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Trends in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132819/quorum-sensing-systems-as-targets-for-antivirulence-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Tom Defoirdt
The development of novel therapies to control diseases caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens is one of the major challenges we are currently facing. Many important plant, animal, and human pathogens regulate virulence by quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication with small signal molecules. Consequently, a significant research effort is being undertaken to identify and use quorum-sensing-interfering agents in order to control diseases caused by these pathogens. In this review, an overview of our current knowledge of quorum-sensing systems of Gram-negative model pathogens is presented as well as the link with virulence of these pathogens, and recent advances and challenges in the development of quorum-sensing-interfering therapies are discussed...
November 10, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122447/a-tale-of-two-viruses-does-heterologous-flavivirus-immunity-enhance-zika-disease
#2
REVIEW
Carlos A Sariol, Mauricio L Nogueira, Nikos Vasilakis
The rise of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its unusual clinical manifestations provided ground for speculative debate. The clinical severity of secondary dengue virus (DENV) infections is associated with antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), and it was recently suggested that previous exposure to DENV may worsen ZIKV clinical outcomes. In this Opinion article we analyze the relationship among different flaviviruses and ADE. We discuss new evidence obtained in non-human primates and human cohorts demonstrating that there is no correlation to ADE when ZIKV infection occurs in the presence of pre-existing DENV immunity...
November 6, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103990/a-call-to-arms-quest-for-a-cryptococcal-vaccine
#3
REVIEW
Marley C Caballero Van Dyke, Floyd L Wormley
Cryptococcosis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide, particularly among AIDS patients. Yet, to date, there are no licensed vaccines clinically available to treat or prevent cryptococcosis. In this review, we provide a rationale to support continued investment in Cryptococcus vaccine research, potential challenges that must be overcome along the way, and a literature review of the current progress underway towards developing a vaccine to prevent cryptococcosis.
November 2, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097091/oral-biofilms-pathogens-matrix-and-polymicrobial-interactions-in-microenvironments
#4
REVIEW
William H Bowen, Robert A Burne, Hui Wu, Hyun Koo
Biofilms are microbial communities embedded within an extracellular matrix, forming a highly organized structure that causes many human infections. Dental caries (tooth decay) is a polymicrobial biofilm disease driven by the diet and microbiota-matrix interactions that occur on a solid surface. Sugars fuel the emergence of pathogens, the assembly of the matrix, and the acidification of the biofilm microenvironment, promoting ecological changes and concerted multispecies efforts that are conducive to acid damage of the mineralized tooth tissue...
October 30, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097090/predictive-modeling-of-influenza-shows-the-promise-of-applied-evolutionary-biology
#5
REVIEW
Dylan H Morris, Katelyn M Gostic, Simone Pompei, Trevor Bedford, Marta Łuksza, Richard A Neher, Bryan T Grenfell, Michael Lässig, John W McCauley
Seasonal influenza is controlled through vaccination campaigns. Evolution of influenza virus antigens means that vaccines must be updated to match novel strains, and vaccine effectiveness depends on the ability of scientists to predict nearly a year in advance which influenza variants will dominate in upcoming seasons. In this review, we highlight a promising new surveillance tool: predictive models. Developed through data-sharing and close collaboration between the World Health Organization and academic scientists, these models use surveillance data to make quantitative predictions regarding influenza evolution...
October 30, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097089/anti-hiv-passive-immunization-new-weapons-in-the-arsenal
#6
Ruth M Ruprecht
Anti-HIV passive immunization with human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmAbs) has made exciting gains: (i) identification of the HIV envelope V2 apex as a new in vivo protective epitope, (ii) a novel clade C SHIV for challenge studies, and (iii) a highly protective, trispecific nmAb. Potent, broad-spectrum protection by nmAbs holds promise.
October 30, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097088/small-rna-big-effect-control-of-flagellin-production
#7
Aleksandra A Miranda-CasoLuengo, Stefani C Kary, Marc Erhardt, Carsten Kröger
Many bacteria move in their environment using a remarkable, rotating nanomachine - the flagellum. In a recent publication, Choi et al. report a new addition to the group of flagellar regulators, a trans-acting small RNA (sRNA).
October 30, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089173/glycan-utilization-and-cross-feeding-activities-by-bifidobacteria
#8
REVIEW
Francesca Turroni, Christian Milani, Sabrina Duranti, Jennifer Mahony, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
Bifidobacteria represent one of the first colonizers of the mammalian gut, where such colonization is facilitated by their saccharolytic capabilities. Genomic analyses of bifidobacteria have revealed intriguing genetic strategies employed by these bacteria to access a variety of dietary and host-produced glycans. Bifidobacterial genome evolution therefore represents a fascinating example of how their chromosomes were molded to contain a large number of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. One of the reasons as to why bifidobacteria are such dominant and prevalent members of the (early) microbiota is that they may access glycans in the gut through mutualistic cross-feeding or resource-sharing activities, which is indicative of 'social behavior' among bifidobacterial strains...
October 28, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079499/breach-host-membrane-penetration-and-entry-by-nonenveloped-viruses
#9
REVIEW
Chandra Shekhar Kumar, Debajit Dey, Sukanya Ghosh, Manidipa Banerjee
Disruption of host membranes by nonenveloped viruses, which allows the nucleocapsid or genome to enter the cytosol, is a mechanistically diverse process. Although the membrane-penetrating agents are usually small, hydrophobic or amphipathic peptides deployed from the capsid interior during entry, their manner of membrane interaction varies substantially. In this review, we discuss recent data about the molecular pathways for externalization of viral peptides amidst conformational alterations in the capsid, as well as mechanisms of membrane penetration, which is influenced by structural features of the peptides themselves as well as physicochemical properties of membranes, and other host factors...
October 24, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079498/infection-s-sweet-tooth-how-glycans-mediate-infection-and-disease-susceptibility
#10
REVIEW
Steven L Taylor, Michael A McGuckin, Steve Wesselingh, Geraint B Rogers
Glycans form a highly variable constituent of our mucosal surfaces and profoundly affect our susceptibility to infection and disease. The diversity and importance of these surface glycans can be seen in individuals who lack a functional copy of the fucosyltransferase gene, FUT2. Representing around one-fifth of the population, these individuals have an altered susceptibility to many bacterial and viral infections and diseases. The mediation of host-pathogen interactions by mucosal glycans, such as those added by FUT2, is poorly understood...
October 24, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056293/the-molecular-basis-of-noncanonical-bacterial-morphology
#11
REVIEW
Paul D Caccamo, Yves V Brun
Bacteria come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. The true picture of bacterial morphological diversity is likely skewed due to an experimental focus on pathogens and industrially relevant organisms. Indeed, most of the work elucidating the genes and molecular processes involved in maintaining bacterial morphology has been limited to rod- or coccal-shaped model systems. The mechanisms of shape evolution, the molecular processes underlying diverse shapes and growth modes, and how individual cells can dynamically modulate their shape are just beginning to be revealed...
October 19, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054341/clinical-potential-of-prefusion-rsv-f-specific-antibodies
#12
REVIEW
Iebe Rossey, Jason S McLellan, Xavier Saelens, Bert Schepens
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in the very young. The RSV fusion protein (F) is essential for virus entry because it mediates viral and host membrane fusion. During this fusion process F is converted from a metastable prefusion conformation into an energetically favored postfusion state. Antibodies that target F can prevent viral entry and reduce disease caused by RSV. During recent years, many prefusion F-specific antibodies have been described...
October 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033339/transmissible-viral-vaccines
#13
REVIEW
James J Bull, Mark W Smithson, Scott L Nuismer
Genetic engineering now enables the design of live viral vaccines that are potentially transmissible. Some designs merely modify a single viral genome to improve on the age-old method of attenuation whereas other designs create chimeras of viral genomes. Transmission has the benefit of increasing herd immunity above that achieved by direct vaccination alone but also increases the opportunity for vaccine evolution, which typically undermines vaccine utility. Different designs have different epidemiological consequences but also experience different evolution...
October 12, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033338/antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-waste-water
#14
REVIEW
Antti Karkman, Thi Thuy Do, Fiona Walsh, Marko P J Virta
Waste water and waste water treatment plants can act as reservoirs and environmental suppliers of antibiotic resistance. They have also been proposed to be hotspots for horizontal gene transfer, enabling the spread of antibiotic resistance genes between different bacterial species. Waste water contains antibiotics, disinfectants, and metals which can form a selection pressure for antibiotic resistance, even in low concentrations. Our knowledge of antibiotic resistance in waste water has increased tremendously in the past few years with advances in the molecular methods available...
October 12, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032900/in-silico-vaccine-strain-prediction-for-human-influenza-viruses
#15
REVIEW
Thorsten R Klingen, Susanne Reimering, Carlos A Guzmán, Alice C McHardy
Vaccines preventing seasonal influenza infections save many lives every year; however, due to rapid viral evolution, they have to be updated frequently to remain effective. To identify appropriate vaccine strains, the World Health Organization (WHO) operates a global program that continually generates and interprets surveillance data. Over the past decade, sophisticated computational techniques, drawing from multiple theoretical disciplines, have been developed that predict viral lineages rising to predominance, assess their suitability as vaccine strains, link genetic to antigenic alterations, as well as integrate and visualize genetic, epidemiological, structural, and antigenic data...
October 9, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969882/personalized-medicine-and-infectious-disease-management
#16
Slade O Jensen, Sebastiaan J van Hal
A recent study identified pathogen factors associated with an increased mortality risk in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, using predictive modelling and a combination of genotypic, phenotypic, and clinical data. This study conceptually validates the benefit of personalized medicine and highlights the potential use of whole genome sequencing in infectious disease management.
September 29, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965724/a-delicate-connection-c-di-amp-affects-cell-integrity-by-controlling-osmolyte-transport
#17
REVIEW
Fabian M Commichau, Johannes Gibhardt, Sven Halbedel, Jan Gundlach, Jörg Stülke
Bacteria use second-messenger molecules to adapt to their environment. Several second messengers, among them cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP), have been discovered and intensively studied. Interestingly, c-di-AMP is essential for growth of Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Many studies demonstrated that perturbation of c-di-AMP metabolism affects the integrity of the bacterial cell envelope. Therefore, it has been assumed that the nucleotide is essential for proper cell envelope synthesis...
September 28, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911979/opening-pandora-s-box-mechanisms-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-resuscitation
#18
REVIEW
Ashley V Veatch, Deepak Kaushal
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) characteristically causes an asymptomatic infection. While this latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is not contagious, reactivation to active tuberculosis disease (TB) causes the patient to become infectious. A vaccine has existed for TB for a century, while drug treatments have been available for over 70 years; despite this, TB remains a major global health crisis. Understanding the factors which allow the bacillus to control responses to host stress and mechanisms leading to latency are critical for persistence...
September 11, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867148/variation-indispensability-and-masking-in-the-m-protein
#19
REVIEW
Partho Ghosh
The M protein is the major surface-associated virulence factor of group A Streptococcus (GAS) and an antigenically variable target of host immunity. How selection pressures to escape immune recognition, maintain indispensable functions, and mask vulnerabilities have shaped the sequences of the >220M protein types is unclear. Recent experiments have shed light on this question by showing that, hidden within the antigenic variability of many M protein types, are sequence patterns conserved for recruiting human C4b-binding protein (C4BP)...
August 31, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869086/bacterial-tubulins-a-eukaryotic-like-microtubule-cytoskeleton
#20
Sylvain Trépout, Anne Marie Wehenkel
Ever since their discovery, bacterial tubulins, found in several Prosthecobacter species, have raised curiosity as they are closely related to eukaryotic tubulin. Deng and colleagues now present new evidence for the functional homology of the two cytoskeletal systems where in vitro reconstituted Btub-microtubules display eukaryote-like biochemical and dynamic properties.
August 28, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
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