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Trends in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803698/genomics-and-ecology-of-novel-n2o-reducing-microorganisms
#1
REVIEW
Sara Hallin, Laurent Philippot, Frank E Löffler, Robert A Sanford, Christopher M Jones
Microorganisms with the capacity to reduce the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) to harmless dinitrogen gas are receiving increased attention due to increasing N2O emissions (and our need to mitigate climate change) and to recent discoveries of novel N2O-reducing bacteria and archaea. The diversity of denitrifying and nondenitrifying microorganisms with capacity for N2O reduction was recently shown to be greater than previously expected. A formerly overlooked group (clade II) in the environment include a large fraction of nondenitrifying N2O reducers, which could be N2O sinks without major contribution to N2O formation...
August 10, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789826/zika-virus-protease-an-antiviral-drug-target
#2
REVIEW
CongBao Kang, Thomas H Keller, Dahai Luo
The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has caused global concern due to its link to severe damage to the brain development of foetuses and neuronal complications in adult patients. A worldwide research effort has been undertaken to identify effective and safe treatment and vaccination options. Among the proposed viral and host components, the viral NS2B-NS3 protease represents an attractive drug target due to its essential role in the virus life cycle. Here, we outline recent progress in studies on the Zika protease...
August 5, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751120/horizontal-gene-transfer-and-ecosystem-function-dynamics
#3
Maarten van de Guchte
Horizontal gene transfer can provide bacteria with new functions that confer an important competitive advantage, and is therefore likely to affect the dynamics of bacterial ecosystems. Two studies by Wolfe et al. and Bonham et al. prepare the way to study this hypothesis in a model ecosystem with reproducible properties.
July 24, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734617/epidemiology-evolution-and-pathogenesis-of-h7n9-influenza-viruses-in-five-epidemic-waves-since-2013-in-china
#4
REVIEW
Shuo Su, Min Gu, Di Liu, Jie Cui, George F Gao, Jiyong Zhou, Xiufan Liu
H7N9 influenza viruses were first isolated in 2013 and continue to cause human infections. H7N9 infections represent an ongoing public health threat that has resulted in 1344 cases with 511 deaths as of April 9, 2017. This highlights the continued threat posed by the current poultry trade and live poultry market system in China. Until now, there have been five H7N9 influenza epidemic waves in China; however, the steep increase in the number of humans infected with H7N9 viruses observed in the fifth wave, beginning in October 2016, the spread into western provinces, and the emergence of highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 influenza outbreaks in chickens and infection in humans have caused domestic and international concern...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734616/do-shoot-the-messenger-pasta-kinases-as-virulence-determinants-and-antibiotic-targets
#5
REVIEW
Daniel A Pensinger, Adam J Schaenzer, John-Demian Sauer
All domains of life utilize protein phosphorylation as a mechanism of signal transduction. In bacteria, protein phosphorylation was classically thought to be mediated exclusively by histidine kinases as part of two-component signaling systems. However, it is now well appreciated that eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinases (eSTKs) control essential processes in bacteria. A subset of eSTKs are single-pass transmembrane proteins that have extracellular penicillin-binding-protein and serine/threonine kinase-associated (PASTA) domains which bind muropeptides...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733133/navigating-the-gut-buffet-control-of-polysaccharide-utilization-in-bacteroides-spp
#6
REVIEW
Nathan D Schwalm, Eduardo A Groisman
Bacteroides spp. are members of the human gut microbiota that confer myriad benefits on their hosts. Among them is the provision of energy from otherwise indigestible polysaccharides comprising part of the host diet, lining the intestinal mucosal layer, and decorating the surface of other microbes. Bacteroides spp. devote ∼20% of their genomes to the transport and breakdown of a wide variety of polysaccharides, and to the regulation of these processes. Bacteroides spp. rely on different families of transcriptional regulators to ensure that carbohydrate utilization genes are expressed under specific conditions...
July 18, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728967/impact-of-the-microbiota-on-bacterial-infections-during-cancer-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Jessica Galloway-Peña, Chelcy Brumlow, Samuel Shelburne
Patients being treated for cancer are at high risk for infectious complications, generally due to colonizing organisms that gain access to sterile sites via disrupted epithelial barriers. There is an emerging understanding that the ability of bacterial pathogens, including multidrug-resistant organisms, to colonize and subsequently infect humans is largely dependent on protective bacterial species present in the microbiome. Thus, herein we review recent studies demonstrating strong correlations between the microbiome of the oncology patient and infections occurring during chemotherapy...
July 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720387/the-other-microeukaryotes-of-the-coral-reef-microbiome
#8
REVIEW
T D Ainsworth, A J Fordyce, E F Camp
In marine ecosystems microbial communities are critical to ocean function, global primary productivity, and biogeochemical cycles. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes are essential symbionts and mutualists, nonpathogenic invaders, primary pathogens, have been linked to disease emergence, and can underpin broader ecosystem changes. However, in the effort to determine coral-microbial interactions, the structure and function of the eukaryotic microbes of the microbiome have been studied less. Eukaryotic microbes are important members of the microbiome, constitute entire kingdoms of life, and make important contributions to ecosystem function...
July 15, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688575/natural-product-antibiotics-cues-for-modulating-bacterial-biofilm-formation
#9
REVIEW
Loni Townsley, Elizabeth A Shank
Cell-cell communication enables bacteria to coordinate their behavior through the production, recognition, and response to chemical signals produced by their microbial neighbors. An important example of coordinated behavior in bacteria is biofilm formation, where individual cells organize into highly complex, matrix-encased communities that differentiate into distinct cell types and divide labor among individual cells. Bacteria rely on environmental cues to influence biofilm development, including chemical cues produced by other microbes...
July 5, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668335/unravelling-hiv-1-latency-one-cell-at-a-time
#10
REVIEW
Yik Lim Kok, Angela Ciuffi, Karin J Metzner
A single virus is capable of infecting and replicating in a single cell. Recent advances across single-cell omics technologies - genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, epitranscriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics - will offer unprecedented opportunities to gain more insights into the various aspects of the life cycle of viruses and their impact on the host cell. Here, using the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as an example, we summarize the current knowledge and the future potential of single-cell omics in the investigation of an important aspect of the life cycle of HIV-1 that represents a major hurdle in achieving viral eradication, HIV-1 latency...
June 28, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662839/what-does-not-kill-you-makes-you-stronger
#11
Miles T Wetherington, Juan E Keymer
Colicin production is an extreme form of labor division; cells lyse after making the toxin! Stochastic phenotype switching allows producers to outcompete sensitive strains since colicin release frees up vacancy. If patch dynamics does not kill you, it stimulates adaptation to a dynamic habitat landscape which selects for rapid dispersal.
June 26, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652073/antiviral-strategies-against-prrsv-infection
#12
REVIEW
Taofeng Du, Yuchen Nan, Shuqi Xiao, Qin Zhao, En-Min Zhou
PRRSV (porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) is a major economically significant pathogen that has adversely impacted the global swine industry for almost 30 years. Currently PRRSV is estimated to cause losses of almost US$600 million per year in the USA. Except for new mutants that continually emerge during PRRSV outbreaks, our understanding of the virology, origin, and evolution of PRRSV and the host's immune response are largely inadequate. Such limited knowledge impedes development of effective methods to eradicate this virus...
June 23, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645724/micronutrient-deficiencies-and-the-human-gut-microbiota
#13
Núria Mach, Allison Clark
Little is known about how micronutrient deficiencies affect the human gut microbiota. A study by Hibberd et al. illustrates how these deficiencies affect the composition and function of gut microbiota, and further, how different species realize changes in gene expression and cellular metabolism to cope with micronutrient shortages.
June 20, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648267/ecological-insights-into-the-dynamics-of-plant-biomass-degrading-microbial-consortia
#14
REVIEW
Diego Javier Jiménez, Francisco Dini-Andreote, Kristen M DeAngelis, Steven W Singer, Joana Falcão Salles, Jan Dirk van Elsas
Plant biomass (PB) is an important resource for biofuel production. However, the frequent lack of efficiency of PB saccharification is still an industrial bottleneck. The use of enzyme cocktails produced from PB-degrading microbial consortia (PB-dmc) is a promising approach to optimize this process. Nevertheless, the proper use and manipulation of PB-dmc depends on a sound understanding of the ecological processes and mechanisms that exist in these communities. This Opinion article provides an overview of arguments as to how spatiotemporal nutritional fluxes influence the successional dynamics and ecological interactions (synergism versus competition) between populations in PB-dmc...
June 19, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641931/transfer-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
REVIEW
Jakob Haaber, José R Penadés, Hanne Ingmer
Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen with remarkable adaptive powers. Antibiotic-resistant clones rapidly emerge mainly by acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes from other S. aureus strains or even from other genera. Transfer is mediated by a diverse complement of mobile genetic elements and occurs primarily by conjugation or bacteriophage transduction, with the latter traditionally being perceived as the primary route. Recent work on conjugation and transduction suggests that transfer by these mechanisms may be more extensive than previously thought, in terms of the range of plasmids that can be transferred by conjugation and the efficiency with which transduction occurs...
June 19, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641930/the-role-of-the-fungal-cell-wall-in-the-infection-of-plants
#16
REVIEW
Ivey Geoghegan, Gero Steinberg, Sarah Gurr
The polysaccharide-rich wall, which envelopes the fungal cell, is pivotal to the maintenance of cellular integrity and for the protection of the cell from external aggressors - such as environmental fluxes and during host infection. This review considers the commonalities in the composition of the wall across the fungal kingdom, addresses how little is known about the assembly of the polysaccharide matrix, and considers changes in the wall of plant-pathogenic fungi during on and in planta growth, following the elucidation of infection structures requiring cell wall alterations...
June 19, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633864/perinatal-group-b-streptococcal-infections-virulence-factors-immunity-and-prevention-strategies
#17
REVIEW
Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625530/the-emerging-roles-of-sting-in-bacterial-infections
#18
REVIEW
Fabio V Marinho, Sulayman Benmerzoug, Sergio C Oliveira, Bernhard Ryffel, V F J Quesniaux
The STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes) protein connects microorganism cytosolic sensing with effector functions of the host cell by sensing directly cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), originating from pathogens or from the host upon DNA recognition. Although STING activation favors effective immune responses against viral infections, its role during bacterial diseases is controversial, ranging from protective to detrimental effects for the host. In this review, we summarize important features of the STING activation pathway and recent highlights about the role of STING in bacterial infections by Chlamydia, Listeria, Francisella, Brucella, Shigella, Salmonella, Streptococcus, and Neisseria genera, with a special focus on mycobacteria...
June 15, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622845/black-truffle-a-hermaphrodite-with-forced-unisexual-behaviour
#19
Marc-André Selosse, Laure Schneider-Maunoury, Elisa Taschen, François Rousset, Franck Richard
The life cycle of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) includes a mating before sporulation: although the species is hermaphroditic, mating turns out to involve parents with very different features, that mostly behave as male or female only, suggesting that this species undergoes forced dioecism.
June 13, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622844/antimycobacterial-metabolism-illuminating-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-biology-and-drug-discovery
#20
REVIEW
Divya Awasthi, Joel S Freundlich
Bacteria are capable of performing a number of biotransformations that may activate or deactivate xenobiotics. Recent efforts have utilized metabolomics techniques to study the fate of small-molecule antibacterials within the targeted organism. Examples involving Mycobacterium tuberculosis are reviewed and analyzed with regard to the insights they provide as to both activation and deactivation of the antibacterial. The studies, in particular, shed light on biosynthetic transformations performed by M. tuberculosis while suggesting avenues for the evolution of chemical tools, highlighting potential areas for drug discovery, and mechanisms of approved drugs...
June 13, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
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