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Acta Paediatrica. Supplement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17000575/environmental-tobacco-smoke-exposure-and-children-s-health
#1
Kinga Polanska, Wojciech Hanke, Roberto Ronchetti, Peter van den Hazel, Moniek Zuurbier, Janna G Koppe, Alena Bartonova
UNLABELLED: Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The ETS exposure gives rise to an excessive risk of several diseases in infancy and childhood, including sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, asthma and middle ear diseases. It is also linked to cancer, and behavioural problems and neurocognitive deficits in children. CONCLUSIONS: Protecting children from ETS exposure is a complex and important issue...
October 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17000573/adverse-health-effects-of-children-s-exposure-to-pesticides-what-do-we-really-know-and-what-can-be-done-about-it
#2
REVIEW
Joanna Jurewicz, Wojciech Hanke, Carolina Johansson, Christofer Lundqvist, Sandra Ceccatelli, Peter van den Hazel, Margaret Saunders, Rolf Zetterström
UNLABELLED: Children may be exposed to pesticides in several ways, such as by transplacental transfer during foetal life, by intake of contaminated breast milk and other nutrients, or by contact with contaminated subjects and areas in the environment such as pets treated with insecticides, house dust, carpets and chemically treated lawns and gardens. Exposure early in life, and particularly during periods of rapid development, such as during foetal life and infancy, may have severe effects on child health and development by elevating the risk of congenital malformations, cancer, malabsorption, immunological dysfunction, endocrine disease, and neurobehavioural deficiencies...
October 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17000572/children-s-exposure-to-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers
#3
REVIEW
Moniek Zuurbier, Marike Leijs, Greet Schoeters, Gavin ten Tusscher, Janna G Koppe
BACKGROUND: Polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants, are frequently used in consumer products. PBDEs levels in environmental and human samples have increased in recent decades. Children are exposed to PBDEs through diet, mainly through fish, meat and milk. Total dietary exposure of children in Europe was calculated to be 2-3 ng/kg b.w./day. For nursing infants the main source of PBDE exposure is breast milk; exposure levels are around 15 ng/kg b...
October 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17000567/pinche-s-policy-recommendations-on-noise-how-to-prevent-noise-from-adversely-affecting-children
#4
Marie Louise Bistrup, Wolfgang Babisch, Stephen Stansfeld, Wieslaw Sulkowski
BACKGROUND: Noise can have auditory and non-auditory effects on children. Very few noise episodes affect children's hearing instantaneously; most effects are long-term and cumulative. Describing the risks of noise on children's health and well-being in a life-course perspective can illustrate the prospects of cumulative effects. CONCLUSION: The policy recommendations the Policy Interpretation Network on Children's Health and Environment (PINCHE) prepared for each age group or setting are described here...
October 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17000565/today-s-epidemics-in-children-possible-relations-to-environmental-pollution-and-suggested-preventive-measures
#5
Peter van den Hazel, Moniek Zuurbier, Wolfgang Babisch, Alena Bartonova, Marie Louise Bistrup, Gabriele Bolte, Chris Busby, Maureen Butter, Sandra Ceccatelli, Aleksandra Fucic, Wojtec Hanke, Carolina Johansson, Martina Kohlhuber, Marike Leijs, Christofer Lundqvist, Hanns Moshammer, Rima Naginiene, Alan Preece, Roberto Ronchetti, Georges Salines, Margaret Saunders, Greet Schoeters, Nikolaos Stilianakis, Gavin ten Tusscher, Janna G Koppe
BACKGROUND: Facts and hypotheses on the relationship between some children's diseases or disorders and external stressors during the developmental stage of a child, both prenatally and postnatally are described in literature. In this paper the following changes in patterns and causes of the main childhood illnesses are summarized and recommendations for actions are made. Prematurity. Intra-uterine growth restriction. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Type I and Type II diabetes. Asthma, atopy and hay fever...
October 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17000563/policy-interpretation-network-on-children-s-health-and-environment
#6
Peter van den Hazel, Moniek Zuurbier, Marie Louise Bistrup
AIM: The main objective of PINCHE is to provide policy recommendations aiming at protecting children's health and environment based on completed scientific research. The project focused on four themes: indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carcinogens, neurotoxicants, and noise. The data were evaluated in workpackages on exposure assessment, epidemiology, toxicology, and risk and health impact assessment. The data were analysed according to a framework of questions. The workpackage on socioeconomic factors studied the influence of socioeconomic status on exposures and on health effects...
October 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16801167/infant-leukaemia-clinical-biological-and-therapeutic-advances
#7
Matteo Luciani, Ippolita Rana, Valecia Pansini, Mauzilio Caniglia, Valentina Coletti, Alice Maraschini, Alessandra Lombardi, Giulio De Rossi
UNLABELLED: Infant acute lymphoid leukaemia (IALL) represents a distinct subset with an extremely poor response to therapy, despite major progress in the treatment of childhood leukaemia. However, several studies have shown that, even in this generally considered homogeneous group, a distinction could be made with regard to prognosis. The outcome of IALL patients with ALL-1/MLL rearrangements at the 11q23 cytogenetic band, early pre-B immunophenotype, high WBC count and age below 6 mo is significantly worse than in patients without these characteristics, and current therapies appear inadequate in a significant number of cases...
July 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16801166/ethical-issues-in-neonatal-intensive-care-and-physicians-practices-a-european-perspective
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Marina Cuttini, Veronica Casotto, Marcello Orzalesi
UNLABELLED: An international project (EURONIC) was carried out to explore the end-of-life decision-making process in a large, representative sample of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in eight western European countries: France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Spain and Sweden. Structured questionnaires were used to record data on NICU organization and policies, and to survey staff views and practices regarding ethical decision-making. One hundred and twenty-two NICUs were recruited by census or random sampling (response rate 86%); 1235 physicians and 3115 nurses completed the staff questionnaire (response rates 89 and 85%, respectively)...
July 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16801165/macrophage-activation-syndrome-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#9
REVIEW
Elisabetta Cortis, Antonella Insalaco
UNLABELLED: Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a rare and potentially lethal complication of chronic rheumatic diseases of childhood, in particular of systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (s-JIA), resulting from uncontrolled activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes and macrophages. The onset, acute and dramatic, may mimic a flare of the underlying disease or a severe sepsis. Diagnosis is difficult and, until now, no specific criteria have been developed. Laboratory data show pancytopenia, coagulopathy, low ESR and low concentrations of serum albumin, and high levels of ferritin, liver enzymes and triglycerides...
July 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16801164/surgery-in-disabled-children-general-gastroenterological-aspects
#10
Emanuela Ceriati, Francesco De Peppo, Guido Ciprandi, Paola Marchetti, Massimiliano Silveri, Massimo Rivosecchi
UNLABELLED: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non-progressive but not unchanging disorder of movement and/or posture, due to an insult to or anomaly of the developing brain. Gastrointestinal surgery can play a role in the treatment of pathologies frequently associated with a condition of neurological impairment such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (antireflux procedure), feeding difficulties (percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy) and swallowing difficulties (ligation of salivary gland ducts)...
July 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16801163/cystinuria
#11
REVIEW
Luca Dello Strologo, Gianfranco Rizzoni
UNLABELLED: Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired transport of cystine, lysine, ornithine and arginine in the proximal renal tubule and in the epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Following recent progress in the genetic understanding of the disease, the traditional classification, based on the excretion of cystine and dibasic amino acids in obligate heterozygotes, may no longer be considered valid. A new classification is therefore needed: type A due to two mutations of SLC3A1 on chromosome 2, and type B due to two mutations of SLC7A9 on chromosome 19...
July 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16801160/what-makes-the-heart-fail-new-insights-from-defective-genes
#12
REVIEW
Timothy M Olson
UNLABELLED: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an idiopathic, genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by heart failure and arrhythmia. Over the past decade, the molecular basis for DCM has been partially uncovered by discovery of mutation in genes encoding cystoskeletal, sarcomeric, nuclear membrane, and sarcoplasmic reticulum proteins. These findings have implicated pathogenic mechanisms whereby structural integrity, contractile force dynamics, and calcium regulation within the cardiac myocyte are perturbed...
July 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16801159/dilated-cardiomyopathy-in-children
#13
Maria Giulia Gagliardi
UNLABELLED: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a rare disease in the paediatric population. We analysed the epidemiology, clinical features and role of immunotherapy in the treatment of myocarditis. On the basis of experimental evidence, indicating that autoimmunity might play a role in the development of myocarditis, we treated children affected by myocarditis with immunosuppressive therapy, and we present here our series. The future availability of reliable prognostic markers should allow treatment of only those children with myocarditis who do not spontaneously recover...
July 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16801158/non-conventional-use-of-growth-hormone-therapy
#14
Marco Cappa, Graziamaria Ubertini, Diego Colabianchi, Rossana Fiori, Paola Cambiaso
UNLABELLED: Human growth hormone therapy is allowed in certain clinical conditions according to national healthcare criteria. Growth hormone, however, produces a wide spectrum of effects. Linear growth is only one of the many expected results, and there are interesting possibilities to explore which could provide additional means of improving the quality of life for the ever-increasing numbers of chronic paediatric patients. CONCLUSION: In this review, we discuss the rationale for and possibility of using growth hormone therapy in some conditions not strictly related to growth hormone deficiency...
July 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16801157/growth-hormone-therapy-established-uses-in-short-children
#15
W Frederick Schwenk
UNLABELLED: Since the first reported efficacious use of human growth hormone in 1958, numerous children have been treated with this hormone. This review discusses the five indications for use of human growth hormone in children that have been approved to date by the United States Food and Drug Administration. CONCLUSION: Further, long-term studies will be needed to address the optimal use of this hormone in each of these conditions.
July 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16817682/who-motor-development-study-windows-of-achievement-for-six-gross-motor-development-milestones
#16
(no author information available yet)
AIM: To review the methods for generating windows of achievement for six gross motor developmental milestones and to compare the actual windows with commonly used motor development scales. METHODS: As part of the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study, longitudinal data were collected to describe the attainment of six gross motor milestones by children aged 4 to 24 mo in Ghana, India, Norway, Oman and the USA. Trained fieldworkers assessed 816 children at scheduled visits (monthly in year 1, bimonthly in year 2)...
April 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16817681/who-child-growth-standards-based-on-length-height-weight-and-age
#17
(no author information available yet)
AIM: To describe the methods used to construct the WHO Child Growth Standards based on length/height, weight and age, and to present resulting growth charts. METHODS: The WHO Child Growth Standards were derived from an international sample of healthy breastfed infants and young children raised in environments that do not constrain growth. Rigorous methods of data collection and standardized procedures across study sites yielded very high-quality data. The generation of the standards followed methodical, state-of-the-art statistical methodologies...
April 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16720474/gaucher-disease-multiple-lessons-from-a-single-gene-disorder
#18
REVIEW
Ernest Beutler
UNLABELLED: Gaucher disease is the most common lysosomal storage disease. It is caused by a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase, a beta-glucosidase, which results in the accumulation of the lipid glucocerebroside in macrophages throughout the body. Gaucher disease is most common in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, and three mutations of the gene encoding glucocerebrosidase (GBA) have been shown to be prevalent in this population (c.1226 A > C [N370S], 84GG and IVS2[+1])...
April 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16720473/reversibility-of-cellular-and-organ-pathology-in-enzyme-replacement-trials-in-animal-models-of-lysosomal-storage-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Volkmar Gieselmann
UNLABELLED: Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has now become a feasible treatment option for several lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). Although the rationale behind this approach is straightforward, there are many factors that may influence the efficacy of treatment. The reversibility of cellular and organ pathology depends on several factors including the particular organ targeted, the dose and biodistribution of enzyme, the accessibility of the target cell to the infused enzyme, the abundance of receptors for mannose-6-phosphate and other ligands in the target tissue and the activity of endocytosis...
April 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16720472/inhibition-and-reversibility-of-renal-changes-lessons-from-diabetic-kidney-disease
#20
REVIEW
Allan Flyvbjerg
UNLABELLED: This review describes the clinical characteristics of kidney disease in patients with diabetes in terms of functional and morphological changes, and summarizes the risk factors for progression of disease and the knowledge available today on various treatment modalities. New insights into the pathogenesis of kidney disease in diabetic patients are also reviewed in the context of the nephropathy of Fabry disease. Newly recognized pathways that play a role in the development/progression of kidney disease in patients with diabetes include metabolic factors, (e...
April 2006: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
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