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Trends in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911979/opening-pandora-s-box-mechanisms-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-resuscitation
#1
REVIEW
Ashley V Veatch, Deepak Kaushal
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) characteristically causes an asymptomatic infection. While this latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is not contagious, reactivation to active tuberculosis disease (TB) causes the patient to become infectious. A vaccine has existed for TB for a century, while drug treatments have been available for over 70 years; despite this, TB remains a major global health crisis. Understanding the factors which allow the bacillus to control responses to host stress and mechanisms leading to latency are critical for persistence...
September 11, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867148/variation-indispensability-and-masking-in-the-m-protein
#2
REVIEW
Partho Ghosh
The M protein is the major surface-associated virulence factor of group A Streptococcus (GAS) and an antigenically variable target of host immunity. How selection pressures to escape immune recognition, maintain indispensable functions, and mask vulnerabilities have shaped the sequences of the >220M protein types is unclear. Recent experiments have shed light on this question by showing that, hidden within the antigenic variability of many M protein types, are sequence patterns conserved for recruiting human C4b-binding protein (C4BP)...
August 31, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869086/bacterial-tubulins-a-eukaryotic-like-microtubule-cytoskeleton
#3
Sylvain Trépout, Anne Marie Wehenkel
Ever since their discovery, bacterial tubulins, found in several Prosthecobacter species, have raised curiosity as they are closely related to eukaryotic tubulin. Deng and colleagues now present new evidence for the functional homology of the two cytoskeletal systems where in vitro reconstituted Btub-microtubules display eukaryote-like biochemical and dynamic properties.
August 28, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843669/visualization-of-iav-genomes-at-the-single-cell-level
#4
Dan Wang, Wenjun Ma
Different influenza A viruses (IAVs) infect the same cell in a host, and can subsequently produce new viruses through genome reassortment. By combining padlock probe RNA labeling with a single-cell analysis, a new approach effectively captures IAV genome trafficking and defines a time window for genome reassortment from same-cell coinfections.
August 23, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843668/phagocytes-antibiotics-and-self-limiting-bacterial-infections
#5
REVIEW
Bruce R Levin, Fernando Baquero, Peter Pierre Ankomah, Ingrid C McCall
Most antibiotic use in humans is to reduce the magnitude and term of morbidity of acute, community-acquired infections in immune competent patients, rather than to save lives. Thanks to phagocytic leucocytes and other host defenses, the vast majority of these infections are self-limiting. Nevertheless, there has been a negligible amount of consideration of the contribution of phagocytosis and other host defenses in the research for, and the design of, antibiotic treatment regimens, which hyper-emphasizes antibiotics as if they were the sole mechanism responsible for the clearance of infections...
August 23, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844447/women-and-their-microbes-the-unexpected-friendship
#6
REVIEW
Jessica A Younes, Elke Lievens, Ruben Hummelen, Rebecca van der Westen, Gregor Reid, Mariya I Petrova
Communities of microbiota have been associated with numerous health outcomes, and while much emphasis has been placed on the gastrointestinal niche, there is growing interest in the microbiome specific for female reproductive health and the health of their offspring. The vaginal microbiome plays an essential role not only in health and dysbiosis, but also potentially in successful fertilization and healthy pregnancies. In addition, microbial communities have been isolated from formerly forbidden sterile niches such as the placenta, breast, uterus, and Fallopian tubes, strongly suggesting an additional microbial role in women's health...
August 22, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826642/archaea-are-interactive-components-of-complex-microbiomes
#7
REVIEW
Christine Moissl-Eichinger, Manuela Pausan, Julian Taffner, Gabriele Berg, Corinna Bang, Ruth A Schmitz
Recent findings have shaken our picture of the biology of the archaea and revealed novel traits beyond archaeal extremophily and supposed 'primitiveness'. The archaea constitute a considerable fraction of the Earth's ecosystems, and their potential to shape their surroundings by a profound interaction with their biotic and abiotic environment has been recognized. Moreover, archaea have been identified as a substantial component, or even as keystone species, in complex microbiomes - in the environment or accompanying a holobiont...
August 18, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823569/the-hpv-e6-e7-oncogenes-key-factors-for-viral-carcinogenesis-and-therapeutic-targets
#8
REVIEW
Karin Hoppe-Seyler, Felicitas Bossler, Julia A Braun, Anja L Herrmann, Felix Hoppe-Seyler
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cancers are expected to remain a major health problem worldwide for decades. The growth of HPV-positive cancer cells depends on the sustained expression of the viral E6 and E7 oncogenes which act in concert with still poorly defined cellular alterations. E6/E7 constitute attractive therapeutic targets since E6/E7 inhibition rapidly induces senescence in HPV-positive cancer cells. This cellular response is linked to the reconstitution of the antiproliferative p53 and pRb pathways, and to prosenescent mTOR signaling...
August 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823759/mechanisms-of-hepatitis-b-virus-persistence
#9
REVIEW
Kuen-Nan Tsai, Cheng-Fu Kuo, Jing-Hsiung James Ou
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronically infects 250 million people worldwide, resulting in nearly one million deaths annually. Studies in recent years have significantly improved our knowledge on the mechanisms of HBV persistence. HBV uses multiple pathways to harness host innate immunity to enhance its replication. It can also take advantage of the developing immune system and the not-yet-stabilized gut microbiota of young children to facilitate its persistence, and use maternal viral e antigen to educate immunity of the offspring to support its persistence after vertical transmission...
August 16, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803698/genomics-and-ecology-of-novel-n2o-reducing-microorganisms
#10
REVIEW
Sara Hallin, Laurent Philippot, Frank E Löffler, Robert A Sanford, Christopher M Jones
Microorganisms with the capacity to reduce the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) to harmless dinitrogen gas are receiving increased attention due to increasing N2O emissions (and our need to mitigate climate change) and to recent discoveries of novel N2O-reducing bacteria and archaea. The diversity of denitrifying and nondenitrifying microorganisms with capacity for N2O reduction was recently shown to be greater than previously expected. A formerly overlooked group (clade II) in the environment include a large fraction of nondenitrifying N2O reducers, which could be N2O sinks without major contribution to N2O formation...
August 10, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789826/zika-virus-protease-an-antiviral-drug-target
#11
REVIEW
CongBao Kang, Thomas H Keller, Dahai Luo
The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has caused global concern due to its link to severe damage to the brain development of foetuses and neuronal complications in adult patients. A worldwide research effort has been undertaken to identify effective and safe treatment and vaccination options. Among the proposed viral and host components, the viral NS2B-NS3 protease represents an attractive drug target due to its essential role in the virus life cycle. Here, we outline recent progress in studies on the Zika protease...
August 5, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751120/horizontal-gene-transfer-and-ecosystem-function-dynamics
#12
Maarten van de Guchte
Horizontal gene transfer can provide bacteria with new functions that confer an important competitive advantage, and is therefore likely to affect the dynamics of bacterial ecosystems. Two studies by Wolfe et al. and Bonham et al. prepare the way to study this hypothesis in a model ecosystem with reproducible properties.
July 24, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734617/epidemiology-evolution-and-pathogenesis-of-h7n9-influenza-viruses-in-five-epidemic-waves-since-2013-in-china
#13
REVIEW
Shuo Su, Min Gu, Di Liu, Jie Cui, George F Gao, Jiyong Zhou, Xiufan Liu
H7N9 influenza viruses were first isolated in 2013 and continue to cause human infections. H7N9 infections represent an ongoing public health threat that has resulted in 1344 cases with 511 deaths as of April 9, 2017. This highlights the continued threat posed by the current poultry trade and live poultry market system in China. Until now, there have been five H7N9 influenza epidemic waves in China; however, the steep increase in the number of humans infected with H7N9 viruses observed in the fifth wave, beginning in October 2016, the spread into western provinces, and the emergence of highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 influenza outbreaks in chickens and infection in humans have caused domestic and international concern...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734616/do-shoot-the-messenger-pasta-kinases-as-virulence-determinants-and-antibiotic-targets
#14
REVIEW
Daniel A Pensinger, Adam J Schaenzer, John-Demian Sauer
All domains of life utilize protein phosphorylation as a mechanism of signal transduction. In bacteria, protein phosphorylation was classically thought to be mediated exclusively by histidine kinases as part of two-component signaling systems. However, it is now well appreciated that eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinases (eSTKs) control essential processes in bacteria. A subset of eSTKs are single-pass transmembrane proteins that have extracellular penicillin-binding-protein and serine/threonine kinase-associated (PASTA) domains which bind muropeptides...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733133/navigating-the-gut-buffet-control-of-polysaccharide-utilization-in-bacteroides-spp
#15
REVIEW
Nathan D Schwalm, Eduardo A Groisman
Bacteroides spp. are members of the human gut microbiota that confer myriad benefits on their hosts. Among them is the provision of energy from otherwise indigestible polysaccharides comprising part of the host diet, lining the intestinal mucosal layer, and decorating the surface of other microbes. Bacteroides spp. devote ∼20% of their genomes to the transport and breakdown of a wide variety of polysaccharides, and to the regulation of these processes. Bacteroides spp. rely on different families of transcriptional regulators to ensure that carbohydrate utilization genes are expressed under specific conditions...
July 18, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728967/impact-of-the-microbiota-on-bacterial-infections-during-cancer-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Jessica Galloway-Peña, Chelcy Brumlow, Samuel Shelburne
Patients being treated for cancer are at high risk for infectious complications, generally due to colonizing organisms that gain access to sterile sites via disrupted epithelial barriers. There is an emerging understanding that the ability of bacterial pathogens, including multidrug-resistant organisms, to colonize and subsequently infect humans is largely dependent on protective bacterial species present in the microbiome. Thus, herein we review recent studies demonstrating strong correlations between the microbiome of the oncology patient and infections occurring during chemotherapy...
July 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720387/the-other-microeukaryotes-of-the-coral-reef-microbiome
#17
REVIEW
T D Ainsworth, A J Fordyce, E F Camp
In marine ecosystems microbial communities are critical to ocean function, global primary productivity, and biogeochemical cycles. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes are essential symbionts and mutualists, nonpathogenic invaders, primary pathogens, have been linked to disease emergence, and can underpin broader ecosystem changes. However, in the effort to determine coral-microbial interactions, the structure and function of the eukaryotic microbes of the microbiome have been studied less. Eukaryotic microbes are important members of the microbiome, constitute entire kingdoms of life, and make important contributions to ecosystem function...
July 15, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688575/natural-product-antibiotics-cues-for-modulating-bacterial-biofilm-formation
#18
REVIEW
Loni Townsley, Elizabeth A Shank
Cell-cell communication enables bacteria to coordinate their behavior through the production, recognition, and response to chemical signals produced by their microbial neighbors. An important example of coordinated behavior in bacteria is biofilm formation, where individual cells organize into highly complex, matrix-encased communities that differentiate into distinct cell types and divide labor among individual cells. Bacteria rely on environmental cues to influence biofilm development, including chemical cues produced by other microbes...
July 5, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668335/unravelling-hiv-1-latency-one-cell-at-a-time
#19
REVIEW
Yik Lim Kok, Angela Ciuffi, Karin J Metzner
A single virus is capable of infecting and replicating in a single cell. Recent advances across single-cell omics technologies - genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, epitranscriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics - will offer unprecedented opportunities to gain more insights into the various aspects of the life cycle of viruses and their impact on the host cell. Here, using the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as an example, we summarize the current knowledge and the future potential of single-cell omics in the investigation of an important aspect of the life cycle of HIV-1 that represents a major hurdle in achieving viral eradication, HIV-1 latency...
June 28, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662839/what-does-not-kill-you-makes-you-stronger
#20
Miles T Wetherington, Juan E Keymer
Colicin production is an extreme form of labor division; cells lyse after making the toxin! Stochastic phenotype switching allows producers to outcompete sensitive strains since colicin release frees up vacancy. If patch dynamics does not kill you, it stimulates adaptation to a dynamic habitat landscape which selects for rapid dispersal.
June 26, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
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