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Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226270/enhancement-of-noisy-edx-hrstem-spectrum-images-by-combination-of-filtering-and-pca
#1
Pavel Potapov, Paolo Longo, Eiji Okunishi
STEM spectrum-imaging with collecting EDX signal is considered in view of the extraction of maximum information from very noisy data. It is emphasized that spectrum-images with weak EDX signal often suffer from information loss in the course of PCA treatment. The loss occurs when the level of random noise exceeds a certain threshold. Weighted PCA, though potentially helpful in isolation of meaningful variations from noise, might provoke the complete loss of information in the situation of weak EDX signal. Filtering datasets prior PCA can improve the situation and recover the lost information...
February 10, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214751/structure-and-distribution-of-the-sensilla-on-the-antennae-of-tuta-absoluta-lepidoptera-gelechiidae
#2
Thomas Bawin, France Collard, Lara De Backer, Boni Barthélémy Yarou, Philippe Compère, Frédéric Francis, François J Verheggen
The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest that develops on tomato and other economically important solanaceous crops. Current semiochemically-based management strategies still fail to significantly reduce damages and need to be improved. Here we describe under scanning and transmission electron microscopy the structure and distribution of the sensilla that are displayed on adult antennae. These were similar in size between males (3424.4±135.3μm) and females (3292...
February 1, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208085/accurate-determination-of-lattice-parameters-based-on-niggli-reduced-cell-theory-by-using-digitized-electron-diffraction-micrograph
#3
Yi Yang, Canying Cai, Jianguo Lin, Lunjun Gong, Qibin Yang
In this paper, we used Niggli reduced cell theory to determine lattice constants of a micro/nano crystal by using electron diffraction patterns. The Niggli reduced cell method enhanced the accuracy of lattice constant measurement obviously, because the lengths and the angles of lattice vectors of a primitive cell can be measured directly on the electron micrographs instead of a double tilt holder. With the aid of digitized algorithm and least square optimization by using three digitized micrographs, a valid reciprocal Niggli reduced cell number can be obtained...
January 31, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182977/morphology-of-tio2-nanotubes-revealed-through-electron-tomography
#4
M Andrzejczuk, A Roguska, M Pisarek, M Hołdyński, M Lewandowska, K J Kurzydłowski
In this work, scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography was successfully applied to characterize the three-dimensional structure of titanium oxide nanotubes prepared by the electrochemical anodization of the Ti substrate. The results provided detailed information about the morphology of nanotubes as well as insight into their growth. The segmentation of reconstructed images made it possible to estimate the surface area and volume of the nanotubes. The highest specific surface area was obtained for the lowest anodization voltage of 10V, and corresponds closely to that obtained using the porosimetry technique...
January 27, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178584/comparative-study-of-the-claws-of-pediculus-humanus-capitis-between-archaeological-and-modern-specimens
#5
Hipólito Núñez, Bernardo Arriaza, Vivien Standen, Natalia Aravena
Metric data of the claws of archaeological specimens of Pediculus humanus capitis (dating between 1500 B.C. and A.D. 1500) and modern lice specimens coming from school children were analyzed and compared. Both sets of samples come from Arica in northern Chile. The overall sample is comprised of 14 archaeological specimens (6 females and 8 males) of Pediculus humanus capitis and 22 modern specimens (13 females and 9 males). All specimens were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), uncoated, using variable pressure mode...
January 27, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199862/effect-of-accelerating-voltage-on-beam-damage-of-asbestos-fibers-in-the-transmission-electron-microscope-tem
#6
Joannie Martin, Martin Beauparlant, Sébastien Sauvé, Gilles L'Espérance
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a powerful and efficient tool for the analysis of asbestos fibers. Although this analysis technique is common and several standard methods exist for asbestos analysis, questions remain about the optimal conditions to be used. Because asbestos fibers are relatively sensitive to the electron beam, it is important to better understand the phenomena of damage in order to avoid them. This study specifically investigates the effect of the acceleration voltage on damage to four different types of asbestos fibers: chrysotile, amosite, crocidolite and anthophyllite...
January 25, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152416/surface-ultrastructure-and-internal-properties-of-the-erpobdella-testacea-hirudinae-arynchobdellidae-cocoon-membrane
#7
Yasmina Romdhane, Yann Quilichini, Saida Tekaya
The Erpobdella testacea cocoon membrane is studied for the first time by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. It has an ovoid form, displays a cambered dorsal side in which various micro-organisms are attached and a flattened ventral side. Symmetrically positioned, 2 opercula occur at the distal ends of the cocoon. The internal ultrastructure reveals fibrils (17.5nm) packed in layers forming C, S, bow shaped, parallel and stippling patterns lines, interrupted by Polygon-shaped cavities (1.8μm). Transverse sections show that each fibril presents an external dark part (6nm) and a central hole approximately 5...
January 20, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178583/detection-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-medicago-sativa-l-by-fluorescence-microscopy
#8
Wilber S Alves, Evelin A Manoel, Noemi S Santos, Rosane O Nunes, Giselli C Domiciano, Marcia R Soares
Green technologies, such as phytoremediation, are effective for removing organic pollutants derived from oil and oil products, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Given the increasing popularity of these sustainable remediation techniques, methods based on fluorescence microscopy and multiphoton microscopy for the environmental monitoring of such pollutants have emerged in recent decades as effective tools for phytoremediation studies aimed at understanding the fate of these contaminants in plants...
January 19, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119149/evolution-of-thiol-capped-gold-nanoclusters-into-larger-gold-nanoparticles-under-electron-beam-irradiation
#9
Mukesh Kumar Kumawat, Mukeshchand Thakur, Jaya R Lakkakula, Deepika Divakaran, Rohit Srivastava
We report in situ transformation of glutathione-capped red-fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) into larger gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded on a copper grid under high energy electron beam of Field Emission Gun Transmission Electron Microscope (FEG-TEM). Electron beam irradiation causes coalescing of individual finer AuNCs into bigger discrete AuNPs as a function of electron dose rate and time. The coalescence was closely studied over time and the mechanism is discussed. The study will help to understand the structural and morphological changes that occur in AuNCs inside FEG-TEM due to prolonged electron beam exposure...
January 15, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152415/investigating-fold-structures-of-2d-materials-by-quantitative-transmission-electron-microscopy
#10
Zhiwei Wang, Zengming Zhang, Wei Liu, Zhong Lin Wang
We report an approach developed for deriving 3D structural information of 2D membrane folds based on the recently-established quantitative transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Systematic multislice simulations reveal that the membrane folding leads to sufficiently strong electron scattering which enables a precise determination of bending radius. The image contrast depends also on the folding angles of 2D materials due to the variation of projection potentials, which however exerts much smaller effect compared with the bending radii...
January 12, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192763/beam-broadening-in-transmission-and-conventional-ebsd
#11
Katherine P Rice, Yimeng Chen, Robert R Keller, Mark P Stoykovich
Transmission electron backscatter diffraction (t-EBSD) has become a routine technique for crystal orientation mapping when ultrahigh resolution is needed and has demonstrated advantages in the characterization of nanoscale and micron-sized samples (Babinsky et al., 2015). In this work, we use experimental measurements and simulations to compare the resolution of the transmission and conventional reflection EBSD techniques across a range of sample volumes and characterization conditions. Monte Carlo simulations of electron trajectories provide the opportunity to estimate beam size and effective resolution, as well as electron flux, as a function of sample thickness or incident beam energy in t-EBSD...
December 31, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076759/quantitative-in-situ-tem-nanotensile-testing-of-single-crystal-ni-facilitated-by-a-new-sample-preparation-approach
#12
Vahid Samaeeaghmiyoni, Hosni Idrissi, Jonas Groten, Ruth Schwaiger, Dominique Schryvers
Twin-jet electro-polishing and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) were combined to produce small size Nickel single crystal specimens for quantitative in-situ nanotensile experiments in the transmission electron microscope. The combination of these techniques allows producing samples with nearly defect-free zones in the centre in contrast to conventional FIB-prepared samples. Since TEM investigations can be performed on the electro-polished samples prior to in-situ TEM straining, specimens with desired crystallographic orientation and initial microstructure can be prepared...
December 21, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063337/laser-assisted-atom-probe-tomography-of-ti-tin-films-deposited-on-si
#13
N A Sanford, P T Blanchard, R White, M R Vissers, D R Diercks, A V Davydov, D P Pappas
Laser-assisted atom probe tomography (L-APT) was used to examine superconducting TiN/Ti/TiN trilayer films with nominal respective thicknesses of 5/5/5 (nm). Such materials are of interest for applications that require large arrays of microwave kinetic inductance detectors. The trilayers were deposited on Si substrates by reactive sputtering. Electron energy loss microscopy performed in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM/EELS) was used to corroborate the L-APT results and establish the overall thicknesses of the trilayers...
December 21, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049098/growth-morphology-and-special-diffraction-characteristics-of-multifaceted-gold-nanoparticles
#14
Manish Kumar Singh, Bratindranath Mukherjee, Rajiv Kumar Mandal
This paper deals with morphology of synthesized nano gold particles through seed based growth. Various types of morphologies have been observed. They primarily relate to decahedral and truncated tetrahedral shapes. Their relative abundance is dependent on temporal evolution of nanoparticles. These shapes are understood to have evolved from a seed having symmetry that is a supergroup of the point groups possessed by these nanoparticles. The usual pentagonal twinned morphologies observed under High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy have displayed two distinct types of interfaces...
December 18, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027486/differential-expression-of-the-nucleolar-protein-fibrillarin-during-mammalian-spermatogenesis-and-its-probable-association-with-chromatoid-body-components
#15
Larissa Fiamengui de Pauli, Elisa Gomes Santos, Fernanda Pazotti Daher Arcangelo, Wilson Aparecido Orcini, Rita Luiza Peruquetti
Chromatoid body (CB) is a cytoplasmic structure of male germ cells that has been indicated as having a role in the RNA and protein storage for the final differentiation of spermatozoa. Recent studies have indicated that some of these macromolecular complex components have nucleolar origin. The aims of the present study were to monitor the expression of fibrillarin nucleolar protein in mammalian seminiferous tubules at different stages of the spermatogenic cycle; to check fibrillarin distribution during the CB assembly; and also its interaction with two well-known CB markers (MIWI and HSP70)...
December 14, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011347/ebsd-and-electron-channeling-study-of-anomalous-slip-in-oligocrystals-of-high-chromium-ferritic-stainless-steel
#16
Zheng-Wen Hsiao, Ting-Yi Wu, Delphic Chen, Jui-Chao Kuo, Dong-Yih Lin
In the present study, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) techniques were applied to investigate the deformation pattern of coarse ferrite grains after being subjected to 3%, 6%, and 10% tensile deformation. Oligocrystals of Crofer(®) 22H ferritic steel were obtained as experimental material at 1075°C for 22min annealing. Using kernel average misorientation (KAM) mapping obtained from EBSD, possible slip planes are (110), (101), (12-1) and (32-1) in grain A; (0-11), (-101), (-112), (1-21) in grain B; and (0-11), (1-21) and (11-2) in grain C...
December 12, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923156/improvement-of-effective-solid-angle-using-virtual-pivot-holder-and-large-eds-detector
#17
Shogo Koshiya, Koji Kimoto
This paper describes the effective solid angle improvement achieved using a large-area silicon drift detector together with a virtual-pivot double-tilt specimen holder. The virtual-pivot mechanism enables various designs of specimen-retaining and can reduce the shadowing effect. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra were measured and converted into effective solid angles using different types of specimen holders and specimens. The investigated shadowing-free mechanical system yielded effective solid angles approaching the nominal solid angle of 0...
February 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918893/spectrum-image-analysis-tool-a-flexible-matlab-solution-to-analyze-eel-and-cl-spectrum-images
#18
Franz-Philipp Schmidt, Ferdinand Hofer, Joachim R Krenn
Spectrum imaging techniques, gaining simultaneously structural (image) and spectroscopic data, require appropriate and careful processing to extract information of the dataset. In this article we introduce a MATLAB based software that uses three dimensional data (EEL/CL spectrum image in dm3 format (Gatan Inc.'s DigitalMicrograph(®))) as input. A graphical user interface enables a fast and easy mapping of spectral dependent images and position dependent spectra. First, data processing such as background subtraction, deconvolution and denoising, second, multiple display options including an EEL/CL moviemaker and, third, the applicability on a large amount of data sets with a small work load makes this program an interesting tool to visualize otherwise hidden details...
February 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912140/characterization-of-the-cleaved-edge-cross-section-of-the-heterostructures-with-gamnas-layer-by-the-confocal-micro-raman-spectroscopy
#19
A V Kudrin, S M Plankina, O V Vikhrova, A V Nezhdanov, A I Mashin, Yu N Drozdov, A V Shvetsov
Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to measure cross-section linescans of the cleaved edge of heterostructures involving a GaMnAs layer. The investigations revealed a shift of the TO mode in the compressed GaMnAs layer to high frequencies relative to the TO GaAs mode in the substrate and to low frequencies in the tensile GaMnAs layers. These results are in agreement with the different manifestations of the anomalous Hall effect in the GaMnAs layers, with either compressive or tensile strains. It is shown that Raman spectroscopy is an appropriate method for the investigation of cross-sectional semiconductor heterostructures whose total thickness is comparable to the size of the analyzing laser spot...
February 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912139/repair-of-calvarial-bone-defects-in-mice-using-electrospun-polystyrene-scaffolds-combined-with-%C3%AE-tcp-or-gold-nanoparticles
#20
Lisa Terranova, Diana Maria Dragusin, Romain Mallet, Eugeniu Vasile, Izabela-Cristina Stancu, Catherine Behets, Daniel Chappard
Non-biodegradable porous polystyrene (PS) scaffolds, composed of microfibers, have been prepared by electrospinning for the reconstruction of large bone defects. PS microfibers were prepared by incorporating β-TCP grains inside the polymer or grafting gold nanoparticles surface functionalized with mercaptosuccinic acid. Cytocompatibility of the three types of scaffolds (PS, β-TCP-PS and Au-PS) was studied by seeding human mesenchymal stem cells. Biocompatibility was evaluated by implanting β-TCP-PS and Au-PS scaffolds into a critical size (4mm) calvarial defect in mice...
February 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
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