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Transplant Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716663/time-course-of-plasma-inflammatory-mediators-in-a-rat-model-of-brain-death
#1
Majid Esmaeilzadeh, Mahmoud Sadeghi, Roland Galmbacher, Volker Daniel, Jürgen Knapp, Hans E Heissler, Joachim K Krauss, Arianeb Mehrabi
BACKGROUND: Brain death (BD) is a donor-associated risk factor that negatively affects transplantation outcome. The inflammation associated with BD appears to have a negative effect on organ quality. Complement activation, apoptosis, and pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression are significantly increased after BD. To better understand this process, we investigated plasma chemokine and cytokine levels for 8h after BD in a rodent model. METHODS: Thirteen healthy adult male Sprague Dawley rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated...
July 14, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687251/associations-between-acute-gvhd-related-biomarkers-and-endothelial-cell-activation-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#2
Shosaku Nomura, Kazuyoshi Ishii, Shinya Fujita, Aya Nakaya, Atsushi Satake, Tomoki Ito
BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cause serious transplant-related complications such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Acute GVHD (aGVHD) has been diagnosed by clinical manifestations, laboratory data and pathological effects until now, but recently the discovery of specific biomarkers such as suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2), elafin and regenerating islet-derived 3α (REG3α) is challenging this approach. METHODS: We investigated the expression of aGVHD-related markers (regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secretes: RANTES, elafin, REG3α and ST2) and endothelial cell activation markers (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule: sVCAM-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor: PAI-1) in patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT...
July 4, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676335/thymoglobuline-plus-basiliximab-a-mixed-cocktail-to-start
#3
EDITORIAL
Spagnoletti Gionta, Salerno Maria Paola, Calia Rosaria, Romagnoli Jacopo, Citterio Franco
Recent results reported by Ciancio et al. have demonstrated the long term successful use of dual induction therapy in kidney transplant recipients. Our experience using an "induction cocktail", thymoglobuline plus basiliximab, started in 2007 and we have treated 235 patients through the past 10years. In our population, we used a combination of CNIs and MMF or mTORi as maintenance therapy. Our results in term of patient and graft survival, acute rejection rate, renal function and incidence of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder support the data reported by Ciancio...
July 1, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652007/cytokines-affecting-cd4-t-regulatory-cells-in-transplant-tolerance-iii-interleukin-5-il-5-promotes-survival-of-alloantigen-specific-cd4-t-regulatory-cells
#4
Bruce M Hall, Karren M Plain, Giang T Tran, Nirupama D Verma, Catherine M Robinson, Masaru Nomura, Rochelle Boyd, Suzanne J Hodgkinson
CD4(+)T cells mediate antigen-specific allograft tolerance, but die in culture without activated lymphocyte derived cytokines. Supplementation of the media with cytokine rich supernatant, from ConA activated spleen cells, preserves the capacity of tolerant cells to transfer tolerance and suppress rejection. rIL-2 or rIL-4 alone are insufficient to maintain these cells, however. We observed that activation of naïve CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+)Treg with alloantigen and the Th2 cytokine rIL-4 induces them to express interleukin-5 specific receptor alpha (IL-5Rα) suggesting that IL-5, a Th2 cytokine that is produced later in the immune response may promote tolerance mediating Treg...
June 23, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642130/mir-155-expression-is-downregulated-in-kidney-transplant-patients-with-human-cytomegalovirus-infection
#5
Massimiliano Bergallo, Stefano Gambarino, Paola Montanari, Valentina Daprà, Marco Rassu, Ilaria Galliano, Paolo Ravanini
MicroRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that control expression of target genes through inhibiting protein translation or inducing degradation of mRNA transcripts of target genes. According to the latest update, 2578 unique mature miRNAs are currently annotated in the human genome and participate in the regulation of multiple events, such as cellular proliferation or apoptosis. Herpesvirus family comprehends many viruses able to control and modulate host-cell processes permitting the survival by a latency phase after primary infection...
June 19, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629951/immunogenicity-of-class-i-hla-but-not-preformed-low-mfi-donor-specific-antibodies-correlates-with-outcomes-after-first-renal-transplantation
#6
A Lobashevsky, W Goggins, K Rosner, T Taber
BACKGROUND: The role of low levels of circulating donor specific antibodies (DSA) producing negative flow cytometry cross match is not completely defined. The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical significance of preexisting low levels of class I DSAs in flow cytometry cross match (FC CM) negative first kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). METHODS: All of the KTRs (n=41) had low levels of anti-class I antibodies only. The kidney transplant outcome was evaluated by the development of a deleterious effect (DE) in recipients in the study cohort (Group 1: DE+, Group 2: DE-)...
June 16, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495618/a-model-of-acute-renal-allograft-rejection-in-outbred-yorkshire-piglets
#7
Randi Lassiter, Youli Wang, Xuexiu Fang, Matt Winn, Arina Ghaffari, Chak-Sum Ho, Sandra Helman, Ryan Jajosky, Daniel Kleven, N Stanley Nahman, Todd D Merchen
Pigs represent a desirable animal model for the study of rejection in kidney transplantation with inbred Yucatan miniature swine (YMS) the most commonly studied strain due to well defined swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genotypes. However, limitations to YMS may include cost and availability. Outbred Yorkshire pigs are widely available and significantly cheaper than YMS. Recent advances in SLA genotyping have allowed its application to outbred strains. On this basis, we theorized that Yorkshire pigs would be a viable alternative to YMS for the study of rejection in kidney transplantation...
May 8, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487238/the-recipient-ccr5-variation-predicts-survival-outcomes-after-bone-marrow-transplantation
#8
Tomohiro Horio, Shohei Mizuno, Kaori Uchino, Motonori Mizutani, Ichiro Hanamura, J Luis Espinoza, Makoto Onizuka, Koichi Kashiwase, Yasuo Morishima, Takahiro Fukuda, Yoshihisa Kodera, Noriko Doki, Koichi Miyamura, Takehiko Mori, Akiyoshi Takami
The chemokine receptor CCR5 plays roles in the trafficking of effector cells towards the site of inflammation. We retrospectively examined the impact of the CCR5 variation (rs1800023, -2086A>G) on transplant outcomes in a cohort of 329 patients who underwent unrelated HLA-matched bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for hematologic malignancies through the Japan Marrow Donor Program. A multivariate analysis showed that the recipient CCR5 -2086A/A genotype was significantly associated with a lower relapse rate but not with the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) or transplant-related mortality, thereby resulting in better disease-free and overall survival rates than other variations...
May 6, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487237/cytokines-affecting-cd4-t-regulatory-cells-in-transplant-tolerance-ii-interferon-gamma-ifn-%C3%AE-promotes-survival-of-alloantigen-specific-cd4-t-regulatory-cells
#9
Masaru Nomura, Suzanne J Hodgkinson, Giang T Tran, Nirupama D Verma, Catherine Robinson, Karren M Plain, Rochelle Boyd, Bruce M Hall
CD4(+)T cells that transfer alloantigen-specific transplant tolerance are short lived in culture unless stimulated with specific-donor alloantigen and lymphocyte derived cytokines. Here, we examined if IFN-γ maintained survival of tolerance transferring CD4(+)T cells. Alloantigen-specific transplant tolerance was induced in DA rats with heterotopic adult PVG heart allografts by a short course of immunosuppression and these grafts functioned for >100days with no further immunosuppression. In previous studies, we found the CD4(+)T cells from tolerant rats that transfer tolerance to an irradiated DA host grafted with a PVG heart, lose their tolerance transferring ability after 3days of culture, either with or without donor alloantigen, and effect rejection of specific-donor grafts...
May 6, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457920/antibody-response-to-hbv-vaccination-on-dialysis-does-not-correlate-with-the-development-of-denovo-anti-hla-antibodies-after-renal-transplantation
#10
Teresa Kauke, Maximilian Link, Markus Rentsch, Manfred Stangl, Markus Guba, Joachim Andrassy, Jens Werner, Bruno Meiser, Michael Fischereder, Antje Habicht
BACKGROUND: Response to Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination can be diminished in some (50-80%) but not all dialysis patients. We hypothesized, that the response to vaccination on dialysis may correlate with the development of anti-HLA antibodies after renal transplantation and might therefore be a valuable parameter to predict alloresponses. METHODS: The response to HBV vaccination on dialysis and the development of deNovo anti-HLA antibodies post-transplant was analyzed in 188 non-immunized renal transplant recipients...
April 28, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457921/serum-mirnas-as-potential-biomarkers-for-the-bronchiolitis-obliterans-syndrome-after-lung-transplantation
#11
K Budding, M Rossato, E A van de Graaf, J M Kwakkel-van Erp, T R D J Radstake, H G Otten
Lung transplantation (LTx) is the last treatment for patients suffering from end-stage lung diseases. Survival post-LTx is hampered by the development of the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and diagnosis is often late. Given the urgent clinical need to recognize BOS patients at an early stage, we analyzed circulating miRNAs to identify possible stratification markers for BOS development post-transplantation. Therefore, pro-fibrotic (miR-21, miR-155), anti-fibrotic (miR-29a) and fibrosis-unrelated (miR-103, miR-191) miRNAs were analyzed in serum of end-stage lung disease patients and during LTx follow-up...
June 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366698/steroid-free-immunosuppression-is-associated-with-enhanced-th1-transcripts-in-kidney-transplantation
#12
Petra Hruba, Irena Tycova, Eva Krepsova, Eva Girmanova, Alena Sekerkova, Janka Slatinska, Ilja Striz, Eva Honsova, Ondrej Viklicky
BACKGROUND: Steroid avoidance in immunosuppression in kidney transplantation offers several metabolic advantages, however it is associated with higher early acute rejection rate. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. METHODS: In this single center observational study, low-risk kidney transplant recipients randomized into large multicenter prospective ADVANCE trial with steroid avoidance/early withdrawal and center standard of care treated patients were monitored for 12months...
June 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438668/non-neuronal-neuropeptide-y-and-its-receptors-during-acute-rejection-of-rat-pulmonary-allografts
#13
Jessica Schmitz, Anna Zakrzewicz, Sigrid Wilker, Jitka Kuncová, Andreas Hecker, Veronika Grau, Winfried Padberg, Julia P N Holler
This study tested the hypothesis that neuropeptide Y (NPY) and NPY receptors 1 (Y1) and 2 (Y2) participate in lung allograft rejection. Inflammation in grafts may include interaction between blood leukocytes and graft endothelial cells and marked accumulation of intravascular blood leukocytes. Fewer leukocytes accumulate in lung than in kidney allografts. Lung transplantion was performed in the Dark Agouti to Lewis rat strain combination. Intravascular and intraalveolar leukocytes were isolated from the grafts, and we evaluated the mRNA expression of NPY, Y1, and Y2 by real-time RT-PCR as well as the peptide expression of NPY by radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry...
April 21, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392336/cd28-biomarker-quantification-and-expression-level-profiles-in-cd4-t-lymphocytes-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#14
Francisco Boix, José Miguel Bolarín, Anna Mrowiec, Jorge Eguía, Gema Gonzalez-Martinez, Jesús de la Peña, José A Galian, Rafael Alfaro, María R Moya-Quiles, Isabel Legaz, José A Campillo, Pablo Ramírez, Ana García-Alonso, Jose A Pons, Francisco Sánchez-Bueno, Alfredo Minguela, Santiago Llorente, Manuel Muro
The introduction of anti-calcineurin-based therapies has led to an increase in the one-year survival as well as graft function rates in patients undergoing solid organ transplantation (SOT). Nonetheless, early cellular acute rejection (EAR) incidence still remains a major challenge that irrevocably heads to poor outcomes. The mechanisms underlying CD4 T cell activation in SOT are still under research. In this sense, CD28 co-stimulatory molecule plays a pivotal role triggering CD4 T cell activation as well as survival maintenance...
April 6, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284929/anti-hla-dq-antibodies-are-highly-and-independently-related-to-the-c1q-binding-capacity-of-hla-antibodies
#15
José M Arreola-Guerra, Luis E Morales-Buenrostro, Julio Granados, Natalia Castelán, Adrián de Santiago, Adriana Arvizu, Norma Gonzalez-Tableros, Mayra López, Mario Vilatobá, Josefina Alberú
The complement-binding capacity of anti-HLA antibodies (HLAabs) is recognized as a key pathogenic factor. The aim of this study is to describe the patient characteristics associated to the presence of C1q+ as well as those of the Abs per se when associated to C1q binding. METHODOLOGY: This is a cross-sectional, observational, descriptive study of patients with previous sensitizing factors and awaiting a kidney transplant (KT). We determined anti-HLA antibodies and their C1q binding capacity with the C1q assay...
March 8, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257995/regulatory-b-cells-phenotype-function-and-role-in-transplantation
#16
REVIEW
C M Wortel, S Heidt
While B cells are traditionally known for their roles in antibody production, antigen presentation and cytokine production, recent studies have highlighted the existence of B cells with regulatory properties, which have been termed Bregs, analogous to regulatory T cells (Tregs). Bregs have been found to play a role in autoimmune disease, malignancies, infections, and may also be involved in solid organ transplantation. Their main mechanism of action is by promoting the development of Tregs while suppressing effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, primarily by IL-10 secretion...
March 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167272/predictive-value-of-gene-expression-profiling-for-long-term-survival-after-heart-transplantation
#17
Buntaro Fujita, Emir Prashovikj, Uwe Schulz, Jochen Börgermann, Jakub Sunavsky, Uwe Fuchs, Jan Gummert, Stephan Ensminger
OBJECTIVES: Identifying patients at risk for impaired long-term survival after heart transplantation (HT) remains a clinical challenge. The aim of this analysis was to investigate whether the gene expression profiling test AlloMap® is related to long-term survival after HT. METHODS: 46 patients who underwent HT between 2006 and 2007 who were originally included into the CARGO II trial at our institution were investigated. Patients were divided in two groups according to an increase or decrease of the AlloMap® score between 6 and 9months after HT...
February 4, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167271/late-onset-cytopenias-following-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-associated-with-viral-infection-and-cell-specific-antibodies
#18
Geoff Lucas, Steven Culliford, Nina Bendukidze, Julia Dahlstrom, Victoria Grandage, Ben Carpenter, Rachael Hough
This report describes a patient who received an allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant and who, following a viral infection, developed late onset cytopenias associated with antibodies against red cells, platelets and granulocytes. Investigation of these cytopenias revealed the presence of lineage specific auto- and allo-antibodies, which were not present in either the donor or in the recipient prior to the viral infection. This case provides further evidence for the concept that viral challenges following HSCT can result in the production of cell specific antibodies that can have significant implications for patient management...
February 4, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167270/free-light-chain-and-intact-immunoglobulin-abnormalities-in-heart-transplant-recipients-two-year-follow-up-timelines-and-clinical-correlations
#19
Peter Sečník, Petra Lavríková, Lenka Hošková, Pavlína Malíková, Antonín Jabor, Janka Franeková
OBJECTIVES: To assess the timelines of serum free light chain (sFLC) concentrations and the kappa/lambda light chain (K/L) ratio in heart transplant (HTX) recipients. To analyze the performance of serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), serum immunofixation (sIFE) and sFLC measurements for gammopathy detection following a HTX. METHODS: A total of 96 patients who underwent a HTX were analyzed during a two-year follow-up period. The relevant clinical data were obtained from patient medical records...
February 4, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913276/association-of-genetic-polymorphisms-of-angiopoietin-like-4-with-severity-of-posttransplant-proteinuria-in-kidney-allograft-recipients
#20
Youngil Chang, Tariq Shah, Jaewook Yang, David I Min
BACKGROUND: Proteinuria is a hallmark of glomerular injury, and persistent proteinuria is associated with graft failure in kidney transplant patients. Recently, it is known that the level of circulating angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is elevated in the patients with human nephrotic syndrome, in which ANGPTL4 is responsible for relieving proteinuria. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine effects of clinical factors and genetic polymorphism of ANGPTL4 on proteinuria after kidney transplantation...
February 2017: Transplant Immunology
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