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Veterinary Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327178/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-acts-as-an-adhesin-in-erysipelothrix-rhusiopathiae-adhesion-to-porcine-endothelial-cells-and-as-a-receptor-in-recruitment-of-host-fibronectin-and-plasminogen
#1
Weifeng Zhu, Qiang Zhang, Jingtao Li, Yanmin Wei, Chengzhi Cai, Liang Liu, Zhongmin Xu, Meilin Jin
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is the causative agent of animal erysipelas and human erysipeloid. Previous studies suggested glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) plays a role in the pathogenesis of E. rhusiopathiae infection. We studied E. rhusiopathiae GAPDH interactions with pig vascular endothelial cells, fibronectin, and plasminogen. Recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH) was successfully obtained, and it was shown that it plays a role in E. rhusiopathiae adhesion to pig vascular endothelial cells. Moreover, rGAPDH could bind fibronectin and plasminogen in a dose-dependent manner...
March 21, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241868/dynamic-changes-in-bronchoalveolar-macrophages-and-cytokines-during-infection-of-pigs-with-a-highly-or-low-pathogenic-genotype-1-prrsv-strain
#2
Patricia Renson, Nicolas Rose, Mireille Le Dimna, Sophie Mahé, André Keranflec'h, Frédéric Paboeuf, Catherine Belloc, Marie-Frédérique Le Potier, Olivier Bourry
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replicates primarily in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and the resulting lung damage is influenced by strain virulence. To better understand the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection, we performed a longitudinal study of the PAM population and lung cytokines in specific pathogen-free pigs infected either with the highly pathogenic Lena strain or with the low pathogenic Finistere strain in comparison to uninfected pigs. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood were collected to follow viral, cellular and cytokine changes in lung with respect to clinical signs and systemic events...
February 27, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241864/ccl2-and-ccl5-driven-attraction-of-cd172a-monocytic-cells-during-an-equine-herpesvirus-type-1-ehv-1-infection-in-equine-nasal-mucosa-and-the-impact-of-two-migration-inhibitors-rosiglitazone-rsg-and-quinacrine-qc
#3
Jing Zhao, Katrien C K Poelaert, Jolien Van Cleemput, Hans J Nauwynck
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disease, abortion and neurological disorders in horses. Besides epithelial cells, CD172a(+) monocytic cells become infected with EHV-1 in the respiratory mucosa and transport the virus from the apical side of the epithelium to the lamina propria en route to the lymph and blood circulation. Whether CD172a(+) monocytic cells are specifically recruited to the infection sites in order to pick up virus is unknown. In our study, equine nasal mucosa explants were inoculated with EHV-1 neurological strains 03P37 and 95P105 or the non-neurological strains 97P70 and 94P247 and the migration of monocytic cells was examined by immunofluorescence...
February 27, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222802/counts-of-bovine-monocyte-subsets-prior-to-calving-are-predictive-for-postpartum-occurrence-of-mastitis-and-metritis
#4
Brianna Pomeroy, Anja Sipka, Jamal Hussen, Melanie Eger, Ynte Schukken, Hans-Joachim Schuberth
The heightened susceptibility to infectious diseases in postpartum dairy cows is often attributed to immune dysfunction associated with the transition period. However, the cell populations involved in this immune dysfunction and the dynamics between those populations are not well defined. Monocytes play a crucial role in governing initial immune response in bacterial infections. Bovine monocytes are subdivided in classical (CD14(+)/CD16(-)), intermediate (CD14(+)/CD16(+)) and non-classical monocytes (CD14(-)/CD16(+)) with distinct phenotypic and functional differences...
February 21, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222784/experimental-infections-of-different-carp-strains-with-the-carp-edema-virus-cev-give-insights-into-the-infection-biology-of-the-virus-and-indicate-possible-solutions-to-problems-caused-by-koi-sleepy-disease-ksd-in-carp-aquaculture
#5
Mikolaj Adamek, Anna Oschilewski, Peter Wohlsein, Verena Jung-Schroers, Felix Teitge, Andy Dawson, David Gela, Veronika Piackova, Martin Kocour, Jerzy Adamek, Sven M Bergmann, Dieter Steinhagen
Outbreaks of koi sleepy disease (KSD) caused by carp edema virus (CEV) may seriously affect populations of farmed common carp, one of the most important fish species for global food production. The present study shows further evidence for the involvement of CEV in outbreaks of KSD among carp and koi populations: in a series of infection experiments, CEV from two different genogroups could be transmitted to several strains of naïve common carp via cohabitation with fish infected with CEV. In recipient fish, clinical signs of KSD were induced...
February 21, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222780/advanced-biosensors-for-detection-of-pathogens-related-to-livestock-and-poultry
#6
REVIEW
Jasmina Vidic, Marisa Manzano, Chung-Ming Chang, Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault
Infectious animal diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses threaten the health and well-being of wildlife, livestock, and human populations, limit productivity and increase significantly economic losses to each sector. The pathogen detection is an important step for the diagnostics, successful treatment of animal infection diseases and control management in farms and field conditions. Current techniques employed to diagnose pathogens in livestock and poultry include classical plate-based methods and conventional biochemical methods as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)...
February 21, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219415/genotyping-and-investigating-capsular-polysaccharide-synthesis-gene-loci-of-non-serotypeable-streptococcus-suis-isolated-from-diseased-pigs-in-canada
#7
Han Zheng, Xiaotong Qiu, David Roy, Mariela Segura, Pengchen Du, Jianguo Xu, Marcelo Gottschalk
Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is an important swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent. Most clinical S. suis strains express capsular polysaccharides (CPS), which can be typed by antisera using the coagglutination test. In this study, 79 S. suis strains recovered from diseased pigs in Canada and which could not be typed using antisera were further characterized by capsular gene typing and sequencing. Four patterns of cps locus were observed: (1) fifteen strains were grouped into previously reported serotypes but presented several mutations in their cps loci, when compared to available data from reference strains; (2) seven strains presented a complete deletion of the cps locus, which would result in an inability to synthesize capsule; (3) forty-seven strains were classified in recently described novel cps loci (NCLs); and (4) ten strains carried novel NCLs not previously described...
February 20, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209206/rethinking-the-role-of-alpha-toxin-in-clostridium-perfringens-associated-enteric-diseases-a-review-on-bovine-necro-haemorrhagic-enteritis
#8
REVIEW
Evy Goossens, Bonnie R Valgaeren, Bart Pardon, Freddy Haesebrouck, Richard Ducatelle, Piet R Deprez, Filip Van Immerseel
Bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis is an economically important disease caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains. The disease mainly affects calves under intensive rearing conditions and is characterized by sudden death associated with small intestinal haemorrhage, necrosis and mucosal neutrophil infiltration. The common assumption that, when causing intestinal disease, C. perfringens relies upon specific, plasmid-encoded toxins, was recently challenged by the finding that alpha toxin, which is produced by all C...
February 16, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179028/betanodavirus-like-particles-enter-host-cells-via-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis-in-a-cholesterol-ph-and-cytoskeleton-dependent-manner
#9
Runqing Huang, Guohua Zhu, Jing Zhang, Yuxiong Lai, Yu Xu, Jianguo He, Junfeng Xie
Betanodavirus, also referred to nervous necrosis virus (NNV), is the causative agent of the fatal disease, viral nervous necrosis and has brought significant economic losses in marine and freshwater cultured fish, especially larvae and juveniles. Here, we used an established invasion model with virus-like particle (VLP)-cells, mimicking orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV), to investigate the crucial events of virus entry. VLP were observed in the perinuclear regions of Asian sea bass (SB) cells within 1...
February 8, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166835/frequency-of-th17-cells-correlates-with-the-presence-of-lung-lesions-in-pigs-chronically-infected-with-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae
#10
Elena L Sassu, Andrea Ladinig, Stephanie C Talker, Maria Stadler, Christian Knecht, Heiko Stein, Janna Frömbling, Barbara Richter, Joachim Spergser, Monika Ehling-Schulz, Robert Graage, Isabel Hennig-Pauka, Wilhelm Gerner
Porcine contagious pleuropneumonia caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) remains one of the major causes of poor growth performance and respiratory disease in pig herds. While the role of antibodies against APP has been intensely studied, the porcine T cell response remains poorly characterized. To address this, pigs were intranasally infected with APP serotype 2 and euthanized during the acute phase [6-10 days post-infection (dpi)] or the chronic phase of APP infection (27-31 dpi). Lymphocytes isolated from blood, tonsils, lung tissue and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were analyzed by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) for IL-17A, IL-10 and TNF-α production after in vitro stimulation with crude capsular extract (CCE) of the APP inoculation strain...
February 6, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166830/the-t160a-hemagglutinin-substitution-affects-not-only-receptor-binding-property-but-also-transmissibility-of-h5n1-clade-2-3-4-avian-influenza-virus-in-guinea-pigs
#11
Min Gu, Qunhui Li, Ruyi Gao, Dongchang He, Yunpeng Xu, Haixu Xu, Lijun Xu, Xiaoquan Wang, Jiao Hu, Xiaowen Liu, Shunlin Hu, Daxin Peng, Xinan Jiao, Xiufan Liu
We generated and characterized site-directed HA mutants on the genetic backbone of H5N1 clade 2.3.4 virus preferentially binding to α-2,3 receptors in order to identify the key determinants in hemagglutinin rendering the dual affinity to both α-2,3 (avian-type) and α-2,6 (human-type) linked sialic acid receptors of the current clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX subtype avian influenza reassortants. The results show that the T160A substitution resulted in the loss of a glycosylation site at 158N and led not only to enhanced binding specificity for human-type receptors but also transmissibility among guinea pigs, which could be considered as an important molecular marker for assessing pandemic potential of H5 subtype avian influenza isolates...
February 6, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166822/disruption-of-the-m949_rs01915-gene-changed-the-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-pattern-pathogenicity-and-gene-expression-of-riemerella-anatipestifer
#12
Yafeng Dou, Xiaolan Wang, Guijing Yu, Shaohui Wang, Mingxing Tian, Jingjing Qi, Tao Li, Chan Ding, Shengqing Yu
Riemerella anatipestifer is an important pathogen that causes septicemia anserum exsudativa in ducks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is considered to be a major virulence factor of R. anatipestifer. To identify genes involved in LPS biosynthesis, we screened a library of random Tn4351 transposon mutants using a monoclonal antibody against R. anatipestifer serotype 1 LPS (anti-LPS MAb). A mutant strain RA1067 which lost the reactivity in an indirect ELISA was obtained. Southern blot and sequencing analyses indicated a single Tn4351 was inserted at 116 bp in the M949_RS01915 gene in the RA1067 chromosomal DNA...
February 6, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166810/correlating-bacterial-shedding-with-fecal-corticosterone-levels-and-serological-responses-from-layer-hens-experimentally-infected-with-salmonella-typhimurium
#13
Pardeep Sharma, Vivek V Pande, Talia S Moyle, Andrea R McWhorter, Kapil K Chousalkar
Salmonella Enteriditis and Salmonella Typhimurium are commonly isolated during egg-related outbreaks of salmonellosis and represent a significant international public health issue. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is the most common serovar identified in egg product related foodborne outbreaks. While a number of studies have investigated Salmonella shedding and host responses to infection, they have been conducted over a short time period. The present study sought to characterise bacterial shedding and host responses to infection in hens infected with only Salmonella Typhimurium or co-infected with both Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Mbandaka over a 16 week period...
February 6, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122589/escherichia-coli-o78-isolated-from-septicemic-lambs-shows-high-pathogenicity-in-a-zebrafish-model
#14
Cecilie K Kjelstrup, Amelia E Barber, J Paul Norton, Matthew A Mulvey, Trine M L'Abée-Lund
The pathogenicity of Escherichia coli O78 strain K46, originally isolated from an outbreak of septicemia in neonatal lambs, was investigated in zebrafish embryo and murine models of infection. Its biofilm potential, cellulose production, and the expression of type 1 pili and curli fimbriae were measured by in vitro assays. The strain was highly pathogenic in the zebrafish embryo model of infection, where it killed all embryos within 24 h post inoculation (hpi) at doses as low as 1000 colony forming units. Zebrafish embryos inoculated with similar doses of commensal E...
January 25, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095890/impact-of-diversity-of-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-strains-on-lung-lesions-in-slaughter-pigs
#15
Annelies Michiels, Katleen Vranckx, Sofie Piepers, Rubén Del Pozo Sacristán, Ioannis Arsenakis, Filip Boyen, Freddy Haesebrouck, Dominiek Maes
The importance of diversity of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) strains is not yet fully known. This study investigated the genetic diversity of M. hyopneumoniae strains in ten pig herds, and assessed associations between the presence of different strains of M. hyopneumoniae and lung lesions at slaughter. Within each herd, three batches of slaughter pigs were investigated. At slaughter, from each batch, 20 post mortem bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected for multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and lung lesions (Mycoplasma-like lesions, fissures) were examined...
January 17, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057061/congenital-infection-with-atypical-porcine-pestivirus-appv-is-associated-with-disease-and-viral-persistence
#16
Lukas Schwarz, Christiane Riedel, Sandra Högler, Leonie J Sinn, Thomas Voglmayr, Bettina Wöchtl, Nora Dinhopl, Barbara Rebel-Bauder, Herbert Weissenböck, Andrea Ladinig, Till Rümenapf, Benjamin Lamp
In 2013, several Austrian piglet-producing farms recorded outbreaks of action-related repetitive myoclonia in newborn piglets ("shaking piglets"). Malnutrition was seen in numerous piglets as a complication of this tremor syndrome. Overall piglet mortality was increased and the number of weaned piglets per sow decreased by more than 10% due to this outbreak. Histological examination of the CNS of affected piglets revealed moderate hypomyelination of the white substance in cerebellum and spinal cord. We detected a recently discovered pestivirus, termed atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) in all these cases by RT-PCR...
January 6, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912792/evaluation-of-natural-porcine-circovirus-type-2-pcv2-subclinical-infection-and-seroconversion-dynamics-in-piglets-vaccinated-at-different-ages
#17
Salvador Oliver-Ferrando, Joaquim Segalés, Sergio López-Soria, Antonio Callén, Olivier Merdy, François Joisel, Marina Sibila
This study aimed to determine the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) serological and virological dynamics in piglets vaccinated at different ages in a PCV2 subclinical infection (PCV2-SI) scenario. Six hundred and forty-four 2 week-old healthy piglets were selected and distributed into four treatment groups: vaccination at 3, 6 or 10 weeks of age (3W-VAC, 6W-VAC and 10W-VAC groups, respectively) and unvaccinated pigs (NON-VAC group). Blood (n = 112 pigs) and oral fluid (OF) (n = 40 pens) samples were taken throughout the study to assess PCV2 load, humoral immunity and viral genotyping...
December 3, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899159/p53-signaling-modulation-of-cell-cycle-arrest-and-viral-replication-in-porcine-circovirus-type-2-infection-cells
#18
Dan Xu, Qian Du, Cong Han, Zengguo Wang, Xiujuan Zhang, Tongtong Wang, Xiaomin Zhao, Yong Huang, Dewen Tong
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a ubiquitous pathogen in the swine industry worldwide. Previous studies have shown that PCV2 infection induces host cell apoptosis through up-regulation of p53. To further identify the regulatory roles of p53 signaling in the process of PCV2 infection, we established p53 gene knockout PK15 cell lines using the genomic editor tool CRISPR/Cas9, and further investigated the roles of p53 in modulating the cell cycle and viral replication in this study. The results show that PCV2 infection induced obvious S phase accumulation in wild-type PK15 cells and a compromised S phase accumulation in the p53 gene mutation cells (813PK15 (p53m/m) ), but did not induce obvious S phase accumulation in the p53 gene knockout cells (148PK15 (p53-/-)) compared with the respective mock infection...
November 29, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894330/marek-s-disease-in-chickens-a-review-with-focus-on-immunology
#19
REVIEW
Nitish Boodhoo, Angila Gurung, Shayan Sharif, Shahriar Behboudi
Marek's disease (MD), caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), is a commercially important neoplastic disease of poultry which is only controlled by mass vaccination. Importantly, vaccines that can provide sterile immunity and inhibit virus transmission are lacking; such that vaccines are only capable of preventing neuropathy, oncogenic disease and immunosuppression, but are unable to prevent MDV transmission or infection, leading to emergence of increasingly virulent pathotypes. Hence, to address these issues, developing more efficacious vaccines that induce sterile immunity have become one of the important research goals for avian immunologists today...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871330/age-is-not-a-determinant-factor-in-susceptibility-of-broilers-to-h5n2-clade-2-3-4-4-high-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-virus
#20
Kateri Bertran, Dong-Hun Lee, Charles Balzli, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, Erica Spackman, David E Swayne
In 2014-2015, the US experienced an unprecedented outbreak of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. The H5N2 HPAI virus outbreak in the Midwest in 2015 affected commercial turkey and layer farms, but not broiler farms. To assess any potential genetic resistance of broilers and/or age-related effects, we investigated the pathogenesis and transmission of A/turkey/Minnesota/12582/2015 (H5N2) (Tk/MN/15) virus in commercial 5-week-old broilers, 8-week-old broilers, and >30-week-old broiler breeders...
November 21, 2016: Veterinary Research
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