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Chromosome Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009337/nuclear-localization-signal-region-in-nuclear-receptor-pxr-governs-the-receptor-association-with-mitotic-chromatin
#1
Manjul Rana, Amit K Dash, Kalaiarasan Ponnusamy, Rakesh K Tyagi
In recent years, some transcription factors have been observed to remain associated with mitotic chromatin. Based on these observations, it is suggested that these chromatin-bound transcription factors may serve as 'epigenetic marks' for transmission of pattern of gene expression from progenitor to progeny cells. In this context, our laboratory has reported that nuclear receptor PXR, a master regulator of xenobiotic metabolism, remains constitutively associated with mitotic chromatin. However, the region responsible for this interaction with chromatin remained unknown...
July 15, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974361/alpha-satellite-dna-biology-finding-function-in-the-recesses-of-the-genome
#2
REVIEW
Shannon M McNulty, Beth A Sullivan
Repetitive DNA, formerly referred to by the misnomer "junk DNA," comprises a majority of the human genome. One class of this DNA, alpha satellite, comprises up to 10% of the genome. Alpha satellite is enriched at all human centromere regions and is competent for de novo centromere assembly. Because of the highly repetitive nature of alpha satellite, it has been difficult to achieve genome assemblies at centromeres using traditional next-generation sequencing approaches, and thus, centromeres represent gaps in the current human genome assembly...
July 5, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882067/clonal-reproduction-assured-by-sister-chromosome-pairing-in-dojo-loach-a-teleost-fish
#3
Masamichi Kuroda, Takafumi Fujimoto, Masaru Murakami, Etsuro Yamaha, Katsutoshi Arai
Wild-type dojo loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) commonly reproduces bisexually as a gonochoristic diploid (2n = 50), but gynogenetically reproducing clonal diploid lines (2n = 50) exist in certain districts in Japan. Clones have been considered to develop from past hybridization event(s) between two genetically diverse groups, A and B, within the species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using the repetitive sequence "ManDra" as a probe clearly distinguished 25 chromosomes derived from group B out of a total of 50 diploid chromosomes of the clone, providing strong molecular cytogenetic evidence of its hybrid origin...
June 7, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882066/comparative-chromosome-painting-in-columbidae-columbiformes-reinforces-divergence-in-passerea-and-columbea
#4
Rafael Kretschmer, Ivanete de Oliveira Furo, Ricardo José Gunski, Analía Del Valle Garnero, Jorge C Pereira, Patricia C M O'Brien, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa de Oliveira, Thales Renato Ochotorena de Freitas
Pigeons and doves (Columbiformes) are one of the oldest and most diverse extant lineages of birds. However, the karyotype evolution within Columbiformes remains unclear. To delineate the synteny-conserved segments and karyotypic differences among four Columbidae species, we used chromosome painting from Gallus gallus (GGA, 2n = 78) and Leucopternis albicollis (LAL, 2n = 68). Besides that, a set of painting probes for the eared dove, Zenaida auriculata (ZAU, 2n = 76), was generated from flow-sorted chromosomes...
June 7, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789973/chromosomal-distribution-of-soybean-retrotransposon-sore-1-suggests-its-recent-preferential-insertion-into-euchromatic-regions
#5
Kenta Nakashima, Jun Abe, Akira Kanazawa
Retrotransposons constitute a large portion of plant genomes. The chromosomal distribution of a wide variety of retrotransposons has been analyzed using genome sequencing data in several plants, but the evolutionary profile of transposition has been characterized for a limited number of retrotransposon families. Here, we characterized 96 elements of the SORE-1 family of soybean retrotransposons using genome sequencing data. Insertion time of each SORE-1 element into the genome was estimated on the basis of sequence differences between the 5' and 3' long terminal repeats (LTRs)...
May 22, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752677/insight-into-the-mechanisms-and-consequences-of-recurrent-telomere-capture-associated-with-a-sub-telomeric-deletion
#6
Alexsandro Dos Santos, Francine Campagnari, Ana Cristina Victorino Krepischi, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro Câmara, Rita de Cássia E de Arruda Brasil, Ligia Vieira, Angela M Vianna-Morgante, Paulo A Otto, Peter L Pearson, Carla Rosenberg
A complex mosaicism of the short arm of chromosome 1 detected by SNP microarray analysis is described in a patient presenting a 4-Mb 1p36 terminal deletion and associated phenotypic features. The array pattern of chromosome 1p displayed an intriguing increase in divergence of the SNP heterozygote frequency from the expected 50% from the centromere towards the 1p36 breakpoint. This suggests that various overlapping segments of UPD were derived by somatic recombination between the 1p homologues. The most likely explanation was the occurrence of a series of events initiated in either a gamete or an early embryonic cell division involving a 1pter deletion rapidly followed by multiple telomere captures, resulting in additive, stepped increases in frequency of homozygosity towards the telomere...
May 12, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679205/changes-in-the-position-and-volume-of-inactive-x-chromosomes-during-the-g0-g1-transition
#7
Guoliang Lyu, Tan Tan, Yiting Guan, Lei Sun, Qianjin Liang, Wei Tao
In female mammals, each cell silences one X chromosome by converting it into transcriptionally inert heterochromatin. The inactivation is concomitant with epigenetic changes including methylation of specific histone residues and incorporation of macroH2A. Such epigenetic changes may exert influence on the positioning of the inactive X chromosome (Xi) within the nucleus beyond the level of chromatin structure. However, the dynamic positioning of the inactive X chromosome during cell cycle remains unclear. Here, we show that H3K27me3 is a cell-cycle-independent marker for the inactivated X chromosomes in WI38 cells...
April 21, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524007/insights-into-the-karyotype-evolution-and-speciation-of-the-beetle-euchroma-gigantea-coleoptera-buprestidae
#8
Crislaine Xavier, Rógean Vinícius Santos Soares, Igor Costa Amorim, Diogo Cavalcanti Cabral-de-Mello, Rita de Cássia de Moura
Euchroma Dejean, 1833 (Buprestidae: Coleoptera) is a monotypic genus comprising the species Euchroma gigantea, with populations presenting a degree of karyotypic variation/polymorphism rarely found within a single taxonomic (specific) unit, as well as drastically incompatible meiotic configurations in populations from extremes of the species range. To better understand the complex karyotypic evolution of E. gigantea, the karyotypes of specimens from five populations in Brazil were investigated using molecular cytogenetics and phylogenetic approaches...
March 9, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502298/correction-to-contribution-of-transposable-elements-and-distal-enhancers-to-evolution-of-human-specific-features-of-interphase-chromatin-architecture-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#9
Gennadi V Glinsky
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in publishing the panel C for Figures 3, 5 and 6.
March 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492778/transposable-elements-and-the-multidimensional-genome
#10
Peter A Larsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460123/warning-sines-alu-elements-evolution-of-the-human-brain-and-the-spectrum-of-neurological-disease
#11
Peter A Larsen, Kelsie E Hunnicutt, Roxanne J Larsen, Anne D Yoder, Ann M Saunders
Alu elements are a highly successful family of primate-specific retrotransposons that have fundamentally shaped primate evolution, including the evolution of our own species. Alus play critical roles in the formation of neurological networks and the epigenetic regulation of biochemical processes throughout the central nervous system (CNS), and thus are hypothesized to have contributed to the origin of human cognition. Despite the benefits that Alus provide, deleterious Alu activity is associated with a number of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders...
March 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396793/post-transcriptional-regulation-of-line-1-retrotransposition-by-aid-apobec-and-adar-deaminases
#12
REVIEW
Elisa Orecchini, Loredana Frassinelli, Silvia Galardi, Silvia Anna Ciafrè, Alessandro Michienzi
Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposons represent the only functional family of autonomous transposable elements in humans and formed 17% of our genome. Even though most of the human L1 sequences are inactive, a limited number of copies per individual retain the ability to mobilize by a process termed retrotransposition. The ongoing L1 retrotransposition may result in insertional mutagenesis that could lead to negative consequences such as genetic disease and cancer. For this reason, cells have evolved several mechanisms of defense to restrict L1 activity...
March 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392473/mammalian-transposable-elements-and-their-impacts-on-genome-evolution
#13
REVIEW
Roy N Platt, Michael W Vandewege, David A Ray
Transposable elements (TEs) are genetic elements with the ability to mobilize and replicate themselves in a genome. Mammalian genomes are dominated by TEs, which can reach copy numbers in the hundreds of thousands. As a result, TEs have had significant impacts on mammalian evolution. Here we summarize the current understanding of TE content in mammal genomes and find that, with a few exceptions, most fall within a predictable range of observations. First, one third to one half of the genome is derived from TEs...
March 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335803/contribution-of-transposable-elements-and-distal-enhancers-to-evolution-of-human-specific-features-of-interphase-chromatin-architecture-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#14
Gennadi V Glinsky
Transposable elements have made major evolutionary impacts on creation of primate-specific and human-specific genomic regulatory loci and species-specific genomic regulatory networks (GRNs). Molecular and genetic definitions of human-specific changes to GRNs contributing to development of unique to human phenotypes remain a highly significant challenge. Genome-wide proximity placement analysis of diverse families of human-specific genomic regulatory loci (HSGRL) identified topologically associating domains (TADs) that are significantly enriched for HSGRL and designated rapidly evolving in human TADs...
March 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332159/transposable-elements-genome-innovation-chromosome-diversity-and-centromere-conflict
#15
REVIEW
Savannah J Klein, Rachel J O'Neill
Although it was nearly 70 years ago when transposable elements (TEs) were first discovered "jumping" from one genomic location to another, TEs are now recognized as contributors to genomic innovations as well as genome instability across a wide variety of species. In this review, we illustrate the ways in which active TEs, specifically retroelements, can create novel chromosome rearrangements and impact gene expression, leading to disease in some cases and species-specific diversity in others. We explore the ways in which eukaryotic genomes have evolved defense mechanisms to temper TE activity and the ways in which TEs continue to influence genome structure despite being rendered transpositionally inactive...
March 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159671/janice-britton-davidian-1950-2017
#16
EDITORIAL
Gauthier Dobigny, Terence J Robinson, Frederic Veyrunes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159670/analysis-of-b-chromosome-nondisjunction-induced-by-the-r-x1-deficiency-in-maize
#17
Shih-Hsuan Tseng, Shu-Fen Peng, Ya-Ming Cheng
The maize B chromosome typically undergoes nondisjunction during the second microspore division. For normal A chromosomes, the r-X1 deficiency in maize can induce nondisjunction during the second megaspore and first microspore divisions. However, it is not known whether the r-X1 deficiency also induces nondisjunction of the maize B chromosome during these cell divisions. To answer this question, chromosome numbers were determined in the progeny of r-X1/R-r female parents carrying two B chromosomes. Some of the r-X1-lacking progeny (21...
November 20, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043597/do-holocentric-chromosomes-represent-an-evolutionary-advantage-a-study-of-paired-analyses-of-diversification-rates-of-lineages-with-holocentric-chromosomes-and-their-monocentric-closest-relatives
#18
José Ignacio Márquez-Corro, Marcial Escudero, Modesto Luceño
Despite most of the cytogenetic research is focused on monocentric chromosomes, chromosomes with kinetochoric activity localized in a single centromere, several studies have been centered on holocentric chromosomes which have diffuse kinetochoric activity along the chromosomes. The eukaryotic organisms that present this type of chromosomes have been relatively understudied despite they constitute rather diversified species lineages. On the one hand, holocentric chromosomes may present intrinsic benefits (chromosome mutations such as fissions and fusions are potentially neutral in holocentrics)...
October 17, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916913/centromeric-enrichment-of-line-1-retrotransposons-and-its-significance-for-the-chromosome-evolution-of-phyllostomid-bats
#19
Cibele Gomes de Sotero-Caio, Diogo Cavalcanti Cabral-de-Mello, Merilane da Silva Calixto, Guilherme Targino Valente, Cesar Martins, Vilma Loreto, Maria José de Souza, Neide Santos
Despite their ubiquitous incidence, little is known about the chromosomal distribution of long interspersed elements (LINEs) in mammalian genomes. Phyllostomid bats, characterized by lineages with distinct trends of chromosomal evolution coupled with remarkable ecological and taxonomic diversity, represent good models to understand how these repetitive sequences contribute to the evolution of genome architecture and its link to lineage diversification. To test the hypothesis that LINE-1 sequences were important modifiers of bat genome architecture, we characterized the distribution of LINE-1-derived sequences on genomes of 13 phyllostomid species within a phylogenetic framework...
October 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831743/recurrent-establishment-of-de-novo-centromeres-in-the-pericentromeric-region-of-maize-chromosome-3
#20
Hainan Zhao, Zixian Zeng, Dal-Hoe Koo, Bikram S Gill, James A Birchler, Jiming Jiang
Centromeres can arise de novo from non-centromeric regions, which are often called "neocentromeres." Neocentromere formation provides the best evidence for the concept that centromere function is not determined by the underlying DNA sequences, but controlled by poorly understood epigenetic mechanisms. Numerous neocentromeres have been reported in several plant and animal species. However, it has been elusive how and why a specific chromosomal region is chosen to be a new centromere during the neocentromere activation events...
October 2017: Chromosome Research
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