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Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622600/grain-size-quantification-by-optical-microscopy-electron-backscatter-diffraction-and-magnetic-force-microscopy
#1
Hansheng Chen, Yin Yao, Jacob A Warner, Jiangtao Qu, Fan Yun, Zhixiao Ye, Simon P Ringer, Rongkun Zheng
Quantification of microstructure, especially grain size, in polycrystalline materials is a vital aspect to understand the structure-property relationships in these materials. In this paper, representative characterization techniques for determining the grain size, including optical microscopy (OM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy/magnetic force microscopy (AFM/MFM), are thoroughly evaluated in comparison, illustrated by rare-earth sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets...
June 13, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623691/quantification-of-fenestrations-in-liver-sinusoidal-endothelial-cells-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#2
Bartlomiej Zapotoczny, Karolina Szafranska, Edyta Kus, Stefan Chlopicki, Marek Szymonski
Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells present unique morphology characterized by the presence of transmembrane pores called fenestrations. The size and number of fenestrations in live cells change dynamically in response to variety of chemical and physical factors. Although scanning electron microscopy is a well-established method for investigation of fixed liver sinusoidal endothelial cells morphology, atomic force microscopy is the interesting alternative providing detailed 3D topographical information. Moreover, simple sample preparation, only by wet-fixation, minimizing sample preparation artifacts enable high-resolution atomic force microscopy-based measurements...
June 10, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628808/quantitative-image-analysis-of-the-shape-and-size-of-circular-wound-sites-generated-by-vertically-stamped-scratches
#3
Tae Young Kim, In Hyuk Jang, Dong Yeol Han, Won Gu Lee
A protocol for quantitative image analysis of wound generation is important to better understand the integrative process of wound healing and the closure mechanism. Here, we present a method for quantitative analysis of microscopic images of circular wound sites generated by vertically stamped scratches. To demonstrate proof-of-concept validation, we used two types of mechanical stamping tools, a mechanical pencil lead (type 1; brittle) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pillars (type 2; ductile), to create circular wound sites...
June 9, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622599/adrenergic-regulation-of-cytoplasmic-structures-related-to-secretory-processes-in-pig-pinealocytes-an-ultrastructural-quantitative-study
#4
Barbara Przybylska-Gornowicz, Bogdan Lewczuk, Natalia Ziółkowska, Magdalena Prusik
Two structures, considered as secretory in nature, are present in the pinealocytes in of the domestic pig show the presence of two structures, which are considered as secretory in nature - the dense core vesicles (DCV) and the membrane bounded (dense) bodies (MBB). The latter are extremely numerous in pig pinealocytes (they occupy 6-20% of the cytoplasm), and the number of MBB changes under different physiological and experimental conditions. Norepinephrine is the main neurotransmitter that regulates the secretion of pineal melatonin...
June 9, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609725/new-insights-on-mitochondrial-heterogeneity-observed-in-prepared-mitochondrial-samples-following-a-method-for-freeze-fracture-and-scanning-electron-microscopy
#5
Julie A MacDonald, William H Fowle, Dori C Woods PhD
Mitochondria are dynamic intracellular organelles with diverse roles in tissue- and cell type-specific processes, extending beyond bioenergetics. In keeping with this array of functions, mitochondria are described as heterogeneous both between and within tissue types based on multiple parameters, including a broad spectrum of morphological features, and new research points toward a need for the evaluation of mitochondria as isolated organelles. Although transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is commonly used for the evaluation of mitochondria in tissues and renders mitochondrial structures in ultra-thin sections in two-dimensions, additional information regarding complex features within these organelles can be ascertained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which allows for analysis of phenotypic differences in three-dimensions...
June 1, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582658/a-method-to-improve-the-quality-of-2-5-dimensional-micro-and-nano-structures-produced-by-focused-ion-beam-machining
#6
Daniele De Felicis, Muhammad Zeeshan Mughal, Edoardo Bemporad
The present work deals with a new technique to produce complex micro- and nano-scale patterns with high accuracy by FIB micro machining. The proposed method is related to the production of stream file, which is optimized through a software interface. A unique sampling approach is used to optimize the conversion from a 3D meshed CAD object to the focused ion beam (FIB) digital to analogue converter (DAC). The method uses a novel scan strategy, sensitive to the pattern local geometry and size, to define the optimal ion beam path, dwell time and the scanning pitch...
May 31, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558328/microscopic-evaluation-of-the-ventricular-tissue-using-stereological-and-voronoi-tessellation-methods-application-on-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-rats
#7
Ali Rafati, Zahra Jafarinezhad, Saied Karbalay-Doust, Leila Hosseini, Ali Noorafshan
There is limited quantitative microscopic information concerning the three-dimensional arrangement of cardiomyocytes and microvessels in cardiotoxic condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiac tissue of rats under different experimental conditions using modern second-order stereology and Voronoi tessellation techniques to show the spatial arrangement of the cardiomyocytes and microvessels. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=6). The control group received PBS and the doxorubicin (DOX) group received 4mg/kg DOX on days 1, 8, 15, and 22...
May 24, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586698/multiscale-characterization-of-the-hierarchical-structure-of-dynastes-hercules-elytra
#8
Charles Roux-Pertus, Erwan Oliviero, Véronique Viguier, Frédéric Fernandez, Frédéric Maillot, Olivier Ferry, Solenne Fleutot, João F Mano, Franck Cleymand
Beetle elytra are thickened forewings, they are lightweight and tough to protect the hindwings without hindering flight capacities. Dynastes hercules elytra are known for their hygrochromic properties. However, the whole structure of the elytron remains to be characterized. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and to our knowledge for the first time X-Ray tomography were undertaken on adult male Dynastes hercules to characterize their multi-scale structure. Trabeculae present a periodic arrangement over a short distance...
May 4, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558343/interconnectivity-imaged-in-three-dimensions-nano-particulate-silica-hydrogel-structure-revealed-using-electron-tomography
#9
C Hamngren Blomqvist, T Gebäck, A Altskär, A-M Hermansson, S Gustafsson, N Lorén, E Olsson
We have used Electron Tomography (ET) to reveal the detailed three-dimensional structure of particulate hydrogels, a material category common in e.g. controlled release, food science, battery and biomedical applications. A full understanding of the transport properties of these gels requires knowledge about the pore structure and in particular the interconnectivity in three dimensions, since the transport takes the path of lowest resistance. The image series for ET were recorded using High-Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM)...
September 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550717/ooxtaxonomy-of-eight-tettigonoidea-species-insecta-orthoptera-description-and-comparison-of-the-egg-morphology
#10
Marta Franch Sas, Josep M Olmo-Vidal, Marcos Roca-Cusachs, Juli Pujade-Villar
In the present study, eggs of eight species of the Tettigonoidea superfamily have been examined with the aim to find characteristic traits of each of the studied taxa. In addition, we aim to distinguish them through their eggshell morphology, a technique that nowadays is known as ootaxonomy. All the eggs analysed belong to four subfamilies of the Tettigoniidae family (Bradyporinae: Ephippiger diurnus cunii, Parasteropleurus perezii, Lluciapomaresius panteli, L. ortegai, Tettigoniinae: Decticus verrucivorus, Antaxius hispanicus, and Meconematinae: Cyrtaspis scutata) and from family Phaneropteridae: Phaneroptera nana...
September 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527398/quantitative-comparison-between-real-space-and-bloch-wave-methods-in-image-simulation
#11
Yi Yang, Qibin Yang, Jianyu Huang, Canying Cai, Jianguo Lin
Both Bloch wave (BW) and real space multislice (RS-MS) methods are based on the Schrödinger equation. The BW method is considered to be the most accurate and popular simulation method used in various simulations, and it has solved many crystallographic problems. In this paper, we verified that the aforementioned two methods are similar to each other with minor difference. First, the RS-MS method is implemented in the real space, while the BW method is carried out in the reciprocal space. Furthermore, by quantitatively calculating exit wavefunctions of four crystals, i...
September 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514702/nanoscale-morphological-analysis-of-soft-matter-aggregates-with-fractal-dimension-ranging-from-1-to-3
#12
REVIEW
Francesco Valle, Marco Brucale, Stefano Chiodini, Eva Bystrenova, Cristiano Albonetti
While the widespread emergence of nanoscience and nanotechnology can be dated back to the early eighties, the last decade has witnessed a true coming of age of this research field, with novel nanomaterials constantly finding their way into marketed products. The performance of nanomaterials being dominated by their nanoscale morphology, their quantitative characterization with respect to a number of properties is often crucial. In this context, those imaging techniques able to resolve nanometer scale details are clearly key players...
September 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500930/micro-computed-tomography-scanning-electron-microscopy-and-energy-x-ray-spectroscopy-studies-of-facet-joint-degeneration-a-comparison-to-clinical-imaging
#13
Felix Goehre, Christopher Ludtka, Melanie Hamperl, Andrea Friedmann, Anja Straube, Thomas Mendel, Andreas Heilmann, Hans Jörg Meisel, Stefan Schwan
Segmental degeneration in the human lumbar spine affects both the intervertebral discs and facet joints. Facet joint degeneration not only affects the cartilage surface, but also alters the cellular properties of the cartilage tissue and the structure of the subchondral bone. The primary focus of this study is the investigation of these microstructural changes that are caused by facet joint degeneration. Microstructural analyses of degenerated facet joint samples, obtained from patients following operative lumbar interbody fusion, have not previously been extensively investigated...
September 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494437/nanosecond-pulsed-electric-field-induced-changes-in-cell-surface-charge-density
#14
Diganta Dutta, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Anthony Asmar, Michael Stacey, Shizhi Qian
This study reports that the surface charge density changes in Jurkat cells with the application of single 60 nanosecond pulse electric fields, using atomic force microscopy. Using an atomic force microscope tip and Jurkat cells on silica in a 0.01M KCl ionic concentration, we were able to measure the interfacial forces, while also predicting surface charge densities of both Jurkat cell and silica surfaces. The most important finding is that the pulsing conditions varyingly reduced the cells' surface charge density...
September 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486138/the-effects-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-on-ultrastructure-of-zebrafish-testis-danio-rerio
#15
Tuğba Kotil, Cansu Akbulut, Nazan Deniz Yön
INTRODUCTION: Nanotechnology investigates materials at nanoscale level (0.1-100nm in diameter). There are many commercially nanoproducts such as silver, silicon, titanium, zinc, and gold. They are used in a variety of applications and released to the environment. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most commonly used nanoparticles (NP). In this study, the ultrastructural effects of TiO2-NP on zebrafish testis tissue were evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Zebrafish were divided into four groups (N=60) as one control and 3 experimental groups (1mg/L, 2mg/L and 4mg/L TiO2)...
September 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482176/exosomes-ultrastructural-evidence-in-epithelial-cells-of-malpighian-tubules
#16
Anita Giglio, Ida Daniela Perrotta, Pietro Brandmayr
Exosomes in Malpighian tubules of Calathus fuscipes (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were investigated under transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural analyses showed a wide number of multivesicular bodies localized in the apical portion of epithelial cells. Each multivesicular body encloses from 15 to 80 intraluminal vesicles (about 50nm in diameter), originating through inward budding of late endosomes that package molecules into luminal membrane-bound structures. Subsequently they are released as exosomes through exocytosis of multivesicular bodies into the extracellular space after fusion with plasma membrane...
September 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477556/giant-vesicles-gv-in-colloidal-system-under-the-optical-polarization-microscope-opm
#17
Khalisanni Khalid, Muhammad Azri Mohd Noh, M Niyaz Khan, Ruzaina Ishak, Esther Penney, Zaira Zaman Chowdhury, Mohammad Hafiz Hamzah, Maizatulnisa Othman
This paper discusses the unprecedented microscopic findings of micellar growth in colloidal system (CS) of catalyzed piperidinolysis of ionized phenyl salicylate (PS(-)). The giant vesicles (GV) was observed under the optical polarization microscope (OPM) at [NaX]=0.1M where X=3-isopropC6H4O(-). The conditions were rationalized from pseudo-first-order rate constant, kobs of PS(-) of micellar phase at 31.1×10(-3)s(-1) reported in previous publication. The overall diameter of GV (57.6μm) in CS (CTABr/NaX/H2O)-catalyzed piperidinolysis (where X=3-isopropC6H4O) of ionized phenyl salicylate were found as giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) and giant multilamellar vesicles (GMV)...
September 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463750/visualization-of-macro-immune-complexes-in-the-antiphospholipid-syndrome-by-multi-modal-microscopy-imaging
#18
Douglas J Taatjes, Nicole Bouffard, Michele von Turkovich, Anthony S Quinn, Xiao-Xuan Wu, Ljiljana V Vasovic, Jacob H Rand
The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune thrombotic condition that is marked by autoantibodies against phospholipid-binding proteins. The mechanism(s) of thrombogenesis has (have) resisted elucidation since its description over thirty years ago. Nevertheless, a defining aspect of the disorder is positivity for clinical laboratory tests that confirm antibody binding to anionic phospholipids. It is remarkable that, to our knowledge, the binding of proteins from plasmas of APS patients to phospholipid has not been previously imaged...
September 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448831/computer-simulations-analysis-for-determining-the-polarity-of-charge-generated-by-high-energy-electron-irradiation-of-a-thin-film
#19
Marek Malac, Simon Hettler, Misa Hayashida, Masahiro Kawasaki, Yuji Konyuba, Yoshi Okura, Hirofumi Iijima, Isamu Ishikawa, Marco Beleggia
Detailed simulations are necessary to correctly interpret the charge polarity of electron beam irradiated thin film patch. Relying on systematic simulations we provide guidelines and movies to interpret experimentally the polarity of the charged area, to be understood as the sign of the electrostatic potential developed under the beam with reference to a ground electrode. We discuss the two methods most frequently used to assess charge polarity: Fresnel imaging of the irradiated area and Thon rings analysis...
September 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448830/biogenesis-of-secondary-mycogenic-minerals-related-to-wall-paintings-deterioration-process
#20
Nikola Unković, Suzana Erić, Kristina Šarić, Miloš Stupar, Željko Savković, Slaviša Stanković, Olja Stanojević, Ivica Dimkić, Jelena Vukojević, Milica Ljaljević Grbić
Present study addresses potential of fungal strains, isolated from deteriorated mural paintings and surrounding air environment of the Church of the Holy Ascension in Veliki Krčimir (Serbia), to precipitate mycogenic minerals, when cultivated on agarized B4 medium. Utilizing culture-based isolation methods, 38 filamentous fungi were obtained in total, 23 from mural paintings and 15 from air, respectively, mainly ascomycetes, while Bjerkandera adusta and Thanatephorus cucumeris were only basidiomycetes. A total of 31 of 38 fungal isolates, more than 80%, were able to form minerals of different morphologies and variable size, determined via SEM-EDS and XRPD, to be either calcite or calcite and weddellite association...
September 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
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