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Trends in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728967/impact-of-the-microbiota-on-bacterial-infections-during-cancer-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Jessica Galloway-Peña, Chelcy Brumlow, Samuel Shelburne
Patients being treated for cancer are at high risk for infectious complications, generally due to colonizing organisms that gain access to sterile sites via disrupted epithelial barriers. There is an emerging understanding that the ability of bacterial pathogens, including multidrug-resistant organisms, to colonize and subsequently infect humans is largely dependent on protective bacterial species present in the microbiome. Thus, herein we review recent studies demonstrating strong correlations between the microbiome of the oncology patient and infections occurring during chemotherapy...
July 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720387/the-other-microeukaryotes-of-the-coral-reef-microbiome
#2
REVIEW
T D Ainsworth, A J Fordyce, E F Camp
In marine ecosystems microbial communities are critical to ocean function, global primary productivity, and biogeochemical cycles. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes are essential symbionts and mutualists, nonpathogenic invaders, primary pathogens, have been linked to disease emergence, and can underpin broader ecosystem changes. However, in the effort to determine coral-microbial interactions, the structure and function of the eukaryotic microbes of the microbiome have been studied less. Eukaryotic microbes are important members of the microbiome, constitute entire kingdoms of life, and make important contributions to ecosystem function...
July 15, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688575/natural-product-antibiotics-cues-for-modulating-bacterial-biofilm-formation
#3
REVIEW
Loni Townsley, Elizabeth A Shank
Cell-cell communication enables bacteria to coordinate their behavior through the production, recognition, and response to chemical signals produced by their microbial neighbors. An important example of coordinated behavior in bacteria is biofilm formation, where individual cells organize into highly complex, matrix-encased communities that differentiate into distinct cell types and divide labor among individual cells. Bacteria rely on environmental cues to influence biofilm development, including chemical cues produced by other microbes...
July 5, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668335/unravelling-hiv-1-latency-one-cell-at-a-time
#4
REVIEW
Yik Lim Kok, Angela Ciuffi, Karin J Metzner
A single virus is capable of infecting and replicating in a single cell. Recent advances across single-cell omics technologies - genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, epitranscriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics - will offer unprecedented opportunities to gain more insights into the various aspects of the life cycle of viruses and their impact on the host cell. Here, using the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as an example, we summarize the current knowledge and the future potential of single-cell omics in the investigation of an important aspect of the life cycle of HIV-1 that represents a major hurdle in achieving viral eradication, HIV-1 latency...
June 28, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662839/what-does-not-kill-you-makes-you-stronger
#5
Miles T Wetherington, Juan E Keymer
Colicin production is an extreme form of labor division; cells lyse after making the toxin! Stochastic phenotype switching allows producers to outcompete sensitive strains since colicin release frees up vacancy. If patch dynamics does not kill you, it stimulates adaptation to a dynamic habitat landscape which selects for rapid dispersal.
June 26, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652073/antiviral-strategies-against-prrsv-infection
#6
REVIEW
Taofeng Du, Yuchen Nan, Shuqi Xiao, Qin Zhao, En-Min Zhou
PRRSV (porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) is a major economically significant pathogen that has adversely impacted the global swine industry for almost 30 years. Currently PRRSV is estimated to cause losses of almost US$600 million per year in the USA. Except for new mutants that continually emerge during PRRSV outbreaks, our understanding of the virology, origin, and evolution of PRRSV and the host's immune response are largely inadequate. Such limited knowledge impedes development of effective methods to eradicate this virus...
June 23, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645724/micronutrient-deficiencies-and-the-human-gut-microbiota
#7
Núria Mach, Allison Clark
Little is known about how micronutrient deficiencies affect the human gut microbiota. A study by Hibberd et al. illustrates how these deficiencies affect the composition and function of gut microbiota, and further, how different species realize changes in gene expression and cellular metabolism to cope with micronutrient shortages.
June 20, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648267/ecological-insights-into-the-dynamics-of-plant-biomass-degrading-microbial-consortia
#8
REVIEW
Diego Javier Jiménez, Francisco Dini-Andreote, Kristen M DeAngelis, Steven W Singer, Joana Falcão Salles, Jan Dirk van Elsas
Plant biomass (PB) is an important resource for biofuel production. However, the frequent lack of efficiency of PB saccharification is still an industrial bottleneck. The use of enzyme cocktails produced from PB-degrading microbial consortia (PB-dmc) is a promising approach to optimize this process. Nevertheless, the proper use and manipulation of PB-dmc depends on a sound understanding of the ecological processes and mechanisms that exist in these communities. This Opinion article provides an overview of arguments as to how spatiotemporal nutritional fluxes influence the successional dynamics and ecological interactions (synergism versus competition) between populations in PB-dmc...
June 19, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641931/transfer-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
REVIEW
Jakob Haaber, José R Penadés, Hanne Ingmer
Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen with remarkable adaptive powers. Antibiotic-resistant clones rapidly emerge mainly by acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes from other S. aureus strains or even from other genera. Transfer is mediated by a diverse complement of mobile genetic elements and occurs primarily by conjugation or bacteriophage transduction, with the latter traditionally being perceived as the primary route. Recent work on conjugation and transduction suggests that transfer by these mechanisms may be more extensive than previously thought, in terms of the range of plasmids that can be transferred by conjugation and the efficiency with which transduction occurs...
June 19, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641930/the-role-of-the-fungal-cell-wall-in-the-infection-of-plants
#10
REVIEW
Ivey Geoghegan, Gero Steinberg, Sarah Gurr
The polysaccharide-rich wall, which envelopes the fungal cell, is pivotal to the maintenance of cellular integrity and for the protection of the cell from external aggressors - such as environmental fluxes and during host infection. This review considers the commonalities in the composition of the wall across the fungal kingdom, addresses how little is known about the assembly of the polysaccharide matrix, and considers changes in the wall of plant-pathogenic fungi during on and in planta growth, following the elucidation of infection structures requiring cell wall alterations...
June 19, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633864/perinatal-group-b-streptococcal-infections-virulence-factors-immunity-and-prevention-strategies
#11
REVIEW
Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625530/the-emerging-roles-of-sting-in-bacterial-infections
#12
REVIEW
Fabio V Marinho, Sulayman Benmerzoug, Sergio C Oliveira, Bernhard Ryffel, V F J Quesniaux
The STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes) protein connects microorganism cytosolic sensing with effector functions of the host cell by sensing directly cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), originating from pathogens or from the host upon DNA recognition. Although STING activation favors effective immune responses against viral infections, its role during bacterial diseases is controversial, ranging from protective to detrimental effects for the host. In this review, we summarize important features of the STING activation pathway and recent highlights about the role of STING in bacterial infections by Chlamydia, Listeria, Francisella, Brucella, Shigella, Salmonella, Streptococcus, and Neisseria genera, with a special focus on mycobacteria...
June 15, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622845/black-truffle-a-hermaphrodite-with-forced-unisexual-behaviour
#13
Marc-André Selosse, Laure Schneider-Maunoury, Elisa Taschen, François Rousset, Franck Richard
The life cycle of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) includes a mating before sporulation: although the species is hermaphroditic, mating turns out to involve parents with very different features, that mostly behave as male or female only, suggesting that this species undergoes forced dioecism.
June 13, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622844/antimycobacterial-metabolism-illuminating-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-biology-and-drug-discovery
#14
REVIEW
Divya Awasthi, Joel S Freundlich
Bacteria are capable of performing a number of biotransformations that may activate or deactivate xenobiotics. Recent efforts have utilized metabolomics techniques to study the fate of small-molecule antibacterials within the targeted organism. Examples involving Mycobacterium tuberculosis are reviewed and analyzed with regard to the insights they provide as to both activation and deactivation of the antibacterial. The studies, in particular, shed light on biosynthetic transformations performed by M. tuberculosis while suggesting avenues for the evolution of chemical tools, highlighting potential areas for drug discovery, and mechanisms of approved drugs...
June 13, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610877/effect-of-co2-on-peroxynitrite-mediated-bacteria-killing-response-to-tsikas-et-al
#15
LETTER
Alain P Gobert, Keith T Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 10, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610876/a-single-substitution-changes-zika-virus-infectivity-in-mosquitoes
#16
Guan-Zhu Han
Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused outbreaks in the Pacific and the Americas. The mechanism underlying the recent ZIKV epidemic remains obscure. A recent study reveals that an amino acid substitution is associated with increased infectivity of ZIKV in the Aedes aegypti mosquito.
June 10, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602521/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-postweaning-piglets-understanding-the-keys-to-health
#17
REVIEW
Raphaële Gresse, Frédérique Chaucheyras-Durand, Mickaël Alain Fleury, Tom Van de Wiele, Evelyne Forano, Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot
Weaning is a critical event in the pig's life cycle, frequently associated with severe enteric infections and overuse of antibiotics; this raises serious economic and public health concerns. In this review, we explain why gut microbiota dysbiosis, induced by abrupt changes in the diet and environment of piglets, emerges as a leading cause of post-weaning diarrhea, even if the exact underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Then, we focus on nonantimicrobial alternatives, such as zinc oxide, essential oils, and prebiotics or probiotics, which are currently evaluated to restore intestinal balance and allow a better management of the crucial weaning transition...
June 8, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579469/helicobacter-pylori-its-urease-and-carbonic-anhydrases-and-macrophage-nitric-oxide-synthase
#18
LETTER
Dimitrios Tsikas, Erik Hanff, Gorig Brunner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578821/zika-virus-mechanisms-of-infection-during-pregnancy
#19
Nicholas J C King, Mauro M Teixeira, Suresh Mahalingam
Immune status changes during pregnancy, with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory contexts at different stages, making pregnant women potentially more susceptible to various infections. Infection by Zika virus during pregnancy can cause developmental damage to the fetus, and the altered immune response during pregnancy could contribute to disease during Zika infection.
May 31, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550944/-omic-approaches-to-study-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-virulence
#20
REVIEW
Alvin W Lo, Danilo G Moriel, Minh-Duy Phan, Benjamin L Schulz, Timothy J Kidd, Scott A Beatson, Mark A Schembri
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a pathogen of major significance to global human health and is strongly associated with rapidly increasing antibiotic resistance. UPEC is the primary cause of urinary tract infection (UTI), a disease that involves a complicated pathogenic pathway of extracellular and intracellular lifestyles during interaction with the host. The application of multiple 'omic' technologies, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, has provided enormous knowledge to our understanding of UPEC biology...
May 24, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
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