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Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772204/automated-patterning-and-probing-with-multiple-nanoscale-tools-for-single-cell-analysis
#1
Jiayao Li, Yeonuk Kim, Boyin Liu, Ruwen Qin, Jian Li, Jing Fu
The nano-manipulation approach that combines Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling and various imaging and probing techniques enables researchers to investigate the cellular structures in three dimensions. Such fusion approach, however, requires extensive effort on locating and examining randomly-distributed targets due to limited Field of View (FOV) when high magnification is desired. In the present study, we present the development that automates 'pattern and probe' particularly for single-cell analysis, achieved by computer aided tools including feature recognition and geometric planning algorithms...
July 31, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797948/a-scanning-probe-mounted-on-a-field-effect-transistor-characterization-of-ion-damage-in-si
#2
Kumjae Shin, Hoontaek Lee, Min Sung, Sang Hoon Lee, Hyunjung Shin, Wonkyu Moon
We have examined the capabilities of a Tip-On-Gate of Field-Effect Transistor (ToGoFET) probe for characterization of FIB-induced damage in Si surface. A ToGoFET probe is the SPM probe which the Field Effect Transistor(FET) is embedded at the end of a cantilever and a Pt tip was mounted at the gate of FET. The ToGoFET probe can detect the surface electrical properties by measuring source-drain current directly modulated by the charge on the tip. In this study, a Si specimen whose surface was processed with Ga+ ion beam was prepared...
July 24, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763735/a-new-scanning-mode-to-improve-scanning-ion-conductance-microscopy-imaging-rate-with-pipette-predicted-movement
#3
Jian Zhuang, Yangbohan Jiao, Vincent Mugabo
Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a non-contact surface topography measurement technique that has been increasingly used for soft surfaces such as living biological samples. An approach-retract scanning (ARS) mode is widely used to avoid collision between the SICM probe (i.e., pipette) and an abrupt increase in sample profile. However, the redundant pipette trajectory in the ARS mode lengthens the scan time, thus reducing SICM efficiency and time resolution. To avoid this problem, a new scanning mode is discussed that adds horizontal movement at each measurement point to predict the upcoming sample topography via variation in ion current...
July 23, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779682/hypopharynx-in-termites-morphological-and-functional-aspects
#4
Iago Bueno da Silva, Ana Maria Costa-Leonardo
The hypopharynx morphology in workers, pseudergates, and soldiers was described in six families of Isoptera using scanning electronic microscopy. This is the first comparative study to detail the hypopharynx among different species of termites, and included 4 one-piece type (OP) and 9 multiple-pieces type termites (MP). The results showed different arrangements of the hypopharynx trichomes, with fewer of these structures in the frontal region of the hypopharynx in pseudergates and soldiers of OP termites. These characteristics did not apply to Serritermes serrifer, since its pseudergates displayed a large quantity of trichomes on the frontal surface...
July 21, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759806/the-effect-of-polymeric-membrane-surface-on-hacat-cell-properties
#5
Tomasz Kobiela, Małgorzata Milner-Krawczyk, Ewa Łukowska, Piotr Dobrzyński, Małgorzata Pastusiak, Anna Smola-Dmochowska, Jaroslav Lukes, Konstancja Bobecka-Wesołowska, Andrzej Chwojnowski
The control of the surface properties is an important issue for applicability of polymer membranes interacting with cells. In this work, the influence of surface roughness and stiffness of two polymer membranes on viability and mechanical properties of keratinocytes was studied. Terpolimer polyglicolide, polycaprolactone and polylactide, (PGA-PCL-PLA) and copolymer polycaprolactone, polyglicolide (PGA-PCL) substrates were used for membranes fabrication. Surface modification - the hydrolysis of the obtained membranes was carried out...
July 20, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750291/structural-characteristics-of-the-core-layer-and-biomimetic-model-of-the-ladybug-forewing
#6
Jinxiang Chen, Mengye Xu, Yoji Okabe, Zhensheng Guo, Xindi Yu
To explore the characteristics of the core structure of ladybug (Harmonia axyridis) forewings, their microstructure was studied using microscopes. The results suggest that trabeculae exist in the frame of the beetle (ladybug) forewing for the first time; this study represents the first determination of the parameters N, the total number of trabeculae in each forewing, and λt, the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the trabeculae to the effective area of trabecular distribution. The cross-sectional area of a single trabecula in the ladybug forewing is smaller than those in two other kinds of beetles, Allomyrina dichotoma and Prosopocoilus inclinatus...
July 19, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763734/interfacial-microstructure-and-mechanical-properties-of-cf-az91d-composites-with-tio2-and-pyc-fiber-coatings
#7
Shaolin Li, Lehua Qi, Ting Zhang, Luyan Ju, Hejun Li
In spite of the effectiveness of the fiber coatings on interface modification of carbon fiber reinforced magnesium matrix composites, the cost and exclusive equipment for the coatings preparation are usually ignored during research work. In this paper, pyrolytic carbon (PyC) and TiO2 were coated on carbon fiber surface to study the effects of fiber coatings on interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced AZ91D composites (Cf/AZ91D composites). It was indicated that both the two coatings could modify the interface and improve the mechanical properties of the composites...
July 12, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732266/effect-of-heat-treatments-on-the-microstructure-and-formability-of-al-mg-mn-sc-zr-alloy
#8
Yudai Miyake, Yukio Sato, Ryo Teranishi, Kenji Kaneko
Microstructures and formability of scandium and zirconium added Al-Mg-Mn alloy sheets with various heating conditions were examined to improve their mechanical properties. Formability of these samples were judged by the Lankford value, r-value. It was possible to fabricate mechanically balanced Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy with high hardness 76.2 Hv and with high formability with r=1.2, by not only adding scandium and zirconium but also optimizing the heat treatment conditions.
July 11, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728012/ovipositor-setation-in-oldest-insects-insecta-archaeognatha-revealed-by-sem-and-he-ion-microscopy
#9
Nataliia A Matushkina
Archaeognatha represent the oldest living lineage of true insects (=Ectognatha), which are remarkable, among others, for plesiomorphic genital morphology and complicated mating behaviour. I used scanning electron microscopy and He-ion microscopy to examine the ovipositor morphology of seven species, in order to describe the cuticle microsculpture. The species studied are characterised by different types of the ovipositor setation pattern, which are considered an important taxonomic feature for Archaeognatha...
July 8, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711013/seeing-the-unseen-imaging-rotation-in-cells-with-designer-anisotropic-particles
#10
REVIEW
Yuan Gao, Yanqi Yu, Lucero Sanchez, Yan Yu
Cellular functions are enabled by cascades of transient biological events. Imaging and tracking the dynamics of these events have proven to be a powerful means of understanding the principles of cellular processes. These studies have typically focused on translational dynamics. By contrast, investigations of rotational dynamics have been scarce, despite emerging evidence that rotational dynamics are an inherent feature of many cellular processes and may also provide valuable clues to understanding those cell functions...
July 8, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709083/the-peculiar-extra-acrosomal-structure-of-the-collembola-hexapoda-spermatozoa
#11
P P Fanciulli, C Mencarelli, D Mercati, R Dallai, P Lupetti
The springtail Collembola are characterized by having rolled spermatozoa, with a long cylindrical extracellular structure adhering to the acrosome. This structure is produced by the secretory activity of the testes epithelial cells at almost the end of spermiogenesis. At the beginning of its formation, it is a thin extension with a helical wall and a dense axial region. Later the cylindrical structure shows an inner organization which is different in the several species examined: species of Entomobryidae contain material with a paracrystalline structure, whilst some of Symphypleona contain ovoid structures...
June 29, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692865/live-cell-confocal-laser-imaging-studies-on-the-nuclear-behavior-during-meiosis-and-ascosporogenesis-in-morchella-importuna-under-artificial-cultivation
#12
Peixin He, Ke Wang, Yingli Cai, Wei Liu
The commercial production of Morchella mushrooms, especially M. importuna, has been realized since 2012 in China, which facilitates the fundamental studies of Morchella spp. In this paper, the cytological characteristics at three stages of ascocarpic development and the nuclear behavior during meiosis and ascosporogenesis in cultivated strain M. importuna 1(#) was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results suggested that the strain sporulated at sporulation stage of ascocarpic development...
June 29, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683405/stiffening-of-bacteria-cells-as-a-first-manifestation-of-bactericidal-attack
#13
Katarzyna Pogoda, Ewelina Piktel, Piotr Deptuła, Paul B Savage, Małgorzata Lekka, Robert Bucki
Development of new antibacterial agents requires generation of new methods that will allow characterization of mechanisms of novel antibacterial actions as well as observation of pathogen susceptibility to antibiotics. A family of synthetic cationic lipids, such as ceragenins, which mimic the action of membrane-targeting natural cationic antibacterial peptides, shows promise as a new family of bactericidal agents. Here we report that treatment of Bacillus subtillis cells with human cathelicidin LL-37 and ceragenins CSA-13 and CSA-131 (1-100μg/mL) leads to physicochemical changes of bacterial cells surface...
June 27, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672202/sample-preparation-of-anodised-aluminium-oxide-coatings-for-scanning-electron-microscopy
#14
Jonathan Long, Antonia Borissova, Andrew David Wilson, Junia Cristina Avelar-Batista Wilson
Characterisation of anodic aluminium oxide coatings and measurement of their thickness using microscopic techniques is valuable for analysing the effectiveness of the prior anodising process. Three different methods for preparing samples to view the coating cross-section (mechanical fracturing, cryogenic fracturing and metallography) were trialled and assessed for speed of implementation, simplicity and achievable measurement accuracy. Cryogenic fracturing was found to be destructive to samples. Mechanical fracturing yielded relatively accurate coating thickness measurements and coating structural information...
June 23, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662414/effects-of-freezing-fixation-and-dehydration-on-surface-roughness-properties-of-porcine-left-anterior-descending-coronary-arteries
#15
Hanna E Burton, Richard L Williams, Daniel M Espino
BACKGROUND: To allow measurements of surface roughness to be made of coronary arteries using various imaging techniques, chemical processing, such as fixation and dehydration, is commonly used. Standard protocols suggest storing fresh biological tissue at -40°C. The aim of this study was to quantify the changes caused by freezing and chemical processing to the surface roughness measurements of coronary arteries, and to determine whether correction factors are needed for surface roughness measurements of coronary arteries following chemical processes typically used before imaging these arteries...
June 22, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662413/effects-of-annealing-on-the-microstructural-evolution-and-phase-transition-in-an-alcrcufeni2-high-entropy-alloy
#16
Lin Guo, Wenqian Wu, Song Ni, Zhangwei Wang, Min Song
An AlCrCuFeNi2 high entropy alloy (HEA) was prepared by arc melting, followed by annealing at different temperatures. The elemental distributions, phase formation, morphology and microstructural evolution of the HEA in both the as-cast state and annealed state were investigated. The results indicate that the HEA undergoes elements segregation, precipitation and spinodal decomposition. The as-cast alloy consists of Cr-Fe-Ni rich FCC dendritic (DR) phase and BCC interdendritic (ID) phase. Spherical Fe-Cr rich BCC precipitates were found to disperse in Al-Ni rich B2 (ordered BCC) matrix...
June 21, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662412/correlation-between-deposition-parameters-of-periodic-titanium-metal-oxide-nanometric-multilayers-and-their-chemical-and-structural-properties-investigated-by-stem-eels
#17
Valérie Potin, Arnaud Cacucci, Nicolas Martin
We analyze structure and composition of titanium-based metal/oxide periodic multilayers prepared by reactive sputtering. The reactive gas pulsing process is involved to periodically inject the oxygen gas during the multilayers deposition. This approach allows the growth of regular and tunable nanometric TiO2/Ti periods with thicknesses ranging from 14 to 50nm. The interfacial layer between oxide and metallic layers is mainly the fcc-TiO phase as clearly pointed out by transmission electron microscopy and associated electron spectroscopies...
June 21, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709082/the-measurement-of-intensities-in-the-rotation-electron-diffraction-technique
#18
M Buxhuku, V Hansen, J Gjønnes
The Rotation Electron Diffraction Technique, recently developed at the University of Stockholm, has been used to acquire three-dimensional electron diffraction data. A mathematical expression to calculate the excitation errors, sg, is suggested by considering the diffraction geometry and the rotation axis. In order to plot the rocking curves, diffraction patterns taken from CoP3 cubic structure (a=7.708Å, space group Im3¯) are used as examples. Intensities of some reflections are derived by Multigauge software during the beam tilt series...
June 20, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622600/grain-size-quantification-by-optical-microscopy-electron-backscatter-diffraction-and-magnetic-force-microscopy
#19
Hansheng Chen, Yin Yao, Jacob A Warner, Jiangtao Qu, Fan Yun, Zhixiao Ye, Simon P Ringer, Rongkun Zheng
Quantification of microstructure, especially grain size, in polycrystalline materials is a vital aspect to understand the structure-property relationships in these materials. In this paper, representative characterization techniques for determining the grain size, including optical microscopy (OM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy/magnetic force microscopy (AFM/MFM), are thoroughly evaluated in comparison, illustrated by rare-earth sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets...
June 13, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623691/quantification-of-fenestrations-in-liver-sinusoidal-endothelial-cells-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#20
Bartlomiej Zapotoczny, Karolina Szafranska, Edyta Kus, Stefan Chlopicki, Marek Szymonski
Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells present unique morphology characterized by the presence of transmembrane pores called fenestrations. The size and number of fenestrations in live cells change dynamically in response to variety of chemical and physical factors. Although scanning electron microscopy is a well-established method for investigation of fixed liver sinusoidal endothelial cells morphology, atomic force microscopy is the interesting alternative providing detailed 3D topographical information. Moreover, simple sample preparation, only by wet-fixation, minimizing sample preparation artifacts enable high-resolution atomic force microscopy-based measurements...
June 10, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
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