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Veterinary Research

Jiraporn Jarungsriapisit, Lindsey J Moore, Stig Mæhle, Cecilie Skår, Ann Cathrine Einen, Ingrid Uglenes Fiksdal, Hugh Craig Morton, Sigurd O Stefansson, Geir Lasse Taranger, Sonal Patel
Salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV3) causes pancreas disease (PD) and adversely affects salmonid aquaculture in Europe. A better understanding of disease transmission is currently needed in order to manage PD outbreaks. Here, we demonstrate the relationship between viral dose and the outcome of SAV3 infection in Atlantic salmon post-smolts using a bath challenge model. Fish were challenged at 12 °C with 3 different SAV3 doses; 139, 27 and 7 TCID50 L(-1) of seawater. A dose of as little as 7 TCID50 L(-1) of seawater was able to induce SAV3 infection in the challenged population with a substantial level of variation between replicate tanks and, therefore, likely represents a dose close to the minimum dose required to establish an infection in a population...
October 19, 2016: Veterinary Research
Guangzhi Zhang, Richard Ducatelle, Belgacem Mihi, Annemieke Smet, Bram Flahou, Freddy Haesebrouck
The stomach of pigs at slaughter age is often colonized by Helicobacter (H.) suis, which is also the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) species in humans. It is associated with chronic gastritis, gastric ulceration and other gastric pathological changes in both hosts. Parietal cells are highly specialized, terminally differentiated epithelial cells responsible for gastric acid secretion and regulation. Dysfunction of these cells is closely associated with gastric pathology and disease...
October 19, 2016: Veterinary Research
Karolina Varmuzova, Marcela Faldynova, Marta Elsheimer-Matulova, Alena Sebkova, Ondrej Polansky, Hana Havlickova, Frantisek Sisak, Ivan Rychlik
The colonization of poultry with different Salmonella enterica serovars poses an issue throughout the world. In this study we therefore tested the efficacy of a vaccine consisting of attenuated strains of Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Typhimurium and Infantis against challenge with the same serovars and with S. Agona, Dublin and Hadar. We tested oral and aerosol administration of the vaccine, with or without co-administration of cecal microbiota from adult hens. The protective effect was determined by bacterial counts of the challenge strains up to week 18 of life and by characterizing the immune response using real-time PCR specific for 16 different genes...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Research
Gokhlesh Kumar, Karin Hummel, Maike Ahrens, Simon Menanteau-Ledouble, Timothy J Welch, Martin Eisenacher, Ebrahim Razzazi-Fazeli, Mansour El-Matbouli
Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease of fish that causes significant economic losses, particularly in salmonids. Bacterial pathogens differentially express proteins in the host during the infection process, and under certain environmental conditions. Iron is an essential nutrient for many cellular processes and is involved in host sensing and virulence regulation in many bacteria. Little is known about proteomics expression of Y. ruckeri in response to iron-limited conditions...
October 6, 2016: Veterinary Research
Susanne Niedermeyer, Martin Eiden, Pavlos Toumazos, Penelope Papasavva-Stylianou, Ioannis Ioannou, Theodoros Sklaviadis, Cynthia Panagiotidis, Jan Langeveld, Alex Bossers, Thorsten Kuczius, Martin Kaatz, Martin H Groschup, Christine Fast
Scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE's) affecting sheep and goats. Susceptibility of goats to scrapie is influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) of the host. Five polymorphisms are associated with reduced susceptibility to TSE's. In the study presented here caprine samples from a scrapie eradication program on Cyprus were genotyped and further characterized using BioRad TeSeE rapid test, histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical methods...
October 6, 2016: Veterinary Research
Mohamed H Kotob, Simon Menanteau-Ledouble, Gokhlesh Kumar, Mahmoud Abdelzaher, Mansour El-Matbouli
Co-infections are very common in nature and occur when hosts are infected by two or more different pathogens either by simultaneous or secondary infections so that two or more infectious agents are active together in the same host. Co-infections have a fundamental effect and can alter the course and the severity of different fish diseases. However, co-infection effect has still received limited scrutiny in aquatic animals like fish and available data on this subject is still scarce. The susceptibility of fish to different pathogens could be changed during mixed infections causing the appearance of sudden fish outbreaks...
October 4, 2016: Veterinary Research
Theresa Gather, Stephanie Walter, Stephanie Pfaender, Daniel Todt, Karsten Feige, Eike Steinmann, Jessika M V Cavalleri
The recently discovered nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV) naturally infects horses and is the closest known homolog of hepatitis C virus to date. Within a follow-up study acute field infections were monitored in four young Thoroughbred horses until the ages of 12-13 months. Serum samples were analyzed for the presence of NPHV RNA and anti-NPHV NS3 antibodies and liver specific parameters were evaluated. The four young horses were not able to clear infection, but remained chronically infected for the entire monitored time period despite the presence of NPHV specific antibodies...
2016: Veterinary Research
Patricia Aguilar-Calvo, Juan-Carlos Espinosa, Olivier Andréoletti, Lorenzo González, Leonor Orge, Ramón Juste, Juan-María Torres
Host prion (PrP(C)) genotype is a major determinant for the susceptibility to prion diseases. The Q/K222-PrP(C) polymorphic variant provides goats and mice with high resistance against classical scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE); yet its effect against atypical scrapie is unknown. Here, transgenic mice expressing the goat wild-type (wt) or the K222-PrP(C) variant were intracerebrally inoculated with several natural cases of atypical scrapie from sheep and goat and their susceptibility to the prion disease was determined...
2016: Veterinary Research
Charlie Cador, Séverine Hervé, Mathieu Andraud, Stéphane Gorin, Frédéric Paboeuf, Nicolas Barbier, Stéphane Quéguiner, Céline Deblanc, Gaëlle Simon, Nicolas Rose
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Veterinary Research
Sylvie L Benestad, Gordon Mitchell, Marion Simmons, Bjørnar Ytrehus, Turid Vikøren
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal contagious prion disease in cervids that is enzootic in some areas in North America. The disease has been found in deer, elk and moose in the USA and Canada, and in South Korea following the importation of infected animals. Here we report the first case of CWD in Europe, in a Norwegian free-ranging reindeer in Southern Norway. The origin of the disease is unknown. Until now a low number of cervids, and among them a few reindeer, have been tested for CWD in Norway. Therefore the prevalence of CWD is unknown...
2016: Veterinary Research
Luisa Samaniego-Barrón, Sarahí Luna-Castro, Carolina Piña-Vázquez, Francisco Suárez-Güemes, Mireya de la Garza
Mannheimia haemolytica is a Gram negative bacterium that is part of the bovine respiratory disease, which causes important economic losses in the livestock industry. In the present work, the interaction between M. haemolytica A1 and bovine lactoferrin (BLf) was studied. This iron-chelating glycoprotein is part of the mammalian innate-immune system and is present in milk and mucosal secretions; Lf is also contained in neutrophils secondary granules, which release this glycoprotein at infection sites. It was evidenced that M...
2016: Veterinary Research
Lin Wang, Mei Mei, Aijian Qin, Jianqiang Ye, Kun Qian, Hongxia Shao
We previously identified chicken Annexin A2 (chANXA2) as a novel receptor for retrovirus avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), using a DF1 cell line expressing the viral envelope (env) protein. To further probe whether other proteins participate in virus infection, we investigated several host proteins from co-immunoprecipitation with the DF1 cell line expressing viral env. Mass spectrometry analysis indicates that the chicken glucose-regulation protein 78 (chGRP78) of the DF1 membrane interacted with the ALV-J env protein...
2016: Veterinary Research
Liqian Zhu, Chen Yuan, Liyuan Huang, Xiuyan Ding, Jianye Wang, Dong Zhang, Guoqiang Zhu
We have shown previously that BHV-1 infection activates Erk1/2 signaling. Here, we show that BHV-1 provoked an early-stage transient and late-stage sustained activation of JNK, p38MAPK and c-Jun signaling in MDBK cells. C-Jun phosphorylation was dependent on JNK. These early events were partially due to the viral entry process. Unexpectedly, reactive oxygen species were not involved in the later activation phase. Interestingly, only activated JNK facilitated the viral multiplication identified through both chemical inhibitor and siRNA...
2016: Veterinary Research
Noelia Nuñez-Ortiz, Francesco Pascoli, Simona Picchietti, Francesco Buonocore, Chiara Bernini, Marica Toson, Giuseppe Scapigliati, Anna Toffan
The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is an important farmed fish species in the Mediterranean area, very sensitive to the infection by encephalopathy and retinopathy virus (VERv), or Betanodavirus, which causes massive mortalities. Effective vaccines to fight the pathology are not yet available and in this work we describe a promising intraperitoneal immunization route against VERv of sea bass juveniles. We performed intraperitoneal and immersion immunization trials with a VERv (isolate 283.2009 RGNNV) inactivated by formalin, β-propiolactone and heat treatment...
2016: Veterinary Research
Alexander Corbishley, Timothy K Connelley, Eliza B Wolfson, Keith Ballingall, Amy E Beckett, David L Gally, Tom N McNeilly
Vaccines targeting enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 shedding in cattle are only partially protective. The correlates of protection of these vaccines are unknown, but it is probable that they reduce bacterial adherence at the mucosal surface via the induction of blocking antibodies. Recent studies have indicated a role for cellular immunity in cattle during colonisation, providing an impetus to understand the bacterial epitopes recognised during this response. This study mapped the epitopes of 16 EHEC O157:H7 proteins recognised by rectal lymph node CD4(+) T-cells from calves colonised with Shiga toxin producing EHEC O157:H7 strains...
2016: Veterinary Research
Jianpeng Gao, Mingxing Tian, Yanqing Bao, Peng Li, Jiameng Liu, Chan Ding, Shaohui Wang, Tao Li, Shengqing Yu
Brucellosis, caused by a facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella, is one of the most prevalent zoonosis worldwide. Host infection relies on several uncanonical virulence factors. A recent research hotpot is the links between carbon metabolism and bacterial virulence. In this study, we found that a carbon metabolism-related pyruvate kinase (Pyk) encoded by pyk gene (locus tag BAB_RS24320) was associated with Brucella virulence. Determination of bacterial growth curves and resistance to environmental stress factors showed that Pyk plays an important role in B...
2016: Veterinary Research
Annelies Maria Declercq, Johan Aerts, Bart Ampe, Freddy Haesebrouck, Sarah De Saeger, Annemie Decostere
Teleost fish faced with stressful stimuli launch an endocrine stress response through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis to release glucocorticoids, in particular cortisol, into the blood. For the majority of bacterial fish pathogens, stress is considered a key factor in disease outbreaks. Based upon studies in mammals, there is considerable evidence to suggest that, besides impairing the immune system, cortisol can have a direct effect on bacterial cells. Hitherto, this intriguing field of microbial endocrinology has remained largely unexplored in aquatic diseases...
2016: Veterinary Research
Louise Nicol, Hazel Wilkie, Anton Gossner, Craig Watkins, Robert Dalziel, John Hopkins
Two different forms of clinical paratuberculosis in sheep are recognised, related to the level of bacterial colonization. Paucibacillary lesions are largely composed of lymphocytes with few bacteria, and multibacillary pathology is characterized by heavily-infected macrophages. Analysis of cytokine transcripts has shown that inflammatory Th1/Th17 T cells are associated with development of paucibacillary pathology and Th2 cytokines are correlated with multibacillary disease. The master regulator T cell transcription factors TBX21, GATA3, RORC2 and RORA are critical for the development of these T cell subsets...
2016: Veterinary Research
Carly A Hamilton, Suman Mahan, Gary Entrican, Jayne C Hope
Vaccination of neonatal calves with BCG induces a significant level of protection from infection with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. Since neonatal vaccination of humans with BCG induces activation of NK cells, and young calves have high circulating numbers of these cells, we hypothesised that NK cells are important in the protective response to BCG. Furthermore, since NK cells play a role in shaping adaptive immune responses through interactions with DCs, we investigated the interactions between NK cells and DCs in the context of BCG...
2016: Veterinary Research
Charlie Cador, Séverine Hervé, Mathieu Andraud, Stéphane Gorin, Frédéric Paboeuf, Nicolas Barbier, Stéphane Quéguiner, Céline Deblanc, Gaëlle Simon, Nicolas Rose
A transmission experiment involving 5-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) piglets, with (MDA(+)) or without maternally-derived antibodies (MDA(-)), was carried out to evaluate the impact of passive immunity on the transmission of a swine influenza A virus (swIAV). In each group (MDA(+)/MDA(-)), 2 seeders were placed with 4 piglets in direct contact and 5 in indirect contact (3 replicates per group). Serological kinetics (ELISA) and individual viral shedding (RT-PCR) were monitored for 28 days after infection...
2016: Veterinary Research
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