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Chromosome Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406864/nucleoli-in-embryos-a-central-structural-platform-for-embryonic-chromatin-remodeling
#1
REVIEW
Helena Fulka, Alena Langerova
Nucleoli are the site of ribosomal RNA production and subunit assembly. In contrast to active nucleoli in somatic cells, where three basic sub-compartments can be observed, mammalian oocytes and early embryos contain atypical nucleoli termed "nucleolus-like bodies" or "nucleolus precursor bodies", respectively. Unlike their somatic counterparts, these structures are composed of dense homogenous fibrillar material and exhibit no polymerase activity. Irrespective of these unusual properties, they have been shown to be absolutely essential for embryonic development, as their microsurgical removal results in developmental arrest...
November 8, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30343462/dosage-effects-of-human-ribosomal-genes-rdna-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
L N Porokhovnik, N A Lyapunova
Human ribosomal RNA genes encoding a pre-transcript of the three major ribosomal RNA (18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNA) are tandemly repeated in human genome. Their total copy number varies from 250 to 670 per diploid genome with a mean of approximately 420 copies, but only a fraction of them is transcriptionally active. The functional consequences of human ribosomal RNA gene dosage are not widely known and often assumed to be negligible. Here, we review the facts of rRNA gene dosage effects on normal growth and aging, stress resistance of healthy individuals, and survivability of patients with chromosomal abnormalities, as well as on the risk and severity of some multifactorial diseases with proven genetic predisposition...
October 20, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30343461/genes-involved-in-mirna-biogenesis-affect-meiosis-and-fertility
#3
REVIEW
Mónica Pradillo, Juan L Santos
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (containing about 22 nucleotides) single-stranded non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in plants and animals, being absent from unicellular organisms. They act on diverse key physiological and cellular processes, such as development and tissue differentiation, cell identity, cell cycle progression, and programmed cell death. They are also likely to be involved in a broad spectrum of human diseases. Particularly, this review examines and summarizes work characterizing the function of miRNAs in gametogenesis and fertility...
October 20, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30276581/herbert-macgregor-1933-2018
#4
EDITORIAL
Joseph G Gall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225548/but-where-did-the-centromeres-go-in-the-chicken-genome-models
#5
Benoît Piégu, Peter Arensburger, Florian Guillou, Yves Bigot
The chicken genome was the third vertebrate to be sequenced. To date, its sequence and feature annotations are used as the reference for avian models in genome sequencing projects developed on birds and other Sauropsida species, and in genetic studies of domesticated birds of economic and evolutionary biology interest. Therefore, an accurate description of this genome model is important to a wide number of scientists. Here, we review the location and features of a very basic element, the centromeres of chromosomes in the galGal5 genome model...
September 17, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30143891/condensin-controls-mitotic-chromosome-stiffness-and-stability-without-forming-a-structurally-contiguous-scaffold
#6
Mingxuan Sun, Ronald Biggs, Jessica Hornick, John F Marko
During cell division, chromosomes must be folded into their compact mitotic form to ensure their segregation. This process is thought to be largely controlled by the action of condensin SMC protein complexes on chromatin fibers. However, how condensins organize metaphase chromosomes is not understood. We have combined micromanipulation of single human mitotic chromosomes, sub-nanonewton force measurement, siRNA interference of condensin subunit expression, and fluorescence microscopy, to analyze the role of condensin in large-scale chromosome organization...
August 24, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974361/alpha-satellite-dna-biology-finding-function-in-the-recesses-of-the-genome
#7
REVIEW
Shannon M McNulty, Beth A Sullivan
Repetitive DNA, formerly referred to by the misnomer "junk DNA," comprises a majority of the human genome. One class of this DNA, alpha satellite, comprises up to 10% of the genome. Alpha satellite is enriched at all human centromere regions and is competent for de novo centromere assembly. Because of the highly repetitive nature of alpha satellite, it has been difficult to achieve genome assemblies at centromeres using traditional next-generation sequencing approaches, and thus, centromeres represent gaps in the current human genome assembly...
September 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789973/chromosomal-distribution-of-soybean-retrotransposon-sore-1-suggests-its-recent-preferential-insertion-into-euchromatic-regions
#8
Kenta Nakashima, Jun Abe, Akira Kanazawa
Retrotransposons constitute a large portion of plant genomes. The chromosomal distribution of a wide variety of retrotransposons has been analyzed using genome sequencing data in several plants, but the evolutionary profile of transposition has been characterized for a limited number of retrotransposon families. Here, we characterized 96 elements of the SORE-1 family of soybean retrotransposons using genome sequencing data. Insertion time of each SORE-1 element into the genome was estimated on the basis of sequence differences between the 5' and 3' long terminal repeats (LTRs)...
September 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679205/changes-in-the-position-and-volume-of-inactive-x-chromosomes-during-the-g0-g1-transition
#9
Guoliang Lyu, Tan Tan, Yiting Guan, Lei Sun, Qianjin Liang, Wei Tao
In female mammals, each cell silences one X chromosome by converting it into transcriptionally inert heterochromatin. The inactivation is concomitant with epigenetic changes including methylation of specific histone residues and incorporation of macroH2A. Such epigenetic changes may exert influence on the positioning of the inactive X chromosome (Xi) within the nucleus beyond the level of chromatin structure. However, the dynamic positioning of the inactive X chromosome during cell cycle remains unclear. Here, we show that H3K27me3 is a cell-cycle-independent marker for the inactivated X chromosomes in WI38 cells...
September 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524007/insights-into-the-karyotype-evolution-and-speciation-of-the-beetle-euchroma-gigantea-coleoptera-buprestidae
#10
Crislaine Xavier, Rógean Vinícius Santos Soares, Igor Costa Amorim, Diogo Cavalcanti Cabral-de-Mello, Rita de Cássia de Moura
Euchroma Dejean, 1833 (Buprestidae: Coleoptera) is a monotypic genus comprising the species Euchroma gigantea, with populations presenting a degree of karyotypic variation/polymorphism rarely found within a single taxonomic (specific) unit, as well as drastically incompatible meiotic configurations in populations from extremes of the species range. To better understand the complex karyotypic evolution of E. gigantea, the karyotypes of specimens from five populations in Brazil were investigated using molecular cytogenetics and phylogenetic approaches...
September 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159671/janice-britton-davidian-1950-2017
#11
EDITORIAL
Gauthier Dobigny, Terence J Robinson, Frederic Veyrunes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159670/analysis-of-b-chromosome-nondisjunction-induced-by-the-r-x1-deficiency-in-maize
#12
Shih-Hsuan Tseng, Shu-Fen Peng, Ya-Ming Cheng
The maize B chromosome typically undergoes nondisjunction during the second microspore division. For normal A chromosomes, the r-X1 deficiency in maize can induce nondisjunction during the second megaspore and first microspore divisions. However, it is not known whether the r-X1 deficiency also induces nondisjunction of the maize B chromosome during these cell divisions. To answer this question, chromosome numbers were determined in the progeny of r-X1/R-r female parents carrying two B chromosomes. Some of the r-X1-lacking progeny (21...
September 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043597/do-holocentric-chromosomes-represent-an-evolutionary-advantage-a-study-of-paired-analyses-of-diversification-rates-of-lineages-with-holocentric-chromosomes-and-their-monocentric-closest-relatives
#13
José Ignacio Márquez-Corro, Marcial Escudero, Modesto Luceño
Despite most of the cytogenetic research is focused on monocentric chromosomes, chromosomes with kinetochoric activity localized in a single centromere, several studies have been centered on holocentric chromosomes which have diffuse kinetochoric activity along the chromosomes. The eukaryotic organisms that present this type of chromosomes have been relatively understudied despite they constitute rather diversified species lineages. On the one hand, holocentric chromosomes may present intrinsic benefits (chromosome mutations such as fissions and fusions are potentially neutral in holocentrics)...
September 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009337/nuclear-localization-signal-region-in-nuclear-receptor-pxr-governs-the-receptor-association-with-mitotic-chromatin
#14
Manjul Rana, Amit K Dash, Kalaiarasan Ponnusamy, Rakesh K Tyagi
In recent years, some transcription factors have been observed to remain associated with mitotic chromatin. Based on these observations, it is suggested that these chromatin-bound transcription factors may serve as 'epigenetic marks' for transmission of pattern of gene expression from progenitor to progeny cells. In this context, our laboratory has reported that nuclear receptor PXR, a master regulator of xenobiotic metabolism, remains constitutively associated with mitotic chromatin. However, the region responsible for this interaction with chromatin remained unknown...
July 15, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882067/clonal-reproduction-assured-by-sister-chromosome-pairing-in-dojo-loach-a-teleost-fish
#15
Masamichi Kuroda, Takafumi Fujimoto, Masaru Murakami, Etsuro Yamaha, Katsutoshi Arai
Wild-type dojo loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) commonly reproduces bisexually as a gonochoristic diploid (2n = 50), but gynogenetically reproducing clonal diploid lines (2n = 50) exist in certain districts in Japan. Clones have been considered to develop from past hybridization event(s) between two genetically diverse groups, A and B, within the species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using the repetitive sequence "ManDra" as a probe clearly distinguished 25 chromosomes derived from group B out of a total of 50 diploid chromosomes of the clone, providing strong molecular cytogenetic evidence of its hybrid origin...
June 7, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882066/comparative-chromosome-painting-in-columbidae-columbiformes-reinforces-divergence-in-passerea-and-columbea
#16
Rafael Kretschmer, Ivanete de Oliveira Furo, Ricardo José Gunski, Analía Del Valle Garnero, Jorge C Pereira, Patricia C M O'Brien, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa de Oliveira, Thales Renato Ochotorena de Freitas
Pigeons and doves (Columbiformes) are one of the oldest and most diverse extant lineages of birds. However, the karyotype evolution within Columbiformes remains unclear. To delineate the synteny-conserved segments and karyotypic differences among four Columbidae species, we used chromosome painting from Gallus gallus (GGA, 2n = 78) and Leucopternis albicollis (LAL, 2n = 68). Besides that, a set of painting probes for the eared dove, Zenaida auriculata (ZAU, 2n = 76), was generated from flow-sorted chromosomes...
June 7, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752677/insight-into-the-mechanisms-and-consequences-of-recurrent-telomere-capture-associated-with-a-sub-telomeric-deletion
#17
Alexsandro Dos Santos, Francine Campagnari, Ana Cristina Victorino Krepischi, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro Câmara, Rita de Cássia E de Arruda Brasil, Ligia Vieira, Angela M Vianna-Morgante, Paulo A Otto, Peter L Pearson, Carla Rosenberg
A complex mosaicism of the short arm of chromosome 1 detected by SNP microarray analysis is described in a patient presenting a 4-Mb 1p36 terminal deletion and associated phenotypic features. The array pattern of chromosome 1p displayed an intriguing increase in divergence of the SNP heterozygote frequency from the expected 50% from the centromere towards the 1p36 breakpoint. This suggests that various overlapping segments of UPD were derived by somatic recombination between the 1p homologues. The most likely explanation was the occurrence of a series of events initiated in either a gamete or an early embryonic cell division involving a 1pter deletion rapidly followed by multiple telomere captures, resulting in additive, stepped increases in frequency of homozygosity towards the telomere...
May 12, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502298/correction-to-contribution-of-transposable-elements-and-distal-enhancers-to-evolution-of-human-specific-features-of-interphase-chromatin-architecture-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#18
Gennadi V Glinsky
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in publishing the panel C for Figures 3, 5 and 6.
March 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492778/transposable-elements-and-the-multidimensional-genome
#19
Peter A Larsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460123/warning-sines-alu-elements-evolution-of-the-human-brain-and-the-spectrum-of-neurological-disease
#20
Peter A Larsen, Kelsie E Hunnicutt, Roxanne J Larsen, Anne D Yoder, Ann M Saunders
Alu elements are a highly successful family of primate-specific retrotransposons that have fundamentally shaped primate evolution, including the evolution of our own species. Alus play critical roles in the formation of neurological networks and the epigenetic regulation of biochemical processes throughout the central nervous system (CNS), and thus are hypothesized to have contributed to the origin of human cognition. Despite the benefits that Alus provide, deleterious Alu activity is associated with a number of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders...
March 2018: Chromosome Research
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