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Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912140/characterization-of-the-cleaved-edge-cross-section-of-the-heterostructures-with-gamnas-layer-by-the-confocal-micro-raman-spectroscopy
#1
A V Kudrin, S M Plankina, O V Vikhrova, A V Nezhdanov, A I Mashin, Yu N Drozdov, A V Shvetsov
Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to measure cross-section linescans of the cleaved edge of heterostructures involving a GaMnAs layer. The investigations revealed a shift of the TO mode in the compressed GaMnAs layer to high frequencies relative to the TO GaAs mode in the substrate and to low frequencies in the tensile GaMnAs layers. These results are in agreement with the different manifestations of the anomalous Hall effect in the GaMnAs layers, with either compressive or tensile strains. It is shown that Raman spectroscopy is an appropriate method for the investigation of cross-sectional semiconductor heterostructures whose total thickness is comparable to the size of the analyzing laser spot...
November 21, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883991/a-comparative-morphological-study-of-the-epiandrous-apparatus-in-mygalomorph-spiders-araneae-mygalomorphae
#2
N Ferretti, G Pompozzi, S Copperi, A Wehitt, E Galíndez, A González, F Pérez-Miles
Many adult male spiders have silk glands which are not associated with the spinnerets. They occur on the anterior margin of the genital furrow and are used during the building of the sperm web and sperm droplet induction. These epiandrous glands exit the body through ducts which lead to specialized spigots. In the taxon Mygalomorphae, the presence of epiandrous spigots is just reported for a couple of species but their morphology has not been investigated. In this paper we provide a detailed study of the ultrastructure morphology of eighteen species belonging to eight families using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
November 15, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883990/force-distance-curves-on-lubricant-films-an-approach-to-the-characterization-of-the-shape-of-the-afm-tip
#3
Brunero Cappella
Force-distance curves have been acquired with an atomic force microscope on perfluorpolyether films. It is shown that curves acquired on films of different thickness, at different rates and with different dwell times can be overlapped by rescaling the time or distance axis. When the time or distance axis is rescaled, the force depends only on the surface tension of perfluorpolyether and on geometrical properties of the tip (aperture and perimeter of the tip at a given distance from the apex). Hence, curves acquired with the same tip overlap...
November 15, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883989/recombinant-anthrax-protective-antigen-observation-of-aggregation-phenomena-by-tem-reveals-specific-effects-of-sterols
#4
J Robin Harris, Andrei Soliakov, Allan Watkinson, Jeremy H Lakey
Negatively stained transmission electron microscope images are presented that depict the aggregation of recombinant anthrax protective antigen (rPA83 monomer and the PA63 prepore oligomer) under varying in vitro biochemical conditions. Heat treatment (50°C) of rPA83 produced clumped fibrils, but following heating the PA63 prepore formed disordered aggregates. Freeze-thaw treatment of the PA63 prepore generated linear flexuous aggregates of the heptameric oligomers. Aqueous suspensions of cholesterol microcrystals were shown to bind small rPA83 aggregates at the edges of the planar bilayers...
November 15, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866100/tem-illumination-settings-study-for-optimum-spatial-resolution-and-indexing-reliability-in-crystal-orientation-mappings
#5
A Valery, A Pofelski, L Clément, F Lorut, E F Rauch
The spatial resolution and the indexing quality obtained with an automated orientation and phase mapping tool are analyzed for different Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) illumination settings. The electron probe size and convergence angle are studied for two TEM configuration modes referred as microprobe and nanoprobe modes. Using a 10μmC2 aperture in a FEI Tecnai F20 (S)TEM, the nanoprobe mode is used to get a small convergent electron beam while the microprobe mode provides a nearly parallel illumination at the cost of a larger probe size...
November 9, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866099/how-to-image-cell-adhesion-on-soft-polymers
#6
Silke Seyock, Vanessa Maybeck, Andreas Offenhäusser
Here, we present a method to investigate cell adhesion on soft, non-conducting polymers that are implant candidate materials. Neuronal cells were grown on two elastomers (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Ecoflex(®)) and prepared for electron microscopy. The samples were treated with osmium tetroxide (OsO4) and uranylacetate (UrAc). Best results can be achieved when the polymers were coated with a thin iridium layer before the cell culture. This was done to emphasize the usage of soft polymers as supports for implant electrodes...
November 9, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912139/repair-of-calvarial-bone-defects-in-mice-using-electrospun-polystyrene-scaffolds-combined-with-%C3%AE-tcp-or-gold-nanoparticles
#7
Lisa Terranova, Diana Maria Dragusin, Romain Mallet, Eugeniu Vasile, Izabela-Cristina Stancu, Catherine Behets, Daniel Chappard
Non-biodegradable porous polystyrene (PS) scaffolds, composed of microfibers, have been prepared by electrospinning for the reconstruction of large bone defects. PS microfibers were prepared by incorporating β-TCP grains inside the polymer or grafting gold nanoparticles surface functionalized with mercaptosuccinic acid. Cytocompatibility of the three types of scaffolds (PS, β-TCP-PS and Au-PS) was studied by seeding human mesenchymal stem cells. Biocompatibility was evaluated by implanting β-TCP-PS and Au-PS scaffolds into a critical size (4mm) calvarial defect in mice...
November 8, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855318/a-method-for-measuring-the-three-dimensional-orientation-of-cortical-canals-with-implications-for-comparative-analysis-of-bone-microstructure-in-vertebrates
#8
Isaac Vorster Pratt, David Michael Lane Cooper
The orientation of vascular canals in cortical bone can reveal information about the growth rate and loading environment of a bone. For example, in birds it has been proposed that a high proportion of circumferential canals (a laminar cortex) is related to fast growth or torsional loading related to active flight. In this paper we present a method to measure the three dimensional (3D) orientation of vascular canals. Image data are obtained from micro-CT and two angles are measured: phi, determining how longitudinal a canal is; and theta, determining whether a canal is radial or circumferential...
November 2, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846432/functionalized-nanoparticles-enable-tracking-the-rapid-entry-and-release-of-doxorubicin-in-human-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#9
Maheshika P Arachchige, Suvra S Laha, Akshata R Naik, Kenneth T Lewis, Ratna Naik, Bhanu P Jena
Efficient drug delivery is critical to therapy. Using electron microscopy, X-ray, and light microscopy, we have characterized functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, and determined their ability for rapid entry and release of the cancer drug doxorubicin in human pancreatic cancer cells. Dextran-coated SPIO nanoparticle ferrofluid, functionalized with the red-autofluorescing doxorubicin and the green-fluorescent dye fluorescein isothiocyanate as a reporter, enables tracking the intracellular nanoparticle transport and drug release...
October 29, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816743/in-situ-tracking-the-reversible-spinel-rocksalt-structural-transformation-between-mn3o4-and-mno
#10
Xingyuan San, Bo Zhang, Jing Wang, Bo Wu, Xiuliang Ma
Electron beam irradiation is well known to induce damage in materials. The structural transformation involved in the damage is usually believed to be an irreversible solid state chemical reaction. Here we use in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) technique in an aberration-corrected TEM to track the structural transformation in spinel Mn3O4 induced by electron beam irradiation. It is clarified that spinel Mn3O4 is transformed to rocksalt structured MnO by irradiation and the reversed recovering transition from rocksalt MnO to spinel Mn3O4 can occur by aging in the gentle electron beam circumstance...
October 27, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871028/microstructure-analysis-method-for-evaluating-degenerated-intervertebral-disc-tissue
#11
Andrea Friedmann, Felix Goehre, Christopher Ludtka, Thomas Mendel, Hans-Joerg Meisel, Andreas Heilmann, Stefan Schwan
Degeneration of intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue is characterized by several structural changes that result in variations in disc physiology and loss of biomechanical function. The complex process of degeneration exhibits highly intercorrelated biomechanical, biochemical, and cellular interactions. There is currently some understanding of the cellular changes in degenerated intervertebral disc tissue, but microstructural changes and deterioration of the tissue matrix has previously been rarely explored. In this work, sequestered IVD tissue was successfully characterized using histology, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to quantitatively evaluate parameters of interest for intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) such as delamination of the collagenous matrix, cell density, cell size, and extra cellular matrix (ECM) thickness...
October 21, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816744/peak-separation-method-for-sub-lattice-strain-analysis-at-atomic-resolution-application-to-inas-gasb-superlattice
#12
Honggyu Kim, Yifei Meng, Jean-Luc Rouviére, Jian-Min Zuo
We report on a direct measurement of cation and anion sub-lattice strain in an InAs/GaSb type-II strained layer superlattice (T2SLs) using atomic resolution imaging and advanced image processing. Atomic column positions in InAs and GaSb are determined by separating the cation and anion peak intensities. Analysis of the InAs/GaSb T2SLs reveals the compressive strain in the nominal GaSb layer and tensile strain at interfaces between constituent layers, which indicate In incorporation into the nominal GaSb layer and the formation of GaAs like interfaces, respectively...
October 21, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760392/nanoscale-analysis-of-degradation-processes-of-cellulose-fibers
#13
Lorenzo Teodonio, Mauro Missori, Dominika Pawcenis, Joanna Łojewska, Francesco Valle
Mapping the morphological and nano-mechanical properties of cellulose fibers within paper sheets or textile products at the nano-scale level by using atomic force microscopy is a challenging task due to the huge surface level variation of these materials. However this task is fundamental for applications in forensic or cultural heritage sciences and for the industrial characterization of materials. In order to correlate between nano-mechanical properties and local nanometer scale morphology of different layers of cellulose fibers, a new strategy to prepare samples of isolated cellulose fibers was designed...
October 5, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721207/absolute-thickness-measurement-of-pyrolytic-graphite-spheroids-by-stem-eels
#14
B Q Wei, N Yan, J X Gao, D D Li, Z G Shang, K He
This paper studies the absolute thickness measurement of pyrolytic graphite spheroids (GSs) by using STEM-EELS mode with log-ratio method and Kramers-Kroning (K-K) method, taking the measured thickness from TEM image as reference that is the diameter of GSs ranging from 60 to 250nm. The effect of collection semi-angle (β) on thickness measurement has been investigated. It is found that in general the thickness obtained by K-K analysis with surface effect corrected shows the best accuracy, followed by K-K sum rule and then log-ratio method for the three different collection semi-angles of 12...
October 4, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728842/practical-electron-tomography-guide-recent-progress-and-future-opportunities
#15
Misa Hayashida, Marek Malac
We present a review of the recent progress in electron tomography applicable to materials science samples. We focus on practical high accuracy tomographic measurements and their applications. We follow the steps leading to a reconstructed 3D volume and discuss the effect of the individual steps on the suitability of the resulting 3D volume for quantitative measurements. Both the progress in applications and new opportunities in electron tomography in materials science are reviewed.
September 28, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710777/early-ultrastructural-events-of-skeletal-muscle-damage-following-cardiotoxin-induced-injury-and-glycerol-induced-injury
#16
Mohamed A A Mahdy, Katsuhiko Warita, Yoshinao Z Hosaka
In this study, we investigated the early changes of skeletal muscle damage in response to injuries induced by cardiotoxin (CTX) and glycerol by using both light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Normal, non-dystrophic, adult male mice were used in this study. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were injected either with CTX or glycerol. Samples were collected at intervals starting from 1h up to 4days after injury. Injured muscles were subjected to both histological and ultrastructural analyses. CTX-induced injury caused mitochondrial accumulation and swelling followed by lysis, while glycerol-induced injury caused accumulation of vesicles with focal disruption of the basal lamina, indicating that the injuries have different mechanisms of damage to myofibers...
September 28, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816742/reciprocity-relations-in-transmission-electron-microscopy-a-rigorous-derivation
#17
Florian F Krause, Andreas Rosenauer
A concise derivation of the principle of reciprocity applied to realistic transmission electron microscopy setups is presented making use of the multislice formalism. The equivalence of images acquired in conventional and scanning mode is thereby rigorously shown. The conditions for the applicability of the found reciprocity relations is discussed. Furthermore the positions of apertures in relation to the corresponding lenses are considered, a subject which scarcely has been addressed in previous publications...
September 20, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684352/non-destructive-imaging-of-fragments-of-historical-beeswax-seals-using-high-contrast-x-ray-micro-radiography-and-micro-tomography-with-large-area-photon-counting-detector-array
#18
Jakub Karch, Benjamin Bartl, Jan Dudak, Jan Zemlicka, Frantisek Krejci
Historical beeswax seals are unique cultural heritage objects. Unfortunately, a number of historical sealing waxes show a porous structure with a strong tendency to stratification and embrittlement, which makes these objects extremely prone to mechanical damage. The understanding of beeswax degradation processes therefore plays an important role in the preservation and consequent treatment of these objects. Conventional methods applied for the investigation of beeswax materials (e.g. gas chromatography) are of a destructive nature or bring only limited information about the sample surface (microscopic techniques)...
September 16, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656789/effect-of-al-content-on-impact-resistance-behavior-of-al-ti-b4c-composite-fabricated-under-air-atmosphere
#19
Qian Zhao, Yunhong Liang, Zhihui Zhang, Xiujuan Li, Luquan Ren
Reaction behavior, mechanical property and impact resistance of TiC-TiB2/Al composite reacted from Al-Ti-B4C system with various Al content via combination method of combustion synthesis and hot pressed sintering under air was investigated. Al content was the key point to the variation of mechanical property and impact resistance. Increasing Al content could increase the density, strength and toughness of the composite. Due to exorbitant ceramic content, 10wt.% and 20wt.% Al-Ti-B4C composites exhibited poor molding ability and machinability...
September 13, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825023/two-dimensional-crystallization-of-the-mouse-serotonin-5-ht3a-receptor
#20
Jan Rheinberger, Ghérici Hassaine, Mohamed Chami, Henning Stahlberg, Horst Vogel, Xiaodan Li
The mouse serotonin 5-HT3A receptor is a homo-pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (pLGIC) mediating fast excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The molecular mechanism of ion permeation of 5-HT3A receptors triggered by the neurotransmitter serotonin is not yet fully understood. The recent X-ray structure of the mouse serotonin 5-HT3A receptor in complex with a stabilizing nanobody revealed for the first time the entire structure of a mammalian pLGIC in detergent. Structural information of the receptor in a lipid bilayer however is still limited primarily due to the lack of 2D crystals of the receptor in a lipid bilayer...
January 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
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