journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Chromosome Research

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043597/do-holocentric-chromosomes-represent-an-evolutionary-advantage-a-study-of-paired-analyses-of-diversification-rates-of-lineages-with-holocentric-chromosomes-and-their-monocentric-closest-relatives
#1
José Ignacio Márquez-Corro, Marcial Escudero, Modesto Luceño
Despite most of the cytogenetic research is focused on monocentric chromosomes, chromosomes with kinetochoric activity localized in a single centromere, several studies have been centered on holocentric chromosomes which have diffuse kinetochoric activity along the chromosomes. The eukaryotic organisms that present this type of chromosomes have been relatively understudied despite they constitute rather diversified species lineages. On the one hand, holocentric chromosomes may present intrinsic benefits (chromosome mutations such as fissions and fusions are potentially neutral in holocentrics)...
October 17, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916913/centromeric-enrichment-of-line-1-retrotransposons-and-its-significance-for-the-chromosome-evolution-of-phyllostomid-bats
#2
Cibele Gomes de Sotero-Caio, Diogo Cavalcanti Cabral-de-Mello, Merilane da Silva Calixto, Guilherme Targino Valente, Cesar Martins, Vilma Loreto, Maria José de Souza, Neide Santos
Despite their ubiquitous incidence, little is known about the chromosomal distribution of long interspersed elements (LINEs) in mammalian genomes. Phyllostomid bats, characterized by lineages with distinct trends of chromosomal evolution coupled with remarkable ecological and taxonomic diversity, represent good models to understand how these repetitive sequences contribute to the evolution of genome architecture and its link to lineage diversification. To test the hypothesis that LINE-1 sequences were important modifiers of bat genome architecture, we characterized the distribution of LINE-1-derived sequences on genomes of 13 phyllostomid species within a phylogenetic framework...
October 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831743/recurrent-establishment-of-de-novo-centromeres-in-the-pericentromeric-region-of-maize-chromosome-3
#3
Hainan Zhao, Zixian Zeng, Dal-Hoe Koo, Bikram S Gill, James A Birchler, Jiming Jiang
Centromeres can arise de novo from non-centromeric regions, which are often called "neocentromeres." Neocentromere formation provides the best evidence for the concept that centromere function is not determined by the underlying DNA sequences, but controlled by poorly understood epigenetic mechanisms. Numerous neocentromeres have been reported in several plant and animal species. However, it has been elusive how and why a specific chromosomal region is chosen to be a new centromere during the neocentromere activation events...
October 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803330/bime2-a-novel-gene-required-for-interhomolog-meiotic-recombination-in-the-protist-model-organism-tetrahymena
#4
Anura Shodhan, Maria Novatchkova, Josef Loidl
Meiotic recombination is initiated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Most DSBs are converted into nonreciprocal exchanges (gene conversions) or crossovers (COs) between sister chromatids. Only a minority of DSBs are processed toward interhomolog COs, the precursors of the chiasmata that connect homologous chromosomes. Dmc1, the meiosis-specific paralog of the universal recombination protein Rad51, is required for interhomolog COs; in its absence, univalents are primarily formed. Here, we report a ciliate-specific novel meiotic gene, BIME2, which also promotes interhomolog crossing over...
October 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779272/polyteny-still-a-giant-player-in-chromosome-research
#5
REVIEW
Benjamin M Stormo, Donald T Fox
In this era of high-resolution mapping of chromosome territories, topological interactions, and chromatin states, it is increasingly appreciated that the positioning of chromosomes and their interactions within the nucleus is critical for cellular function. Due to their large size and distinctive structure, polytene chromosomes have contributed a wealth of knowledge regarding chromosome regulation. In this review, we discuss the diversity of polytene chromosomes in nature and in disease, examine the recurring structural features of polytene chromosomes in terms of what they reveal about chromosome biology, and discuss recent advances regarding how polytene chromosomes are assembled and disassembled...
October 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776210/the-hnrnp-q-like-gene-is-retroinserted-into-the-b-chromosomes-of-the-cichlid-fish-astatotilapia-latifasciata
#6
Bianca O Carmello, Rafael L B Coan, Adauto L Cardoso, Erica Ramos, Bruno E A Fantinatti, Diego F Marques, Rogério A Oliveira, Guilherme T Valente, Cesar Martins
B chromosomes are dispensable elements observed in many eukaryotic species, including the African cichlid Astatotilapia latifasciata, which might have one or two B chromosomes. Although there have been many studies focused on the biology of these chromosomes, questions about the evolution, maintenance, and potential effects of these chromosomes remain. Here, we identified a variant form of the hnRNP Q-like gene inserted into the B chromosome of A. latifasciata that is characterized by a high copy number and intron-less structure...
October 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717965/genomic-properties-of-chromosomal-bands-are-linked-to-evolutionary-rearrangements-and-new-centromere-formation-in-primates
#7
Concetta Federico, Anna Maria Pappalardo, Venera Ferrito, Sabrina Tosi, Salvatore Saccone
Chromosomal rearrangements in humans are largely related to pathological conditions, and phenotypic effects are also linked to alterations in the expression profile following nuclear relocation of genes between functionally different compartments, generally occupying the periphery or the inner part of the cell nuclei. On the other hand, during evolution, chromosomal rearrangements may occur apparently without damaging phenotypic effects and are visible in currently phylogenetically related species. To increase our insight into chromosomal reorganisation in the cell nucleus, we analysed 18 chromosomal regions endowed with different genomic properties in cell lines derived from eight primate species covering the entire evolutionary tree...
October 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589221/an-efficient-method-to-generate-conditional-knockout-cell-lines-for-essential-genes-by-combination-of-auxin-inducible-degron-tag-and-crispr-cas9
#8
Kohei Nishimura, Tatsuo Fukagawa
Generation of cells with a loss-of-function mutation in a gene (knockout cells) is a valuable technique for studying the function of a given gene product. However, if the product of the target gene is essential for cell viability, conditional knockout cell lines must be generated. Recently, as gene editing technology using CRISPR/Cas9 has developed, it has become possible to produce conditional knockout cell lines using this technique. However, to obtain final conditional knockout cell lines, it is necessary to perform several experiments with multiple complicated steps...
October 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500471/w-enriched-satellite-sequence-in-the-indian-meal-moth-plodia-interpunctella-lepidoptera-pyralidae
#9
Martina Dalíková, Magda Zrzavá, Svatava Kubíčková, František Marec
The W chromosome of most lepidopteran species represents the largest heterochromatin entity in the female genome. Although satellite DNA is a typical component of constitutive heterochromatin, there are only a few known satellite DNAs (satDNAs) located on the W chromosome in moths and butterflies. In this study, we isolated and characterized new satDNA (PiSAT1) from microdissected W chromosomes of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Even though the PiSAT1 is mainly localized near the female-specific segment of the W chromosome, short arrays of this satDNA also occur on autosomes and/or the Z chromosome...
October 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477268/expression-of-progerin-does-not-result-in-an-increased-mutation-rate
#10
Emmanuelle Deniaud, Charlene Lemaître, Shelagh Boyle, Wendy A Bickmore
In the premature ageing disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), the underlying genetic defect in the lamin A gene leads to accumulation at the nuclear lamina of progerin-a mutant form of lamin A that cannot be correctly processed. This has been reported to result in defects in the DNA damage response and in DNA repair, leading to the hypothesis that, as in normal ageing and in other progeroid syndromes caused by mutation of genes of the DNA repair and DNA damage response pathways, increased DNA damage may be responsible for the premature ageing phenotypes in HGPS patients...
October 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477267/chromosomal-localization-of-wolbachia-inserts-in-the-genomes-of-two-subspecies-of-chorthippus-parallelus-forming-a-pyrenean-hybrid-zone
#11
Raquel Toribio-Fernández, José L Bella, Paloma Martínez-Rodríguez, Lisa J Funkhouser-Jones, Seth R Bordenstein, Miguel Pita
Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria of arthropods and nematodes that can manipulate the reproduction of various host organisms to facilitate their own maternal transmission. Moreover, Wolbachia's presence in host germ cells may contribute to the many cases of lateral gene transfer from Wolbachia to host genomes that have been described. A previous study in Chorthippus parallelus, a well-known orthopteroid forming a hybrid zone in the Pyrenees, identified Wolbachia sequences from two major supergroups in the genomes of infected and uninfected Chorthippus parallelus parallelus (Cpp) and Chorthippus parallelus erythropus (Cpe) subspecies...
October 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343268/cytogenetic-comparison-of-heteromorphic-and-homomorphic-sex-chromosomes-in-coccinia-cucurbitaceae-points-to-sex-chromosome-turnover
#12
Aretuza Sousa, Jörg Fuchs, Susanne S Renner
Our understanding of the evolution of plant sex chromosomes is increasing rapidly due to high-throughput sequencing data and phylogenetic and molecular-cytogenetic approaches that make it possible to infer the evolutionary direction and steps leading from homomorphic to heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Here, we focus on four species of Coccinia, a genus of 25 dioecious species, including Coccinia grandis, the species with the largest known plant Y chromosome. Based on a phylogeny for the genus, we selected three species close to C...
June 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181048/evolutionary-mechanism-and-biological-functions-of-8-mers-containing-cg-dinucleotide-in-yeast
#13
Yan Zheng, Hong Li, Yue Wang, Hu Meng, Qiang Zhang, Xiaoqing Zhao
The rules of k-mer non-random usage and the biological functions are worthy of special attention. Firstly, the article studied human 8-mer spectra and found that only the spectra of cytosine-guanine (CG) dinucleotide classification formed independent unimodal distributions when the 8-mers were classified into three subsets under 16 dinucleotide classifications. Secondly, the distribution rules were reproduced by other seven species including yeast, which showed that the evolution phenomenon had species universality...
June 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155083/the-long-zinc-finger-domain-of-prdm9-forms-a-highly-stable-and-long-lived-complex-with-its-dna-recognition-sequence
#14
Yasmin Striedner, Theresa Schwarz, Thomas Welte, Andreas Futschik, Ulrich Rant, Irene Tiemann-Boege
PR domain containing protein 9 (PRDM9) is a meiosis-specific, multi-domain protein that regulates the location of recombination hotspots by targeting its DNA recognition sequence for double-strand breaks (DSBs). PRDM9 specifically recognizes DNA via its tandem array of zinc fingers (ZnFs), epigenetically marks the local chromatin by its histone methyltransferase activity, and is an important tether that brings the DNA into contact with the recombination initiation machinery. A strong correlation between PRDM9-ZnF variants and specific DNA motifs at recombination hotspots has been reported; however, the binding specificity and kinetics of the ZnF domain are still obscure...
June 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078516/dense-gene-physical-maps-of-the-non-model-species-drosophila-subobscura
#15
Dorcas J Orengo, Eva Puerma, Montserrat Papaceit, Carmen Segarra, Montserrat Aguadé
The comparative analysis of genetic and physical maps as well as of whole genome sequences had revealed that in the Drosophila genus, most structural rearrangements occurred within chromosomal elements as a result of paracentric inversions. Genome sequence comparison would seem the best method to estimate rates of chromosomal evolution, but the high-quality reference genomes required for this endeavor are still scanty. Here, we have obtained dense physical maps for Muller elements A, C, and E of Drosophila subobscura, a species with an extensively studied rich and adaptive chromosomal polymorphism...
June 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058543/genomic-profiling-of-canine-mast-cell-tumors-identifies-dna-copy-number-aberrations-associated-with-kit-mutations-and-high-histological-grade
#16
Hiroyuki Mochizuki, Rachael Thomas, Scott Moroff, Matthew Breen
Mast cell tumor (MCT) is the most common skin malignancy of domestic dogs and presents with a widely variable clinical behavior. Although activating KIT mutations are present in approximately 20% of canine MCTs, molecular etiology is largely unknown for the majority of this cancer. Characterization of genomic alterations in canine MCTs may identify genomic regions and/or genes responsible for their development and progression, facilitating the discovery of new therapeutic targets and improved clinical management of this heterogeneous cancer...
June 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050734/sororin-is-enriched-at-the-central-region-of-synapsed-meiotic-chromosomes
#17
Philip W Jordan, Craig Eyster, Jingrong Chen, Roberto J Pezza, Susannah Rankin
During meiotic prophase, cohesin complexes mediate cohesion between sister chromatids and promote pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes. Precisely how the activity of cohesin is controlled to promote these events is not fully understood. In metazoans, cohesion establishment between sister chromatids during mitotic divisions is accompanied by recruitment of the cohesion-stabilizing protein Sororin. During somatic cell division cycles, Sororin is recruited in response to DNA replication-dependent modification of the cohesin complex by ESCO acetyltransferases...
June 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995349/the-essential-drosophila-clamp-protein-differentially-regulates-non-coding-rox-rnas-in-male-and-females
#18
Jennifer A Urban, Caroline A Doherty, William T Jordan, Jacob E Bliss, Jessica Feng, Marcela M Soruco, Leila E Rieder, Maria A Tsiarli, Erica N Larschan
Heterogametic species require chromosome-wide gene regulation to compensate for differences in sex chromosome gene dosage. In Drosophila melanogaster, transcriptional output from the single male X-chromosome is equalized to that of XX females by recruitment of the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex, which increases transcript levels of active genes 2-fold. The MSL complex contains several protein components and two non-coding RNA on the X ( roX) RNAs that are transcriptionally activated by the MSL complex. We previously discovered that targeting of the MSL complex to the X-chromosome is dependent on the chromatin-linked adapter for MSL proteins (CLAMP) zinc finger protein...
June 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987109/proliferating-cell-nuclear-antigen-pcna-contributes-to-the-high-order-structure-and-stability-of-heterochromatin-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#19
Xin Bi, Yue Ren, Morgan Kath
Heterochromatin plays important roles in the structure, maintenance, and function of the eukaryotic genome. It is associated with special histone modifications and specialized non-histone proteins and assumes a more compact structure than euchromatin. Genes embedded in heterochromatin are generally transcriptionally silent. It was found previously that several mutations of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA replication processivity factor, reduce transcriptional silencing at heterochromatin loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
June 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210885/cohesin-biology-meets-the-loop-extrusion-model
#20
REVIEW
Christopher Barrington, Ronald Finn, Suzana Hadjur
Extensive research has revealed that cohesin acts as a topological device, trapping chromosomal DNA within a large tripartite ring. In so doing, cohesin contributes to the formation of compact and organized genomes. How exactly the cohesin subunits interact, how it opens, closes, and translocates on chromatin, and how it actually tethers DNA strands together are still being elucidated. A comprehensive understanding of these questions will shed light on how cohesin performs its many functions, including its recently proposed role as a chromatid loop extruder...
March 2017: Chromosome Research
journal
journal
31445
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"