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Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389080/neuromodulation-past-present-and-future
#1
EDITORIAL
Jonathan Essary Becker, Christopher Todd Maley, Elizabeth K B Shultz, Todd E Peters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389079/electroconvulsive-therapy-and-other-neuromodulation-techniques-for-the-treatment-of-psychosis
#2
REVIEW
Christopher Todd Maley, Jonathan Essary Becker, Elizabeth K B Shultz
Electroconvulsive therapy is an established treatment for symptoms of psychosis and is currently recommended for use in patients who are experiencing an acute exacerbation of positive symptoms or who have had catatonia. There is also evidence to suggest that electroconvulsive therapy can be a safe, effective treatment in first episode psychosis, such as schizophrenia spectrum disorders, particularly in treatment-resistant patients. Other forms of neuromodulation (transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation) have less of an evidence base to support their use and are not formally indicated for the treatment of psychosis...
January 2019: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389078/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-and-electroconvulsive-therapy-literature-review-and-future-directions
#3
REVIEW
Yasas Chandra Tanguturi, Allyson Witters Cundiff, Catherine Fuchs
Despite the majority of patients with anti-N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibody encephalitis presenting with catatonic symptoms, the literature has not focused on well-known treatments for catatonia, such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The authors review the literature identifying case reports that document the effective use of ECT for anti-NMDAR encephalitis. They also identify gaps in the literature regarding use and documentation of ECT and review possible mechanisms of action for ECT. The authors propose identifying catatonia as a syndrome with multiple potential causes (including anti-NMDAR encephalitis) and suggest a standardized treatment approach using evidence-based catatonia treatments such as ECT and benzodiazepines...
January 2019: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389077/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatric-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Jonathan C Lee, Daniel L Kenney-Jung, Caren J Blacker, Deniz Doruk Camsari, Charles P Lewis
Research involving transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in child and adolescent psychiatry is limited. Early, short-term studies have found tDCS to be safe and well-tolerated in youth with neurodevelopmental disorders (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, learning disorders). Preliminary data suggest potential utility in symptom reduction and improving cognitive function. Further careful research considering implications for the developing brain is necessary.
January 2019: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389076/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-mechanisms-and-psychiatric-applications
#5
REVIEW
Daniel L Kenney-Jung, Caren J Blacker, Deniz Doruk Camsari, Jonathan C Lee, Charles P Lewis
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) involves the application of weak electric current to the scalp. tDCS may influence brain functioning through effects on cortical excitability, neural plasticity, and learning. Evidence in adults suggests promising therapeutic applications for depression, and the adverse effect profile is generally mild. Early research indicates complex interactions between tDCS and concurrent cognitive and motor tasks. Further investigation is warranted to understand how tDCS impacts processes relevant to psychiatric conditions...
January 2019: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389075/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-conditions-other-than-major-depressive-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan Essary Becker, Elizabeth K B Shultz, Christopher Todd Maley
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a treatment approved by the Food and Drug Administration for major depressive disorder (MDD). TMS is a neuromodulation technique that works by creating a focal magnetic field that induces a small electric current. Compared with other neuromodulation techniques, TMS is a noninvasive treatment modality that is generally well-tolerated. Because of the success of TMS in treating depression, there has been interest in applications for other neuropsychiatric diseases. The purpose of this article was to review potential uses for TMS for children and adolescents in conditions other than MDD...
January 2019: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389074/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-adolescent-depression
#7
REVIEW
Paul E Croarkin, Frank P MacMaster
Adolescent depression is a substantial global public health problem that contributes to academic failure, occupational impairment, deficits in social functioning, substance use disorders, teen pregnancy, and completed suicide. Existing treatment options often have suboptimal results and uncertain safety profiles. Transcranial magnetic stimulation may be a promising, brain-based intervention for adolescents with depression. Existing work has methodological weaknesses, and larger, neurodevelopmentally informed studies are urgently needed...
January 2019: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389073/pediatric-electroconvulsive-therapy-an-anesthesiologist-s-perspective
#8
REVIEW
Andrew D Franklin, Jenna H Sobey, Eric T Stickles
Proper planning and communication between psychiatry and anesthesiology teams is vital to conferring the greatest therapeutic benefit to children presenting for electroconvulsive therapy while minimizing risk. Anesthesia for the child undergoing electroconvulsive therapy should ideally provide deep hypnosis, ensure muscle relaxation to reduce injury, have minimal effect on seizure dynamics, and allow for rapid recovery to baseline neurologic and cardiopulmonary status. Unique factors for pediatric electroconvulsive therapy include the potential need for preoperative anxiolytic and inhalational induction of anesthesia, which must be weighed against the detrimental effects of anesthetic agents on the evoked seizure quality required for a successful treatment...
January 2019: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389072/electroconvulsive-therapy-as-a-safe-effective-treatment-for-catatonia-in-an-adolescent-with-a-nasogastric-tube-a-case-report
#9
REVIEW
Paul A Fuchs, Todd E Peters, Margaret M Benningfield
This case provides support for electroconvulsive therapy as a safe treatment in adolescents with a feeding tube. The patient presented to our hospital with symptoms of catatonia with minimal oral intake. She had stopped eating, had minimal interaction with her environment, and spent weeks with a nasogastric tube for nutritional support. She had been referred for electroconvulsive therapy but was unable to find a local provider who would perform it on an adolescent with a nasogastric tube. She came to our hospital and received 9 rounds of electroconvulsive therapy with improvement of her catatonia and no aspiration or adverse events...
January 2019: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389071/electroconvulsive-therapy-for-catatonia-in-children-and-adolescents
#10
REVIEW
Dirk M Dhossche, Nisha Withane
Catatonia may be more common in children and adolescents than previously thought. A boost for the recognition of pediatric catatonia comes from changes in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, facilitating the diagnosis in a wide range of pediatric and adult patients with associated developmental and autistic spectrum disorders; and schizophrenic, affective, and medical disorders. The current status, assessment, and treatment of pediatric catatonia are described. Two case vignettes illustrate diagnostic assessment and treatment...
January 2019: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389070/electroconvulsive-treatment-for-catatonia-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Nisha Withane, Dirk M Dhossche
Catatonia has been increasingly recognized in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Assessment, diagnosis, and treatments are reviewed and illustrated with 2 new case vignettes. The use of electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) is recommended in patients who fail to respond to medical treatments, including a trial of lorazepam or another benzodiazepine. The importance of maintenance ECT is discussed. There is an urgent need for prospective studies of catatonia in ASD and for controlled treatment trials.
January 2019: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389069/pathway-to-electroconvulsive-treatment-for-minors
#12
REVIEW
Bradley Freeman
The decision-making process of prescribing electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) to minors often extends outside of medicine. The legal arena is commonly involved in many jurisdictions, and some states have legislation governing the administration of this treatment in addition to hospital policies and regulations. Treatment failures, additional opinions, explicit consent, and legal tribunals are sometimes needed to deliver ECT to a minor in need. This article describes a process to which a provider can refer in navigating this confusing, and sometimes alien, pathway to provide ECT to his or her patient...
January 2019: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219225/making-meaning-after-the-death-of-a-child
#13
REVIEW
Sandra Clancy, Blyth Lord
Two bereaved mothers recount how they made meaning after the deaths of their children, recounting how opportunities to tell their stories in medical settings enabled them to construct narratives that promoted resilience and a sense of control. Pediatric palliative care can be conceived as opening space for patients and guardians to tell their stories outside of the specifics of illness, so medical teams can work to accommodate families' values and goals, thereby initiating the process of meaning making. Viewing videos of parent stories enables medical trainees to enhance their communications skills, empathy, and compassion...
October 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219224/dealing-with-death-and-dying
#14
EDITORIAL
David Buxton, Natalie Jacobowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219223/clinician-response-to-a-child-who-completes-suicide
#15
REVIEW
Cheryl S Al-Mateen, Kathryn Jones, Julie Linker, Dorothy O'Keefe, Valentina Cimolai
Although suicide is a leading cause of death for children and adolescents, there is a dearth of literature on clinician responses to suicides in that age group. However, most psychiatrists experience the death of a patient by suicide, with resulting grief reactions including shock, isolation, rumination, self-doubt, and impact on clinical decision making. The impact is more pronounced in trainee clinicians. Postvention is the clinical, administrative, legal, and emotional processes following a suicide. These processes are discussed in detail, with recommendations for policies and training that assist clinicians with this tragic, but common, professional crisis...
October 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219222/assisting-the-school-in-responding-to-a-suicide-death-what-every-psychiatrist-should-know
#16
REVIEW
Emily J Aron, Jeff Q Bostic, Julie Goldstein Grumet, Sansea Jacobson
When a child or adolescent dies by suicide, many individuals are affected, most of whom are attending school. Child and adolescent psychiatrists can be called on during the wake of such tragic events in order to help schools navigate the difficult tasks following a student suicide. Being familiar with suicide postvention guidelines is crucial for anyone involved in managing the events following a student suicide. By understanding the tenets of suicide postvention and resources that are available to schools and clinicians, the tragedy of suicide can also be an opportunity to improve school mental health and suicide prevention...
October 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219221/social-media-consequences-of-pediatric-death
#17
REVIEW
David Buxton, Taylor R Vest
Social media is an important access point for engagement of children and adolescents. For individuals with a life-limiting illness or serving as the caregiver for an ill child, social media can be a helpful outlet for support and information gathering. It has democratized the process of being remembered through providing an ongoing account of thoughts, pictures, and videos that theoretically live on forever via a digital legacy. Providers should be familiar with how this new generation uses social media during their illness, after death, and in the bereavement process...
October 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219220/the-liaison-in-consultation-liaison-psychiatry-helping-medical-staff-cope-with-pediatric-death
#18
REVIEW
Anna C Muriel, Sarah Tarquini, Sue E Morris
Pediatric consultation-liaison clinicians are well positioned to provide support, guidance, and systemic recommendations about how to help medical clinicians cope with the stresses of working with dying children. Interventions to support sustainability in this work need to occur at the institutional and team-based levels as well as in individual practice. Shared clinical work around challenging cases provides opportunities to engage with medical clinicians about their difficult experiences and provide reflection and support...
October 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219219/bereavement-after-a-child-s-death
#19
REVIEW
Danielle Jonas, Caitlin Scanlon, Rachel Rusch, Janie Ito, Marsha Joselow
The death of a child is a heart-wrenching experience that can have a significant impact on parents, siblings, and families while also often having ripple effects throughout the child's community. Pediatric loss has an impact on family structure and dynamics, individual identity formation, and conceptualization as well as professional practice. This article explores bereavement after a child's death through the lens of the family, the parent, the sibling, the forgotten grievers, and the provider.
October 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219218/parenting-with-a-life-limiting-illness
#20
REVIEW
Sarah E Shea, Cynthia W Moore
Parents with life-threatening illness face unique challenges in their dual roles as patients and parents. They are at risk for depression, parenting stress, and impaired family functioning, and their children are at risk for adjustment difficulties. In addition to treatment of depression and other mental health issues, patients may also benefit from evidence-informed guidance addressing the challenges of parenting while ill. Consultations should be tailored to each family, with consideration of children's developmental stage and temperament...
October 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
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