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Trends in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894646/the-enigmatic-esx-proteins-looking-beyond-mycobacteria
#1
REVIEW
Meera Unnikrishnan, Chrystala Constantinidou, Tracy Palmer, Mark J Pallen
Bacteria export proteins across membranes using a range of transport machineries. Type VII secretion systems (T7SSs), originally described in mycobacteria, are now known to be widespread across diverse bacterial phyla. Recent studies have characterized secretion components and mechanisms of type VII secretion in pathogenic and environmental bacteria. A variety of functions have been attributed to T7SS substrates, including interactions with eukaryotes and with other bacteria. Here, we evaluate the growing body of knowledge on T7SSs, with focus on the nonmycobacterial systems, reviewing their phylogenetic distribution, structure and function in diverse settings...
November 25, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894645/microbes-dress-for-success-tolerance-or-resistance
#2
Janelle S Ayres
The intestinal microbiota performs essential functions for host physiology, but the specific constituents and the microbial factors required to promote host health remain largely unknown. A study by Rangan et al. suggests that members of the microbiota can modify microbial associated molecular patterns to promote host defense against invading pathogens.
November 25, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887771/microbiological-research-under-the-nagoya-protocol-facts-and-fiction
#3
Jörg Overmann, Amber Hartman Scholz
The Nagoya Protocol is based on concepts of biological diversity that are hardly applicable to microorganisms. Because of this incongruence, the Nagoya Protocol threatens future microbial research, potentially defeating its original purpose. Countries with appropriate regulations can promote science and their bioeconomy through international collaboration and simultaneously gain a competitive advantage.
November 22, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876182/colonization-of-black-smokers-by-hyperthermophilic-microorganisms
#4
REVIEW
Reinhard Wirth
Newly erupted black smokers (hydrothermal vent chimneys) are sterile during their formation, but they house hyperthermophiles in substantial amounts in later stages. No hard data exist on the mechanisms by which hyperthermophiles colonize newly erupted black smokers. Here I propose a scenario - based on various experimental data - for how hyperthermophiles colonize black smokers. Hyperthermophiles which are present in cold sea water in minute amounts are transferred by chance to the outside of black smokers and react within seconds to the high temperature by very fast movements...
November 18, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866834/-patient-0-and-the-origin-of-hiv-aids-in-america
#5
Zhen Gong, Xiaoyu Xu, Guan-Zhu Han
The origin of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in North America remains contentious. A recent study uses phylogenetic and historical approaches to investigate the early history of HIV-1 group M subtype B in North America and shows that 'Patient 0' is not the source of the North American HIV/AIDS epidemic.
November 17, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865622/protecting-from-envelope-stress-variations-on-the-phage-shock-protein-theme
#6
REVIEW
Riccardo Manganelli, Maria Laura Gennaro
During envelope stress, critical inner-membrane functions are preserved by the phage-shock-protein (Psp) system, a stress response that emerged from work with Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacteria. Reciprocal regulatory interactions and multiple effector functions are well documented in these organisms. Searches for the Psp system across phyla reveal conservation of only one protein, PspA. However, examination of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria reveals that PspA orthologs associate with non-orthologous regulatory and effector proteins retaining functions similar to those in Gram-negative counterparts...
November 16, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856117/adaptor-proteins-of-type-vi-secretion-system-effectors
#7
Daniel Unterweger, Benjamin Kostiuk, Stefan Pukatzki
Bacteria use the type VI secretion system (T6SS) to kill neighboring cells. One key feature of the T6SS is the secretion of diverse effectors. Here, we discuss six publications that describe three superfamilies of T6SS proteins, each dedicated to mediate the secretion of cognate effectors.
November 14, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843109/non-cholera-vibrios-the-microbial-barometer-of-climate-change
#8
REVIEW
Craig Baker-Austin, Joaquin Trinanes, Narjol Gonzalez-Escalona, Jaime Martinez-Urtaza
There is a growing interest in the role of climate change in driving the spread of waterborne infectious diseases, such as those caused by bacterial pathogens. One particular group of pathogenic bacteria - vibrios - are a globally important cause of diseases in humans and aquatic animals. These Gram-negative bacteria, including the species Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae, grow in warm, low-salinity waters, and their abundance in the natural environment mirrors ambient environmental temperatures...
November 11, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816327/nkp46-is-an-nk-cell-fungicidal-pattern-recognition-receptor
#9
Shu Shun Li, Christopher H Mody
Natural killer (NK) cells are an important contributor to innate host defense because of their role in direct microbial recognition and killing. Vitenshtein et al. make an important contribution by demonstrating that NK cells kill Candida glabrata using the NK activating receptor, NKp46, which recognizes the Epa adhesins.
November 2, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773523/does-sequence-conservation-provide-evidence-for-biological-function
#10
Seila Omer, Timothy J Harlow, Johann Peter Gogarten
Finding a signature of purifying selection in a gene is usually interpreted as evidence for the gene providing a function that is targeted by natural selection. This opinion offers a very different hypothesis: purifying selection may be due to removing harmful mutations from the population, that is, the gene and its encoded protein become harmful after a mutation occurred, possibly because the mutated protein interferes with the translation machinery, or because of toxicity of the misfolded protein. Finding a signature of purifying selection should not automatically be considered proof of the gene's selectable function...
October 20, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773522/type-iii-crispr-cas-immunity-major-differences-brushed-aside
#11
Gintautas Tamulaitis, Česlovas Venclovas, Virginijus Siksnys
For a long time the mechanism of immunity provided by the Type III CRISPR-Cas systems appeared to be inconsistent: the Type III-A Csm complex of Staphylococcus epidermidis was first reported to target DNA while Type III-B Cmr complexes were shown to target RNA. This long-standing conundrum has now been resolved by finding that the Type III CRISPR-Cas systems are both RNases and target RNA-activated DNA nucleases. The immunity is achieved by coupling binding and cleavage of RNA transcripts to the degradation of invading DNA...
October 20, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743750/molecular-evolution-of-human-coronavirus-genomes
#12
Diego Forni, Rachele Cagliani, Mario Clerici, Manuela Sironi
Human coronaviruses (HCoVs), including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, are zoonotic pathogens that originated in wild animals. HCoVs have large genomes that encode a fixed array of structural and nonstructural components, as well as a variety of accessory proteins that differ in number and sequence even among closely related CoVs. Thus, in addition to recombination and mutation, HCoV genomes evolve through gene gains and losses. In this review we summarize recent findings on the molecular evolution of HCoV genomes, with special attention to recombination and adaptive events that generated new viral species and contributed to host shifts and to HCoV emergence...
October 19, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751627/a-structural-and-mathematical-modeling-analysis-of-the-likelihood-of-antibody-dependent-enhancement-in-influenza
#13
Boopathy Ramakrishnan, Karthik Viswanathan, Kannan Tharakaraman, Vlado Dančík, Rahul Raman, Gregory J Babcock, Zachary Shriver, Ram Sasisekharan
Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) for viral infections, such as HIV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and influenza, are increasingly entering clinical development. For influenza, most neutralizing antibodies target influenza virus hemagglutinin. These bNAbs represent an emerging, promising modality for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza due to their multiple mechanisms of antiviral action and generally safe profile. Preclinical work in other viral diseases, such as dengue, has demonstrated the potential for antibody-based therapies to enhance viral uptake, leading to enhanced viremia and worsening of disease...
October 14, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751626/architecture-of-a-species-phylogenomics-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
Paul J Planet, Apurva Narechania, Liang Chen, Barun Mathema, Sam Boundy, Gordon Archer, Barry Kreiswirth
A deluge of whole-genome sequencing has begun to give insights into the patterns and processes of microbial evolution, but genome sequences have accrued in a haphazard manner, with biased sampling of natural variation that is driven largely by medical and epidemiological priorities. For instance, there is a strong bias for sequencing epidemic lineages of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) over sensitive isolates (methicillin-sensitive S. aureus: MSSA). As more diverse genomes are sequenced the emerging picture is of a highly subdivided species with a handful of relatively clonal groups (complexes) that, at any given moment, dominate in particular geographical regions...
October 14, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742466/klebsiella-pneumoniae-population-genomics-and-antimicrobial-resistant-clones
#15
Kelly L Wyres, Kathryn E Holt
Antimicrobial-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) has emerged as a major global public health problem. While resistance can occur across a broad range of Kp clones, a small number have become globally distributed and commonly cause outbreaks in hospital settings. Here we describe recent comparative genomics investigations that have shed light on Kp population structure and the evolution of antimicrobial-resistant clones. These studies provide the basic framework within which genomic epidemiology and evolution can be understood, but have merely scratched the surface of what can and should be explored...
October 11, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717660/portrait-of-candida-species-biofilm-regulatory-network-genes
#16
Daniela Araújo, Mariana Henriques, Sónia Silva
Most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, but Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis, designated as non-C. albicans Candida (NCAC), have been identified as frequent human pathogens. Moreover, Candida biofilms are an escalating clinical problem associated with significant rates of mortality. Biofilms have distinct developmental phases, including adhesion/colonisation, maturation and dispersal, controlled by complex regulatory networks. This review discusses recent advances regarding Candida species biofilm regulatory network genes, which are key components for candidiasis...
October 4, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712952/chlamydial-plasmid-dependent-pathogenicity
#17
Guangming Zhong
Most Chlamydia species carry a 7.5kb plasmid encoding eight open reading frames conventionally called plasmid glycoproteins 1-8 or pGP1-8. Although the plasmid is not critical for chlamydial growth in vitro, its role in chlamydial pathogenesis is clearly demonstrated in the genital tracts of mice infected with Chlamydia muridarum, a model for investigating the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. Plasmid-free C. trachomatis is also attenuated in both the mouse genital tract and nonhuman primate ocular tissue...
October 3, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712951/meningococcal-biofilm-formation-let-s-stick-together
#18
Jesús Arenas, Jan Tommassen
Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is an essential constituent of the extracellular matrix of biofilms of many microorganisms. In spite of many studies, it has long remained unclear how exactly eDNA exerts its role in biofilm formation. Here, we describe recent advances that have been made in understanding biofilm formation in the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis. Several cell-surface-exposed proteins have been identified that bind DNA and other negatively charged polymers, such as heparin, by electrostatic interactions...
October 3, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680981/bacteria-are-smartphones-and-mobile-genes-are-apps
#19
J Peter W Young
Bacterial core and accessory genome components are analogous to the operating system and applications of smartphones. The core genome provides stable taxonomy and species lists, but phenotypes reflect the mobile pool of accessory genes. This suggests changes to the ways we define bacterial species and describe bacterial communities.
September 24, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651123/rna-regulators-formidable-modulators-of-yersinia-virulence
#20
Aaron M Nuss, Ann Kathrin Heroven, Petra Dersch
A large repertoire of RNA-based regulatory mechanisms, including a plethora of cis- and trans-acting noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), sensory RNA elements, regulatory RNA-binding proteins, and RNA-degrading enzymes have been uncovered lately as key players in the regulation of metabolism, stress responses, and virulence of the genus Yersinia. Many of them are strictly controlled in response to fluctuating environmental conditions sensed during the course of the infection, and certain riboregulators have already been shown to be crucial for virulence...
September 17, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
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