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International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15592489/lipotoxicity-the-obese-and-endurance-trained-paradox
#1
REVIEW
A P Russell
The potential lipotoxic effect of intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) accumulation has been suggested to be a major component in the development of insulin resistance. Increased levels of IMTGs correlate with insulin resistance in both obese and diabetic patients, but this relationship does not exist in endurance trained (ETr) subjects. This may be, in part, related to differences in the gene expression and activities of key enzymes involved in fatty acid transport and oxidation as well as in the perodixation status of the IMTGs in obese/diabetic patients as compared with ETr subjects...
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15592488/ectopic-fat-storage-in-heart-blood-vessels-and-kidneys-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#2
REVIEW
J-P Montani, J F Carroll, T M Dwyer, V Antic, Z Yang, A G Dulloo
In humans and most animal models, the development of obesity leads not only to increased fat depots in classical adipose tissue locations but also to significant lipid deposits within and around other tissues and organs, a phenomenon known as ectopic fat storage. The purpose of this review is to explore the possible locations of ectopic fat in key target-organs of cardiovascular control (heart, blood vessels and kidneys) and to propose how ectopic fat storage can play a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases associated with obesity...
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15592487/fat-storage-in-pancreas-and-in-insulin-sensitive-tissues-in-pathogenesis-of-type-2-diabetes
#3
REVIEW
F Assimacopoulos-Jeannet
Obesity is associated with increased storage of lipids in nonadipose tissues like skeletal muscle, liver, and pancreatic beta cells. These lipids constitute a continuous source of long-chain fatty acyl CoA (LC-CoA) and derived metabolites like diacylglycerol and ceramide, acting as signalling molecules on protein kinases activities (in particular, the family of PKCs), ion channel, gene expression, and protein acylation. In skeletal muscle, the increase in LC-CoA and diacylglycerol translocates and activates specific protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, which will phosphorylate IRS-1 on serine, preventing its phosphorylation on tyrosine and association with PI3 kinase...
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15592486/role-of-glucocorticoids-in-the-physiopathology-of-excessive-fat-deposition-and-insulin-resistance
#4
REVIEW
C Asensio, P Muzzin, F Rohner-Jeanrenaud
Glucocorticoids are important hormones in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. We infused normal rats with dexamethasone given intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) for 3 days. This resulted in hyperphagia, hyperinsulinemia, and marked insulin resistance. Similar metabolic defects were observed following i.c.v. infusion of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in normal rats. As central dexamethasone infusion enhanced NPY content in the arcuate nucleus, it suggested that its metabolic effects are mediated by NPY. Moreover, due to the lack of effects observed in vagotomized animals, activation of the parasympathetic nervous system by central dexamethasone infusion is proposed...
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15592485/role-of-energy-charge-and-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-adipocytes-in-the-control-of-body-fat-stores
#5
REVIEW
M Rossmeisl, P Flachs, P Brauner, J Sponarova, O Matejkova, T Prazak, J Ruzickova, K Bardova, O Kuda, J Kopecky
As indicated by in vitro studies, both lipogenesis and lipolysis in adipocytes depend on the cellular ATP levels. Ectopic expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the white adipose tissue of the aP2-Ucp1 transgenic mice reduced obesity induced by genetic or dietary manipulations. Furthermore, respiratory uncoupling lowered the cellular energy charge in adipocytes, while the synthesis of fatty acids (FA) was inhibited and their oxidation increased. Importantly, the complex metabolic changes triggered by ectopic UCP1 were associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic master switch, in adipocytes...
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15592484/concept-of-fat-balance-in-human-obesity-revisited-with-particular-reference-to-de-novo-lipogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Y Schutz
The measurement of fat balance (fat input minus fat output) involves the accurate estimation of both metabolizable fat intake and total fat oxidation. This is possible mostly under laboratory conditions and not yet in free-living conditions. In the latter situation, net fat retention/mobilization can be estimated based on precise and accurate sequential body composition measurements. In case of positive balance, lipids stored in adipose tissue can originate from dietary (exogenous) lipids or from nonlipid precursors, mainly from carbohydrates (CHOs) but also from ethanol, through a process known as de novo lipogenesis (DNL)...
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15592483/substrate-cycling-between-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-lipid-oxidation-a-thermogenic-mechanism-against-skeletal-muscle-lipotoxicity-and-glucolipotoxicity
#7
REVIEW
A G Dulloo, M Gubler, J P Montani, J Seydoux, G Solinas
Life is a combustion, but how the major fuel substrates that sustain human life compete and interact with each other for combustion has been at the epicenter of research into the pathogenesis of insulin resistance ever since Randle proposed a 'glucose-fatty acid cycle' in 1963. Since then, several features of a mutual interaction that is characterized by both reciprocality and dependency between glucose and lipid metabolism have been unravelled, namely: the inhibitory effects of elevated concentrations of fatty acids on glucose oxidation (via inactivation of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase or via desensitization of insulin-mediated glucose transport),the inhibitory effects of elevated concentrations of glucose on fatty acid oxidation (via malonyl-CoA regulation of fatty acid entry into the mitochondria), and more recentlythe stimulatory effects of elevated concentrations of glucose on de novo lipogenesis, that is, synthesis of lipids from glucose (via SREBP1c regulation of glycolytic and lipogenic enzymes)...
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15592482/lipotoxicity-an-imbalance-between-lipogenesis-de-novo-and-fatty-acid-oxidation
#8
REVIEW
C Lelliott, A J Vidal-Puig
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are the major noncommunicable public health problem of the 21st century. The best strategy to tackle this problem is to develop strategies to prevent/treat obesity. However, it is becoming clear that despite successful research identifying weight regulatory pathways, the development of the obesity epidemic is outpacing scientific progress. The lack of success controlling the obesity epidemic in an aging population will result in another subsequent uncontrolled epidemic of complications...
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15592481/failure-of-fat-cell-proliferation-mitochondrial-function-and-fat-oxidation-results-in-ectopic-fat-storage-insulin-resistance-and-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus
#9
REVIEW
L Heilbronn, S R Smith, E Ravussin
BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that increasing adiposity is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of type II diabetes. The predominant paradigm used to explain this link is the portal/visceral hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that increased adiposity, particularly in the visceral depots, leads to increased free-fatty acid flux and inhibition of insulin-action via Randle's effect in insulin-sensitive tissues. OBJECTIVES: In this review, limitations of this paradigm will be discussed and two other paradigms that may explain established links between adiposity and insulin resistance/diabetes will be presented...
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15592480/ectopic-fat-stores-housekeepers-that-can-overspill-into-weapons-of-lean-body-mass-destruction
#10
A G Dulloo, V Antic, J-P Montani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15543161/reduction-of-risk-factors-for-cardiovascular-diseases-in-morbid-obese-patients-following-biliary-intestinal-bypass-3-years-follow-up
#11
C Lubrano, A Cornoldi, M Pili, S Falcone, F Brandetti, E Fabbrini, S Ginanni-Corradini, A Eramo, M Marini, S Migliaccio, V Giancotti, M Badiali, N Falsetto, G Prossomariti, G Spera
BACKGROUND: Obese patients are often affected by hypertension, dyslipidaemia, impaired glucose metabolism, and suffer from cardiovascular disease (CVD), related to the characteristic metabolic alterations. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate reduction of risk factors for CVDs in morbid-obese patients (body mass index (BMI)>40 kg/m2) after weight loss upon bariatric surgery intervention of biliary-intestinal bypass. SUBJECTS: 45 (17 men, 28 women) morbid-obese patients (age: 19-49 y, BMI>40 kg/m2)...
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15543160/food-selection-and-eating-behaviour-during-weight-maintenance-intervention-and-2-y-follow-up-in-obese-men
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
P Borg, M Fogelholm, K Kukkonen-Harjula
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess long-term changes in food consumption and eating behaviour during and 2 y after dietary counselling in weight-reduced obese men. DESIGN: Observational study from a randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Outpatient clinic of a research institute. SUBJECTS: A total of 36 subjects with complete data on food intake during the study. Subjects were obese (mean body mass index (BMI) 32.8 kg/m2) men aged 35-50 y, recruited by media advertising...
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15543159/estimated-change-in-physical-activity-level-pal-and-prediction-of-5-year-weight-change-in-men-the-aerobics-center-longitudinal-study
#13
L Di Pietro, J Dziura, S N Blair
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between the average daily physical activity level (PAL) and the trajectory of weight change in men at risk for weight gain. DESIGN AND SETTING: Clinic-based cohort study over an average of 5 y. SUBJECTS: Healthy men (N=2501) ages 20-55 y participating in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study who had received at least four medical examinations at the Cooper Clinic between 1970 and 1998. MEASUREMENTS: Daily leisure-time physical activity was reported and body weight was measured at all four examinations...
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15467779/novel-short-term-effects-of-adenovirus-ad-36-on-hamster-lipoproteins
#14
M Kapila, P Khosla, N V Dhurandhar
OBJECTIVE: Human adenovirus Ad-36 induces adiposity and lowers total serum cholesterol in chickens, mice and marmosets and Ad-36 antibodies are associated with human obesity. We examined the early effects of Ad-36 inoculation on plasma cholesterol levels in hamsters fed a hyperlipidemic diet. DESIGN: A total of 32 male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into two equal weight-matched groups and intranasally inoculated with Ad-36 (INF: infected) or media (CON: control)...
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15467777/flow-resistant-red-blood-cell-aggregation-in-morbid-obesity
#15
D Samocha-Bonet, R Ben-Ami, I Shapira, G Shenkerman, S Abu-Abeid, N Stern, T Mardi, T Tulchinski, V Deutsch, S Yedgar, G Barshtein, S Berliner
OBJECTIVE: Enhanced red blood cell (RBC) aggregation has an adverse effect on microcirculatory blood flow and tissue oxygenation. It has been previously shown that obesity is associated with increased RBC aggregation. The objectives of the present study were to further characterize obesity-related RBC aggregation and to examine whether the enhanced aggregation is a plasma- or cellular-dependent process. METHODS: Obese (body mass index (BMI)=40+/-6.3 kg/m2, n=22) and nonobese (BMI=24+/-3...
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15467776/feasibility-of-a-partial-meal-replacement-plan-for-weight-loss-in-low-income-patients
#16
S Huerta, Z Li, H C Li, M S Hu, C A Yu, D Heber
BACKGROUND: Low-income patients are disproportionately affected by obesity. Routine care is available to this population at the Venice Family Clinic (VFC) in Los Angeles. The current study examined the effectiveness of nutrition clinic utilizing meal replacements (Slim-Fast, Slim-Fast Foods Co., FL, USA) in low-income patients over a 6-month period compared with the routine care by their primary care physician (PMD) prior to enrolling in the nutrition clinic at similar time intervals...
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15467774/changes-in-intake-of-fruits-and-vegetables-in-relation-to-risk-of-obesity-and-weight-gain-among-middle-aged-women
#17
MULTICENTER STUDY
K He, F B Hu, G A Colditz, J E Manson, W C Willett, S Liu
OBJECTIVE: To examine the changes in intake of fruits and vegetables in relation to risk of obesity and weight gain among middle-aged women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with 12 y of follow-up conducted in the Nurses' Health Study. SUBJECTS: A total of 74,063 female nurses aged 38-63 y, who were free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes at baseline in 1984. MEASUREMENTS: Dietary information was collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and body weight and height were self-reported...
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15467773/measurement-of-abdominal-fat-by-ct-compared-to-waist-circumference-and-bmi-in-explaining-the-presence-of-coronary-calcium
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
J K Snell-Bergeon, J E Hokanson, G L Kinney, D Dabelea, J Ehrlich, R H Eckel, L Ogden, M Rewers
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between standard and computed tomography (CT)-based measures of obesity and subclinical atherosclerosis, defined as coronary artery calcium (CAC) by Electron Beam Computed Tomography (EBCT). DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study of anthropometric and CT obesity measures and presence of CAC. SUBJECTS: Participants were 383 men and 379 women, aged 20-58 y and asymptomatic for coronary artery disease (CAD)...
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15356667/evaluation-of-adipocyte-apoptosis-by-laser-scanning-cytometry
#19
J Lin, K A Page, M A Della-Fera, C A Baile
OBJECTIVE: Adipocyte apoptosis plays an important role in adipose tissue homeostasis and can be altered under a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. This study was carried out to determine whether laser scanning cytometry (LSC) can be used to measure changes in apoptosis of adipocytes over time. DESIGN: LSC was used to investigate adipocyte apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a cytokine that is associated with obesity and insulin resistance...
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15356663/body-size-measurements-as-predictors-of-type-2-diabetes-in-aboriginal-people
#20
Z Wang, W E Hoy
OBJECTIVE: To investigate waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index (BMI), weight and hip circumference as risk factors for type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal Australians. DESIGN: Community-based cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: In total, 915 Australian Aboriginal adults (age: 18-74 y) from a remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory of Australia. MEASUREMENTS: Body size measurements included waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, BMI, weight and hip circumference...
December 2004: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
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