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Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288344/stereological-and-immunogold-studies-on-tie1-and-tie2-localization-in-glomeruli-indicate-angiopoietin-signaling-in-podocytes
#1
Anastasia Logothetidou, Ward De Spiegelaere, Wim Van den Broeck, Tim Vandecasteele, Liesbeth Couck, Paul Simoens, Pieter Cornillie
Angiopoietins and their TIE receptors are important regulators of vascular stability and remodeling. These molecules are involved not only in the normal development of kidney glomeruli, but also in disease, thus making them promising targets for therapies. Although TIE receptors are mainly found in endothelial cells, some reports observed TIE2 expression in glomerular podocytes as well. This suggests a role of angiopoietins in the regulation of podocytes. In the present study, we aimed to map the subcellular localization of TIE receptors in metanephric glomeruli of fetal pigs using high-resolution immunogold electron microscopy and the relative labeling index stereological approach...
March 2, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282551/novel-fractal-characteristic-of-atomic-force-microscopy-images
#2
Maria N Starodubtseva, Ivan E Starodubtsev, Evgenii G Starodubtsev
Fractal dimension (DF) is one of the important parameters in the description of object's properties in different fields including biology and medicine. The present paper is focused on the application of the fractal dimension (the box counting dimension) in the analysis of the properties of cell surface on the base of its images obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Fractal dimension of digital 3D AFM images depends on interpoint distances determined by the scanning step in the XY-plane and Z-scale factor t...
February 28, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282550/an-automatic-algorithm-for-determination-of-the-nanoparticles-from-tem-images-using-circular-hough-transform
#3
Mohsen Mirzaei, Hossein Khodabakhshi Rafsanjani
Nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in science and technology, and the size distribution of nanoparticles is one of the most important statistical properties. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or X-ray diffraction is commonly used for the characterization and measuring particle size distributions, but manual analysis of the micrographs is extremely labor-intensive. Here, we have developed an image processing algorithm for measuring particle size distributions from TEM images in the presence of overlapped particles and uneven background...
February 28, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282549/atomic-resolution-chemical-mapping-of-ordered-precipitates-in-al-alloys-using-energy-dispersive-x-ray-spectroscopy
#4
Sigurd Wenner, Lewys Jones, Calin D Marioara, Randi Holmestad
Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is a common technique for chemical mapping in thin samples. Obtaining high-resolution elemental maps in the STEM is jointly dependent on stepping the sharply focused electron probe in a precise raster, on collecting a significant number of characteristic X-rays over time, and on avoiding damage to the sample. In this work, 80kV aberration-corrected STEM-EDS mapping was performed on ordered precipitates in aluminium alloys...
February 28, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273523/atomic-structure-and-chemistry-of-a-100-dislocation-cores-in-la2-3sr1-3mno3-films
#5
Kepeng Song, Kui Du, Hengqiang Ye
Oxide thin films with perovskite structures possess multifunctional properties, while defects in the films usually have significant influences on their physical properties. Here, the atomic structure and chemistry of a[100] dislocation cores in epitaxial La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 films were investigated by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy combining with atomically resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy imaging. The results demonstrated an edge dislocation terminated with Mn columns and significant nonstoichiometry at the dislocation core region...
February 27, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267641/graphene-supporting-films-and-low-voltage-stem-in-sem-toward-imaging-nanobio-materials-without-staining-observation-of-insulin-amyloid-fibrils
#6
Takashi Ogawa, Geun Won Gang, Minh Thu Thieu, Hyuksang Kwon, Sang Jung Ahn, Tai Hwan Ha, Boklae Cho
Utilization of graphene-supporting films and low-voltage scanning transmission electron microscopy (LV-STEM) in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is shown to be an effective means of observing unstained nanobio materials. Insulin amyloid fibrils, which are implicated as a cause of type II diabetes, are formed in vitro and observed without staining at room temperature. An in-lens cold field-emission SEM, equipped with an additional homemade STEM detector, provides dark field (DF)-STEM images in the low energy range of 5-30keV, together with secondary electron (SE) images...
February 27, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288343/cleaning-of-contaminated-mfm-probes-using-a-bopp-film-and-external-magnetic-field
#7
Chao Zhang, Jinyun Liu, Qingling Meng, Wenxiao Zhang, Ying Wang, Dayou Li, Zuobin Wang
When magnetic samples are tested with a magnetic force microscope (MFM), the probe tip can inevitably be contaminated and magnetic particles are often adhered to the tip surface. The probe with magnetic contamination will seriously affect the quality of morphological and magnetic imaging. In the work, a method for the cleaning of contaminated magnetic probe tips was developed by the use of a biaxially-oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film together with an external magnet field in an MFM system. In the experiments, an MFM system was used for manipulating the tip to push into the BOPP film with a depth of 50-100nm under a magnetic field and hold for 5s, and the relationships between loading forces and separating forces were studied...
February 24, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273524/altered-bone-microarchitecture-and-gene-expression-profile-due-to-calcium-deficiency-in-a-mouse-model-of-myeloma
#8
Hélène Libouban, Daniel Chappard
It is not clear why patients with an indolent form of multiple myeloma (MM) develop into an aggressive form with poor prognostic. We investigated the effect of a dietary calcium deficiency on tumor growth, osteolysis and gene expression in the 5T2MM murine model. Two groups of C57BL/KaLwRij mice received 5T2MM cells and started a diet with normal (0.8%; "normal-Ca-MM") or low calcium content (0.05%; "low-Ca-MM"). Two control groups (without 5T2MM cells) received either a normal or low calcium diet (normal-Ca and low-Ca groups)...
February 24, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262565/effects-of-radiation-damage-in-studies-of-protein-dna-complexes-by-cryo-em
#9
REVIEW
M Mishyna, O Volokh, Ya Danilova, N Gerasimova, E Pechnikova, O S Sokolova
Nucleic acids are responsible for the storage, transfer and realization of genetic information in the cell, which provides correct development and functioning of organisms. DNA interaction with ligands ensures the safety of this information. Over the past 10 years, advances in electron microscopy and image processing allowed to obtain the structures of key DNA-protein complexes with resolution below 4Å. However, radiation damage is a limiting factor to the potentially attainable resolution in cryo-EM. The prospect and limitations of studying protein-DNA complex interactions using cryo-electron microscopy are discussed here...
February 21, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258045/fine-tuning-transmission-electron-microscopy-methods-to-evaluate-the-cellular-architecture-of-ulvacean-seaweeds-chlorophyta
#10
D R Farias, C Simioni, E Poltronieri, Z L Bouzon, C K Macleod
Chemical fixation is a critical step in the analysis of the ultrastructure of seaweeds because the wrong approach can compromise the ability to distinguish fine-scale cellular composition. Fixation agents, fixation time and type of tissue are important factors to consider for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and not every protocol is suitable for all cell types. We evaluated a range of fixation agents, post-fixation time and dehydration solutions to determine a TEM protocol for seaweeds in the Family Ulvaceae...
February 20, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249218/carbon-contamination-in-scanning-transmission-electron-microscopy-and-its-impact-on-phase-plate-applications
#11
Simon Hettler, Manuel Dries, Peter Hermann, Martin Obermair, Dagmar Gerthsen, Marek Malac
We analyze electron-beam induced carbon contamination in a transmission electron microscope. The study is performed on thin films potentially suitable as phase plates for phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy and phase-plate imaging is utilized to analyze the contamination. The deposited contamination layer is identified as a graphitic carbon layer which is not prone to electrostatic charging whereas a non-conductive underlying substrate charges. Several methods that inhibit contamination are evaluated and the impact of carbon contamination on phase-plate imaging is discussed...
February 11, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226270/enhancement-of-noisy-edx-hrstem-spectrum-images-by-combination-of-filtering-and-pca
#12
Pavel Potapov, Paolo Longo, Eiji Okunishi
STEM spectrum-imaging with collecting EDX signal is considered in view of the extraction of maximum information from very noisy data. It is emphasized that spectrum-images with weak EDX signal often suffer from information loss in the course of PCA treatment. The loss occurs when the level of random noise exceeds a certain threshold. Weighted PCA, though potentially helpful in isolation of meaningful variations from noise, might provoke the complete loss of information in the situation of weak EDX signal. Filtering datasets prior PCA can improve the situation and recover the lost information...
February 10, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214751/structure-and-distribution-of-the-sensilla-on-the-antennae-of-tuta-absoluta-lepidoptera-gelechiidae
#13
Thomas Bawin, France Collard, Lara De Backer, Boni Barthélémy Yarou, Philippe Compère, Frédéric Francis, François J Verheggen
The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest that develops on tomato and other economically important solanaceous crops. Current semiochemically-based management strategies still fail to significantly reduce damages and need to be improved. Here we describe under scanning and transmission electron microscopy the structure and distribution of the sensilla that are displayed on adult antennae. These were similar in size between males (3424.4±135.3μm) and females (3292...
February 1, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208085/accurate-determination-of-lattice-parameters-based-on-niggli-reduced-cell-theory-by-using-digitized-electron-diffraction-micrograph
#14
Yi Yang, Canying Cai, Jianguo Lin, Lunjun Gong, Qibin Yang
In this paper, we used Niggli reduced cell theory to determine lattice constants of a micro/nano crystal by using electron diffraction patterns. The Niggli reduced cell method enhanced the accuracy of lattice constant measurement obviously, because the lengths and the angles of lattice vectors of a primitive cell can be measured directly on the electron micrographs instead of a double tilt holder. With the aid of digitized algorithm and least square optimization by using three digitized micrographs, a valid reciprocal Niggli reduced cell number can be obtained...
January 31, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182977/morphology-of-tio2-nanotubes-revealed-through-electron-tomography
#15
M Andrzejczuk, A Roguska, M Pisarek, M Hołdyński, M Lewandowska, K J Kurzydłowski
In this work, scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography was successfully applied to characterize the three-dimensional structure of titanium oxide nanotubes prepared by the electrochemical anodization of the Ti substrate. The results provided detailed information about the morphology of nanotubes as well as insight into their growth. The segmentation of reconstructed images made it possible to estimate the surface area and volume of the nanotubes. The highest specific surface area was obtained for the lowest anodization voltage of 10V, and corresponds closely to that obtained using the porosimetry technique...
January 27, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178584/comparative-study-of-the-claws-of-pediculus-humanus-capitis-between-archaeological-and-modern-specimens
#16
Hipólito Núñez, Bernardo Arriaza, Vivien Standen, Natalia Aravena
Metric data of the claws of archaeological specimens of Pediculus humanus capitis (dating between 1500 B.C. and A.D. 1500) and modern lice specimens coming from school children were analyzed and compared. Both sets of samples come from Arica in northern Chile. The overall sample is comprised of 14 archaeological specimens (6 females and 8 males) of Pediculus humanus capitis and 22 modern specimens (13 females and 9 males). All specimens were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), uncoated, using variable pressure mode...
January 27, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199862/effect-of-accelerating-voltage-on-beam-damage-of-asbestos-fibers-in-the-transmission-electron-microscope-tem
#17
Joannie Martin, Martin Beauparlant, Sébastien Sauvé, Gilles L'Espérance
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a powerful and efficient tool for the analysis of asbestos fibers. Although this analysis technique is common and several standard methods exist for asbestos analysis, questions remain about the optimal conditions to be used. Because asbestos fibers are relatively sensitive to the electron beam, it is important to better understand the phenomena of damage in order to avoid them. This study specifically investigates the effect of the acceleration voltage on damage to four different types of asbestos fibers: chrysotile, amosite, crocidolite and anthophyllite...
January 25, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292699/improved-method-for-effective-rock-microporosity-estimation-using-x-ray-microtomography
#18
H E Cid, G Carrasco-Núñez, V C Manea
Petrophysical analysis using X-ray microtomography provides key textural and compositional information, useful to investigate porous media characteristics of hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. Several approaches, used for rock porosity estimation from tomography data, rely mainly on visual or mathematical segmentation algorithms that attempt to obtain thresholding values to segment a phase solved by pixel analysis resolution. Therefore, porosity is evaluated using only pores above pixel resolution (macroporosity), and dismiss pores sized less than the pixel resolution (microporosity) that can be essential to characterize permeability conditions of geothermal reservoirs...
January 22, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152416/surface-ultrastructure-and-internal-properties-of-the-erpobdella-testacea-hirudinae-arynchobdellidae-cocoon-membrane
#19
Yasmina Romdhane, Yann Quilichini, Saida Tekaya
The Erpobdella testacea cocoon membrane is studied for the first time by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. It has an ovoid form, displays a cambered dorsal side in which various micro-organisms are attached and a flattened ventral side. Symmetrically positioned, 2 opercula occur at the distal ends of the cocoon. The internal ultrastructure reveals fibrils (17.5nm) packed in layers forming C, S, bow shaped, parallel and stippling patterns lines, interrupted by Polygon-shaped cavities (1.8μm). Transverse sections show that each fibril presents an external dark part (6nm) and a central hole approximately 5...
January 20, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178583/detection-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-medicago-sativa-l-by-fluorescence-microscopy
#20
Wilber S Alves, Evelin A Manoel, Noemi S Santos, Rosane O Nunes, Giselli C Domiciano, Marcia R Soares
Green technologies, such as phytoremediation, are effective for removing organic pollutants derived from oil and oil products, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Given the increasing popularity of these sustainable remediation techniques, methods based on fluorescence microscopy and multiphoton microscopy for the environmental monitoring of such pollutants have emerged in recent decades as effective tools for phytoremediation studies aimed at understanding the fate of these contaminants in plants...
January 19, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
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