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Veterinary Research

Florence Cliquet, Anne-Laure Guiot, Michel Aubert, Emmanuelle Robardet, Charles E Rupprecht, François-Xavier Meslin
The mass vaccination of dogs is a proven tool for rabies prevention. Besides parenteral delivery of inactivated vaccines, over the past several decades, several self-replicating biologics, including modified-live, attenuated and recombinant viruses, have been evaluated for the oral vaccination of dogs against rabies. Vaccines are included within an attractive bait for oral consumption by free-ranging dogs. Due to the high affinity between dogs and humans, such biologics intended for oral vaccination of dogs (OVD) need to be efficacious as well as safe...
July 13, 2018: Veterinary Research
Guillaume Camanes, Alain Joly, Christine Fourichon, Racem Ben Romdhane, Pauline Ezanno
Paratuberculosis, a gastrointestinal disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), can lead to severe economic losses in dairy cattle farms. Current measures are aimed at controlling prevalence in infected herds, but are not fully effective. Our objective was to determine the most effective control measures to prevent an increase in adult prevalence in infected herds. We developed a new individual-based model coupling population and infection dynamics. Animals are characterized by their age (6 groups) and health state (6 states)...
July 13, 2018: Veterinary Research
Kevin J Stinson, Monica M Baquero, Brandon L Plattner
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) is the cause of Johne's disease, a chronic enteritis of cattle. A significant knowledge gap is how persistence of Map within the intestinal tract after infection contributes to progression of disease. To address this, we exposed calves to Map by direct ileocecal Peyer's patch injection. Our objective was to characterize the persistence of Map in tissues, associated intestinal lesions, fecal Map shedding, and serum antibody responses, through the first 28-weeks post-inoculation (wpi)...
July 13, 2018: Veterinary Research
Ge Ge Sun, Hua Nan Ren, Ruo Dan Liu, Yan Yan Song, Xin Qi, Chen Xi Hu, Fan Yang, Peng Jiang, Xi Zhang, Zhong Quan Wang, Jing Cui
In our previous work, a Trichinella spiralis putative serine protease (TsSP) was identified from ES products of T. spiralis intestinal infective larvae (IIL) and adult worms (AW) by immunoproteomics: it was highly expressed in IIL compared with muscle larvae (ML). In this study, the TsSP biological characteristics in larval invasion and growth were identified and its potential as a vaccine target against Trichinella infection were investigated. Expression of TsSP at various developmental phases (newborn larvae, ML, IIL, and AW) was detected by qPCR, immunofluorescent test and Western blotting...
July 13, 2018: Veterinary Research
Suyeon Park, Gayeon Won, Jehyoung Kim, Hyeun Bum Kim, John Hwa Lee
The obligate intracellular pathogen Lawsonia intracellularis (LI), the etiological agent of proliferative enteropathy (PE), poses a substantial economic loss in the swine industry worldwide. In this study, we genetically engineered an O-antigen-deficient (rough) Salmonella strain secreting four selected immunogenic LI antigens, namely OptA, OptB, LfliC, and Lhly. The genes encoding these antigens were individually inserted in the expression vector plasmid pJHL65, and the resultant plasmids were transformed into the ∆asd ∆lon ∆cpxR ∆rfaL Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) strain JOL1800...
July 5, 2018: Veterinary Research
Artur Szczepanski, Katarzyna Owczarek, Aleksandra Milewska, Zbigniew Baster, Zenon Rajfur, Judy A Mitchell, Krzysztof Pyrc
Canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), identified in 2003, is a member of the Coronaviridae family. The virus is a betacoronavirus and a close relative of human coronavirus OC43 and bovine coronavirus. Here, we examined entry of CRCoV into human rectal tumor cells (HRT-18G cell line) by analyzing co-localization of single virus particles with cellular markers in the presence or absence of chemical inhibitors of pathways potentially involved in virus entry. We also targeted these pathways using siRNA. The results show that the virus hijacks caveolin-dependent endocytosis to enter cells via endocytic internalization...
July 3, 2018: Veterinary Research
Isabel L Pacheco, Nieves Abril, Rafael Zafra, Verónica Molina-Hernández, Noelia Morales-Prieto, María J Bautista, María T Ruiz-Campillo, Raúl Pérez-Caballero, Alvaro Martínez-Moreno, José Pérez
The expression of T regulatory cells (Foxp3), regulatory (interleukin [IL]-10 and transforming growth factor beta [TGF-β]) and proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and interleukin [IL]-1β) cytokines was quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the liver of sheep during early stages of infection with Fasciola hepatica (1, 3, 9, and 18 days post-infection [dpi]). Portal fibrosis was also evaluated by Masson's trichrome stain as well as the number of Foxp3+ cells by immunohistochemistry...
July 3, 2018: Veterinary Research
Carly A Hamilton, Rachel Young, Siddharth Jayaraman, Anuj Sehgal, Edith Paxton, Sarah Thomson, Frank Katzer, Jayne Hope, Elisabeth Innes, Liam J Morrison, Neil A Mabbott
Cattle are an economically important domestic animal species. In vitro 2D cultures of intestinal epithelial cells or epithelial cell lines have been widely used to study cell function and host-pathogen interactions in the bovine intestine. However, these cultures lack the cellular diversity encountered in the intestinal epithelium, and the physiological relevance of monocultures of transformed cell lines is uncertain. Little is also known of the factors that influence cell differentiation and homeostasis in the bovine intestinal epithelium, and few cell-specific markers that can distinguish the different intestinal epithelial cell lineages have been reported...
July 3, 2018: Veterinary Research
Gaber S Abdellrazeq, Mahmoud M Elnaggar, John P Bannantine, Kun T Park, Cleverson D Souza, Brian Backer, Victoria Hulubei, Lindsay M Fry, Samy A Khaliel, Helmy A Torky, David A Schneider, William C Davis
Efforts to develop live attenuated vaccines against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map), using indirect methods to screen Map deletion mutants for potential efficacy, have not been successful. A reduction in the capacity to survive in macrophages has not predicted the ability of mutants to survive in vivo. Previous studies for screening of three deletion mutants in cattle and goats revealed one mutant, with a deletion in relA (ΔMap/relA), could not establish a persistent infection. Further studies, using antigen presenting cells (APC), blood dendritic cells and monocyte derived DC, pulsed with ΔMap/relA or a 35 kDa Map membrane protein (MMP) revealed a component of the response to ΔMap/relA was directed towards MMP...
June 26, 2018: Veterinary Research
Evy Goossens, Griet Debyser, Chana Callens, Maarten De Gussem, Annelike Dedeurwaerder, Bart Devreese, Freddy Haesebrouck, Monika Flügel, Stefan Pelzer, Frank Thiemann, Richard Ducatelle, Filip Van Immerseel
Intestinal health is critically important for the welfare and performance of poultry. Enteric diseases that cause gut barrier failure result in high economic losses. Up till now there is no reliable faecal marker to measure gut barrier failure under field conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify a faecal protein marker for diminished intestinal barrier function due to enteric diseases in broilers. To assess this, experimental necrotic enteritis and coccidiosis in broilers were used as models for gut barrier failure...
June 20, 2018: Veterinary Research
Xuelian Zhang, Chong Cao, Yue Liu, Haihui Qi, Wenjing Zhang, Chunxue Hao, Haotian Chen, Qi Zhang, Wenlong Zhang, Mingchun Gao, Junwei Wang, Bo Ma
Duck hepatitis A virus 3 (DHAV-3), the only member of the novel genus Avihepatovirus, in the family Picornaviridae, can cause significant economic losses for duck farms in China. Reports on the pathogenicity and the antiviral molecular mechanisms of the lethal DHAV-3 strain in ducklings are inadequate and remain poorly understood. We conducted global gene expression profiling and screened differentially expressed genes (DEG) of duckling liver tissues infected with lethal DHAV-3. There were 1643 DEG and 8979 DEG when compared with mock ducklings at 12 hours post-infection (hpi) and at 48 hpi, respectively...
June 20, 2018: Veterinary Research
Tomohiro Okagawa, Satoru Konnai, Asami Nishimori, Naoya Maekawa, Shinya Goto, Ryoyo Ikebuchi, Junko Kohara, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shinji Yamada, Yukinari Kato, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that infects B cells in cattle and causes bovine leukosis after a long latent period. Progressive exhaustion of T cell functions is considered to facilitate disease progression of BLV infection. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) are immunoinhibitory receptors that contribute to T-cell exhaustion caused by BLV infection in cattle. However, it is unclear whether the cooperation of PD-1 and LAG-3 accelerates disease progression of BLV infection...
June 19, 2018: Veterinary Research
Naíla C do Nascimento, Ana M S Guimaraes, Andrea P Dos Santos, Yuefeng Chu, Lucas M Marques, Joanne B Messick
Pigs are popular animal models in biomedical research. RNA-Seq is becoming the predominant tool to investigate transcriptional changes of the pig's response to infection. The high sensitivity of this tool requires a strict control of the study design beginning with the selection of healthy animals to provide accurate interpretation of research data. Pigs chronically infected with Mycoplasma suis often show no obvious clinical signs, however the infection may affect the validity of animal research. The goal of this study was to investigate whether or not this silent infection is also silent at the host transcriptional level...
June 18, 2018: Veterinary Research
Karoline Rieckmann, Anna Seydel, Kristin Szewczyk, Kerstin Klimke, Viktoria Rungelrath, Christoph Georg Baums
Streptococcus (S.) suis is an important porcine pathogen causing meningitis, arthritis and septicemia. As cps7 emerged recently in Germany in association with severe herd problems, the objective of this study was to characterize the geno- and phenotype of invasive cps7 strains. Twenty cps7 strains were isolated from diseased pigs from different farms with S. suis herd problems due to meningitis and other pathologies. Eighteen of the cps7 isolates belonged to sequence type (ST) 29. Most of these cps7 strains secreted a short MRP variant in agreement with a premature stop codon...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Research
Aleksija Neimanis, Ulrika Larsson Pettersson, Nina Huang, Dolores Gavier-Widén, Tanja Strive
Lagovirus europaeus GI.2, also known as RHDV2 or RHDVb, is an emerging virus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In contrast to L. europaeus GI.1 (or RHDV/RHDVa) viruses that are only pathogenic for adults, GI.2 causes clinical disease in both adults and kittens. However, detailed descriptions of the pathology of this virus that may provide insight into its pathogenicity and emergence are lacking. Using an Australian GI.2 field strain isolated in 2015, we provide the first detailed description of pathology, viral antigen distribution and tissue load of GI...
June 5, 2018: Veterinary Research
Benjamin D Enger, Carly E Crutchfield, Taylor T Yohe, Kellie M Enger, Stephen C Nickerson, Catherine L M Parsons, Robert Michael Akers
Intramammary infections (IMI) are prevalent in non-lactating dairy cattle and their occurrence during periods of significant mammary growth and development (i.e. pregnant heifers and dry cows) is believed to interfere with growth, development, and subsequent milk production. However, direct study of IMI impacts on non-lactating but developing mammary glands is lacking. The objectives of this study were to (1) define how IMI affected total and differential mammary secretion somatic cell counts in mammary glands stimulated to rapidly grow using estradiol and progesterone, and (2) characterize changes in mammary morphology in response to IMI...
June 5, 2018: Veterinary Research
Beatriz Garcia-Morante, Arkadius Dors, Rocio León-Kempis, Ana Pérez de Rozas, Joaquim Segalés, Marina Sibila
Information on the in vitro growth of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) strains is scarce and controversial. Despite its limitations, the colour changing units (CCU) assay is still considered the golden standard titration technique for M. hyopneumoniae culture. Thus, the aims of the present study were: (1) to describe the growth dynamics and kinetics of pathogenic and non-pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae strains, and (2) to monitor the strains' daily growth by ATP luminometry, CCU, colony forming units (CFU), and DNA quantification by real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and by fluorescent double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) staining, to evaluate them as putative titration methodologies...
May 25, 2018: Veterinary Research
Cristina Cano-Gómez, Francisco Llorente, Elisa Pérez-Ramírez, Ramón C Soriguer, Mathieu Sarasa, Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Clavero
Bagaza virus (BAGV; synonymous to Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, ITV) is a relevant arthropod-borne epornitic flavivirus. In its first emergence in Europe (southern Spain, 2010) BAGV caused an outbreak, severely affecting red-legged partridges and common pheasants. The effects (pathogenicity, role as reservoir host) of BAGV in other European phasianids are unknown. To fill this gap, grey partridges were experimentally infected with BAGV. The clinical course of the disease was severe, with neurological signs, significant weight loss and 40% mortality...
May 9, 2018: Veterinary Research
Richard Ducatelle, Evy Goossens, Fien De Meyer, Venessa Eeckhaut, Gunther Antonissen, Freddy Haesebrouck, Filip Van Immerseel
Intestinal health is determined by host (immunity, mucosal barrier), nutritional, microbial and environmental factors. Deficiencies in intestinal health are associated with shifts in the composition of the intestinal microbiome (dysbiosis), leakage of the mucosal barrier and/or inflammation. Since the ban on growth promoting antimicrobials in animal feed, these dysbiosis-related problems have become a major issue, especially in intensive animal farming. The economical and animal welfare consequences are considerable...
May 8, 2018: Veterinary Research
Roberto Sánchez-Sánchez, Ignacio Ferre, Michela Re, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier Blanco-Murcia, Luis Miguel Ferrer, Teresa Navarro, Manuel Pizarro Díaz, Marta González-Huecas, Enrique Tabanera, Julio Benavides, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora
Experimental infections in pregnant sheep have been focused on studying the effect of the time of challenge on the outcome of N. caninum infection, whereas the impact of the dose and route of challenge has not been studied in depth. Therefore, clinical outcome, immune responses, parasite detection and burden, and lesion severity in placental tissues and foetal brains were investigated in 90-day-pregnant sheep inoculated intravenously with 105 (G1), 104 (G2), 103 (G3), or 102 (G4) tachyzoites or subcutaneously with 104 (G5) tachyzoites of the virulent Nc-Spain7 isolate and an uninfected group (G6)...
May 8, 2018: Veterinary Research
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