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Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453143/structure-and-physico-mechanical-properties-of-low-temperature-plasma-treated-electrospun-nanofibrous-scaffolds-examined-with-atomic-force-microscopy
#1
Adrian Chlanda, Ewa Kijeńska, Chiara Rinoldi, Michał Tarnowski, Tadeusz Wierzchoń, Wojciech Swieszkowski
Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds are willingly used in tissue engineering applications due to their tunable mechanical, chemical and physical properties. Additionally, their complex openworked architecture is similar to the native extracellular matrix of living tissue. After implantation such scaffolds should provide sufficient mechanical support for cells. Moreover, it is of crucial importance to ensure sterility and hydrophilicity of the scaffold. For this purpose, a low temperature surface plasma treatment can be applied...
February 8, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432989/transmission-and-scanning-electron-microscopic-observations-on-antennal-apical-pegs-in-the-wasp-species-pimplinae-insecta-hymenoptera
#2
Roberto Romani, Sara Ruschioni, Paola Riolo, Nunzio Isidoro
Pimplinae are parasitoids belonging to the family Ichneumonidae that attack and develops inside hidden host; female wasps evolved a peculiar host recognition strategy, that involves the use of self-produced vibrations which are transmitted through the antennae on the substrate and perceived back as an echo using the leg subgenual organ. In this study we investigated, using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the antennal tips of a few Pimplinae. In all the investigated species, the antennal tips present peculiar apical pegs with different shape and number, often defining a flattened sole devoid of other antennal structures, such as sensilla...
February 6, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414132/a-simulation-of-atomic-force-microscope-microcantilever-in-the-tapping-mode-utilizing-couple-stress-theory
#3
Mohammad Abbasi
The nonlinear vibration behavior of a Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) microcantilever under acoustic excitation force has been modeled and investigated. In dynamic AFM, the tip-surface interactions are strongly nonlinear, rapidly changing and hysteretic. First, the governing differential equation of motion and boundary conditions for dynamic analysis are obtained using the modified couple stress theory. Afterwards, closed-form expressions for nonlinear frequency and effective nonlinear damping ratio are derived utilizing perturbation method...
February 2, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425969/fast-and-robust-segmentation-of-white-blood-cell-images-by-self-supervised-learning
#4
Xin Zheng, Yong Wang, Guoyou Wang, Jianguo Liu
A fast and accurate white blood cell (WBC) segmentation remains a challenging task, as different WBCs vary significantly in color and shape due to cell type differences, staining technique variations and the adhesion between the WBC and red blood cells. In this paper, a self-supervised learning approach, consisting of unsupervised initial segmentation and supervised segmentation refinement, is presented. The first module extracts the overall foreground region from the cell image by K-means clustering, and then generates a coarse WBC region by touching-cell splitting based on concavity analysis...
February 1, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414135/specimen-preparation-for-nano-scale-investigation-of-cementitious-repair-material
#5
Pejman Azarsa, Rishi Gupta
Cementitious Repair Materials (CRMs) in the construction industry have been used for many decades now and has become a very important part of activities in cement world. The performance of some of these CRMs when applied to retrofitting concrete structural elements is also well documented. However, the characterization of some of the CRMs at the micro- and nano level is not fully documented. The first step to studying materials at the microscopic level is to be able to fabricate proper specimens for microscopy...
January 31, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414134/rapid-and-localized-ion-beam-etching-of-surfaces-using-initial-notches
#6
Richard Busch, Michael Krause, Steve Coyle, Thomas Höche
Glancing-angle Ar+ broad ion beam erosion is widely used for the preparation of high-quality transmission electron microscopy (TEM) samples. However, low erosion rates and lack of site specificity are major drawbacks of the method. Being inexpensive and easy to use - in particular when compared to widely used focused ion beam preparation methods - overcoming these drawbacks would significantly improve many existing preparation workflows. We present a novel method for rapid and localized surface erosion which combines laser-machining preprocessing with broad ion beam etching...
January 31, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414133/deconvoluting-error-in-measurement-of-low-angle-misorientation-distribution
#7
Nitin Kumar Sharma, Shashank Shekhar
Misorientation angle distribution gives information about the type and fraction of grain boundaries present in a material. Since grain boundaries affect various mechanical and functional properties of the material, the distribution of grain boundary misorientation is important in order to evaluate these properties. This becomes particularly important when we want to study the microstructure in finer detail, such as understanding the average misorientation within a grain. One of the techniques increasingly used in past two decades for characterization of grain boundary misorientation is electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD)...
January 30, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358098/x-ray-computed-microtomography-technique-applied-for-cementitious-materials-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Ítalo Batista da Silva
The main objective of this article is to present a bibliographical review about the use of the X-ray microtomography method in 3D images processing of cementitious materials microstructure, analyzing the pores microstructure and connectivity network, enabling tthe possibility of building a relationship between permeability and porosity. The use of this technique enables the understanding of physical, chemical and mechanical properties of cementitious materials by publishing good results, considering that the quality and quantity of accessible information were significant and may contribute to the study of cementitious materials development...
January 19, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358099/effects-of-nerve-stimulation-on-amphibian-oviductal-activity
#9
Susana Cisint, Silvia N Fernández, Claudia A Crespo, Lucrecia Iruzubieta Villagra, Inés Ramos
The present study describes, for the first time in an anuran amphibian, the nerve stimulation effects on the secretory and motor activity of the oviduct of adult females. The results reveal that in Rhinella arenarum oviducts, the epithelial and glandular secretory cells of the mucosa of the pars convoluta respond to nerve stimulation secreting the products synthetized and stored in their cytoplasm. The ultrastructural analysis showed that the cell content released is made up of granular, fibrillar and floccular material, exocytosis being the main secretory mechanism found in epithelial secretory cells, although apocrine and holocrine processes could also be observed...
January 10, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353148/light-and-electron-microscopic-observations-on-the-organization-of-skin-and-associated-glands-of-two-caecilian-amphibians-from-western-ghats-of-india
#10
Arun Damodaran, Beyo Reston Saroja, Ramachandran Kotharambath, Akbarsha Mohammad Abdulkader, Oommen V Oommen, Divya Lekha
We adopted light and electron microscopy to understand the structure of the skin of two species of caecilians, Ichthyophis tricolor and Uraeotyphlus cf. oxyurus, from Western Ghats of Kerala, India. The surface of the skin of these caecilians contains an irregular pattern of microridges. Oval, round and polymorphic glandular openings are randomly distributed all over the skin surface. Most of the openings are funnel shaped. The epithelial cells along the rim of the opening descend into the tunnel of the duct...
January 9, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331739/determination-of-atomic-scale-chemical-composition-at-semiconductor-heteroepitaxial-interfaces-by-high-resolution-transmission-electron-microscopy
#11
C Wen, Y J Ma
The determination of atomic structures and further quantitative information such as chemical compositions at atomic scale for semiconductor defects or heteroepitaxial interfaces can provide direct evidence to understand their formation, modification, and/or effects on the properties of semiconductor films. The commonly used method, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), suffers from difficulty in acquiring images that correctly show the crystal structure at atomic resolution, because of the limitation in microscope resolution or deviation from the Scherzer-defocus conditions...
January 8, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310045/densitometry-of-the-optically-magnified-dried-residues-representing-carbon-microparticles-as-a-simple-and-affordable-technique-for-determining-their-concentrations-in-aqueous-suspensions
#12
Bogdan I Gerashchenko, Oleksii S Sydorenko, Elisaveta A Snezhkova, Dmytro O Klymchuk, Vladimir G Nikolaev
In extracorporeal blood purification, such as hemoperfusion, activated carbon (activated charcoal) beads are commonly used as an adsorbent, but their judgment in terms of extent of microparticle release is of great importance since the microparticles may represent the risk of entering the bloodstream. To quantitatively assess the release of carbon microparticles (CMPs) in the samples of the aqueous perfusion medium, in which the beads have been perfused, the calibration procedure with different concentrations of CMPs is likely to be needed...
January 4, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304431/automatic-detection-of-particle-size-distribution-by-image-analysis-based-on-local-adaptive-canny-edge-detection-and-modified-circular-hough-transform
#13
Yingchao Meng, Zhongping Zhang, Huaqiang Yin, Tao Ma
To obtain size distribution of nanoparticles, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been widely adopted, but manual measurement of statistical size distributions from the SEM or TEM images is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Therefore, automatic detection methods are desirable. This paper proposes an automatic image processing algorithm which is mainly based on local adaptive Canny edge detection and modified circular Hough transform. The proposed algorithm can utilize the local thresholds to detect particles from the images with different degrees of complexity...
December 21, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289855/two-novel-approaches-to-study-arthropod-anatomy-by-using-dualbeam-fib-sem
#14
Andrea Di Giulio, Maurizio Muzzi
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has always been the conventional method to study arthropod ultrastructure, while the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was mainly devoted to the examination of the external cuticular structures by secondary electrons. The new generation field emission SEMs are capable to generate images at sub-cellular level, comparable to TEM images employing backscattered electrons. The potential of this kind of acquisition becomes very powerful in the dual beam FIB/SEM where the SEM column is combined with a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) column...
December 21, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288936/species-and-sex-specific-distribution-of-antennal-olfactory-sensilla-in-two-tortricid-moths-epiphyas-postvittana-and-planotortrix-octo
#15
Gwang Hyun Roh, Kye Chung Park, Hyun-Woo Oh, Chung Gyoo Park
We investigated the morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla in males and females of two tortricid moths, Epiphyas postvittana and Planotortrix octo, by scanning electron microscopy. The number and overall length of flagellomeres were significantly greater in females than in males in both species. The antennae of each species bearing six morphological types of sensilla (trichodea, basiconica, coeloconica, auricillica, chaetica, and styloconica), with different numbers and distributions along the antennae...
December 21, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291530/cellular-biomechanics-impairment-in-keratinocytes-is-associated-with-a-c-terminal-truncated-desmoplakin-an-atomic-force-microscopy-investigation
#16
Luca Puzzi, Daniele Borin, Valentina Martinelli, Luisa Mestroni, David P Kelsell, Orfeo Sbaizero
In a tissue continuously challenged by mechanical stresses, such as the skin or the heart, cells perceive information about their microenvironment through several adhesive protein complexes and activate cell-signaling events to maintain tissue cohesion. Consequently, alteration of cell adhesion components leads to aberrant assembly of the associated cytoplasmic scaffolding and signaling pathways, which may reflect changes to the tissue physiology and mechanical resistance. Desmoplakin is an essential component of the cell-cell junction, anchoring the desmosomal protein complex to the intermediate filaments (IFs)...
December 19, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278760/real-time-scan-speed-control-of-the-atomic-force-microscopy-for-reducing-imaging-time-based-on-sample-topography
#17
Yingxu Zhang, Yingzi Li, Guanqiao Shan, Yifu Chen, Zhenyu Wang, Jianqiang Qian
Here, a novel method, real-time scan speed control for raster scan amplitude modulation atomic force microscopes (AM-AFMs), is proposed. In general, the imaging rate is set to a fixed value before the experiment, which is determined by the feedback control calculations on each imaging point. Many efforts have been made to increase the AFM imaging rate, including using the cantilever with high eigenfrequency, employing new scan methods, and optimizing other mechanical components. The proposed real-time control method adjusts the scan speed linearly according to the error of every imaging point, which is mainly determined by the sample topography...
December 15, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245115/effects-of-grain-size-on-the-microstructures-and-mechanical-properties-of-304-austenitic-steel-processed-by-torsional-deformation
#18
Ji Gu, Lixin Zhang, Song Ni, Min Song
In this paper, two grain sized 304 austenitic steel rods (coarse-grained steel with an average grain size of ∼20μm and ultra-coarse-grained steel with an average grain size of ∼1mm) were treated by pre-torsional deformation. Gradient microstructures with "dislocations→stacking faults→nanotwins" along the radial direction were formed in the ultra-coarse-grained specimen, and this type of gradient microstructures is beneficial to the mechanical properties. The results also showed that grain size affects the onset of twinning...
December 11, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248759/asbestos-fibre-burden-in-gallbladder-a-case-study
#19
Alessandro Croce, Silvana Capella, Elena Belluso, Federica Grosso, Narciso Mariani, Roberta Libener, Caterina Rinaudo
The methods conventionally used to determine the burden of asbestos fibres inhaled/incorporated in lung require chemical digestion of the biological matrix before counting/characterising the inorganic fibrous phases under scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Asbestos fibres can also be present in extra-pulmonary organs, and we set out to quantify the fibres in gallbladder. Although the standardised procedure requires approximately 5 × 10-1 g of wet tissue, this amount of tissue is not always available...
December 8, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190502/nacl-changes-stem-morphology-anatomy-and-phloem-structure-in-lucerne-medicago-sativa-cv-gab%C3%A3-s-comparison-of-upper-and-lower-internodes
#20
Riheb Ben Nja, Bruno Merceron, Mireille Faucher, Pierrette Fleurat-Lessard, Emile Béré
In M. sativa cv. Gabès plants treated with 150mM NaCl, the height of the stem is decreased and the internode number, length and diameter are reduced. This depressive effect on growth, but also on photosynthetic activity and water balance, is accompanied by structural changes. In the upper internodes, NaCl treatment increases cambium development, so that the vascular ring is initiated earlier than in controls. In the lower internodes, the number of lignified phloem fibers is increased by NaCl, and their wall thickness is augmented, compared to controls; in the phloem complex, the nacreous layer is enlarged, the number of internal wall ingrowths is increased, but companion cells are damaged...
February 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
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