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Trends in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641931/transfer-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
REVIEW
Jakob Haaber, José R Penadés, Hanne Ingmer
Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen with remarkable adaptive powers. Antibiotic-resistant clones rapidly emerge mainly by acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes from other S. aureus strains or even from other genera. Transfer is mediated by a diverse complement of mobile genetic elements and occurs primarily by conjugation or bacteriophage transduction, with the latter traditionally being perceived as the primary route. Recent work on conjugation and transduction suggests that transfer by these mechanisms may be more extensive than previously thought, in terms of the range of plasmids that can be transferred by conjugation and the efficiency with which transduction occurs...
June 19, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641930/the-role-of-the-fungal-cell-wall-in-the-infection-of-plants
#2
REVIEW
Ivey Geoghegan, Gero Steinberg, Sarah Gurr
The polysaccharide-rich wall, which envelopes the fungal cell, is pivotal to the maintenance of cellular integrity and for the protection of the cell from external aggressors - such as environmental fluxes and during host infection. This review considers the commonalities in the composition of the wall across the fungal kingdom, addresses how little is known about the assembly of the polysaccharide matrix, and considers changes in the wall of plant-pathogenic fungi during on and in planta growth, following the elucidation of infection structures requiring cell wall alterations...
June 19, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633864/perinatal-group-b-streptococcal-infections-virulence-factors-immunity-and-prevention-strategies
#3
REVIEW
Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625530/the-emerging-roles-of-sting-in-bacterial-infections
#4
REVIEW
Fabio V Marinho, Sulayman Benmerzoug, Sergio C Oliveira, Bernhard Ryffel, V F J Quesniaux
The STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes) protein connects microorganism cytosolic sensing with effector functions of the host cell by sensing directly cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), originating from pathogens or from the host upon DNA recognition. Although STING activation favors effective immune responses against viral infections, its role during bacterial diseases is controversial, ranging from protective to detrimental effects for the host. In this review, we summarize important features of the STING activation pathway and recent highlights about the role of STING in bacterial infections by Chlamydia, Listeria, Francisella, Brucella, Shigella, Salmonella, Streptococcus, and Neisseria genera, with a special focus on mycobacteria...
June 15, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622845/black-truffle-a-hermaphrodite-with-forced-unisexual-behaviour
#5
Marc-André Selosse, Laure Schneider-Maunoury, Elisa Taschen, François Rousset, Franck Richard
The life cycle of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) includes a mating before sporulation: although the species is hermaphroditic, mating turns out to involve parents with very different features, that mostly behave as male or female only, suggesting that this species undergoes forced dioecism.
June 13, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622844/antimycobacterial-metabolism-illuminating-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-biology-and-drug-discovery
#6
REVIEW
Divya Awasthi, Joel S Freundlich
Bacteria are capable of performing a number of biotransformations that may activate or deactivate xenobiotics. Recent efforts have utilized metabolomics techniques to study the fate of small-molecule antibacterials within the targeted organism. Examples involving Mycobacterium tuberculosis are reviewed and analyzed with regard to the insights they provide as to both activation and deactivation of the antibacterial. The studies, in particular, shed light on biosynthetic transformations performed by M. tuberculosis while suggesting avenues for the evolution of chemical tools, highlighting potential areas for drug discovery, and mechanisms of approved drugs...
June 13, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610877/effect-of-co2-on-peroxynitrite-mediated-bacteria-killing-response-to-tsikas-et-al
#7
LETTER
Alain P Gobert, Keith T Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 10, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610876/a-single-substitution-changes-zika-virus-infectivity-in-mosquitoes
#8
Guan-Zhu Han
Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused outbreaks in the Pacific and the Americas. The mechanism underlying the recent ZIKV epidemic remains obscure. A recent study reveals that an amino acid substitution is associated with increased infectivity of ZIKV in the Aedes aegypti mosquito.
June 10, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602521/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-postweaning-piglets-understanding-the-keys-to-health
#9
REVIEW
Raphaële Gresse, Frédérique Chaucheyras-Durand, Mickaël Alain Fleury, Tom Van de Wiele, Evelyne Forano, Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot
Weaning is a critical event in the pig's life cycle, frequently associated with severe enteric infections and overuse of antibiotics; this raises serious economic and public health concerns. In this review, we explain why gut microbiota dysbiosis, induced by abrupt changes in the diet and environment of piglets, emerges as a leading cause of post-weaning diarrhea, even if the exact underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Then, we focus on nonantimicrobial alternatives, such as zinc oxide, essential oils, and prebiotics or probiotics, which are currently evaluated to restore intestinal balance and allow a better management of the crucial weaning transition...
June 8, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579469/helicobacter-pylori-its-urease-and-carbonic-anhydrases-and-macrophage-nitric-oxide-synthase
#10
LETTER
Dimitrios Tsikas, Erik Hanff, Gorig Brunner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578821/zika-virus-mechanisms-of-infection-during-pregnancy
#11
Nicholas J C King, Mauro M Teixeira, Suresh Mahalingam
Immune status changes during pregnancy, with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory contexts at different stages, making pregnant women potentially more susceptible to various infections. Infection by Zika virus during pregnancy can cause developmental damage to the fetus, and the altered immune response during pregnancy could contribute to disease during Zika infection.
May 31, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550944/-omic-approaches-to-study-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-virulence
#12
REVIEW
Alvin W Lo, Danilo G Moriel, Minh-Duy Phan, Benjamin L Schulz, Timothy J Kidd, Scott A Beatson, Mark A Schembri
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a pathogen of major significance to global human health and is strongly associated with rapidly increasing antibiotic resistance. UPEC is the primary cause of urinary tract infection (UTI), a disease that involves a complicated pathogenic pathway of extracellular and intracellular lifestyles during interaction with the host. The application of multiple 'omic' technologies, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, has provided enormous knowledge to our understanding of UPEC biology...
May 24, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550943/microbiome-on-a-chip-new-frontiers-in-plant-microbiota-research
#13
Claire E Stanley, Marcel G A van der Heijden
An enigmatic concoction of interactions between microbes and hosts takes place below ground, yet the function(s) of the individual components in this complex playground are far from understood. This Forum article highlights how microfluidic - or 'Microbiome-on-a-Chip' - technology could help to shed light on such relationships, opening new frontiers in plant-microbiota research.
May 24, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549825/metabolic-integration-of-bacterial-endosymbionts-through-antimicrobial-peptides
#14
REVIEW
Peter Mergaert, Yoshitomo Kikuchi, Shuji Shigenobu, Eva C M Nowack
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are massively produced by eukaryotic hosts during symbiotic interactions with bacteria. Among other roles, these symbiotic AMPs have the capacity to permeabilize symbiont membranes and facilitate metabolite flow across the host-symbiont interface. We propose that an ancestral role of these peptides is to facilitate metabolic exchange between the symbiotic partners through membrane permeabilization. This function may be particularly critical for integration of endosymbiont and host metabolism in interactions involving bacteria with strongly reduced genomes lacking most small metabolite transporters...
May 23, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549824/the-hsp90-chaperone-network-modulates-candida-virulence-traits
#15
REVIEW
Teresa R O'Meara, Nicole Robbins, Leah E Cowen
Hsp90 is a conserved molecular chaperone that facilitates the folding and function of client proteins. Hsp90 function is dynamically regulated by interactions with co-chaperones and by post-translational modifications. In the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, Hsp90 enables drug resistance and virulence by stabilizing diverse signal transducers. Here, we review studies that have unveiled regulators of Hsp90 function, as well as downstream effectors that govern the key virulence traits of morphogenesis and drug resistance...
May 23, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549823/what-i-wished-i-knew-when-starting-as-a-professor-an-interview-with-robert-abramovitch-lark-coffey-thomas-kehl-fie-and-rita-tamayo
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545723/emergence-of-a-urogenital-pathotype-of-neisseria-meningitidis
#17
Charlene M Kahler
Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of transmissible sepsis and meningitis in humans. A urogenital pathotype of N. meningitidis as the causative agent of transmissible urethritis in the USA has been recently characterised. This pathotype belongs to clonal complex 11 and has lost capsule production but gained anaerobic growth.
May 22, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528781/capsid-dependent-host-factors-in-hiv-1-infection
#18
REVIEW
Masahiro Yamashita, Alan N Engelman
After invasion of a susceptible target cell, HIV-1 completes the early phase of its life cycle upon integration of reverse-transcribed viral DNA into host chromatin. The viral capsid, a conical shell encasing the viral ribonucleoprotein complex, along with its constitutive capsid protein, plays essential roles at virtually every step in the early phase of the viral life cycle. Recent work has begun to reveal how the viral capsid interacts with specific cellular proteins to promote these processes. At the same time, cellular restriction factors target the viral capsid to thwart infection...
May 18, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526548/at-the-nexus-of-antibiotics-and-metals-the-impact-of-cu-and-zn-on-antibiotic-activity-and-resistance
#19
REVIEW
Keith Poole
Environmental influences on antibiotic activity and resistance can wreak havoc with in vivo antibiotic efficacy and, ultimately, antimicrobial chemotherapy. In nature, bacteria encounter a variety of metal ions, particularly copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), as contaminants in soil and water, as feed additives in agriculture, as clinically-used antimicrobials, and as components of human antibacterial responses. Importantly, there is a growing body of evidence for Cu/Zn driving antibiotic resistance development in metal-exposed bacteria, owing to metal selection of genetic elements harbouring both metal and antibiotic resistance genes, and metal recruitment of antibiotic resistance mechanisms...
May 16, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522157/antiviral-goes-viral-harnessing-crispr-cas9-to-combat-viruses-in-humans
#20
REVIEW
Jasper Adriaan Soppe, Robert Jan Lebbink
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems are RNA-guided sequence-specific prokaryotic antiviral immune systems. In prokaryotes, small RNA molecules guide Cas effector endonucleases to invading foreign genetic elements in a sequence-dependent manner, resulting in DNA cleavage by the endonuclease upon target binding. A rewired CRISPR/Cas9 system can be used for targeted and precise genome editing in eukaryotic cells. CRISPR/Cas has also been harnessed to target human pathogenic viruses as a potential new antiviral strategy...
May 15, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
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