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Transplant Immunology

Ankang Hu, Yan Wang, Honghua Yuan, Lianlian Wu, Kuiyang Zheng
Although immunosuppressive therapies have made organ transplantation a common medical procedure worldwide, chronic toxicity is a major issue of long-term treatment. One method to improve such therapies is the application of immunomodulatory agents from parasites, such as Hypoderma lineatum (Diptera: Oestridae). Hypodermin C (HC) is an enzyme secreted by H. lineatum larvae, and our previous study showed that recombinant HC could degrade guinea pig C3 and inhibit the complement pathway in vitro, suggesting potential activity for inhibiting transplant rejection...
September 2, 2018: Transplant Immunology
David Solar-Cafaggi, Lluvia Marino, Norma Uribe-Uribe, Luis Eduardo Morales-Buenrostro
BACKGROUND: Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is the leading cause of kidney graft loss worldwide. Criteria for acute humoral rejection (currently labeled active humoral rejection) established by the 2007 Banff classification are highly specific but lack sensitivity. Modifications to the Banff classification were introduced for its 2013 and 2017 versions in order to identify more cases of this entity. PURPOSE: We intend to demonstrate that, compared to its 2007 version, the 2017 Banff classification bears an improved capacity for graft loss prediction when histologic criteria for active ABMR are met...
August 29, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Danny Youngs, Paul Warner, Mary Gallagher, Idoia Gimferrer
The majority of polymorphisms of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) proteins are clustered at the peptide binding domain (PBD), defined as the area coded by exon 2 and 3 for class I and exon 2 for class II. HLA alleles with the same amino acid (AA) sequence at the PBD are considered functionally equivalent and can be grouped under the same P-group designation. Here we present a case of a kidney recipient, typed as DQA1*01:04, 01:05 and DQB1*05:01P, 05:03, who developed antibodies against all DQ antigens on our Luminex Single Antigen (LSA) panel...
August 25, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Adarsh Babu, Sunil Daga, Daniel A Mitchell, David Briggs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Takayuki Yamamoto, Qi Li, Hidetaka Hara, Liaoran Wang, Hongmin Zhou, Juan Li, Devin E Eckhoff, A Joseph Tector, Edwin C Klein, Ray Lovingood, Mohamed Ezzelarab, David Ayares, Yi Wang, David K C Cooper, Hayato Iwase
BACKGROUND: In the pig-to-baboon artery patch model with no immunosuppressive therapy, a graft from an α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO) pig elicits a significant anti-nonGal IgG response, indicating sensitization to the graft. A costimulation blockade-based regimen, e.g., anti-CD154mAb or anti-CD40mAb, prevents sensitization. However, neither of these agents is currently FDA-approved. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of FDA-approved agents on the T and B cell responses...
August 6, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Qiangxing Chen, Rou Zhou, Yingcai Zhang, Shuguang Zhu, Cuicui Xiao, Jiao Gong, Kun Li, Hui Tang, Chong Sun, Jian Zhang
Studies have reported that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) play an important role in immune regulation after organ transplantation. Some of the BMSC-mediated regulatory mechanisms are related to PD-L1 expression. However, the regulatory mechanism of PD-L1 expression is not fully understood. In this experiment, we confirmed the regulatory role of BMSCs in the rejection of liver transplantation and explored the possible mechanism by which PD-L1 expression is regulated in BMSCs. An orthotopic liver transplantation model in rats was established based on the "double-cuff technique"...
August 6, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Julie Alingrin, Benjamin Coiffard, Julien Textoris, Corine Nicolino-Brunet, Morgane Gossez, Pierre-André Jarrot, Françoise Dignat-George, Guillaume Monneret, Pascal Alexandre Thomas, Marc Leone, Martine Reynaud-Gaubert, Laurent Papazian
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressive strategy targets mainly adaptive immunity after solid organ transplantation. We assessed the influence of early post-operative sepsis on T cell and monocyte reconstitution in anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG)-treated lung transplant recipients. METHODS: We retrospectively included recipients who underwent a first lung transplant at our Lung Transplant Center (Marseille, France) between July 2011 and February 2013. Peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subset counts and monocyte HLA-DR (mHLA-DR) expression routinely performed by flow cytometry within 60 days post-transplant were analyzed...
August 3, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Cui-Xiang Xu, Bin-Ya Shi, Zhan-Kui Jin, Jun-Jun Hao, Wan-Li Duan, Feng Han, Yan-Long Zhao, Cheng-Guang Ding, Wu-Jun Xue, Xiao-Ming Ding, Jin Zheng, Pu-Xun Tian
Biomarkers are urgently required for predicting rejection so that anti-rejection treatment can be taken early to protect the allograft from irreversible damage. We hypothesized that the combination of circulating fractalkine, IFN-γ and IP-10 might serve as effective biomarkers for predicting early acute renal allograft rejection. We conducted a retrospective study of 87 subjects, who were classified into acute rejection group (ARG; n = 38) and non-rejection group (NRG; n = 49). Serum fractalkine, IFN-γ and IP-10 levels were measured by Luminex...
August 3, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Keylla S U Aita, Semiramis J H Monte, Adalberto S Silva, José M Moita Neto, Renato S Vieira, Vinicius Ponte Machado, Luiz Claudio D M Sousa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This work aims to present the expert system EpAssistant, a platform algorithm designed to accurately and automatically identify the EPLETS specificities of anti-HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) antibodies in the sera of transplantation candidates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RESULTS: As preliminary results, we present the development and establishment of the EpAssistant platform. EpAssistant analyses can be performed for Class I (-A, B and C) and Class II (-DR, -DQ and -DP) HLA molecules...
August 3, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Daiki Iwami, Osamu Aramaki, Nobuo Shinohara, Masanori Niimi, Nozomu Shirasugi
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that pretreatment with intratracheal delivery (ITD) of alloantigen induced prolonged cardiac allograft survival and generated regulatory T cells (Tregs) in mice. In this study, we examined the role of splenic dendritic cells (DCs) in the ITD model. METHODS: CBA mice were treated with ITD from C57BL/10 splenocytes and 7 days later received transplantation of C57BL/10 hearts. In adoptive transfer studies, splenic DCs from ITD-treated mice were transferred into naïve CBA recipients that received C57BL/10 hearts immediately after the transfer...
July 7, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Jianxin Yang, Frans H J Claas, Michael Eikmans
Since the discovery of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, the role of HLA molecules in the field of transplantation has been appreciated: better matching leads to better graft function. Since then, the association of other genetic polymorphisms with clinical outcome has been investigated in many studies. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) represent a powerful tool to identify causal genetic variants, by simultaneously analyzing millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms scattered across the genome...
August 2018: Transplant Immunology
Li Zhu, Mostafa Aly, Haihao Wang, Hristos Karakizlis, Rolf Weimer, Christian Morath, Ruben Jeremias Kuon, Bettina Toth, Naruemol Ekpoom, Gerhard Opelz, Volker Daniel
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that NK cells with low cytotoxicity but strong immunoregulatory characteristics contribute to good graft outcome. We attempted to investigate which NK cell subsets increase post-transplant and might affect graft function. METHOD: Lymphocyte and NK cell subsets were determined in whole blood using eight-colour-fluorescence flow cytometry in patients pre-transplant and post-transplant. In total, 31 transplant recipients were studied. RESULTS: When cell numbers were compared in 9 patients pre- and 6 months post-transplant, post-transplant CD56dimCD16+ (p = 0...
August 2018: Transplant Immunology
P L J van der Heiden, H M van Egmond, S A J Veld, M van de Meent, M Eefting, L C de Wreede, C J M Halkes, J H F Falkenburg, W A F Marijt, I Jedema
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T-cells are crucial to prevent CMV disease. CMV seropositive recipients transplanted with stem cells from a CMV seronegative allogeneic donor (R+ D- ) may be at risk for CMV disease due to absence of donor CMV-specific memory T-cells in the graft. METHODS: We analyzed the duration of CMV reactivations and the incidence of CMV disease in R+ D- and R+ D+ patients after alemtuzumab-based T-cell depleted allogeneic stem cell transplantation (TCD alloSCT)...
August 2018: Transplant Immunology
Xiaoming Zhang, Tongyi Men, Haitao Liu, Xianduo Li, Jianning Wang, Jiaju Lv
BACKGROUND: Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a serious metabolic complication after kidney transplantation. The aim of this study was to explore the association of clinical variables and five selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with PTDM in Chinese Han renal allograft recipients taking tacrolimus (TAC). METHODS: A total of 129 non-diabetic, primary, Chinese Han renal allograft recipients treated with TAC were enrolled. Five SNPs (CYP3A5 rs776741, rs776746, rs15524, CYP24A1 rs2296241, and PPARG rs1801282) were genotyped and analyzed...
August 2018: Transplant Immunology
Annika Gocht, Jörg H W Distler, Bernd Spriewald, Martina Ramsperger-Gleixner, Michael Weyand, Stephan M Ensminger, Christian Heim
BACKGROUND: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is the main obstacle for long-term survival after heart transplantation. Alloimmune mediated chronic vascular rejection results in several mechanisms like platelet activation, immigration of inflammatory cells through the endothelial layer and proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Serotonin (5-HT) promotes these processes via activation of 5-HT2 receptors. We hypothesized that inhibiting 5-HT2 receptors ameliorates the development of CAV...
August 2018: Transplant Immunology
Zhiqiang Yang, Yujian Liu, Xiaolei Zhou
RNA interference (RNAi) plays a potential role in organ transplantation. Small hairpin RNA (shRNA) is an artificial RNA molecule with a tight hairpin turn that can be used to silence the expression of a target gene. We constructed shRNA targeting on the cluster of differentiation 80 (CD80, B7-1) and the cluster of differentiation 86 (CD86, B7-2) and transfected it into dendritic cells (DCs). Fluorescence real-time PCR and flow cytometry confirmed the gene-silencing effect. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNA expression level decreased in T cells that were cocultured with pB7-shRNA-transfected DCs...
August 2018: Transplant Immunology
Helena B Cazarote, Silvia Shimakura, Joana S Valdameri, Fabiana L C Contieri, Cristina Q C von Glehn, Carlos M Aita, Michelle F Susin, Vanessa Santos Sotomaior, Renata Glehn-Ponsirenas
Detection of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) has improved the risk classification and post-transplant evaluation of kidney recipients. Moreover, assessment of DSA C1q-binding ability has been shown to improve the individual risk classification of transplant patients for allograft loss, especially when detected after transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the additional clinical impact of C1q-binding DSA detection in a population that was extensively monitored for DSA and MFI alterations. Forty-two kidney allograft recipients were followed-up at multiple time points for up to 5 years after transplantation for the presence of anti-HLA DSA-IgG total...
August 2018: Transplant Immunology
Sandra A Carey, Kristen M Tecson, Aayla K Jamil, Joost Felius, Theresa K Wolf-Doty, Shelley A Hall
BACKGROUND: Serial gene expression profiling (GEP) may reduce the need for endomyocardial biopsies for detecting acute cellular rejection (ACR) after transplantation, but its performance in dual organ transplant recipients is currently unknown. METHODS: We analyzed 18 months of follow-up in a national cohort of 27 dual organ recipients (18 heart-kidney, 8 heart-liver, 1 heart-lung) matched to 54 heart-only recipients for gender, age, and time to first GEP (AlloMap®) test...
August 2018: Transplant Immunology
J Salman, K Jansson, Th Siemeni, W Sommer, A-K Knoefel, L Ahrens, T Nakagiri, F Ius, I Tudorache, B Kruse, S Thissen, D Jonigk, M Strüber, A Haverich, G Warnecke, M Avsar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Transplant Immunology
Beatriz Chamun Gil, Adriane Stefani Silva Kulzer, Priscila de Moraes, Realdete Toresan, Alessandra da Rosa Vicari, Iara Dos Santos Fagundes, Jóice Merzoni, Gisele Menezes Ewald, Jacqueline Moraes Cardone, Fernanda Gamio Silva, Roberto Ceratti Manfro, Luiz Fernando Jobim
Preformed anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies may be present in the blood of kidney transplant candidates. The production of these antibodies may occur in the post-transplant period, with the possible development of donor-specific antibodies (DSA). Luminex-based tests, such as the single antigen (SA) assay and the Luminex crossmatch (Xm-DSA) assay are the most commonly used tools to detect anti-HLA antibodies, due to their high sensitivity and specificity. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare the findings of two methods for the detection of DSAs after kidney transplant: SA and Xm-DSA...
August 2018: Transplant Immunology
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