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Veterinary Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899159/p53-signaling-modulation-of-cell-cycle-arrest-and-viral-replication-in-porcine-circovirus-type-2-infection-cells
#1
Dan Xu, Qian Du, Cong Han, Zengguo Wang, Xiujuan Zhang, Tongtong Wang, Xiaomin Zhao, Yong Huang, Dewen Tong
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a ubiquitous pathogen in the swine industry worldwide. Previous studies have shown that PCV2 infection induces host cell apoptosis through up-regulation of p53. To further identify the regulatory roles of p53 signaling in the process of PCV2 infection, we established p53 gene knockout PK15 cell lines using the genomic editor tool CRISPR/Cas9, and further investigated the roles of p53 in modulating the cell cycle and viral replication in this study. The results show that PCV2 infection induced obvious S phase accumulation in wild-type PK15 cells and a compromised S phase accumulation in the p53 gene mutation cells (813PK15 (p53m/m) ), but did not induce obvious S phase accumulation in the p53 gene knockout cells (148PK15 (p53-/-)) compared with the respective mock infection...
November 29, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894330/marek-s-disease-in-chickens-a-review-with-focus-on-immunology
#2
REVIEW
Nitish Boodhoo, Angila Gurung, Shayan Sharif, Shahriar Behboudi
Marek's disease (MD), caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), is a commercially important neoplastic disease of poultry which is only controlled by mass vaccination. Importantly, vaccines that can provide sterile immunity and inhibit virus transmission are lacking; such that vaccines are only capable of preventing neuropathy, oncogenic disease and immunosuppression, but are unable to prevent MDV transmission or infection, leading to emergence of increasingly virulent pathotypes. Hence, to address these issues, developing more efficacious vaccines that induce sterile immunity have become one of the important research goals for avian immunologists today...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871330/age-is-not-a-determinant-factor-in-susceptibility-of-broilers-to-h5n2-clade-2-3-4-4-high-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-virus
#3
Kateri Bertran, Dong-Hun Lee, Charles Balzli, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, Erica Spackman, David E Swayne
In 2014-2015, the US experienced an unprecedented outbreak of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. The H5N2 HPAI virus outbreak in the Midwest in 2015 affected commercial turkey and layer farms, but not broiler farms. To assess any potential genetic resistance of broilers and/or age-related effects, we investigated the pathogenesis and transmission of A/turkey/Minnesota/12582/2015 (H5N2) (Tk/MN/15) virus in commercial 5-week-old broilers, 8-week-old broilers, and >30-week-old broiler breeders...
November 21, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871316/heterogeneous-antigenic-properties-of-the-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-nucleocapsid
#4
Julie C F Rappe, Obdulio García-Nicolás, Franziska Flückiger, Barbara Thür, Martin A Hofmann, Artur Summerfield, Nicolas Ruggli
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus responsible for a widespread contagious disease of domestic pigs with high economic impact. Switzerland is one of the rare PRRSV-free countries in Europe, although sporadic outbreaks have occurred in the past. The PRRSV isolate IVI-1173 from the short outbreak in Switzerland in 2012 was entirely sequenced, and a functional full-length cDNA clone was constructed. Genetic and antigenic characterization of IVI-1173 revealed the importance of amino acid 90 of the nucleocapsid protein N as part of a conformational epitope...
November 21, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871312/increased-frequency-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-shedding-and-lesions-in-suckling-pigs-compared-to-nursery-pigs-and-protective-immunity-in-nursery-pigs-after-homologous-re-challenge
#5
Priscilla F Gerber, Chao-Ting Xiao, Kelly Lager, Kimberly Crawford, Vikas Kulshreshtha, Dianjun Cao, Xiang-Jin Meng, Tanja Opriessnig
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes enteric disease in pigs and spreads rapidly after entering naïve pig populations. The objectives were to (1) compare the disease course following inoculation with PEDV isolate US/Colorado/2013 in naïve 10 day and 8 week-old pigs, and (2) contrast the naïve response to homologous challenge in 8 week-old pigs. Pigs were randomly assigned into group 1 (n = 40, no PEDV exposure), group 2 (n = 43, PEDV inoculation at 10 days of age) and group 3 (n = 48, PEDV inoculation at 8 weeks of age)...
November 21, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846859/attenuation-of-the-virulence-of-a-recombinant-influenza-virus-expressing-the-naturally-truncated-ns-gene-from-an-h3n8-equine-influenza-virus-in-mice
#6
Woonsung Na, Kwang-Soo Lyoo, Sun-Woo Yoon, Minjoo Yeom, Bokyu Kang, Hyoungjoon Moon, Hye Kwon Kim, Dae Gwin Jeong, Jeong-Ki Kim, Daesub Song
Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids. Recently, we isolated an H3N8 EIV (A/equine/Kyonggi/SA1/2011) from a domestic horse in South Korea that exhibited symptoms of respiratory disease, and found that the EIV strain contained a naturally mutated NS gene segment encoding a truncated NS1 protein. In order to determine whether there was an association between the NS gene truncation and viral virulence, a reverse genetics system was applied to generate various NS gene recombinant viruses using the backbone of the H1N1 A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR/8) virus...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829462/immunomodulation-in-the-canine-endometrium-by-uteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#7
Sofia Henriques, Elisabete Silva, Marta F Silva, Sandra Carvalho, Patrícia Diniz, Luís Lopes-da-Costa, Luisa Mateus
This study was designed to evaluate the role of E. coli α-hemolysin (HlyA) in the pathogenesis of canine pyometra, and on the immune response of canine endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. In Experiment 1, the clinical, hematological, biochemical and uterine histological characteristics of β-hemolytic and non-hemolytic E. coli pyometra bitches were compared. More (p < 0.05) metritis cases were observed in β-hemolytic E. coli pyometra uteri than in non-hemolytic E. coli pyometra uteri. β-hemolytic E...
November 9, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825391/oestrous-cycle-dependent-equine-uterine-immune-response-to-induced-infectious-endometritis
#8
Christina D Marth, Simon M Firestone, Lisa Y Glenton, Glenn F Browning, Neil D Young, Natali Krekeler
Infectious endometritis is a major cause of reduced pregnancy rates in horses. The objectives of this study were to establish a timeline of the innate immune response in the uterus of healthy horses and to investigate the oestrous cycle effect on this. Endometrial biopsies were collected from five horses before and at 3, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after inoculation of Escherichia coli, once in oestrus and once in dioestrus. They were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR, microbiology and histology. Neutrophil numbers increased from very low levels in the absence of inflammation to severe neutrophilia 3 h after inoculation...
November 8, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825377/combination-of-probiotics-and-coccidiosis-vaccine-enhances-protection-against-an-eimeria-challenge
#9
Miranda M Ritzi, Wael Abdelrahman, Kobus van-Heerden, Michaela Mohnl, Nathaniel W Barrett, Rami A Dalloul
Coccidiosis is endemic in the commercial broiler industry capable of inflicting devastating economic losses to poultry operations. Vaccines are relatively effective in controlling the disease; their efficacy could potentially be improved with concurrent use of probiotics as evaluated in this study using an Eimeria challenge. Day of hatch 400 Cobb-500 male broilers were assigned to one of four treatment groups including control (CON), vaccine-only gel application (VNC), probiotic-only gel application (NPC), and vaccine-plus-probiotic gel application (VPC)...
November 8, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825367/involvement-of-the-different-lung-compartments-in-the-pathogenesis-of-ph1n1-influenza-virus-infection-in-ferrets
#10
Beatriz Vidaña, Jorge Martínez, Jaime Martorell, María Montoya, Lorena Córdoba, Mónica Pérez, Natàlia Majó
Severe cases after pH1N1 infection are consequence of interstitial pneumonia triggered by alveolar viral replication and an exacerbated host immune response, characterized by the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the influx of inflammatory leukocytes to the lungs. Different lung cell populations have been suggested as culprits in the unregulated innate immune responses observed in these cases. This study aims to clarify this question by studying the different induction of innate immune molecules by the distinct lung anatomic compartments (vascular, alveolar and bronchiolar) of ferrets intratracheally infected with a human pH1N1 viral isolate, by means of laser microdissection techniques...
November 8, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825366/l-bse-experimentally-transmitted-to-sheep-presents-as-a-unique-disease-phenotype
#11
Marion M Simmons, Melanie J Chaplin, Timm Konold, Cristina Casalone, Katy E Beck, Leigh Thorne, Sharon Everitt, Tobias Floyd, Derek Clifford, John Spiropoulos
Apart from prion protein genotype, the factors determining the host range and susceptiblity for specific transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agents remain unclear. It is known that bovine atypical L-BSE can transmit to a range of species including primates and humanised transgenic mice. It is important, therefore, that there is as broad an understanding as possible of how such isolates might present in food animal species and how robust they are on inter- and intra-species transmission to inform surveillance sytems and risk assessments...
November 8, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814754/transmission-tree-of-the-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-epidemic-in-israel-2015
#12
Timothée Vergne, Guillaume Fournié, Michal Perry Markovich, Rolf J F Ypma, Ram Katz, Irena Shkoda, Avishai Lublin, Shimon Perk, Dirk U Pfeiffer
The transmission tree of the Israeli 2015 epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) was modelled by combining the spatio-temporal distribution of the outbreaks and the genetic distance between virus isolates. The most likely successions of transmission events were determined and transmission parameters were estimated. It was found that the median infectious pressure exerted at 1 km was 1.59 times (95% CI 1.04, 6.01) and 3.54 times (95% CI 1.09, 131.75) higher than that exerted at 2 and 5 km, respectively, and that three farms were responsible for all seven transmission events...
November 4, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793195/review-on-the-transmission-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-between-pigs-and-farms-and-impact-on-vaccination
#13
REVIEW
Emanuela Pileri, Enric Mateu
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is considered to be one of the most costly diseases affecting intensive pig production worldwide. Control of PRRS is a complex issue and involves a combination of measures including monitoring, diagnosis, biosecurity, herd management, and immunization. In spite of the numerous studies dealing with PRRS virus epidemiology, transmission of the infection is still not fully understood. The present article reviews the current knowledge on PRRSV transmission between and within farm, and the impact of vaccination on virus transmission...
October 28, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769313/experimental-piscine-orthoreovirus-infection-mediates-protection-against-pancreas-disease-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#14
Morten Lund, Magnus Vikan Røsæg, Aleksei Krasnov, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Ingvild Berg Nyman, Vidar Aspehaug, Espen Rimstad, Maria Krudtaa Dahle
Viral diseases are among the main challenges in farming of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The most prevalent viral diseases in Norwegian salmon aquaculture are heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) caused by Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), and pancreas disease (PD) caused by Salmonid alphavirus (SAV). Both PRV and SAV target heart and skeletal muscles, but SAV additionally targets exocrine pancreas. PRV and SAV are often present in the same locations and co-infections occur, but the effect of this crosstalk on disease development has not been investigated...
October 21, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765069/genetic-loci-of-mycoplasma-agalactiae-involved-in-systemic-spreading-during-experimental-intramammary-infection-of-sheep
#15
Shivanand Hegde, Martina Zimmermann, Martina Flöck, Rene Brunthaler, Joachim Spergser, Renate Rosengarten, Rohini Chopra-Dewasthaly
Mycoplasmas are amongst the most successful pathogens of both humans and animals yet the molecular basis of mycoplasma pathogenesis is poorly understood. This is partly due to the lack of classical virulence factors and little similarity to common bacterial pathogenic determinants. Using Mycoplasma agalactiae as a model we initiated research in this direction by screening a transposon mutant library in the natural sheep host using a negative selection method. Having successfully identified putative factors involved in the colonization of local infection and lymphogenic sites, the current study assessed mutants unable to spread systemically in sheep after experimental intramammary infection...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765064/distinct-immune-responses-and-virus-shedding-in-pigs-following-aerosol-intra-nasal-and-contact-infection-with-pandemic-swine-influenza-a-virus-a-h1n1-09
#16
Johanneke D Hemmink, Sophie B Morgan, Mario Aramouni, Helen Everett, Francisco J Salguero, Laetitia Canini, Emily Porter, Margo Chase-Topping, Katy Beck, Ronan Mac Loughlin, B Veronica Carr, Ian H Brown, Mick Bailey, Mark Woolhouse, Sharon M Brookes, Bryan Charleston, Elma Tchilian
Influenza virus infection in pigs is a major farming problem, causing considerable economic loss and posing a zoonotic threat. In addition the pig is an excellent model for understanding immunity to influenza viruses as this is a natural host pathogen system. Experimentally, influenza virus is delivered to pigs intra-nasally, by intra-tracheal instillation or by aerosol, but there is little data comparing the outcome of different methods. We evaluated the shedding pattern, cytokine responses in nasal swabs and immune responses following delivery of low or high dose swine influenza pdmH1N1 virus to the respiratory tract of pigs intra-nasally or by aerosol and compared them to those induced in naturally infected contact pigs...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765062/the-60s-ribosomal-protein-l13-is-the-most-preferable-reference-gene-to-investigate-gene-expression-in-selected-organs-from-turkeys-and-chickens-in-context-of-different-infection-models
#17
Taniya Mitra, Ivana Bilic, Michael Hess, Dieter Liebhart
Evaluation of reference genes for expression studies in chickens and turkeys is very much limited and unavailable for various infectious models. In this study, eight candidate reference genes HMBS, HPRT1, TBP, VIM, TFRC, RPLP0, RPL13 and RPS7 were evaluated by five different algorithms (GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper©, delta CT, RefFinder) to assess their stability. In order to analyze a broad variation of tissues, spleen, liver, caecum and caecal tonsil of different aged specific pathogen free (SPF) layer chickens and commercial turkeys, uninfected or infected with the extracellular pathogen Histomonas meleagridis, were included...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765052/distinct-functional-enrichment-of-transcriptional-signatures-in-pigs-with-high-and-low-ifn-gamma-responses-after-vaccination-with-a-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv
#18
Tahar Ait-Ali, Ivan Díaz, Ferran Soldevila, Esmeralda Cano, Yanli Li, Alison D Wilson, Bruno Giotti, Alan L Archibald, Enric Mateu, Laila Darwich
Little is known about the host factor in the response to PRRSV vaccination. For this purpose, piglets were immunized with a commercial PRRSV-live vaccine and classified as high responders (HR) or low responders (LR) as regards to the frequencies of virus-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells. Six weeks post vaccination, PBMCs isolated from three individuals with the most extreme responses in each HR and LR groups and 3 unvaccinated controls, were either stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin, challenged with the vaccine or mock treated for 24 h, prior conducting transcriptional studies, gene ontology and pathway analyses...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760562/relationship-between-viral-dose-and-outcome-of-infection-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-post-smolts-bath-challenged-with-salmonid-alphavirus-subtype-3
#19
Jiraporn Jarungsriapisit, Lindsey J Moore, Stig Mæhle, Cecilie Skår, Ann Cathrine Einen, Ingrid Uglenes Fiksdal, Hugh Craig Morton, Sigurd O Stefansson, Geir Lasse Taranger, Sonal Patel
Salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV3) causes pancreas disease (PD) and adversely affects salmonid aquaculture in Europe. A better understanding of disease transmission is currently needed in order to manage PD outbreaks. Here, we demonstrate the relationship between viral dose and the outcome of SAV3 infection in Atlantic salmon post-smolts using a bath challenge model. Fish were challenged at 12 °C with 3 different SAV3 doses; 139, 27 and 7 TCID50 L(-1) of seawater. A dose of as little as 7 TCID50 L(-1) of seawater was able to induce SAV3 infection in the challenged population with a substantial level of variation between replicate tanks and, therefore, likely represents a dose close to the minimum dose required to establish an infection in a population...
October 19, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756386/helicobacter-suis-affects-the-health-and-function-of-porcine-gastric-parietal-cells
#20
Guangzhi Zhang, Richard Ducatelle, Belgacem Mihi, Annemieke Smet, Bram Flahou, Freddy Haesebrouck
The stomach of pigs at slaughter age is often colonized by Helicobacter (H.) suis, which is also the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) species in humans. It is associated with chronic gastritis, gastric ulceration and other gastric pathological changes in both hosts. Parietal cells are highly specialized, terminally differentiated epithelial cells responsible for gastric acid secretion and regulation. Dysfunction of these cells is closely associated with gastric pathology and disease...
October 19, 2016: Veterinary Research
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