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Veterinary Research

Niccoló Vendramin, Anna Luiza Farias Alencar, Tine Moesgaard Iburg, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Øystein Wessel, Anne Berit Olsen, Espen Rimstad, Niels Jørgen Olesen
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is endemic in farmed rainbow trout in continental Europe and in various salmonid fish species at the Pacific coast of North America. IHN has never occurred in European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms, but is considered as a major threat for the European salmon industry. Another virus, Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), is widespread in the sea phase of Atlantic salmon, and is identified as the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between a primary PRV infection and a secondary IHNV infection under experimental conditions...
March 13, 2018: Veterinary Research
Ping Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Weikang Wang, Tuofan Li, Guangchen Liang, Hongxia Shao, Wei Gao, Aijian Qin, Jianqiang Ye
A recent outbreak of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome caused by serotype 4 fowl adenovirus (FAdV-4) has resulted in significant economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. However, little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of FAdV-4. In this study, a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting the fiber-2 protein of FAdV-4 was generated, mAb 3C2. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that mAb 3C2 neither reacted with serotype 8 fowl adenovirus (FAdV-8) nor reacted with the fiber-1 protein of FAdV-4; it specifically reacted with the fiber-2 protein of FAdV-4...
March 9, 2018: Veterinary Research
Nadine Schmidt, Stefanie A Barth, Jana Frahm, Ulrich Meyer, Sven Dänicke, Lutz Geue, Christian Menge
The principal virulence factor of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), the eponymous Stx, modulates cellular immune responses in cattle, the primary STEC reservoir. We examined whether immunization with genetically inactivated recombinant Shiga toxoids (rStx1MUT /rStx2MUT ) influences STEC shedding in a calf cohort. A group of 24 calves was passively (colostrum from immunized cows) and actively (intra-muscularly at 5th and 8th week) vaccinated. Twenty-four calves served as unvaccinated controls (fed with low anti-Stx colostrum, placebo injected)...
March 7, 2018: Veterinary Research
Nelly Marquetoux, Rebecca Mitchell, Anne Ridler, Cord Heuer, Peter Wilson
This literature review of exposure to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in sheep enabled a synthesis of the patho-physiology of ovine paratuberculosis (PTB). These results could be used to inform subsequent modelling of ovine PTB. We reviewed studies of both experimental and natural exposure. They were generally comparable. Possible outcomes following exposure were latent infection, i.e. mere colonization without lesions; active infection, with inflammatory histopathology in the intestinal tissues resulting in mild disease and low faecal shedding; and affection, with severe intestinal pathology, reduced production, clinical signs and high faecal shedding...
March 7, 2018: Veterinary Research
Paola Sacchi, Roberto Rasero, Giuseppe Ru, Eleonora Aiassa, Silvia Colussi, Francesco Ingravalle, Simone Peletto, Maria Gabriella Perrotta, Stefano Sartore, Dominga Soglia, Pierluigi Acutis
The European Union has implemented breeding programmes to increase scrapie resistance in sheep. A similar approach can be applied also in goats since the K222 allele provides a level of resistance equivalent to that of ARR in sheep. The European Food Safety Authority stated that breeding for resistance could be offered as an option for Member States to control classical scrapie in goats. We assessed the impact of different breeding strategies on PRNP genotype frequencies using a mathematical model that describes in detail the evolution of K222 in two goat breeds, Chamois Coloured and Saanen...
March 6, 2018: Veterinary Research
Eveline M Boerhout, Ad P Koets, Tanja G T Mols-Vorstermans, Piet J M Nuijten, Mathieu J H Hoeijmakers, Victor P M G Rutten, Jetta J E Bijlsma
Intramammary infections in cattle resulting in mastitis have detrimental effects on cows' well-being, lifespan and milk production. In the host defense against S. aureus mastitis antibodies are thought to play an important role. To explore potential ways to increase antibody titers in the bovine mammary gland the effects of various adjuvants on the magnitude, isotype, and neutralizing capacity of antibodies produced following subcutaneous vaccine administration at different immunization sites were analyzed...
March 1, 2018: Veterinary Research
Pengpeng Xia, Guomei Quan, Yi Yang, Jing Zhao, Yiting Wang, Mingxu Zhou, Philip R Hardwidge, Jianzhong Zhu, Siguo Liu, Guoqiang Zhu
The binding of F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and the specific receptor on porcine intestinal epithelial cells is the initial step in F4+ ETEC infection. Porcine aminopeptidase N (APN) is a newly discovered receptor for F4 fimbriae that binds directly to FaeG adhesin, which is the major subunit of the F4 fimbriae variants F4ab, F4ac, and F4ad. We used overlapping peptide assays to map the APN-FaeG binding sites, which has facilitated in the identifying the APN-binding amino acids that are located in the same region of FaeG variants, thereby limiting the major binding regions of APN to 13 peptides...
February 26, 2018: Veterinary Research
Evelien De Swaef, Maaike Vercauteren, Luc Duchateau, Freddy Haesebrouck, Annemie Decostere
Severe economic losses due to diseases in marine larviculture may be linked to vibriosis. To better understand the pathogenesis of vibriosis and evaluate new ways to prevent and combat this important disease, there is a great need for reliable and reproducible experimental infection models. The present study aimed at developing a challenge model for vibriosis in Dover sole larvae and testing its applicability to study the effect of the probiotic treatment. For that purpose, larvae were challenged at 10 days post hatching with Vibrio anguillarum WT, V...
February 26, 2018: Veterinary Research
Mutsumi Furukawa, Hiroshi Yoneyama, Eiji Hata, Hidetomo Iwano, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Tasuke Ando, Mika Sato, Tomohito Hayashi, Yoshio Kiku, Yuya Nagasawa, Kanae Niimi, Katsuki Usami, Kumiko Ito, Kouichi Watanabe, Tomonori Nochi, Hisashi Aso
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that causes subclinical mastitis associated with huge economic losses to the dairy industry. A few vaccines for bovine mastitis are available, and they are expected to induce the production of S. aureus-specific antibodies that prevent bacterial adherence to host cells or promote opsonization by phagocytes. However, the efficacy of such vaccines are still under debate; therefore, further research focusing on improving the current vaccines by seeking additional mechanisms of action is required to reduce economic losses due to mastitis in the dairy industry...
February 26, 2018: Veterinary Research
Gema Lorenzo, Elena López-Gil, Javier Ortego, Alejandro Brun
The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and efficacy of DNA and MVA vaccines encoding the RVFV glycoproteins Gn and Gc in an ovine model of RVFV infection. Adult sheep of both sexes were challenged 12 weeks after the last immunization and clinical, virological, biochemical and immunological consequences, were analyzed. Strategies based on immunization with homologous DNA or heterologous DNA/MVA prime-boost were able to induce a rapid in vitro neutralizing antibody response as well as IFNγ production after in vitro virus specific re-stimulation...
February 21, 2018: Veterinary Research
Guangping Huang, Xiangqing Li, Dan Lu, Shen Liu, Xun Suo, Qiuyan Li, Ning Li
Diarrhea remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally, with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) constituting a major causative pathogen. The development of alternative treatments for diarrhea that do not involve chemotherapeutic drugs or result in antibiotic resistance is critical. Considering that lysozyme is a naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide, in a previous study we developed a transgenic pig line that expresses recombinant human lysozyme (hLZ) in its milk. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of the consumption of this milk against ETEC infection in neonatal piglets...
February 20, 2018: Veterinary Research
Gayeon Won, John Hwa Lee
The obligate intracellular Lawsonia intracellularis (LI), the etiological agent of proliferative enteropathy (PE), is an economically important disease in the swine industry. Due to extreme difficulty of in vitro culture of the pathogen, molecular characterization of protein components of LI that are targets of the immune system, is difficult; thus, the scientific evidence to drive the development of preventive measures is lacking. In this work, we investigated the antigenic and functional characteristics of a putative flagellar-associated protein, LI0570, using in silico computational approaches for epitope prediction and an in vitro protein-based molecular assay...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Research
Martí Cortey, Gaston Arocena, Tahar Ait-Ali, Anna Vidal, Yanli Li, Gerard Martín-Valls, Alison D Wilson, Allan L Archibald, Enric Mateu, Laila Darwich
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) infection alters the host's cellular and humoral immune response. Immunity against PRRSv is multigenic and vary between individuals. The aim of the present study was to compare several genes that encode for molecules involved in the immune response between two groups of vaccinated pigs that experienced short or long viremic periods after PRRSv challenge. These analyses include the sequencing of four SLA Class I, two Class II allele groups, and CD163, plus the analysis by quantitative realtime qRT-PCR of the constitutive expression of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 mRNA and other molecules in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Research
Ping Zhang, Liyuan Wang, Yanping Li, Ping Jiang, Yanchao Wang, Pengfei Wang, Li Kang, Yuding Wang, Yi Sun, Yunliang Jiang
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary cause of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and other PCV-associated diseases. According to our previous RNA-sequencing analysis, the differences in the susceptibility to PCV2 infection depended on the genetic differences between the Laiwu (LW) and Yorkshire × Landrace crossbred (YL) pigs, but the cellular microRNA (miRNA) that are differentially expressed between the LW and YL pigs before and after PCV2 infection remain to be determined. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was performed to determine the abundance and differential expression of miRNA in lung tissues from PCV2-infected and PCV2-uninfected LW and YL pigs...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Research
Gaowei Hu, Wenlv Zheng, Ao Li, Yaru Mu, Mingyu Shi, Tuofan Li, Haitao Zou, Hongxia Shao, Aijian Qin, Jianqiang Ye
Cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) is a promising cargo for delivering bioactive molecules. In this study, the N terminus of VP1 from chicken anemia virus, designated as CVP1, was found to carry enriched arginine residues with α-helix. By confocal imaging, flow cytometry and MTT assay, we identified CVP1 as a novel, safe and efficient CPP. CVP1-FITC peptide could entry different types of cells tested with dose dependence, but without cytotoxic effects. Compared with TAT-FITC peptide, the CVP1-FITC peptide showed much higher cell-penetrating activity...
February 13, 2018: Veterinary Research
Gang Qian, Dandan Liu, Junfa Hu, Fang Gan, Lili Hou, Nianhui Zhai, Xingxiang Chen, Kehe Huang
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is recognized as the causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated diseases. PCV2 replication could be promoted by low doses of ochratoxin A (OTA) as in our previous study and selenium has been shown to attenuate PCV2 replication. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of selenomethionine (SeMet), the major component of organic selenium, on OTA-induced PCV2 replication promotion and its potential mechanism. The present study demonstrates that OTA could promote PCV2 replication as measured by cap protein expression, viral titer, viral DNA copies and the number of infected cells...
February 13, 2018: Veterinary Research
Xiaomin Yuan, Huixing Lin, Bin Li, Kongwang He, Hongjie Fan
Swinepox virus (SPV) has several advantages as a potential clinical vector for a live vector vaccine. In this study, to obtain a safer and more efficient SPV vector, three SPV mutants, Δ003, Δ010, and ΔTK were successfully constructed. A virus replication experiment showed that these SPV mutants had lower replication abilities compared to wtSPV in 10 different host-derived cell lines. Animal experiments with mouse and rabbit models demonstrate that these three mutants and wtSPV did not cause any clinical signs of dermatitis...
February 7, 2018: Veterinary Research
Juan J Quereda, Christopher Andersson, Pascale Cossart, Jörgen Johansson, Javier Pizarro-Cerdá
Most human listeriosis outbreaks are caused by Listeria monocytogenes evolutionary lineage I strains which possess four exotoxins: a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PlcA), a broad-range phospholipase C (PlcB), listeriolysin O (LLO) and listeriolysin S (LLS). The simultaneous contribution of these molecules to virulence has never been explored. Here, the importance of these four exotoxins of an epidemic lineage I L. monocytogenes strain (F2365) in virulence was assessed in chicken embryos infected in the allantoic cavity...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Research
Denver J Coleman, Alvin C Camus, Beatriz Martínez-López, Susan Yun, Brittany Stevens, Esteban Soto
Veronaea botryosa is a melanized mold and cause of systemic fungal infections in cultured sturgeon (Acipenser spp.). Mortality in adult female sturgeon caused by this emergent pathogen results in significant economic losses for the caviar industry. Little is known regarding environmental conditions conducive to V. botryosa infection. This study evaluated the effect of temperature on V. botryosa infectivity and dissemination following intramuscular injection challenge of white sturgeon maintained at 13 or 18 °C for 40 days...
February 1, 2018: Veterinary Research
Dan Cui, Jianlou Zhang, Yuzhu Zuo, Shanshan Huo, Yonghong Zhang, Liyue Wang, Xiujin Li, Fei Zhong
Our previous work showed that a plasmid-based chicken interleukin-7 (chIL-7) gene expression vector possessed potent adjuvant activity for a VP2 DNA vaccine against chicken infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Whether recombinant chIL-7 prepared in procaryotic expression system has the adjuvant activity for inactivated IBDV vaccine remains unknown. Here, we prepared recombinant chIL-7 using an E. coli expression system and analyzed its adjuvant activity for the inactivated IBDV vaccine. The results show that the recombinant chIL-7 was successfully prepared in E...
February 1, 2018: Veterinary Research
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