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Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419915/enhanced-imaging-of-lipid-rich-nanoparticles-embedded-in-methylcellulose-films-for-transmission-electron-microscopy-using-mixtures-of-heavy-metals
#1
Jalal Asadi, Sophie Ferguson, Hussain Raja, Christian Hacker, Phedra Marius, Richard Ward, Christos Pliotas, James Naismith, John Lucocq
Synthetic and naturally occurring lipid-rich nanoparticles are of wide ranging importance in biomedicine. They include liposomes, bicelles, nanodiscs, exosomes and virus particles. The quantitative study of these particles requires methods for high-resolution visualization of the whole population. One powerful imaging method is cryo-EM of vitrified samples, but this is technically demanding, requires specialized equipment, provides low contrast and does not reveal all particles present in a population. Another approach is classical negative stain-EM, which is more accessible but is difficult to standardize for larger lipidic structures, which are prone to artifacts of structure collapse and contrast variability...
April 10, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414960/calibration-of-on-chip-cell-electroporation-by-a-pseudo-volumetric-uptake-model
#2
Kisoo Kim, Won Gu Lee
Most conventional methods for assessing uptake of exogenous molecules and nanomaterials into cells use the projected two-dimensional (2D) area of uptake intensity into individual cells. However, since most cells have a three-dimensional (3D) spherical shape, volumetric uptake cannot be quantified accurately using 2D area analysis. Here, we present a method for calibrating the electroporative uptake intensity of small molecules by using a novel predictable spherical volume (PSV) model, which is more accurate and quantitative than previous methods...
April 10, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431332/sperm-morphology-of-the-leafhopper-diaphorina-citri-kuwayama-hemiptera-sternorrhyncha-psylloidea-liviidae
#3
Marcelo Silva Barcellos, Jamile Fernanda Silva Cossolin, Glenda Dias, José Lino-Neto
In this study, by using light and electron microscopy, we describe the sperm morphology of the leafhopper Diaphorina citri, a serious pest of citrus throughout the world. In this species the sperm measures 538.49±8.75μm in length, and as observed in psylloids, the sperm, when manipulated, opens into two filaments, one of which is attached to the nuclear base and the other becomes free. Along the flagellum, and only of it, there are lateral projections, about 2μm in length. Furthermore, at the end of the flagellum three appendages, with approximately 7μm in length, are observed...
April 8, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395187/surface-imaging-of-the-filamentous-fungus-penicillium-simplicissimum-growing-in-a-solid-state-fermentation-system
#4
Fernando Pereira de Almeida, Denise Maria Guimarães Freire, Ulysses Lins, Melissa Limoeiro Estrada Gutarra
A comparative study on the lipase-producing fungus Penicillium simplissicimum, grown on a tray type solid-state fermentation (SSF) bioreactor, was performed using stereoscopy, focus Z-stacking stereoscopic images, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) to better characterize the morphology of filamentous fungi in SSF and their distribution over the solid matrix. The imaging of live fungal samples using a stereomicroscope with focus Z-stacking showed differences in colonization between a static SSF and an intermittent agitated SSF...
April 5, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411459/a-hybrid-3d-sem-reconstruction-method-optimized-for-complex-geologic-material-surfaces
#5
Shang Yan, Aderonke Adegbule, Tohren C G Kibbey
Reconstruction methods are widely used to extract three-dimensional information from scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. This paper presents a new hybrid reconstruction method that combines stereoscopic reconstruction with shape-from-shading calculations to generate highly-detailed elevation maps from SEM image pairs. The method makes use of an imaged glass sphere to determine the quantitative relationship between observed intensity and angles between the beam and surface normal, and the detector and surface normal...
April 2, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395188/ultrastructural-morphology-of-the-envelope-of-dover-sole-solea-solea-eggs-from-fertilization-until-hatching-with-emphasis-on-sample-preparation
#6
Evelien De Swaef, Myriam Claeys, Wim Bert, Ann Huysseune, Paul Eckhard Witten, Wim Van den Broeck, Annemie Decostere
This study is the first to describe the ultrastructural morphology of the envelope of Solea solea eggs from fertilisation until hatching. Defining the ultrastructural morphology of fish eggs is important for species identification and may assist in predicting the effect of external influences on these early life stages. In first instance, various fixation and embedding protocols were assessed to explore the morphology of the egg envelope, whereby the encountered difficulties were highlighted. The successful protocol for SEM proved to be combined fixation with 4% glutaraldehyde in 0...
March 27, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395186/ultramicroscopy-reveals-a-layer-of-multiply-folded-membranes-around-the-tannin-accumulating-vacuole-in-honeysuckle-petal-trichomes
#7
Shengnan Qu, Navid Chapman, Zhengyan Xia, Mingxiao Feng, Shangcai Feng, Zhen Wang, Lin Liu
Transmission electron microscopy was used to reveal a layer of multiply folded membranes that closely surrounded the tannin-accumulating vacuole in cells of honeysuckle petal trichomes. A huge amount of tannins were deposited in the peripheral region and the center of the vacuole. The prolific membranes extended to the tannins deposited along the vacuole periphery. It was difficult to distinguish the vacuole membrane, and it seemed as if it was the layer of multiply folded membranes that separated the vacuole lumen from the cytoplasm...
March 27, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371728/pore-size-distributions-convolution-for-microtomographic-images-applied-to-shark-bay-s-oolite
#8
Paulo J Dos Reis, Rodrigo Nagata, Carlos R Appoloni
In the study of pore size distributions within microtomographic images, there is no consensus in how to group pore size distributions obtained at different spatial resolutions in a single distribution, which represents the properties of the sample in a better way. This work presents a proposition that allows to group pore size distributions obtained by microtomography images in different spatial resolutions. A Shark's Bay oolite was imaged by X-ray microtomography at 4.4μm and 1.1μm spatial resolutions. The pore size distribution and average porosity were determined for each resolution...
March 25, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363156/f-actin-reorganization-upon-de-and-rehydration-in-the-aeroterrestrial-green-alga-klebsormidium-crenulatum
#9
Kathrin Blaas, Andreas Holzinger
Filamentous actin (F-actin) is a dynamic network involved in many cellular processes like cell division and cytoplasmic streaming. While many studies have addressed the involvement of F-actin in different cellular processes in cultured cells, little is known on the reactions to environmental stress scenarios, where this system might have essential regulatory functions. We investigated here the de- and rehydration kinetics of breakdown and reassembly of F-actin in the streptophyte green alga Klebsormidium crenulatum...
March 21, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342371/contrast-enhancement-with-uranyl-acetate-allows-quantitative-analysis-of-the-articular-cartilage-by-microct-application-to-mandibular-condyles-in-the-btx-rat-model-of-disuse
#10
Jean-Daniel Kün-Darbois, Florence Manero, Louis Rony, Daniel Chappard
Microcomputed tomography (microCT) is well adapted to quantitative analysis of calcified tissues but soft tissues (such as cartilage) are radiolucent and need a contrast enhancement procedure for microCT. We developed a "staining" method allowing microCT imaging of articular cartilage using uranyl acetate (UA). The method was used to see whether adult rats with a botulinum toxin (BTX) injection in masticatory muscles present a change at the condylar cartilage of the mandible in association with a localized trabecular bone loss...
March 21, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343096/sd-sem-sparse-dense-correspondence-for-3d-reconstruction-of-microscopic-samples
#11
Ahmadreza Baghaie, Ahmad P Tafti, Heather A Owen, Roshan M D'Souza, Zeyun Yu
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging has been a principal component of many studies in biomedical, mechanical, and materials sciences since its emergence. Despite the high resolution of captured images, they remain two-dimensional (2D). In this work, a novel framework using sparse-dense correspondence is introduced and investigated for 3D reconstruction of stereo SEM images. SEM micrographs from microscopic samples are captured by tilting the specimen stage by a known angle. The pair of SEM micrographs is then rectified using sparse scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features/descriptors and a contrario RANSAC for matching outlier removal to ensure a gross horizontal displacement between corresponding points...
March 20, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364625/study-of-temperature-effects-on-the-electrical-behavior-of-polypropylene-clay-nanocomposites-submitted-to-electron-beam-irradiation-in-a-sem
#12
Latifa Ben Ammar, Slim Fakhfakh, Omar Jbara, Sebastien Rondot, Aomar Hadjadj
Charge transport and electron emission properties in polypropylene and its nanocomposites filled with nanoclay particles submitted to an electron irradiation, in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), are investigated using induced displacement and leakage currents. The measurements have been performed at various temperatures ranging from 20°C to 75°C at a primary beam energy of 20keV and a primary beam current of 1nA with the aim to highlight the effect of temperature and nanoclay content on these properties...
March 19, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359958/atom-probe-study-of-b2-order-and-a2-disorder-of-the-feco-matrix-in-an-fe-co-mo-alloy
#13
C Turk, H Leitner, I Schemmel, H Clemens, S Primig
The physical and mechanical properties of intermetallic alloys can be tailored by controlling the degree of order of the solid solution by means of heat treatments. FeCo alloys with an appropriate composition exhibit an A2-disorder↔B2-order transition during continuous cooling from the disordered bcc region. The study of atomic order in intermetallic alloys by diffraction and its influence on the material properties is well established, however, investigating magnetic FeCo-based alloys by conventional methods such as X-ray diffraction is quite challenging...
March 19, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359957/structure-and-components-of-the-globular-and-filamentous-viroplasms-induced-by-rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus
#14
Li Xie, Ming-Fang Lv, Xi-Jiao Song, Jian Yang, Jing Li, Zong-Tao Sun, Ying-Yi Zhang, Jian-Ping Chen, Heng-Mu Zhang
Viroplasms of members of the family Reoviridae are considered to be viral factories for genome replication and virion assembly. Globular and filamentous phenotypes have different components and probably have different functions. We used transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography to examine the structure and components of the two viroplasm phenotypes induced by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). Immuno-gold labeling was used to localize each of the 13 RBSDV encoded proteins as well as double-stranded RNA, host cytoskeleton actin-11 and α-tubulin...
March 16, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359956/ab-initio-study-of-the-energy-loss-near-sulfur-k-and-l2-3-edges-of-layered-ms2-m-ta-nb-and-v-in-trigonal-prismatic-and-octahedral-structures
#15
Mehrdad Dadsetani, Tahereh Nouri, Hajar Nejatipour
This study set out to calculate the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW)-based energy loss near sulfur K and L2,3 edge structures of group V layered transition metal disulfides MS2 (M=Ta, Nb, and V) in octahedral (1T) as well as trigonal prismatic (2H) structures. The calculations showed that, consistent with other calculations, all the studied materials were metallic due to the partially filled d bands in their configurations. Furthermore, the calculated ELNES spectra revealed a good agreement with the available experimental XANES analogues...
March 14, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342370/fabrication-and-tribological-properties-of-nanogrids-on-cvd-grown-graphene
#16
Yan Jiang, Yu Sun, Juan Song
We have used atomic force microscopy (AFM) combined with an external sourcemeter to make patterns on CVD-grown graphene, and regular nanogrids have been fabricated on graphene by AFM tip-induced local oxidation. The friction and adhesion properties of graphene with the nanogrids have been characterized by the lateral mode of AFM and the results show that the friction force on the borders of nanogrid is higher than that on the normal area of graphene, yet the adhesion force on the nanogrids decrease slightly due to the change of surface roughness...
March 12, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371643/self-interference-of-split-holz-line-sis-holz-for-z-dependent-atomic-displacement-measurement-theoretical-discussion
#17
Mana Norouzpour, Ramtin Rakhsha, Rodney Herring
A characteristic of the majority of semiconductors is the presence of lattice strain varying with the nanometer scale. Strain originates from the lattice mismatch between layers of different composition deposited during epitaxial growth. Strain can increase the mobility of the charge carriers by the band gap reduction. So, measuring atomic displacement inside crystals is an important field of interest in semiconductor industry. Among all available transmission electron microscopy techniques offering nano-scale resolution measurements, convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) patterns show the highest sensitivity to the atomic displacement...
March 10, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346884/automatic-measurement-of-melanoma-depth-of-invasion-in-skin-histopathological-images
#18
Hongming Xu, Richard Berendt, Naresh Jha, Mrinal Mandal
Measurement of melanoma depth of invasion (DoI) in skin tissues is of great significance in grading the severity of skin disease and planning patient's treatment. However, accurate and automatic measurement of melanocytic tumor depth is a challenging problem mainly due to the difficulty of skin granular identification and melanoma detection. In this paper, we propose a technique for measuring melanoma DoI in microscopic images digitized from MART1 (i.e., meleanoma-associated antigen recognized by T cells) stained skin histopathological sections...
March 10, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334630/probing-the-oxidative-etching-induced-dissolution-of-palladium-nanocrystals-in-solution-by-liquid-cell-transmission-electron-microscopy
#19
Yingying Jiang, Guomin Zhu, Ganxing Dong, Fang Lin, Hui Zhang, Jun Yuan, Ze Zhang, Chuanhong Jin
A microscopic study of dissolution process of nanocrystals, an opposite while functioning cooperatively with growth in many cases, is an essential issue in variety aspects of research on nanocrystals. In this work, an in situ study of the dynamic dissolution process of palladium nanocrystals by liquid cell transmission electron microscope (TEM) is presented. The effective critical size (Rcritical) for monodispersed nanocrystals is determined to be about 5nm in the experimental condition of this article. When the size of nanocrystal is above Rcritical, the dissolution rate (dr/dt) is nearly a constant...
March 7, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288344/stereological-and-immunogold-studies-on-tie1-and-tie2-localization-in-glomeruli-indicate-angiopoietin-signaling-in-podocytes
#20
Anastasia Logothetidou, Ward De Spiegelaere, Wim Van den Broeck, Tim Vandecasteele, Liesbeth Couck, Paul Simoens, Pieter Cornillie
Angiopoietins and their TIE receptors are important regulators of vascular stability and remodeling. These molecules are involved not only in the normal development of kidney glomeruli, but also in disease, thus making them promising targets for therapies. Although TIE receptors are mainly found in endothelial cells, some reports observed TIE2 expression in glomerular podocytes as well. This suggests a role of angiopoietins in the regulation of podocytes. In the present study, we aimed to map the subcellular localization of TIE receptors in metanephric glomeruli of fetal pigs using high-resolution immunogold electron microscopy and the relative labeling index stereological approach...
March 2, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
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