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Transplant Immunology

Lorenzo Iovino, Riccardo Taddei, Maria Lucia Bindi, Riccardo Morganti, Davide Ghinolfi, Mario Petrini, Gianni Biancofiore
Immunosuppressive therapy greatly contributed to making liver transplantation the standard treatment for end-stage liver diseases. However, it remains difficult to predict and measure the efficacy of pharmacological immunosuppression. Therefore, we used a panel of standardized, commonly available, biomarkers with the aim to describe their changes in the first 3 weeks after the transplant procedure and assess if they may help therapeutic drug monitoring in better tailoring the dose of the immunosuppressive drugs...
November 7, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Sanaz Keshavarz Shahbaz, Mehri Barabadi, Pedram Ahmadpour, Fatemeh Pourrezagholi, Mohesn Nafar, Farshad Foroughi, Morteza Hosseinzadeh, Mina Ghorbanpour, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Aliakbar Amirzargar
BACKGROUND: T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3), as a co-inhibitory receptor expressed on Th1, Th17, CD8T, FoxP3 + Treg and innate immune cells, plays an important role in suppression of T cell-mediated immune responses, tolerance induction and T cell exhaustion. In this study, we evaluated sequential alterations of TIM-3 mRNA expression level in blood and urine samples of renal transplant recipients to predict approaching clinical episodes. METHODS: A total of 52 adult renal transplant recipients (31 male and 21 female) were enrolled in this study...
November 2, 2018: Transplant Immunology
V Bessa, F Bonella, S Ohshimo, G Weinreich, B Kleibrink, U Costabel, C Aigner, M Kamler, C Taube, U Sommerwerck
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) remains a leading cause of death after lung transplantation. KL-6 is a reliable biomarker for various interstitial lung diseases and levels are increased in lung transplant recipients with versus without bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. This study investigated whether changes in serum KL-6 levels over time were associated with CLAD. Twenty-one lung transplant recipients had serum KL-6 measured (NANOPIA®) at baseline and after 7 years. Changes in serum KL-6 levels from baseline were determined...
November 1, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Priscila de Moraes, Iara Fagundes, Jacqueline Moraes Cardone, Beatriz Chamun Gil, Adriane Stefani Silva Kulzer, Riad Abdel Hadi, Roberto Ceratti Manfro, Luiz Fernando Jobim
Crossmatching either by complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and/or by flow cytometry (FCXM) are routinely used for assessing anti-HLA donor antibodies before kidney transplantation. FCXM has demonstrated greater sensitivity and many transplant centers have opted for its use without the concomitant CDC assay. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the median channel shift (MCS) in the FCXM in predicting the CDC assay results. A total of 1516 T cell FCXM and 1408 B cell FCXM were studied in deceased donors lymphocytes between January/2016 and March/2017...
October 24, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Sara Assadiasl, Abbas Shahi, Saeedeh Salehi, Shima Afzali, Aliakbar Amirzargar
Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are implicated in regulating inflammatory responses to pathogens and alloantigens. Since transplantation is usually accompanied by ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), acute and chronic rejections, as well as immunodeficiency due to immunosuppressive drugs, IRFs seem to play a considerable role in allograft outcome. For instance, IRF-1 has been shown to be involved in pathogenesis of IRI; however, IRF-2 exhibits an opposite function. Some IRF-3 and 5 SNPs are associated with better or worse graft survival rates...
October 16, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Alberto González-Almada, José M Arreola-Guerra, José Argenis López-Sánchez, Eric Cuevas, Mario Vilatoba, Alan G Contreras, Luis E Morales-Buenrostro, Josefina Alberu, Norma O Uribe-Uribe
The association between anti-AT1Rabs and microvascular injury observed in antibody-mediated rejection has been described in kidney graft Biopsies (KGBx). METHODS: We herein describe the histopathologic findings of KGBx performed during the first year of transplantation (Tx) in 134 patients tested for pre-Tx anti-AT1Rabs in cryopreserved sera (04/2009 to 09/2013). Protocol KGBx before implantation (time-zero), 1 year after Tx and for cause KGBx were included. 21/134 Tx patients were anti-AT1Rab positive (≥17 U/mL); 7/21 experienced acute rejection...
October 15, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Duncan C Walton, Linda Cantwell, Steven Hiho, Joseph Ta, Stephen Wright, Lucy C Sullivan, Greg I Snell, Glen P Westall
The use of algorithms such as HLAMatchmaker to redefine donor-recipient HLA matching is gaining increasing attention. Our research has previously demonstrated that higher HLA class II eplet mismatches correlated with the development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). In this study of lung transplant recipients we prospectively examined the association between donor-recipient HLA eplet mismatches as defined by HLAMatchmaker (version 2.1) and de-novo anti-HLA donor-specific antibody (DSA) formation, as assessed by single antigen-bead solid phase assay...
October 12, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Juntao Chen, Chen Liu, Baoqing Liu, Deqiang Kong, Liang Wen, Weihua Gong
BACKGROUND: Resistance of tolerance induction in sensitized transplantation is mainly caused by generation of memory T cells. It is unknown whether alteration of graft niche such as level of pro-inflammatory cytokines can affect generation of memory T cells. METHODS: IL-6 deficient or wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 heart grafts were transplanted into pre-sensitized wild-type BALB/c recipients. Frequencies of memory T cells in the peripheral blood, grafts, and spleen were evaluated...
October 2, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Kyung-Hwa Shin, Hyun-Ji Lee, Chulhun L Chang, Eun Jung Kim, Seungjin Lim, Su Jin Lee, Je Ho Ryu, Kwangho Yang, Byung Hyun Choi, Tae Beom Lee, Sun Min Lee
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most important factors affecting liver transplant with direct and indirect effects. However, CMV disease after transplant remains poorly predicted. OBJECTIVE: In this study, preoperative CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity was evaluated in recipients of liver transplant in Korea, where most people are seropositive. METHODS: A total of 32 patients were enrolled in a prospective study, and blood samples were collected before liver transplant to determine CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity...
September 20, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Marjorie-Anne R Guerra, Maura Rossetti, Zhenyu Zhang, Xinkai Zhou, Emily C Whang, Robert S Venick, Elizabeth A Marcus, Suzanne V McDiarmid, Douglas G Farmer, Elaine F Reed, Laura J Wozniak
Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been shown to be a useful, non-invasive method of predicting acute cellular rejection (ACR) following intestinal transplantation (ITx). Our objectives were to characterize differences in the T cell immunophenotype of ITx recipients in peripheral blood samples (1) collected late versus early after ITx and (1) associated with episodes of ACR and infectious enteritis. An IRB-approved, cross-sectional study of ITx recipients was performed. Peripheral blood samples were collected during normal visits and episodes of allograft dysfunction...
September 20, 2018: Transplant Immunology
A Nikaein, M Lerman, G Rofaiel, S R Allam
HLA antigens, including HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ have long been known to have an effect on transplant outcome. Presence of antibodies to these antigens is detrimental to transplant outcome as it ends up to either acute or chronic humoral rejection depending on the titer of the antibodies to these antigens. However, the role of HLA-DP is not fully clear, predominantly due to lack of adequate publications and the fact that DP antigen and antibody detection became possible with the advent of new beads technology...
September 17, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Ankang Hu, Yan Wang, Honghua Yuan, Lianlian Wu, Kuiyang Zheng
Although immunosuppressive therapies have made organ transplantation a common medical procedure worldwide, chronic toxicity is a major issue of long-term treatment. One method to improve such therapies is the application of immunomodulatory agents from parasites, such as Hypoderma lineatum (Diptera: Oestridae). Hypodermin C (HC) is an enzyme secreted by H. lineatum larvae, and our previous study showed that recombinant HC could degrade guinea pig C3 and inhibit the complement pathway in vitro, suggesting potential activity for inhibiting transplant rejection...
September 2, 2018: Transplant Immunology
David Solar-Cafaggi, Lluvia Marino, Norma Uribe-Uribe, Luis Eduardo Morales-Buenrostro
BACKGROUND: Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is the leading cause of kidney graft loss worldwide. Criteria for acute humoral rejection (currently labeled active humoral rejection) established by the 2007 Banff classification are highly specific but lack sensitivity. Modifications to the Banff classification were introduced for its 2013 and 2017 versions in order to identify more cases of this entity. PURPOSE: We intend to demonstrate that, compared to its 2007 version, the 2017 Banff classification bears an improved capacity for graft loss prediction when histologic criteria for active ABMR are met...
August 29, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Danny Youngs, Paul Warner, Mary Gallagher, Idoia Gimferrer
The majority of polymorphisms of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) proteins are clustered at the peptide binding domain (PBD), defined as the area coded by exon 2 and 3 for class I and exon 2 for class II. HLA alleles with the same amino acid (AA) sequence at the PBD are considered functionally equivalent and can be grouped under the same P-group designation. Here we present a case of a kidney recipient, typed as DQA1*01:04, 01:05 and DQB1*05:01P, 05:03, who developed antibodies against all DQ antigens on our Luminex Single Antigen (LSA) panel...
August 25, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Alana M Bozeman, Sonia J Laurie, Divya Haridas, Maylene E Wagener, Mandy L Ford
Models of infection have shaped our understanding of programmed memory T cell differentiation, yet whether these models apply to memory programming in the context of transplantation has yet to be defined. Previous work has identified differences in the response of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells to cognate antigen based on the environment in which the antigen is presented. Thus, we hypothesized that programming of antigen specific CD8+ T cells responding to graft and pathogen may be dissimilar. Here we find that antigen-specific CD8+ T cells primed by a skin graft contract faster than those primed by gammaherpesvirus (gHV), yet are able to expand more rapidly upon rechallenge...
October 2018: Transplant Immunology
Jun Li, Martina Koch, Kathrin Kramer, Katja Kloth, Abdel Rahman Abu Ganim, Silke Scheidat, Franz Rinninger, Friedrich Thaiss, Amit Gulati, Uta Herden, Eike Achilles, Lutz Fischer, Bjoern Nashan
BACKGROUND: To be an optimal immunosuppressive regimen after simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation (SPK), low dose calcineurin inhibitor and early withdrawal of corticosteroids are desired. METHODS: Immunosuppressive regimen as such has been conducted consecutively in SPK recipients since 2009 in authors' institute. In addition to tacrolimus in low trough level and early corticosteroid withdraw, dual induction with basiliximab and low-dose thymoglobulin in combination with everolimus are the important components of the protocol...
October 2018: Transplant Immunology
Adarsh Babu, Sunil Daga, Daniel A Mitchell, David Briggs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Takayuki Yamamoto, Qi Li, Hidetaka Hara, Liaoran Wang, Hongmin Zhou, Juan Li, Devin E Eckhoff, A Joseph Tector, Edwin C Klein, Ray Lovingood, Mohamed Ezzelarab, David Ayares, Yi Wang, David K C Cooper, Hayato Iwase
BACKGROUND: In the pig-to-baboon artery patch model with no immunosuppressive therapy, a graft from an α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO) pig elicits a significant anti-nonGal IgG response, indicating sensitization to the graft. A costimulation blockade-based regimen, e.g., anti-CD154mAb or anti-CD40mAb, prevents sensitization. However, neither of these agents is currently FDA-approved. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of FDA-approved agents on the T and B cell responses...
August 6, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Qiangxing Chen, Rou Zhou, Yingcai Zhang, Shuguang Zhu, Cuicui Xiao, Jiao Gong, Kun Li, Hui Tang, Chong Sun, Jian Zhang
Studies have reported that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) play an important role in immune regulation after organ transplantation. Some of the BMSC-mediated regulatory mechanisms are related to PD-L1 expression. However, the regulatory mechanism of PD-L1 expression is not fully understood. In this experiment, we confirmed the regulatory role of BMSCs in the rejection of liver transplantation and explored the possible mechanism by which PD-L1 expression is regulated in BMSCs. An orthotopic liver transplantation model in rats was established based on the "double-cuff technique"...
August 6, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Julie Alingrin, Benjamin Coiffard, Julien Textoris, Corine Nicolino-Brunet, Morgane Gossez, Pierre-André Jarrot, Françoise Dignat-George, Guillaume Monneret, Pascal Alexandre Thomas, Marc Leone, Martine Reynaud-Gaubert, Laurent Papazian
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressive strategy targets mainly adaptive immunity after solid organ transplantation. We assessed the influence of early post-operative sepsis on T cell and monocyte reconstitution in anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG)-treated lung transplant recipients. METHODS: We retrospectively included recipients who underwent a first lung transplant at our Lung Transplant Center (Marseille, France) between July 2011 and February 2013. Peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subset counts and monocyte HLA-DR (mHLA-DR) expression routinely performed by flow cytometry within 60 days post-transplant were analyzed...
August 3, 2018: Transplant Immunology
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