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Veterinary Research

Cristina Cano-Gómez, Francisco Llorente, Elisa Pérez-Ramírez, Ramón C Soriguer, Mathieu Sarasa, Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Clavero
Bagaza virus (BAGV; synonymous to Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, ITV) is a relevant arthropod-borne epornitic flavivirus. In its first emergence in Europe (southern Spain, 2010) BAGV caused an outbreak, severely affecting red-legged partridges and common pheasants. The effects (pathogenicity, role as reservoir host) of BAGV in other European phasianids are unknown. To fill this gap, grey partridges were experimentally infected with BAGV. The clinical course of the disease was severe, with neurological signs, significant weight loss and 40% mortality...
May 9, 2018: Veterinary Research
Richard Ducatelle, Evy Goossens, Fien De Meyer, Venessa Eeckhaut, Gunther Antonissen, Freddy Haesebrouck, Filip Van Immerseel
Intestinal health is determined by host (immunity, mucosal barrier), nutritional, microbial and environmental factors. Deficiencies in intestinal health are associated with shifts in the composition of the intestinal microbiome (dysbiosis), leakage of the mucosal barrier and/or inflammation. Since the ban on growth promoting antimicrobials in animal feed, these dysbiosis-related problems have become a major issue, especially in intensive animal farming. The economical and animal welfare consequences are considerable...
May 8, 2018: Veterinary Research
Roberto Sánchez-Sánchez, Ignacio Ferre, Michela Re, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier Blanco-Murcia, Luis Miguel Ferrer, Teresa Navarro, Manuel Pizarro Díaz, Marta González-Huecas, Enrique Tabanera, Julio Benavides, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora
Experimental infections in pregnant sheep have been focused on studying the effect of the time of challenge on the outcome of N. caninum infection, whereas the impact of the dose and route of challenge has not been studied in depth. Therefore, clinical outcome, immune responses, parasite detection and burden, and lesion severity in placental tissues and foetal brains were investigated in 90-day-pregnant sheep inoculated intravenously with 105 (G1), 104 (G2), 103 (G3), or 102 (G4) tachyzoites or subcutaneously with 104 (G5) tachyzoites of the virulent Nc-Spain7 isolate and an uninfected group (G6)...
May 8, 2018: Veterinary Research
Tuofan Li, Jing Xie, Lu Lv, Shu Sun, Xiaomei Dong, Quan Xie, Guangcheng Liang, Chichao Xia, Hongxia Shao, Aijian Qin, Jianqiang Ye
In this study, we identified a chicken liver cell line (LMH) which could strongly support the replication of ALV-J (Subgroup J of avian leukosis virus) with high viral titer. Notably, ALV-J was efficiently detected by ELISA in LMH cells 1 day before DF1 cells. In comparison with DF1 cells, LMH cells not only expressed higher levels of ALV-J receptor chNHE-1, but also possessed a more efficient protein expression system for foreign genes. Thus, LMH cells could be a novel tool to shorten the ALV-J eradication approach and accelerate studies on the pathogenesis and oncogenesis of ALV-J...
May 2, 2018: Veterinary Research
Yuan Gao, Nicolás M Suárez, Gavin S Wilkie, Chuanfu Dong, Sven Bergmann, Pei-Yu Alison Lee, Andrew J Davison, Alain F C Vanderplasschen, Maxime Boutier
Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the archetypal fish alloherpesvirus and the etiologic agent of a lethal disease in common and koi carp. To date, the genome sequences of only four CyHV-3 isolates have been published, but no comparisons of the biologic properties of these strains have been reported. We have sequenced the genomes of a further seven strains from various geographical sources, and have compared their growth in vitro and virulence in vivo. The major findings were: (i) the existence of the two genetic lineages previously described as European and Asian was confirmed, but inconsistencies between the geographic origin and genotype of some strains were revealed; (ii) potential inter-lineage recombination was detected in one strain, which also suggested the existence of a third, as yet unidentified lineage; (iii) analysis of genetic disruptions led to the identification of non-essential genes and their potential role in virulence; (iv) comparison of the in vitro and in vivo properties of strains belonging to the two lineages revealed that inter-lineage polymorphisms do not contribute to the differences in viral fitness observed; and (v) a negative correlation was observed among strains between viral growth in vitro and virulence in vivo...
May 2, 2018: Veterinary Research
Praveen K Chitneedi, Aroa Suárez-Vega, María Martínez-Valladares, Juan José Arranz, Beatriz Gutiérrez-Gil
The present study exploited the RNA-seq technology to analyze the transcriptome of target tissues affected by the Teladorsagia circumcincta infection in two groups of adult ewes showing different statuses against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection with the aim of identifying genes linked to GIN infection resistance in sheep. For this, based on the accumulated faecal egg count of 18 adult Churra ewes subjected to a first experimental infection with T. circumcincta, six ewes were classified as resistant and six others as susceptible to the infection...
April 27, 2018: Veterinary Research
Amy E DeClue, Sandra M Axiak-Bechtel, Yan Zhang, Saurabh Saha, Linping Zhang, David Tung, Jeffrey N Bryan
Clostridium novyi-NT (CVN-NT) spores germinate in hypoxic regions of tumors and have successfully cured induced neoplasia in mouse models and resulted in objective tumor responses in naturally developing neoplasia in the dog. The objective of this pilot, descriptive, prospective, clinical investigation, was to evaluate and describe the immune response to CNV-NT spores to better understand which immune pathways might play a role in the response to this bacteriolytic immunotherapy. Intratumoral injection of CNV-NT spores result in increased phagocytosis and NK cell-like function after treatment...
April 24, 2018: Veterinary Research
Mona Saleh, Gokhlesh Kumar, Abdel-Azeem Abdel-Baki, Mohamed A Dkhil, Mansour El-Matbouli, Saleh Al-Quraishy
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a ciliated protozoan parasite recognized as one of the most pathogenic diseases of wild and cultured freshwater fish. Fish skin mucus plays a significant role against invading pathogens. However, the protein-based modulation against infection with I. multifiliis, of host fish at this barrier is unknown. Thus, we investigated the skin mucus proteome of common carp using a shotgun proteomic approach at days 1 and 9 after I. multifiliis exposure. We identified 25 differentially expressed proteins in infected carp skin mucus...
April 20, 2018: Veterinary Research
Vahid Molaee, Marwa Eltanany, Gesine Lühken
Maedi-visna, a disease caused by small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), is present in sheep from many countries, also including Germany. An amino acid substitution (E/K) at position 35 of the transmembrane protein 154 (TMEM154) as well as a deletion in the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor type 5 gene (CCR5) were reported to be associated with the serological MV status and/or the SRLV provirus concentration in North American sheep populations. The aim of this study was to test if those two gene variants might be useful markers for MV susceptibility in Germany...
April 19, 2018: Veterinary Research
Richard J Whittington, Ika Paul-Pont, Olivia Evans, Paul Hick, Navneet K Dhand
Marine herpesviruses are responsible for epizootics in economically, ecologically and culturally significant taxa. The recent emergence of microvariants of Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas has resulted in socioeconomic losses in Europe, New Zealand and Australia however, there is no information on their origin or mode of transmission. These factors need to be understood because they influence the way the disease may be prevented and controlled. Mortality data obtained from experimental populations of C...
April 10, 2018: Veterinary Research
Chloë De Witte, Bernard Taminiau, Bram Flahou, Veerle Hautekiet, Georges Daube, Richard Ducatelle, Freddy Haesebrouck
The minimum inhibitory concentration of bambermycin on three porcine Helicobacter suis strains was shown to be 8 μg/mL. The effect of in-feed medication with this antibiotic on the course of a gastric infection with one of these strains, the host response and the gastric microbiota was determined in mice, as all of these parameters may be involved in gastric pathology. In H. suis infected mice which were not treated with bambermycin, an increased number of infiltrating B-cells, T-cells and macrophages in combination with a Th2 response was demonstrated, as well as a decreased parietal cell mass...
April 10, 2018: Veterinary Research
José Luis Pitarch, Helen Caroline Raksa, María Cruz Arnal, Miguel Revilla, David Martínez, Daniel Fernández de Luco, Juan José Badiola, Wilfred Goldmann, Cristina Acín
The first European cases of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging reindeer and wild elk were confirmed in Norway in 2016 highlighting the urgent need to understand transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in the context of European deer species and the many individual populations throughout the European continent. The genetics of the prion protein gene (PRNP) are crucial in determining the relative susceptibility to TSEs. To establish PRNP gene sequence diversity for free-ranging ruminants in the Northeast of Spain, the open reading frame was sequenced in over 350 samples from five species: Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama), Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) and Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p...
April 10, 2018: Veterinary Research
Mingxing Tian, Yanqing Bao, Peng Li, Hai Hu, Chan Ding, Shaohui Wang, Tao Li, Jingjing Qi, Xiaolan Wang, Shengqing Yu
Brucellosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease caused by Brucella spp. The virulence of these bacteria is dependent on their ability to invade and replicate within host cells. In a previous study, a putative gene bab_RS27735 encoding an amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein homologous to AapJ protein was found to be involved in Brucella abortus virulence. In this study, we successfully constructed a bab_RS27735 deletion mutant, Δ27735. Compared with the wild-type strain, the lipopolysaccharide pattern of the mutant was not changed, but the growth ability was slightly defected in the exponential phase...
March 29, 2018: Veterinary Research
Camille Berthault, Thibaut Larcher, Sonja Härtle, Jean-François Vautherot, Laetitia Trapp-Fragnet, Caroline Denesvre
Marek's disease is a multi-faceted highly contagious disease affecting chickens caused by the Marek's disease alphaherpesvirus (MDV). MDV early infection induces a transient immunosuppression, which is associated with thymus and bursa of Fabricius atrophy. Little is known about the cellular processes involved in primary lymphoid organ atrophy. Here, by in situ TUNEL assay, we demonstrate that MDV infection results in a high level of apoptosis in the thymus and bursa of Fabricius, which is concomitant to the MDV lytic cycle...
March 27, 2018: Veterinary Research
Niccoló Vendramin, Anna Luiza Farias Alencar, Tine Moesgaard Iburg, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Øystein Wessel, Anne Berit Olsen, Espen Rimstad, Niels Jørgen Olesen
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is endemic in farmed rainbow trout in continental Europe and in various salmonid fish species at the Pacific coast of North America. IHN has never occurred in European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms, but is considered as a major threat for the European salmon industry. Another virus, Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), is widespread in the sea phase of Atlantic salmon, and is identified as the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between a primary PRV infection and a secondary IHNV infection under experimental conditions...
March 13, 2018: Veterinary Research
Ping Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Weikang Wang, Tuofan Li, Guangchen Liang, Hongxia Shao, Wei Gao, Aijian Qin, Jianqiang Ye
A recent outbreak of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome caused by serotype 4 fowl adenovirus (FAdV-4) has resulted in significant economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. However, little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of FAdV-4. In this study, a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting the fiber-2 protein of FAdV-4 was generated, mAb 3C2. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that mAb 3C2 neither reacted with serotype 8 fowl adenovirus (FAdV-8) nor reacted with the fiber-1 protein of FAdV-4; it specifically reacted with the fiber-2 protein of FAdV-4...
March 9, 2018: Veterinary Research
Nadine Schmidt, Stefanie A Barth, Jana Frahm, Ulrich Meyer, Sven Dänicke, Lutz Geue, Christian Menge
The principal virulence factor of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), the eponymous Stx, modulates cellular immune responses in cattle, the primary STEC reservoir. We examined whether immunization with genetically inactivated recombinant Shiga toxoids (rStx1MUT /rStx2MUT ) influences STEC shedding in a calf cohort. A group of 24 calves was passively (colostrum from immunized cows) and actively (intra-muscularly at 5th and 8th week) vaccinated. Twenty-four calves served as unvaccinated controls (fed with low anti-Stx colostrum, placebo injected)...
March 7, 2018: Veterinary Research
Nelly Marquetoux, Rebecca Mitchell, Anne Ridler, Cord Heuer, Peter Wilson
This literature review of exposure to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in sheep enabled a synthesis of the patho-physiology of ovine paratuberculosis (PTB). These results could be used to inform subsequent modelling of ovine PTB. We reviewed studies of both experimental and natural exposure. They were generally comparable. Possible outcomes following exposure were latent infection, i.e. mere colonization without lesions; active infection, with inflammatory histopathology in the intestinal tissues resulting in mild disease and low faecal shedding; and affection, with severe intestinal pathology, reduced production, clinical signs and high faecal shedding...
March 7, 2018: Veterinary Research
Paola Sacchi, Roberto Rasero, Giuseppe Ru, Eleonora Aiassa, Silvia Colussi, Francesco Ingravalle, Simone Peletto, Maria Gabriella Perrotta, Stefano Sartore, Dominga Soglia, Pierluigi Acutis
The European Union has implemented breeding programmes to increase scrapie resistance in sheep. A similar approach can be applied also in goats since the K222 allele provides a level of resistance equivalent to that of ARR in sheep. The European Food Safety Authority stated that breeding for resistance could be offered as an option for Member States to control classical scrapie in goats. We assessed the impact of different breeding strategies on PRNP genotype frequencies using a mathematical model that describes in detail the evolution of K222 in two goat breeds, Chamois Coloured and Saanen...
March 6, 2018: Veterinary Research
Eveline M Boerhout, Ad P Koets, Tanja G T Mols-Vorstermans, Piet J M Nuijten, Mathieu J H Hoeijmakers, Victor P M G Rutten, Jetta J E Bijlsma
Intramammary infections in cattle resulting in mastitis have detrimental effects on cows' well-being, lifespan and milk production. In the host defense against S. aureus mastitis antibodies are thought to play an important role. To explore potential ways to increase antibody titers in the bovine mammary gland the effects of various adjuvants on the magnitude, isotype, and neutralizing capacity of antibodies produced following subcutaneous vaccine administration at different immunization sites were analyzed...
March 1, 2018: Veterinary Research
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