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Veterinary Research

Zaib Ur Rehman, Chunchun Meng, Yingjie Sun, Khalid M Mahrose, Sajid Umar, Chan Ding, Muhammad Munir
Avian avulaviruses serotype 1 (abbreviated as APMV-1 for the historical name avian paramyxovirus 1) are capable of infecting a wide spectrum of avian species with variable clinical symptoms and outcomes. Ease of transmission has allowed the virus to spread worldwide with varying degrees of virulence depending upon the virus strain and host species. The emergence of new virulent genotypes from global epizootics, and the year-to-year genomic changes in low and high virulence APMV-1 imply that distinct genotypes of APMV-1 are simultaneously evolving at different geographic locations across the globe...
September 19, 2018: Veterinary Research
Mahmoud Soliman, Deok-Song Kim, Chonsaeng Kim, Ja-Young Seo, Ji-Yun Kim, Jun-Gyu Park, Mia Madel Alfajaro, Yeong-Bin Baek, Eun-Hyo Cho, Sang-Ik Park, Mun-Il Kang, Kyeong-Ok Chang, Ian Goodfellow, Kyoung-Oh Cho
Caliciviruses in the genus Sapovirus are a significant cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans and animals. However, the mechanism of their entry into cells is not well characterized. Here, we determined the entry mechanism of porcine sapovirus (PSaV) strain Cowden into permissive LLC-PK cells. The inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis using chlorpromazine, siRNAs, and a dominant negative (DN) mutant blocked entry and infection of PSaV Cowden strain, confirming a role for clathrin-mediated internalization...
September 17, 2018: Veterinary Research
Yafeng Dou, Guijing Yu, Xiaolan Wang, Shaohui Wang, Tao Li, Mingxing Tian, Jingjing Qi, Chan Ding, Shengqing Yu
In this study, the Riemerella anatipestifer mutant strain RA1062 was obtained by screening a random Tn4351 transposon mutant library. The mutant strain was unreactive with the anti-CH3 lipopolysaccharide monoclonal antibody, as demonstrated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and its M949_RS01035 gene was inactivated. When cultured in trypticase soy broth, the late stage growth of the mutant RA1062 was significantly decreased. The mutant RA1062 was stained with crystal violet and presented a rough lipopolysaccharide phenotype, which differed from that of the wild-type strain CH3, suggesting that deletion of the M949_RS01035 gene resulted in defective lipopolysaccharide...
September 17, 2018: Veterinary Research
Irshad Ahmed Hajam, Jehyoung Kim, John Hwa Lee
Fowl typhoid (FT), a septicemic disease caused by Salmonella Gallinarum (SG), and infectious bronchitis (IB) are two economically important avian diseases that affect poultry industry worldwide. Herein, we exploited a live attenuated SG mutant, JOL967, to deliver spike (S) protein 1 of IB virus (V) to elicit protective immunity against both FT and IB in chickens. The codon optimized S1 nucleotide sequence was cloned in-frame into a prokaryotic constitutive expression vector, pJHL65. Subsequently, empty pJHL65 or recombinant pJHL65-S1 plasmid was electroporated into JOL967 and the resultant clones were designated as JOL2068 and JOL2077, respectively...
September 12, 2018: Veterinary Research
Júber Herrera-Uribe, Ángeles Jiménez-Marín, Anna Lacasta, Paula L Monteagudo, Sonia Pina-Pedrero, Fernando Rodríguez, Ángela Moreno, Juan J Garrido
African swine fever (ASF) is a pathology of pigs against which there is no treatment or vaccine. Understanding the equilibrium between innate and adaptive protective responses and immune pathology might contribute to the development of strategies against ASFV. Here we compare, using a proteomic approach, the course of the in vivo infection caused by two homologous strains: the virulent E75 and the attenuated E75CV1. Our results show a progressive loss of proteins by day 7 post-infection (pi) with E75, reflecting tissue destruction...
September 12, 2018: Veterinary Research
Anna Pikuła, Anna Lisowska, Agnieszka Jasik, Krzysztof Śmietanka
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is one of the most important immunosuppressive viral agents in poultry production. Prophylactic vaccinations of chicken flocks are the primary tool for disease control. Widely used immunoprophylaxis can, however, provide high pressure which contributes to the genetic diversification of circulating viruses, e.g. through reassortment of genome segments. We report the genetic and phenotypic characterization of a field reassortant IBDV (designated as Bpop/03) that acquired segment A from very virulent IBDV and segment B from classical attenuated D78-like IBDV...
September 12, 2018: Veterinary Research
Fernando L Leite, Erika Vasquez, Fabio A Vannucci, Connie J Gebhart, Aaron Rendahl, Jerry Torrison, Adam Mueller, Nathan L Winkelman, Zachary J Rambo, Richard E Isaacson
Lawsonia intracellularis is among the most important enteric pathogens of swine and antibiotic alternatives are needed to help mitigate the negative effects of infection. Zinc is an essential trace mineral known to be crucial for maintaining intestinal barrier function and proper immune response. In this study, we investigated the porcine host response to L. intracellularis infection when supplemented with a zinc-amino acid complex, a form of zinc that can lead to greater bioavailability when compared to traditional inorganic forms of zinc...
September 10, 2018: Veterinary Research
Jie Feng Li, Kai Xia Guo, Xin Qi, Jun Jun Lei, Yue Han, Shu Wei Yan, Peng Jiang, Chuan Yu, Xiang Chao Cheng, Zhong Quan Wang, Jing Cui
Trichinellosis is a worldwide important food-borne zoonosis caused mainly by ingesting raw or undercooked pork infected with Trichinella spiralis larvae. The development of vaccine is needed for preventing swine from Trichinella infection to ensure pork safety. Previous studies showed that T. spiralis serine protease 1.2 (TsSP1.2) is a vaccine candidate against Trichinella infection. In this study, the complete TsSP1.2 cDNA sequences were cloned into pcDNA3.1, and the rTsSP1.2 DNA was transformed into attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain ΔcyaSL1344...
September 6, 2018: Veterinary Research
Sandra Souto, José G Olveira, Lucía Vázquez-Salgado, Carlos P Dopazo, Isabel Bandín
Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), G. Betanodavirus, is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy, a disease that causes mass mortalities in a wide range of fish species. Betanodaviruses are neurotropic viruses and their replication in the susceptible fish species seems to be almost entirely restricted to nerve tissue. However, none of the cell lines used for NNV propagation has a nervous origin. In this study, first we established a protocol for the primary culture of neurons from Senegalese sole, which made it possible to further study virus-host cell interactions...
September 5, 2018: Veterinary Research
Lara Pérez-Etayo, María Jesús de Miguel, Raquel Conde-Álvarez, Pilar M Muñoz, Mammar Khames, Maite Iriarte, Ignacio Moriyón, Amaia Zúñiga-Ripa
Brucella bacteria cause brucellosis, a major zoonosis whose control requires efficient diagnosis and vaccines. Identification of classical Brucella spp. has traditionally relied on phenotypic characterization, including surface antigens and 5-10% CO2 necessity for growth (CO2 -dependence), a trait of Brucella ovis and most Brucella abortus biovars 1-4 strains. Although molecular tests are replacing phenotypic methods, CO2 -dependence remains of interest as it conditions isolation and propagation and reflects Brucella metabolism, an area of active research...
September 5, 2018: Veterinary Research
Florence Cliquet, Anne-Laure Guiot, Michel Aubert, Emmanuelle Robardet, Charles E Rupprecht, François-Xavier Meslin
The original article [1] contained an error in the Author details paragraph. "5 Neglected Zoonotic Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland" should be replaced by "5 Le Grand-Saconnex, Switzerland".
August 30, 2018: Veterinary Research
Francesco Bonfante, Eva Mazzetto, Claudia Zanardello, Andrea Fortin, Federica Gobbo, Silvia Maniero, Michela Bigolaro, Irit Davidson, Ruth Haddas, Giovanni Cattoli, Calogero Terregino
Since 1997, G1-lineage H9N2 avian influenza viruses have been circulating in Asia and later on in the Middle East, and they have been associated to mild respiratory disease, drops in egg production and moderate mortality in chickens, in particular in the presence of concurrent infections. In this study, we investigated the importance of the G1-lineage H9N2 A/chicken/Israel/1163/2011 virus as a primary pathogen in layers, analyzing its tropism and binding affinity for the oviduct tissues, and investigating the long-term impact on egg production...
August 29, 2018: Veterinary Research
Kateri Bertran, Dong-Hun Lee, Miria F Criado, Diane Smith, David E Swayne, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood
In March 2017, H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was detected in 2 broiler breeder farms in the state of Tennessee, USA. Subsequent surveillance detected the low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus precursor in multiple broiler breeder farms and backyard poultry in Tennessee and neighboring states. The pathogenesis of the H7N9 LPAI virus was investigated in commercial broiler breeders, the bird type mostly affected in this outbreak. Infectivity, transmissibility, and pathogenesis of the H7N9 HPAI and LPAI viruses were also studied in 4-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) leghorn chickens...
August 29, 2018: Veterinary Research
Rie Watanabe, Christina Eckstrand, Hongwei Liu, Niels C Pedersen
Laboratory cats were infected with a serotype I cat-passaged field strain of FIP virus (FIPV) and peritoneal cells harvested 2-3 weeks later at onset of lymphopenia, fever and serositis. Comparison peritoneal cells were collected from four healthy laboratory cats by peritoneal lavage and macrophages predominated in both populations. Differential mRNA expression analysis identified 5621 genes as deregulated in peritoneal cells from FIPV infected versus normal cats; 956 genes showed > 2.0 Log2 Fold Change (Log2 FC) and 1589 genes showed < -2...
August 7, 2018: Veterinary Research
Qi Su, Yang Li, Yawen Zhang, Zhihui Zhang, Fanfeng Meng, Zhizhong Cui, Shuang Chang, Peng Zhao
Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-attenuated vaccine has been widely used since the 1950s and made great progress in preventing and controlling Newcastle disease. However, many reports mention exogenous virus contamination in attenuated vaccines, while co-contamination with fowl adenovirus (FAdV) and chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) in the NDV-attenuated vaccine also emerged in China recently, which proved to be an important reason for the outbreaks of inclusion body hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome in some flocks...
August 6, 2018: Veterinary Research
Ron Sicsic, Tamir Goshen, Rahul Dutta, Noa Kedem-Vaanunu, Veronica Kaplan-Shabtai, Zohar Pasternak, Yuval Gottlieb, Nahum Y Shpigel, Tal Raz
Post-partum metritis is among the most prevalent disease in dairy cows affecting animal welfare and inflicting considerable economic loses. While post-partum contamination of the uterus is rife in dairy cows, only a fraction of these animals will develop metritis. Our main objective was to compare the bacterial communities and the inflammatory response in the endometrium of healthy and metritic dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 35) were sampled immediately following clinical classification as healthy (n = 21), suffering from metritis (n = 13) or septic metritis (n = 1), based on veterinary examination at 5-10 days post-partum...
August 2, 2018: Veterinary Research
Stefan Widgren, Stefan Engblom, Ulf Emanuelson, Ann Lindberg
A spatial data-driven stochastic model was developed to explore the spread of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157 (VTEC O157) by livestock movements and local transmission among neighbouring holdings in the complete Swedish cattle population. Livestock data were incorporated to model the time-varying contact network between holdings and population demographics. Furthermore, meteorological data with the average temperature at the geographical location of each holding was used to incorporate season. The model was fitted against observed data and extensive numerical experiments were conducted to investigate the model's response to control strategies aimed at reducing shedding and susceptibility, as well as interventions informed by network measures...
August 2, 2018: Veterinary Research
Jia Xu, Fan Yang, Da Qi Yang, Peng Jiang, Ruo Dan Liu, Xi Zhang, Jing Cui, Zhong Quan Wang
The aim of this study was to study the molecular characteristics of Trichinella spiralis galectin (Tsgal) and interactions between Tsgal and host's intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The functional domain of Tsgal was cloned and expressed in an E. coli system. The Tsgal was 97.1% identity to the galectin of T. nativa and 20.8% identity to the galectin-8 of humans. Conserved domain analysis revealed that Tsgal belongs to TR-type galectin and has two carbon recognized domain. The rTsgal with 29.1 kDa could be recognized by T...
August 2, 2018: Veterinary Research
Yousef I Hassan, Ludovic Lahaye, Max M Gong, Jian Peng, Joshua Gong, Song Liu, Cyril G Gay, Chengbo Yang
The alarming number of recently reported human illnesses with bacterial infections resistant to multiple antibacterial agents has become a serious concern in recent years. This phenomenon is a core challenge for both the medical and animal health communities, since the use of antibiotics has formed the cornerstone of modern medicine for treating bacterial infections. The empirical benefits of using antibiotics to address animal health issues in animal agriculture (using therapeutic doses) and increasing the overall productivity of animals (using sub-therapeutic doses) are well established...
July 31, 2018: Veterinary Research
Bruce S Seal, Djamel Drider, Brian B Oakley, Harald Brüssow, David Bikard, Joseph O Rich, Stefan Miller, Estelle Devillard, Jason Kwan, Gérard Bertin, Stuart Reeves, Steven M Swift, Margot Raicek, Cyril G Gay
Due to the continuing global concerns involving antibiotic resistance, there is a need for scientific forums to assess advancements in the development of antimicrobials and their alternatives that might reduce development and spread of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens. The objectives of the 2nd International Symposium on Alternatives to Antibiotics were to highlight promising research results and novel technologies that can provide alternatives to antibiotics for use in animal health and production, assess challenges associated with their authorization and commercialization for use, and provide actionable strategies to support their development...
July 31, 2018: Veterinary Research
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