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Veterinary Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927447/protecting-effect-of-prp-codons-m142-and-k222-in-goats-orally-challenged-with-bovine-spongiform-encephalopathy-prions
#1
C Fast, W Goldmann, P Berthon, K Tauscher, O Andréoletti, I Lantier, C Rossignol, A Bossers, J G Jacobs, N Hunter, M H Groschup, F Lantier, J P M Langeveld
Breeding towards genetic resistance to prion disease is effective in eliminating scrapie. In sheep, classical forms of scrapie have been eradicated almost completely in several countries by breeding programs using a prion protein (PrP) gene (PRNP) amino acid polymorphism. For goats, field and experimental studies have provided evidence for several amino acid polymorphisms that are associated with resistance to scrapie, but only limited data are available concerning the susceptibility of caprine PRNP genotypes to BSE...
September 19, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915927/a-decade-of-research-into-classical-swine-fever-marker-vaccine-cp7_e2alf-suvaxyn-%C3%A2-csf-marker-a-review-of-vaccine-properties
#2
REVIEW
Sandra Blome, Kerstin Wernike, Ilona Reimann, Patricia König, Claudia Moß, Martin Beer
Due to its impact on animal health and pig industry, classical swine fever (CSF) is still one of the most important viral diseases of pigs. To control the disease, safe and highly efficacious live attenuated vaccines exist for decades. However, until recently, the available live vaccines did not allow a serological marker concept that is essentially important to circumvent long-term trade restrictions. In 2014, a new live attenuated marker vaccine, Suvaxyn(®) CSF Marker (Zoetis), was licensed by the European Medicines Agency...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915920/current-situation-of-h9n2-subtype-avian-influenza-in-china
#3
REVIEW
Min Gu, Lijun Xu, Xiaoquan Wang, Xiufan Liu
In China, H9N2 subtype avian influenza outbreak is firstly reported in Guangdong province in 1992. Subsequently, the disease spreads into vast majority regions nationwide and has currently become endemic there. Over vicennial genetic evolution, the viral pathogenicity and transmissibility have showed an increasing trend as year goes by, posing serious threat to poultry industry. In addition, H9N2 has demonstrated significance to public health as it could not only directly infect mankind, but also donate partial or even whole cassette of internal genes to generate novel human-lethal reassortants like H5N1, H7N9, H10N8 and H5N6 viruses...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915918/a-longitudinal-study-of-serological-responses-to-coxiella-burnetii-and-shedding-at-kidding-among-intensively-managed-goats-supports-early-use-of-vaccines
#4
Michael Muleme, Angus Campbell, John Stenos, Joanne M Devlin, Gemma Vincent, Alexander Cameron, Stephen Graves, Colin R Wilks, Simon Firestone
Vaccination against Coxiella burnetii, the cause of Q fever, is reportedly the only feasible strategy of eradicating infection in ruminant herds. Preventive vaccination of seronegative goats is more effective in reducing shedding of C. burnetii than vaccinating seropositive goats. The age at which goats born on heavily-contaminated farms first seroconvert to C. burnetii has not yet been documented. In a 16-month birth cohort study, the age at which goats seroconverted against C. burnetii was investigated; 95 goats were bled every 2 weeks and tested for antibodies against C...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903753/acquisition-of-resistance-to-avian-leukosis-virus-subgroup-b-through-mutations-on-tvb-cysteine-rich-domains-in-df-1-chicken-fibroblasts
#5
Hong Jo Lee, Kyung Youn Lee, Young Hyun Park, Hee Jung Choi, Yongxiu Yao, Venugopal Nair, Jae Yong Han
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is a retrovirus that causes tumors in avian species, and its vertical and horizontal transmission in poultry flocks results in enormous economic losses. Despite the discovery of specific host receptors, there have been few reports on the modulation of viral susceptibility via genetic modification. We therefore engineered acquired resistance to ALV subgroup B using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing technology in DF-1 chicken fibroblasts. Using this method, we efficiently modified the tumor virus locus B (tvb) gene, encoding the TVB receptor, which is essential for ALV subgroup B entry into host cells...
September 13, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903751/rna-seq-comparative-analysis-of-peking-ducks-spleen-gene-expression%C3%A2-24%C3%A2-h-post-infected-with-duck-plague-virulent-or-attenuated-virus
#6
Tian Liu, Anchun Cheng, Mingshu Wang, Renyong Jia, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Kunfeng Sun, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, XinXin Zhao, Xiaoyue Chen
Duck plague virus (DPV), a member of alphaherpesvirus sub-family, can cause significant economic losses on duck farms in China. DPV Chinese virulent strain (CHv) is highly pathogenic and could induce massive ducks death. Attenuated DPV vaccines (CHa) have been put into service against duck plague with billions of doses in China each year. Researches on DPV have been development for many years, however, a comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenicity of CHv strain and protection of CHa strain to ducks is still blank...
September 13, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882176/use-of-the-mice-passive-protection-test-to-evaluate-the-humoral-response-in-goats-vaccinated-with-sterne-34f2-live-spore-vaccine
#7
P H Phaswana, O C Ndumnego, S M Koehler, W Beyer, J E Crafford, H van Heerden
The Sterne live spore vaccine (34F2) is the most widely used veterinary vaccine against anthrax in animals. Antibody responses to several antigens of Bacillus anthracis have been described with a large focus on those against protective antigen (PA). The focus of this study was to evaluate the protective humoral immune response induced by the live spore anthrax vaccine in goats. Boer goats vaccinated twice (week 0 and week 12) with the Sterne live spore vaccine and naive goats were used to monitor the anti-PA and toxin neutralizing antibodies at week 4 and week 17 (after the second vaccine dose) post vaccination...
September 7, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882164/the-role-of-phospholipase-c-signaling-in-bovine-herpesvirus-1-infection
#8
Liqian Zhu, Chen Yuan, Xiuyan Ding, Clinton Jones, Guoqiang Zhu
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) infection enhanced the generation of inflammatory mediator reactive oxidative species (ROS) and stimulated MAPK signaling that are highly possibly related to virus induced inflammation. In this study, for the first time we show that BoHV-1 infection manipulated phospholipase C (PLC) signaling, as demonstrated by the activation of PLCγ-1 at both early stages [at 0.5 h post-infection (hpi)] and late stages (4-12 hpi) during the virus infection of MDBK cells. Viral entry, and de novo protein expression and/or DNA replication were potentially responsible for the activation of PLCγ-1 signaling...
September 7, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854955/identification-of-two-mutation-sites-in-spike-and-envelope-proteins-mediating-optimal-cellular-infection-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-from-different-pathways
#9
Min Sun, Jiale Ma, Zeyanqiu Yu, Zihao Pan, Chengping Lu, Huochun Yao
Entry of the α-coronavirus porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) requires specific proteases to activate spike (S) protein for the membrane fusion of the virion to the host cell following receptor binding. Herein, PEDV isolate 85-7 could proliferate and induce cell-cell fusion in a trypsin independent manner on Vero cells, and eight homologous mutation strains were screened by continuous proliferation in the absence of trypsin on Vero cells. According to the whole genome sequence comparative analysis, we identified four major variations located in nonstructural protein 2, S, open reading frame 3, and envelope (E) genes, respectively...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821298/efficacy-of-a-polyvalent-immersion-vaccine-against-flavobacterium-psychrophilum-and-evaluation-of-immune-response-to-vaccination-in-rainbow-trout-fry-onchorynchus-mykiss-l
#10
R Hoare, T P H Ngo, K L Bartie, A Adams
Rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) is a disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum, responsible for significant economic losses in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. The diversity of F. psychrophilum isolates and the inherent difficulties in vaccinating juvenile fish has hampered the development of a vaccine for RTFS. Disease episodes tend to occur between 10-14 °C with necrotic lesions often seen on the skin surrounding the dorsal fin and tail. At present no commercial vaccines are available for RTFS in the UK, leaving antibiotics as the only course of action to control disease outbreaks...
August 18, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800747/bovine-cryptosporidiosis-impact-host-parasite-interaction-and-control-strategies
#11
REVIEW
Sarah Thomson, Carly A Hamilton, Jayne C Hope, Frank Katzer, Neil A Mabbott, Liam J Morrison, Elisabeth A Innes
Gastrointestinal disease caused by the apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the most important diseases of young ruminant livestock, particularly neonatal calves. Infected animals may suffer from profuse watery diarrhoea, dehydration and in severe cases death can occur. At present, effective therapeutic and preventative measures are not available and a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions is required. Cryptosporidium parvum is also an important zoonotic pathogen causing severe disease in people, with young children being particularly vulnerable...
August 11, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797297/role-of-transcription-regulatory-sequence-in-regulation-of-gene-expression-and-replication-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#12
Chengbao Wang, Han Meng, Yujin Gao, Hui Gao, Kangkang Guo, Fernando Almazan, Isabel Sola, Luis Enjuanes, Yanming Zhang, Levon Abrahamyan
In order to gain insight into the role of the transcription regulatory sequences (TRSs) in the regulation of gene expression and replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene, under the control of the different structural gene TRSs, was inserted between the N gene and 3'-UTR of the PRRSV genome and EGFP expression was analyzed for each TRS. TRSs of all the studied structural genes of PRRSV positively modulated EGFP expression at different levels...
August 10, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28784184/intracellular-delivery-of-ha1-subunit-antigen-through-attenuated-salmonella-gallinarum-act-as-a-bivalent-vaccine-against-fowl-typhoid-and-low-pathogenic-h5n3-virus
#13
Nitin Machindra Kamble, Kim Je Hyoung, John Hwa Lee
Introduction of novel inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines against different strains of prevailing and emerging low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses is not an economically viable option for poultry. Engineering attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum (S. Gallinarum) vaccine delivering H5 LPAI antigens can be employed as a bivalent vaccine against fowl typhoid and LPAI viruses, while still offering economic viability and sero-surveillance capacity. In this study, we developed a JOL1814 bivalent vaccine candidate against LPAI virus infection and fowl typhoid by engineering the attenuated S...
August 7, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705175/serotype-specific-role-of-antigen-i-ii-in-the-initial-steps-of-the-pathogenesis-of-the-infection-caused-by-streptococcus-suis
#14
Sarah Chuzeville, Jean-Philippe Auger, Audrey Dumesnil, David Roy, Sonia Lacouture, Nahuel Fittipaldi, Daniel Grenier, Marcelo Gottschalk
Streptococcus suis is one of the most important post-weaning porcine bacterial pathogens worldwide. The serotypes 2 and 9 are often considered the most virulent and prevalent serotypes involved in swine infections, especially in Europe. However, knowledge of the bacterial factors involved in the first steps of the pathogenesis of the infection remains scarce. In several pathogenic streptococci, expression of multimodal adhesion proteins known as antigen I/II (AgI/II) have been linked with persistence in the upper respiratory tract and the oral cavity, as well as with bacterial dissemination...
July 14, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662714/recall-t-cell-responses-to-bluetongue-virus-produce-a-narrowing-of-the-t-cell-repertoire
#15
José-Manuel Rojas, Teresa Rodríguez-Calvo, Noemí Sevilla
In most viral infections, recall T cell responses are critical for protection. The magnitude of these secondary responses can also affect the CD8 and CD4 epitope repertoire diversity. Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection in sheep elicits a T cell response that contributes to viremia control and could be relevant for cross-protection between BTV serotypes. Here, we characterized CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses during primary and recall responses. During primary immune responses, both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell populations expanded by 14 days post-infection (dpi)...
June 29, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645300/bacterial-ghosts-as-adjuvants-mechanisms-and-potential
#16
REVIEW
Irshad A Hajam, Pervaiz A Dar, Gayeon Won, John Hwa Lee
Bacterial ghosts (BG) are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria. They contain many innate immunostimulatory agonists, and are potent activators of a broad range of cell types involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Several considerable studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of BG as adjuvants as well as their ability to induce proinflammatory cytokine production by a range of immune and non-immune cell types. These proinflammatory cytokines trigger a generalized recruitment of T and B lymphocytes to lymph nodes that maximize the chances of encounter with their cognate antigen, and subsequent elicitation of potent immune responses...
June 24, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623956/differential-protein-expression-in-chicken-macrophages-and-heterophils-in-vivo-following-infection-with-salmonella-enteritidis
#17
Zuzana Sekelova, Hana Stepanova, Ondrej Polansky, Karolina Varmuzova, Marcela Faldynova, Radek Fedr, Ivan Rychlik, Lenka Vlasatikova
In this study we compared the proteomes of macrophages and heterophils isolated from the spleen 4 days after intravenous infection of chickens with Salmonella Enteritidis. Heterophils were characterized by expression of MMP9, MRP126, LECT2, CATHL1, CATHL2, CATHL3, LYG2, LYZ and RSFR. Macrophages specifically expressed receptor proteins, e.g. MRC1L, LRP1, LGALS1, LRPAP1 and a DMBT1L. Following infection, heterophils decreased ALB and FN1, and released MMP9 to enable their translocation to the site of infection...
June 17, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623935/variation-in-susceptibility-of-different-breeds-of-sheep-to-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-following-experimental-inoculation
#18
D J Begg, A C Purdie, K de Silva, N K Dhand, K M Plain, R J Whittington
Exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) does not always lead to Johne's disease. Understanding differences in disease susceptibility of individual animals is a key aspect to controlling mycobacterial diseases. This study was designed to examine the susceptibility or resistance of various breeds of sheep to MAP infection. Merino, Suffolk first cross Merino, Border Leicester, and Poll Dorset sheep were orally inoculated with MAP and monitored for 14 months. Clinical disease occurred more frequently in the Merino (42%) and Suffolk first cross Merino (36%) compared to the Border Leicester (12%) and Poll Dorset (11%) breeds...
June 17, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619040/helicobacter-suis-induces-changes-in-gastric-inflammation-and-acid-secretion-markers-in-pigs-of-different-ages
#19
C De Witte, B Devriendt, B Flahou, I Bosschem, R Ducatelle, A Smet, F Haesebrouck
Gastric mRNA expression of markers for acid secretion and inflammation and presence of gastric ulceration was studied in naturally Helicobacter suis-infected and non-infected 2-3 months old, 6-8 months old and adult pigs. In H. suis-infected 2-3 months old pigs, IL-8 and IL-1β transcript levels were upregulated in the pyloric gland zone, indicating an innate immune response. A similar response was demonstrated in the fundic gland zone of adult pigs, potentially due to a shift of H. suis colonization from the pyloric to the fundic gland zone...
June 15, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592320/infectivity-transmission-and-pathogenicity-of-h5-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-clade-2-3-4-4-h5n8-and-h5n2-united-states-index-viruses-in-pekin-ducks-and-chinese-geese
#20
Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, Mar Costa-Hurtado, Kateri Bertran, Eric DeJesus, Diane Smith, David E Swayne
In late 2014, a H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, clade 2.3.4.4, spread by migratory waterfowl into North America reassorting with low pathogenicity AI viruses to produce a H5N2 HPAI virus. Since domestic waterfowl are common backyard poultry frequently in contact with wild waterfowl, the infectivity, transmissibility, and pathogenicity of the United States H5 HPAI index viruses (H5N8 and H5N2) was investigated in domestic ducks and geese. Ducks infected with the viruses had an increase in body temperature but no or mild clinical signs...
June 7, 2017: Veterinary Research
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