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Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

Kazuki Ide, Izumi Sato, Takumi Imai, Philip Hawke, Hiroshi Yamada, Yohei Kawasaki, Naohiko Masaki
This study compares the safety profiles of pegylated interferon α-2a and α-2b administered in combination with ribavirin, based on the variable of time to withdrawal from treatment due to adverse events. We conducted a real-world retrospective cohort study using the Japanese interferon database. Based on eligibility criteria, individuals with chronic hepatitis C virus infection were identified in the database covering the period December 2009 to August 2015. The primary outcome measure was defined as difference in time to withdrawal from treatment due to adverse events between patients receiving PEG-IFN α-2a combined with ribavirin and those receiving PEG-IFN α-2b combined with ribavirin...
September 17, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Xiaojie Huang, Genyun Tang, Yumei Liao, Xiaoji Zhuang, Xiao Dong, Hui Liu, Xiao-Jun Huang, Wen-Cai Ye, Ying Wang, Lei Shi
Amyloid-β (Aβ) is one of the major causative agents of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive impairment. While effective drugs for AD are currently limited, identifying anti-Aβ compounds from natural products has been shown as a promising strategy which may lead to breakthroughs for new drug candidate discovery. We have previously reported that 7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-4E-hepten-3-one (AO-1), a diarylheptanoid extracted from the plant Alpinia officinarum, has strong effects on neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth in vitro and in vivo...
September 8, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Duopeng An, Xiang Wang, Jun Li, Shanshan Jiang, XiaoJuan Ma, Hui Zhang, Hang Shi, Hongying Sun, Li Ye, Jiyang Li
The effect of fungichromin (FC) on the formation of Candida albicans biofilm was assessed using 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl)-2H- tetrazo-lium-5- carboxanilide (XTT) reduction method, SEM and CLSM. Results showed that FC revealed an inhibitory effect on the formation of C. albicans biofilm in a dose-dependent manner with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 10 μg/mL. Over 80% of biofilm formation was inhibited by FC at the concentration of 40 μg/mL when compared with the control. Similarly, real-time PCR showed that the expression of the genes such as ALS1, ALS3, HWP1, EFG1, HYR1, CPH1 and BCR1 appeared to be remarkably affected by FC at the concentration of 20 μg/mL during the biofilm formation...
September 8, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Sheu-Ran Choi, Soon-Gu Kwon, Hoon-Seong Choi, Ho-Jae Han, Alvin James Beitz, Jang-Hern Lee
We recently demonstrated that activation of spinal sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) induces pain hypersensitivity via the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2). However, the potential direct interaction between nNOS-derived nitric oxide (NO) and Nox2-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is poorly understood, particularly with respect to the potentiation of NMDA receptor activity in the spinal cord associated with the development of central sensitization. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to investigate whether Sig-1R-induced and nNOS-derived NO modulates spinal Nox2 activation leading to an increase in ROS production and ultimately to the potentiation of NMDA receptor activity and pain hypersensitivity...
September 7, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Keiichi Motoyama, Rena Nishiyama, Yuki Maeda, Taishi Higashi, Yoshimasa Kawaguchi, Shiroh Futaki, Yoichi Ishitsuka, Yuki Kondo, Tetsumi Irie, Takumi Era, Hidetoshi Arima
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder, which is an inherited disease characterized by the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in endolysosomes. Recently, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CyD) has been used for the treatment of NPC, and ameliorated a hepatosplenomegaly in the patients. However, to obtain the treatment efficacy, a high dose of HP-β-CyD was necessary. Therefore, the decrease in dose by using active intracellular delivery system of β-CyD to NPC cells is expected...
September 6, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Xiaomei Zhang, Na Li, Yuanyuan Yao, Xuming Liang, Xianyou Qu, Xiang Liu, Yingjie Zhu, Dajian Yang, Wei Sun
Species of genus Tripterygium (Celastraceae) have attracted much attention owing to their excellent effect on treating autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, due to high market demand causing overexploitation, natural populations of genus Tripterygium have rapidly declined. Tripterygium medicinal materials are mainly collected from the wild, making the quality of medicinal materials unstable. Additionally, identification of herbal materials from Tripterygium species and their adulterants is difficult based on morphological characters...
September 6, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Kiyoshi Watanabe, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Chihiro Azuma, Ippei Tanaka, Keisuke Nakase, Norifumi Matsunaga, Kiyoshi Okuyama, Kanako Yamada, Kenta Utsumi, Takeshi Fujii, Norihisa Noguchi
Staphylococcus epidermidis, a major skin flora on hands, acts as a reservoir of various antimicrobial resistance determinants including staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and contributes to multidrug resistance for S. aureus. The aim of this study was understanding the characteristics of commensal S. epidermidis on the hands of hospital workers and healthy individuals. A total of 23 hospital workers (physicians, nurses, and hospital pharmacists), 13 community pharmacists, and 24 healthy individuals (students) were studied...
August 11, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Chao Yu, Shanjun Tan, Chunyu Zhou, Cuilin Zhu, Xin Kang, Shuai Liu, Shuang Zhao, Shulin Fan, Zhen Yu, Ai Peng, Zhen Wang
Berberine is one of the main active constituents of Rhizoma coptidis, a traditional Chinese medicine, and has long been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of berberine on the intestinal mucosal barrier damage in a rat uremia model induced by the 5/6 kidney resection. Beginning at postoperative week 4, the uremia rats were treated with daily 150 mg/kg berberine by oral gavage for 6 weeks. To assess the intestinal mucosal barrier changes, blood samples were collected for measuring the serum D-lactate level, and terminal ileum tissue samples were used for analyses of intestinal permeability, myeloperoxidase activity, histopathology, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity...
August 9, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Kaori Yama, Keisuke Sato, Yu Murao, Ryosuke Tatsunami, Yoshiko Tampo
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. Recent studies have shown that the upregulation of HO-1 is beneficial to counteract neuroinflammation, making HO-1 a new therapeutic target for neurological diseases. We have reported that epalrestat (EPS), which is currently used for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy, increases HO-1 levels through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in bovine aortic endothelial cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that EPS upregulates HO-1 via Nrf2 activation in the component cells of the nervous system, by using rat Schwann cells and human SH-SY5Y cells...
September 1, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Kazuki Ide, Yohei Kawasaki, Maiko Akutagawa, Hiroshi Yamada, Naohiko Masaki
There has been no report on the genotype-dependent regional, especially prefectural, differences in hepatitis C treatment in Japan. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the nationwide database. The registration period of the database was from December 2009 to April 2013. Individuals with chronic hepatitis C were identified from the database. The sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in each prefecture were calculated stratified by genotype. Confounding variables were identified using stepwise logistic regression analysis...
September 1, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Xiaofei Qi, Daili Chen, Gehui Li, Xiaolei Huang, Yuantao Li, Xiaoguang Wang, Yong Li
To compare the effects of intrathecal dexmedetomidine and intrathecal morphine as supplements to bupivacaine in cesarean sections under spinal anesthesia. Full-term parturients (n=120) undergoing elective cesarean sections under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated into three groups: Group B received 10 mg bupivacaine, Group BD received 10 mg bupivacaine plus 5 µg dexmedetomidine, and Group BM received 10 mg bupivacaine plus 100 µg morphine. The onset and regression time of sensory and motor blockade, postoperative analgesia, and side effects were recorded...
September 1, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Yu Shang, Lei Wang, Yue Li, Pei-Fei Gu
Vinpocetine is an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 1 (PDE1), which has been used for treating stroke for over 40 years. However, according to current clinical dosage and treatment period, its direct effect on memory is unclear. In this study, we investigated whether vinpocetine could reverse the scopolamine (SCO)-induced cognitive deficits in animals. Behavioral experiments, including open field, Y-maze, and fear conditioning tests were used to determine the possible role of vinpocetine on scopolamine-induced memory dysfunction...
September 1, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Min Cheol Pyo, Sung-Yong Yang, Su-Hyun Chun, Nam Su Oh, Kwang-Won Lee
Whey protein concentrate (WPC), which contains α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, is utilized widely in the food industry. The Maillard reaction is a complex reaction that produces Maillard reaction products (MRPs), which are associated with the formation of antioxidant compounds. In this study, the hepatoprotection activity of MRPs of WPC against oxidative stress through the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent antioxidant pathway in HepG2 cells was examined. Glucose-whey protein concentrate conjugate (Glc-WPC) was obtained from Maillard reaction between WPC and glucose...
September 1, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Yuri Ikeuchi-Takahashi, Chizuko Ishihara, Hiraku Onishi
In this study, solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) suspensions were prepared using a base of hard fat with or without ethylcellulose (EC) and polyvinyl alcohols (PVA) and polysorbate (Tween) 60 surfactants. Commercially available PVAs vary in their degree of saponification and polymerization, and the appropriate PVAs to form SLNs from hard fat with or without EC were investigated. A relatively low-saponification-degree PVA was required to reproducibly form SLN suspensions without EC and relatively high-saponification-degree PVAs were suitable for SLNs with EC...
September 1, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Kazuyuki Inoue, Takuma Murofushi, Kakeru Nagaoka, Natsuko Ando, Yasuhiro Hakamata, Akiko Suzuki, Akiko Umemura, Yuko Yoshida, Keita Hirai, Daiki Tsuji, Kunihiko Itoh
To prevent recurrent depression, patients should ideally continue treatment for >6 months with the antidepressant dose that effectively suppressed acute depressive symptoms. However, there are inter-individual differences in the antidepressant doses required to achieve response and maintenance. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the role of clinical features, including genetic polymorphisms, on the antidepressant dose required for maintenance therapy in 82 Japanese patients with depression. We calculated the antidepressant dose using the imipramine equivalent scale and the dose of concomitant anxiolytics and hypnotics using the diazepam equivalent scale...
September 1, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Zhipeng Zhang, Yang Zhang, Zhao Zhang, Hui Yao, Haitao Liu, Ben'gang Zhang, Yonghong Liao
Phellodendri Cortex is derived from the dried barks of Phellodendron genus species, has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine. The cortex is divided into two odorless crude drugs Guanhuangbo and Huangbo. Historically, it has been difficult to distinguish their identities due to a lack of identification methods. This study was executed to confirm the identity and to ensure the species traceability of Phellodendri Cortex. In the current study, analysis is based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer (psbA-trnH) barcodes and HPLC fingerprint was carried out to guarantee the species traceability of Guanhuangbo and Huangbo...
August 1, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Masatomo Miura, Satohiro Masuda, Hiroto Egawa, Kenji Yuzawa, Kazuo Matsubara
The aim of this study was to assess inter-hospital laboratory variability (coefficient of variation; CV) of immunoassay methods for tacrolimus and the comparability of control samples and results obtained by immunoassay measurements. One hundred seven hospital laboratories routinely performing therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of tacrolimus participated in the study. Thirteen spiked samples with known tacrolimus concentrations in the range of 0-26.0 ng/mL were prepared. Each spiked sample was analyzed according to the manufacturer's instructions using an affinity column-mediated immunoassay (ACMIA) on a Dimension(®) analyzer, the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) on a Viva-E(®) analyzer, a chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLIA) on the Architect(®) system, and the electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) on a cobas(®) analyzer...
August 1, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Asuka Takeuchi, Yusuke Nomoto, Mai Watanabe, Soichiro Kimura, Yasunori Morimoto, Hideo Ueda
An adequate immune response to percutaneous vaccine application is generated by delivery of sufficient amounts of antigen to skin and by administration of toxin adjuvants or invasive skin abrasion that leads to an adjuvant effect. Microneedles penetrate the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin, and enable direct delivery of vaccines from the surface into the skin, where immunocompetent dendritic cells are densely distributed. However, whether the application of microneedles to the skin activates antigen-presenting cells (APCs) has not been demonstrated...
August 1, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Masumi Takemoto, Hiroaki Takemoto, Ryoyasu Saijo
The polyphenolic compound theaflavin, which is the main red pigment present in black tea, is reported to elicit various physiological effects. Because of the extremely low concentration of theaflavin present in black tea, its extraction from black tea leaves in quantities sufficient for use in medical studies has been difficult. We have developed a simple, inexpensive, selective, domino-type, one-pot enzymatic biotransformation method for the synthesis of theaflavin that is suitable for use in medical studies...
August 1, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Hiroko Tokumoto, Hiroko Shimomura, Takashi Hakamatsuka, Yoshihiro Ozeki, Yukihiro Goda
Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) is the only species whose leaves can be legally marketed as tobacco according to the Japanese Tobacco Business Act. Nicotine, a major alkaloid produced by N. tabacum leaves, is regulated in pharmaceuticals by the Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Law. However, the use of N. tabacum stems as an excipient in pharmaceuticals is permitted, because these contained only a small amount of nicotine. Recently, several reports showed that a substantial amount of nicotine was detected in an OTC pharmaceutical product, in which N...
August 1, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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