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Trends in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408070/cell-death-pathway-that-monitors-spore-morphogenesis
#1
REVIEW
Amanda R Decker, Kumaran S Ramamurthi
The use of quality control mechanisms to stall developmental pathways or completely remove defective cells from a population is a widespread strategy to ensure the integrity of morphogenetic programs. Endospore formation (sporulation) is a well conserved microbial developmental strategy in the Firmicutes phylum wherein a progenitor cell that faces starvation differentiates to form a dormant spore. Despite the conservation of this strategy, it has been unclear what selective pressure maintains the fitness of this developmental program, composed of hundreds of unique genes, during multiple rounds of vegetative growth when sporulation is not required...
April 10, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392113/the-transcription-terminator-rho-a-first-bacterial-prion
#2
Irantzu Pallarès, Salvador Ventura
Traditionally associated with neurodegenerative diseases, prions are increasingly recognized for their potential to confer beneficial traits on eukaryotic organisms. The discovery of the first bacterial prion suggests that the sustained mechanism of prion assembly is an ancient molecular tool aimed at providing fast and persistent adaptation to changing environments.
April 6, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391963/finally-archaea-get-their-crispr-cas-toolbox
#3
Uri Gophna, Thorsten Allers, Anita Marchfelder
The majority of archaea encode CRISPR-Cas systems but only a few CRISPR-Cas-based genetic tools have been developed for organisms from this domain. Nayak and Metcalf have harnessed a bacterial Cas9 protein for genome editing in Methanosarcina acetivorans, enabling efficient gene deletion and replacement.
April 5, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389039/bacterial-unculturability-and-the-formation-of-intercellular-metabolic-networks
#4
REVIEW
Samay Pande, Christian Kost
The majority of known bacterial species cannot be cultivated under laboratory conditions. Here we argue that the adaptive emergence of obligate metabolic interactions in natural bacterial communities can explain this pattern. Bacteria commonly release metabolites into the external environment. Accumulating pools of extracellular metabolites create an ecological niche that benefits auxotrophic mutants, which have lost the ability to autonomously produce the corresponding metabolites. In addition to a diffusion-based metabolite transfer, auxotrophic cells can use contact-dependent means to obtain nutrients from other co-occurring cells...
April 4, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377208/short-sighted-virus-evolution-and-a-germline-hypothesis-for-chronic-viral-infections
#5
REVIEW
Katrina A Lythgoe, Andy Gardner, Oliver G Pybus, Joe Grove
With extremely short generation times and high mutability, many viruses can rapidly evolve and adapt to changing environments. This ability is generally beneficial to viruses as it allows them to evade host immune responses, evolve new behaviours, and exploit ecological niches. However, natural selection typically generates adaptation in response to the immediate selection pressures that a virus experiences in its current host. Consequently, we argue that some viruses, particularly those characterised by long durations of infection and ongoing replication, may be susceptible to short-sighted evolution, whereby a virus' adaptation to its current host will be detrimental to its onward transmission within the host population...
April 1, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366292/integrating-lung-physiology-immunology-and-tuberculosis
#6
REVIEW
Jordi B Torrelles, Larry S Schlesinger
Lungs are directly exposed to the air, have enormous surface area, and enable gas exchange in air-breathing animals. They are constantly 'attacked' by microbes from both outside and inside and thus possess a unique, highly regulated local immune defense system which efficiently allows for microbial clearance while minimizing damaging inflammatory responses. As a prototypic host-adapted airborne pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis traverses the lung and has several 'interaction points' (IPs) which it must overcome to cause infection...
March 30, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363759/moving-from-one-to-many
#7
EDITORIAL
Gail Teitzel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359631/shapeshifting-to-survive-shape-determination-and-regulation-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#8
REVIEW
Selamawit Abi Woldemeskel, Erin D Goley
Bacterial cell shape is a genetically encoded and inherited feature that is optimized for efficient growth, survival, and propagation of bacteria. In addition, bacterial cell morphology is adaptable to changes in environmental conditions. Work in recent years has demonstrated that individual features of cell shape, such as length or curvature, arise through the spatial regulation of cell wall synthesis by cytoskeletal proteins. However, the mechanisms by which these different morphogenetic factors are coordinated and how they may be globally regulated in response to cell cycle and environmental cues are only beginning to emerge...
March 27, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351599/microbiology-managers-managerial-training-in-the-ritrain-project
#9
R Russell M Paterson, Nelson Lima, Cath Brooksbank, Enrico Guarini, Markus Pasterk, Marialuisa Lavitrano
Leaders of research infrastructures (RIs) in Europe who are scientists require competencies in management. RItrain has addressed this issue by identifying skills required, locating relevant courses and finding gaps, whilst establishing a Master of Management programme. We describe how one contributing microbiology RI determined the most relevant skills.
March 25, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342597/bacteria-bacteriophage-coevolution-in-the-human-gut-implications-for-microbial-diversity-and-functionality
#10
REVIEW
Pauline D Scanlan
Antagonistic coevolution (AC) between bacteria and bacteriophages plays a key role in driving and maintaining microbial diversity. Consequently, AC is predicted to affect all levels of biological organisation, from the individual to ecosystem scales. Nonetheless, we know nothing about bacteria-bacteriophage AC in perhaps the most important and clinically relevant microbial ecosystem known to humankind - the human gut microbiome. In this opinion piece I review current research on bacteria-phage AC in in vitro and natural populations of microbes...
March 22, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341406/sweet-new-roles-for-protein-glycosylation-in-prokaryotes
#11
REVIEW
Jerry Eichler, Michael Koomey
Long-held to be a post-translational modification unique to Eukarya, it is now clear that both Bacteria and Archaea also perform protein glycosylation, namely the covalent attachment of mono- to polysaccharides to specific protein targets. At the same time, many of the roles assigned to this protein-processing event in eukaryotes, such as guiding protein folding/quality control, intracellular trafficking, dictating cellular recognition events and others, do not apply or are even irrelevant to prokaryotes. As such, protein glycosylation must serve novel functions in Bacteria and Archaea...
March 21, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336178/symbiont-acquisition-and-replacement-as-a-source-of-ecological-innovation
#12
REVIEW
Sailendharan Sudakaran, Christian Kost, Martin Kaltenpoth
Nutritional symbionts play a major role in the ecology and evolution of insects. The recent accumulation of knowledge on the identity, function, genomics, and phylogenetic relationships of insect-bacteria symbioses provides the opportunity to assess the effects of symbiont acquisitions and replacements on the shift into novel ecological niches and subsequent lineage diversification. The megadiverse insect order Hemiptera presents a particularly large diversity of symbiotic associations that has frequently undergone shifts in symbiont localization and identity, which have contributed to the exploitation of nutritionally imbalanced diets such as plant saps or vertebrate blood...
March 20, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284876/dual-immunity-concomitantly-suppresses-hiv-1-progression
#13
Huma Qureshi, Jayanta Bhattacharya
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) elicited in HIV-1(+) elite neutralizers typically are unable to reduce viremia in the same individuals from whom they are isolated. A recent study reports the development of bnAbs in an elite controller that, along with the help of T cells, were associated with restricting HIV-1 progression.
March 8, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284875/bioengineered-3d-models-for-studying-human-cell-tuberculosis-interactions
#14
Sulayman Benmerzoug, Valerie F J Quesniaux
In vivo animal models have intrinsic limitations for studying relationships between tuberculosis and its host and there is a need for alternative, in vitro cellular models. A microsphere-based 3D in vitro culture system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected human blood mononuclear cells was reported to address specific aspects of host-pathogen interactions.
March 8, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283403/genome-surfing-as-driver-of-microbial-genomic-diversity
#15
REVIEW
Mallory J Choudoir, Kevin Panke-Buisse, Cheryl P Andam, Daniel H Buckley
Historical changes in population size, such as those caused by demographic range expansions, can produce nonadaptive changes in genomic diversity through mechanisms such as gene surfing. We propose that demographic range expansion of a microbial population capable of horizontal gene exchange can result in genome surfing, a mechanism that can cause widespread increase in the pan-genome frequency of genes acquired by horizontal gene exchange. We explain that patterns of genetic diversity within Streptomyces are consistent with genome surfing, and we describe several predictions for testing this hypothesis both in Streptomyces and in other microorganisms...
March 7, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274524/critical-streptococcus-suis-virulence-factors-are-they-all-really-critical
#16
REVIEW
Mariela Segura, Nahuel Fittipaldi, Cynthia Calzas, Marcelo Gottschalk
Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen that can be transmitted to humans by contact with diseased animals or contaminated raw pork products. This pathogen possesses a coat of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) that confers protection against the immune system. Yet, the CPS is not the only virulence factor enabling this bacterium to successfully colonize, invade, and disseminate in its host leading to severe systemic diseases such as meningitis and toxic shock-like syndrome. Indeed, recent research developments, cautiously inventoried in this review, have revealed over 100 'putative virulence factors or traits' (surface-associated or secreted components, regulatory genes or metabolic pathways), of which at least 37 have been claimed as being 'critical' for virulence...
March 6, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262512/collective-infectious-units-in-viruses
#17
REVIEW
Rafael Sanjuán
Increasing evidence indicates that viruses do not simply propagate as independent virions among cells, organs, and hosts. Instead, viral spread is often mediated by structures that simultaneously transport groups of viral genomes, such as polyploid virions, aggregates of virions, virion-containing proteinaceous structures, secreted lipid vesicles, and virus-induced cell-cell contacts. These structures increase the multiplicity of infection, independently of viral population density and transmission bottlenecks...
March 3, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259385/kshv-micrornas-tricks-of-the-devil
#18
REVIEW
Jie Qin, Wan Li, Shou-Jiang Gao, Chun Lu
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a vascular tumor frequently found in immunodeficient individuals. KSHV encodes 12 pre-microRNAs (pre-miRNAs), which are processed into 25 mature microRNAs (miRNAs). KSHV miRNAs maintain KSHV latency, enhance angiogenesis and dissemination of the infected cells, and interfere with the host immune system by regulating viral and cellular gene expression, ultimately contributing to KS development. In this review, we briefly introduce the biogenesis of miRNAs and then describe the recent advances in defining the roles and mechanisms of action of KSHV miRNAs in KS development...
March 2, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259384/biofilms-microbial-cities-wherein-flow-shapes-competition
#19
Su Chuen Chew, Liang Yang
The phenotypic diversity in biofilms allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Stochastic gene expression and structural differentiation are believed to confer phenotypic diversity. However, two recent publications demonstrate how hydrodynamic flow and substrate topography can also alter the competitive outcomes of different bacterial phenotypes, increasing biofilm phenotypic variation.
March 1, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245952/streptomyces-exploration-competition-volatile-communication-and-new-bacterial-behaviours
#20
REVIEW
Stephanie E Jones, Marie A Elliot
Streptomyces bacteria are prolific producers of specialized metabolites, and have a well studied, complex life cycle. Recent work has revealed a new type of Streptomyces growth termed 'exploration' - so named for the ability of explorer cells to rapidly traverse solid surfaces. Streptomyces exploration is stimulated by fungal interactions, and is associated with the production of an alkaline volatile organic compound (VOC) capable of inducing exploration by other streptomycetes. Here, we examine Streptomyces exploration from the perspectives of interkingdom interactions, pH-induced morphological switches, and VOC-mediated communication...
February 27, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
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