moment arm using both a straight (straight ATMA) and curved (curved ATMA) tendon line-of-action...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084868/physiological-and-biomechanical-responses-to-prolonged-heavy-load-carriage-during-level-treadmill-walking-in-females
#3
Daniel E Lidstone, Justin A Stewart, Reed Gurchiek, Alan R Needle, Herman van Werkhoven, Jeffrey M McBride
Heavy load carriage has been identified as a main contributing factor to the high incidence of overuse injuries in soldiers. Peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRFMAX) and maximal vertical loading rates (VLRMAX) may increase during heavy prolonged load carriage with the development of muscular fatigue and reduced shock attenuation capabilities. The objectives of the current study were (1) to examine physiological and biomechanical changes that occur during a prolonged heavy load carriage task, and (2) to examine if this task induces neuromuscular fatigue and changes in muscle architecture...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084864/inverse-dynamics-modelling-of-paralympic-wheelchair-curling
#4
Brock Laschowski, Naser Mehrabi, John McPhee
Paralympic wheelchair curling is an adapted version of Olympic curling played by individuals with spinal cord injuries, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and lower extremity amputations. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there has been no experimental or computational research published regarding the biomechanics of wheelchair curling. Accordingly, the objective of this research was to quantify the angular joint kinematics and dynamics of a Paralympic wheelchair curler throughout the delivery. The angular joint kinematics of the upper extremity were experimentally measured using an inertial measurement unit system; the translational kinematics of the curling stone were additionally evaluated with optical motion capture...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084863/load-accommodation-strategies-and-movement-variability-in-single-leg-landing
#5
Andrew D Nordin, Janet S Dufek
Our purpose was to examine changes in participant-specific single-leg landing strategies and intra-individual movement variability following alterations in mechanical task demands via external load and landing height. Nineteen healthy volunteers (15M, 4F, age: 24.3 ± 4.9 y, mass: 78.5 ± 14.7 kg, height: 1.73 ± 0.08 m) were analyzed among 9 single-leg drop landing trials in each of 6 experimental conditions (3 load and 2 landing height) computed as percentages of participant bodyweight (BW, BW+12.5%, BW+25%) and height (H12...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084861/split-belt-treadmill-walking-alters-lower-extremity-frontal-plane-mechanics
#6
Jaimie A Roper, Ryan T Roemmich, Mark D Tillman, Matthew J Terza, Chris J Hass
Interventions that manipulate gait speed may also affect the control of frontal plane mechanics. Expanding the current knowledge of frontal plane adaptations during split-belt treadmill walking could advance our understanding of the influence of asymmetries in gait speed on frontal plane mechanics and provide insight into the breadth of adaptations required by split-belt walking. Thirteen young, healthy participants, free from lower extremity injury walked on a split-belt treadmill with belts moving simultaneously at different speeds...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992254/an-investigation-of-structure-flexibility-and-function-variables-that-discriminate-asymptomatic-foot-types
#7
Sarah P Shultz, Jinsup Song, Andrew P Kraszewski, Jocelyn F Hafer, Smita Rao, Sherry Backus, Rajshree Mootanah, Howard J Hillstrom
It has been suggested that foot type consider not only foot structure (high, normal, low arch), but also function (over-pronation, normal, over-supination) and flexibility (reduced, normal, excessive). Therefore, this study used canonical regression analyses to assess which variables of foot structure, function, and flexibility can accurately discriminate between clinical foot type classifications. The feet of 61 asymptomatic, healthy adults (18-77 years) were classified as cavus (N=24), rectus (N=54), or planus (N=44) using standard clinical measures...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992250/impact-of-a-long-run-on-injury-related-biomechanics-with-relation-to-weekly-mileage-in-trained-male-runners
#8
Max R Paquette, Daniel A Melcher
The purposes of this study were to compare selected biomechanical variables before and after a long run, and to assess the relationship between weekly running volume and changes in lower limb biomechanics after the run. Twelve trained habitual rearfoot strike male runners ran overground before and after a treadmill long run while kinematic and kinetic data were recorded. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to compare kinematic and kinetic variables before and after the run...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992248/deltoid-emg-is-reliable-during-submaximal-isometric-ramp-contractions
#9
David Phillips, Andrew Karduna
The EMG and load relationship is commonly measured with multiple submaximal isometric contractions. This method is both time consuming and may introduce fatigue. The purpose of this study was to determine if the electromyography (EMG) amplitude from the middle deltoid was reliable during isometric ramp contractions (IRCs) at different angles of elevation and rates of force application. Surface EMG was measured at three shoulder elevation angles during IRCs at four submaximal levels of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992244/averaging-trials-versus-averaging-trial-peaks-impact-on-study-outcomes
#10
Kevin D Dames, Jeremy D Smith, Gary D Heise
Gait data are commonly presented as an average of many trials or as an average across participants. Discrete data points (e.g., maxima or minima) are identified and used as dependent variables in subsequent statistical analyses. However, the approach used for obtaining average data from multiple trials is inconsistent and unclear in the biomechanics literature. This study compared the statistical outcomes of averaging peaks from multiple trials versus identifying a single peak from an average profile. A series of paired-samples t tests were used to determine whether there were differences in average dependent variables from these two methods...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992243/the-effect-of-teeth-clenching-on-dynamic-balance-at-jump-landing-a-pilot-study
#11
Tomomasa Nakamura, Yuriko Yoshida, Hiroshi Churei, Junya Aizawa, Kenji Hirohata, Takehiro Ohmi, Shunsuke Ohji, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Mitsuhiro Enomoto, Toshiaki Ueno, Kazuyoshi Yagishita
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of teeth clenching on dynamic balance at jump-landing. Twenty-five healthy subjects performed jump-landing tasks with or without teeth clenching. The first three trials were performed with no instruction; subsequently, subjects were ordered to clench at the time of landing in the following three trials. We collected the data of masseter muscle activity by electromyogram, the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax) and Center of Pressure (CoP) parameters by force plate during jump-landing...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918704/comparison-of-3d-joint-angles-measured-with-the-kinect-2-0-skeletal-tracker-versus-a-marker-based-motion-capture-system
#12
Trent M Guess, Swithin Razu, Amirhossein Jahandar, Marjorie Skubic, Zhiyu Huo
The Microsoft Kinect is becoming a widely used tool for inexpensive, portable measurement of human motion with the potential to support clinical assessments of performance and function. In this study, the relative osteokinematic Cardan joint angles of the hip and knee were calculated using the Kinect 2.0 skeletal tracker. The pelvis segments of the default skeletal model were reoriented and three-dimensional joint angles were compared to a marker-based system during a drop vertical jump and a hip abduction motion...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918701/coefficient-of-friction-at-the-fingertips-in-type-ii-diabetics-compared-to-healthy-adults
#13
Beatriz H Thames, Stacey L Gorniak
Clinical observations suggests that Type II Diabetes patients are more susceptible to skin changes which may be associated with reduced coefficient of friction at the fingertips. Reduced coefficient of friction may explain recent reports of fine motor dysfunction in diabetic patients. Coefficient of friction was evaluated using slip force evaluation in a cross-sectional cohort of diabetic patients and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Covariates of tactile sensation, disease duration, glycated hemoglobin, and clinical diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy were also assessed...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918696/validation-of-inertial-measurement-units-for-upper-body-kinematics
#14
Melissa M B Morrow, Bethany Lowndes, Emma Fortune, Kenton R Kaufman, Susan Hallbeck
The purpose of this study was to validate a commercially available IMU system against a standard lab-based motion capture system for the measurement of shoulder elevation, elbow flexion, trunk flexion/extension and neck flexion/extension kinematics. The validation analyses were applied to six surgical faculty members performing a standard, simulated surgical training task that mimics minimally invasive surgery. Three-dimensional joint kinematics were simultaneously recorded by an optical motion capture system and an IMU system with six sensors placed on the head, chest, and bilateral upper and lower arms...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918692/the-validity-and-reliability-of-an-iphone-app-for-measuring-running-mechanics
#15
Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández, Hovannes Agopyan, Jean-Benoit Morin
The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the validity of an iPhone application (Runmatic) for measuring running mechanics. To do this, 96 steps from 12 different runs at speeds ranging from 2.77-5.55 m·s-1 were recorded simultaneously with Runmatic as well as with an opto-electronic device installed on a motorized treadmill to measure the contact and aerial time of each step. Additionally, several running mechanics variables were calculated using the contact and aerial times measured and previously validated equations...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918690/the-advantages-of-normalizing-emg-to-ballistic-rather-than-isometric-or-isokinetic-tasks
#16
Stephen M Suydam, Kurt Manal, Thomas S Buchanan
Isometric tasks have been a standard for electromyography (EMG) normalization stemming from anatomic and physiologic stability observed during contraction. Ballistic dynamic tasks have the benefit of eliciting maximum EMG signals for normalization, despite having the potential for greater signal variability. It is the purpose of this study to compare maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) to non-isometric tasks with increasing degrees of extrinsic variability, i.e., joint range of motion, velocity, rate of contraction, etc...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918689/vertical-jump-biomechanics-altered-with-virtual-overhead-goal
#17
Kevin R Ford, Anh-Dung Nguyen, Eric J Hegedus, Jeffrey B Taylor
Virtual environments with real-time feedback can simulate extrinsic goals that mimic real life conditions. The purpose was to compare jump performance and biomechanics with a physical overhead goal (POG) and with a virtual overhead goal (VOG). Fourteen female subjects participated (age: 18.8±1.1 years, height: 163.2±8.1 cm, weight 63.0±7.9 kg). Sagittal plane trunk, hip, and knee biomechanics were calculated during the landing and take-off phases of DVJ with different goal conditions. Repeated measures ANOVAs determined differences between goal conditions...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918682/changes-in-the-force-velocity-mechanical-profile-after-short-resistance-training-programmes-differing-in-set-configurations
#18
Eliseo Iglesias-Soler, Miguel Fernández-Del-Olmo, Xián Mayo, Juan Fariñas, Dan Río-Rodríguez, Eduardo Carballeira, Elvis A Carnero, Robert A Standley, Manuel A Giráldez-García, Xurxo Dopico-Calvo, Jose Luis Tuimil
The main aim of this study was to analyse the effect of resistance training programs differing in set configuration on mechanical force-velocity profiles. Thirteen participants performed ten unilateral knee extension training sessions over 5 weeks. Each limb was randomised to one of the following set configurations: traditional (4 sets of 8 repetitions at maximum intended velocity, 10RM load, 3-min pause between sets), and inter-repetition rest (32 maximum intended velocity repetitions, 10RM load, 17.4 s of rest between each repetition)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918680/is-there-an-optimal-pole-length-for-double-poling-in-cross-country-skiing
#19
Franziska Onasch, Anthony Killick, Walter Herzog
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pole length on energy cost and kinematics in cross country double poling. Seven sub-elite male athletes were tested using pole sets of different lengths (ranging between 77 and 98% of participants' body height). Tests were conducted on a treadmill, set to a 2% incline and an approximate racing speed. Poling forces, contact times, and oxygen uptake were measured throughout the testing. Pole length was positively correlated with ground contact time (r = .57, p < ...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834573/minimum-detectable-change-in-medial-tibiofemoral-contact-force-parameters-derivation-and-application-to-a-load-altering-intervention
#20
Joaquin Barrios, John Willson
Medial tibiofemoral joint contact forces can be estimated using musculoskeletal models. To assess change in these forces that accompany load-modifying interventions, minimum detectable change (MDC) thresholds must be established. The primary study purpose was to derive MDCs for medial tibiofemoral peak force and force impulse during walking. The secondary purpose was to identify the proportions of individuals exhibiting reductions greater than these MDCs when walking with lateral foot wedging. Eight healthy individuals provided three-dimensional gait data over three test sessions to serve as inputs for an inverse dynamics-driven medial tibiofemoral contact force model, from which MDCs for peak force and impulse were derived...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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