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Trends in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545723/emergence-of-a-urogenital-pathotype-of-neisseria-meningitidis
#1
Charlene M Kahler
Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of transmissible sepsis and meningitis in humans. A urogenital pathotype of N. meningitidis as the causative agent of transmissible urethritis in the USA has been recently characterised. This pathotype belongs to clonal complex 11 and has lost capsule production but gained anaerobic growth.
May 22, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528781/capsid-dependent-host-factors-in-hiv-1-infection
#2
REVIEW
Masahiro Yamashita, Alan N Engelman
After invasion of a susceptible target cell, HIV-1 completes the early phase of its life cycle upon integration of reverse-transcribed viral DNA into host chromatin. The viral capsid, a conical shell encasing the viral ribonucleoprotein complex, along with its constitutive capsid protein, plays essential roles at virtually every step in the early phase of the viral life cycle. Recent work has begun to reveal how the viral capsid interacts with specific cellular proteins to promote these processes. At the same time, cellular restriction factors target the viral capsid to thwart infection...
May 18, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526548/at-the-nexus-of-antibiotics-and-metals-the-impact-of-cu-and-zn-on-antibiotic-activity-and-resistance
#3
REVIEW
Keith Poole
Environmental influences on antibiotic activity and resistance can wreak havoc with in vivo antibiotic efficacy and, ultimately, antimicrobial chemotherapy. In nature, bacteria encounter a variety of metal ions, particularly copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), as contaminants in soil and water, as feed additives in agriculture, as clinically-used antimicrobials, and as components of human antibacterial responses. Importantly, there is a growing body of evidence for Cu/Zn driving antibiotic resistance development in metal-exposed bacteria, owing to metal selection of genetic elements harbouring both metal and antibiotic resistance genes, and metal recruitment of antibiotic resistance mechanisms...
May 16, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522157/antiviral-goes-viral-harnessing-crispr-cas9-to-combat-viruses-in-humans
#4
REVIEW
Jasper Adriaan Soppe, Robert Jan Lebbink
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems are RNA-guided sequence-specific prokaryotic antiviral immune systems. In prokaryotes, small RNA molecules guide Cas effector endonucleases to invading foreign genetic elements in a sequence-dependent manner, resulting in DNA cleavage by the endonuclease upon target binding. A rewired CRISPR/Cas9 system can be used for targeted and precise genome editing in eukaryotic cells. CRISPR/Cas has also been harnessed to target human pathogenic viruses as a potential new antiviral strategy...
May 15, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522156/the-role-of-erbb-receptors-in-infection
#5
REVIEW
Jemima Ho, David L Moyes, Mahvash Tavassoli, Julian R Naglik
Members of the epidermal growth factor receptor family (ErbB family) possess a wide distribution and diverse functions ranging from cellular growth to migration and apoptosis. Though highly implicated in a variety of cancers, their involvement in infectious disease is less recognised. A growing body of evidence now highlights the importance of the ErbB family in a variety of infections. Their role as growth factor receptors, along with other characteristics, such as surface expression and continuous intracellular trafficking, make this receptor family ideally placed for exploitation by pathogens...
May 15, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495024/live-cell-nanoscopy-in-antiadhesion-therapy
#6
Joan A Geoghegan, Timothy J Foster, Pietro Speziale, Yves F Dufrêne
Live-cell nanoscopy has contributed significantly to assessing the inhibition of adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by glycoconjugates and monoclonal antibodies, respectively, and of S. aureus surface attachment and cell-cell association by a synthetic peptide. This new technology shows promise for the development of antiadhesion therapies against bacterial pathogens.
May 8, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478941/influenza-evolution-new-insights-into-an-old-foe
#7
Louise H Moncla, Nicholas W Florek, Thomas C Friedrich
Influenza viruses steadily evolve to escape detection by antibodies, necessitating vaccine updates. A new study uses a massively parallel approach, deep mutational scanning, to catalogue antibody escape mutations. This approach defines potential pathways of viral evolution, beyond those already observed in natural infections, and may help predict its future directions.
May 3, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462789/protein-acetylation-and-its-role-in-bacterial-virulence
#8
REVIEW
Jie Ren, Yu Sang, Jie Lu, Yu-Feng Yao
Protein acetylation is a universal post-translational modification which is found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. This process is achieved enzymatically by the protein acetyltransferase Pat, and nonenzymatically by metabolic intermediates (e.g., acetyl phosphate) in bacteria. Protein acetylation plays a role in bacterial chemotaxis, metabolism, DNA replication, and other cellular processes. Recently, accumulating evidence has suggested that protein acetylation might be involved in bacterial virulence because a number of bacterial virulence factors are acetylated...
April 24, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408070/cell-death-pathway-that-monitors-spore-morphogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Amanda R Decker, Kumaran S Ramamurthi
The use of quality control mechanisms to stall developmental pathways or completely remove defective cells from a population is a widespread strategy to ensure the integrity of morphogenetic programs. Endospore formation (sporulation) is a well conserved microbial developmental strategy in the Firmicutes phylum wherein a progenitor cell that faces starvation differentiates to form a dormant spore. Despite the conservation of this strategy, it has been unclear what selective pressure maintains the fitness of this developmental program, composed of hundreds of unique genes, during multiple rounds of vegetative growth when sporulation is not required...
April 10, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392113/the-transcription-terminator-rho-a-first-bacterial-prion
#10
Irantzu Pallarès, Salvador Ventura
Traditionally associated with neurodegenerative diseases, prions are increasingly recognized for their potential to confer beneficial traits on eukaryotic organisms. The discovery of the first bacterial prion suggests that the sustained mechanism of prion assembly is an ancient molecular tool aimed at providing fast and persistent adaptation to changing environments.
April 6, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391963/finally-archaea-get-their-crispr-cas-toolbox
#11
Uri Gophna, Thorsten Allers, Anita Marchfelder
The majority of archaea encode CRISPR-Cas systems but only a few CRISPR-Cas-based genetic tools have been developed for organisms from this domain. Nayak and Metcalf have harnessed a bacterial Cas9 protein for genome editing in Methanosarcina acetivorans, enabling efficient gene deletion and replacement.
April 5, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389039/bacterial-unculturability-and-the-formation-of-intercellular-metabolic-networks
#12
REVIEW
Samay Pande, Christian Kost
The majority of known bacterial species cannot be cultivated under laboratory conditions. Here we argue that the adaptive emergence of obligate metabolic interactions in natural bacterial communities can explain this pattern. Bacteria commonly release metabolites into the external environment. Accumulating pools of extracellular metabolites create an ecological niche that benefits auxotrophic mutants, which have lost the ability to autonomously produce the corresponding metabolites. In addition to a diffusion-based metabolite transfer, auxotrophic cells can use contact-dependent means to obtain nutrients from other co-occurring cells...
April 4, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366292/integrating-lung-physiology-immunology-and-tuberculosis
#13
REVIEW
Jordi B Torrelles, Larry S Schlesinger
Lungs are directly exposed to the air, have enormous surface area, and enable gas exchange in air-breathing animals. They are constantly 'attacked' by microbes from both outside and inside and thus possess a unique, highly regulated local immune defense system which efficiently allows for microbial clearance while minimizing damaging inflammatory responses. As a prototypic host-adapted airborne pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis traverses the lung and has several 'interaction points' (IPs) which it must overcome to cause infection...
March 30, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363759/moving-from-one-to-many
#14
EDITORIAL
Gail Teitzel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359631/shapeshifting-to-survive-shape-determination-and-regulation-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#15
REVIEW
Selamawit Abi Woldemeskel, Erin D Goley
Bacterial cell shape is a genetically encoded and inherited feature that is optimized for efficient growth, survival, and propagation of bacteria. In addition, bacterial cell morphology is adaptable to changes in environmental conditions. Work in recent years has demonstrated that individual features of cell shape, such as length or curvature, arise through the spatial regulation of cell wall synthesis by cytoskeletal proteins. However, the mechanisms by which these different morphogenetic factors are coordinated and how they may be globally regulated in response to cell cycle and environmental cues are only beginning to emerge...
March 27, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351599/microbiology-managers-managerial-training-in-the-ritrain-project
#16
R Russell M Paterson, Nelson Lima, Cath Brooksbank, Enrico Guarini, Markus Pasterk, Marialuisa Lavitrano
Leaders of research infrastructures (RIs) in Europe who are scientists require competencies in management. RItrain has addressed this issue by identifying skills required, locating relevant courses and finding gaps, whilst establishing a Master of Management programme. We describe how one contributing microbiology RI determined the most relevant skills.
March 25, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342597/bacteria-bacteriophage-coevolution-in-the-human-gut-implications-for-microbial-diversity-and-functionality
#17
REVIEW
Pauline D Scanlan
Antagonistic coevolution (AC) between bacteria and bacteriophages plays a key role in driving and maintaining microbial diversity. Consequently, AC is predicted to affect all levels of biological organisation, from the individual to ecosystem scales. Nonetheless, we know nothing about bacteria-bacteriophage AC in perhaps the most important and clinically relevant microbial ecosystem known to humankind - the human gut microbiome. In this opinion piece I review current research on bacteria-phage AC in in vitro and natural populations of microbes...
March 22, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341406/sweet-new-roles-for-protein-glycosylation-in-prokaryotes
#18
REVIEW
Jerry Eichler, Michael Koomey
Long-held to be a post-translational modification unique to Eukarya, it is now clear that both Bacteria and Archaea also perform protein glycosylation, namely the covalent attachment of mono- to polysaccharides to specific protein targets. At the same time, many of the roles assigned to this protein-processing event in eukaryotes, such as guiding protein folding/quality control, intracellular trafficking, dictating cellular recognition events and others, do not apply or are even irrelevant to prokaryotes. As such, protein glycosylation must serve novel functions in Bacteria and Archaea...
March 21, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454846/aids-related-mycoses-current-progress-in-the-field-and-future-priorities
#19
Darius Armstrong-James, Tihana Bicanic, Gordon D Brown, Jennifer C Hoving, Graeme Meintjes, Kirsten Nielsen
Opportunistic fungal infections continue to take an unacceptably heavy toll on the most disadvantaged living with HIV-AIDS, and are a major driver for HIV-related deaths. At the second EMBO Workshop on AIDS-Related Mycoses, clinicians and scientists from around the world reported current progress and key priorities for improving outcomes from HIV-related mycoses.
March 20, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336178/symbiont-acquisition-and-replacement-as-a-source-of-ecological-innovation
#20
REVIEW
Sailendharan Sudakaran, Christian Kost, Martin Kaltenpoth
Nutritional symbionts play a major role in the ecology and evolution of insects. The recent accumulation of knowledge on the identity, function, genomics, and phylogenetic relationships of insect-bacteria symbioses provides the opportunity to assess the effects of symbiont acquisitions and replacements on the shift into novel ecological niches and subsequent lineage diversification. The megadiverse insect order Hemiptera presents a particularly large diversity of symbiotic associations that has frequently undergone shifts in symbiont localization and identity, which have contributed to the exploitation of nutritionally imbalanced diets such as plant saps or vertebrate blood...
March 20, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
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