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Veterinary Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329577/respiratory-explants-as-a-model-to-investigate-early-events-of-contagious-bovine-pleuropneumonia-infection
#1
Giovanni Di Teodoro, Giuseppe Marruchella, Andrea Di Provvido, Gianluca Orsini, Gaetano Federico Ronchi, Anna Rita D'Angelo, Nicola D'Alterio, Flavio Sacchini, Massimo Scacchia
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe disease caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). Knowledge on CBPP pathogenesis is fragmented and hampered by the limited availability of laboratory animal and in vitro models of investigation. The purpose of the present study is to assess respiratory explants as useful tools to study the early stages of CBPP. Explants were obtained from trachea, bronchi and lungs of slaughtered cattle, tested negative for Mycoplasma spp. and for the major bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens...
January 12, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316981/host-specific-differences-in-the-response-of-cultured-macrophages-to-campylobacter-jejuni-capsule-and-o-methyl-phosphoramidate-mutants
#2
Sungwon Kim, Andrea Vela, Sara M Clohisey, Spiridoula Athanasiadou, Pete Kaiser, Mark P Stevens, Lonneke Vervelde
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide and human infections are frequently associated with handling and consumption of contaminated poultry. The polysaccharide capsule of C. jejuni plays important roles in colonisation of the chicken gut, invasion of epithelial cells and serum resistance and is subject to modification with O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) in most strains. In this study, the cytokine responses of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (mBMMs), chicken bone marrow-derived macrophages (chBMMs) and human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs) were measured following infection with C...
January 9, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316978/in-vivo-testing-of-novel-vaccine-prototypes-against-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae
#3
Fabio Antenucci, Cyrielle Fougeroux, Alannah Deeney, Cathrine Ørskov, Andrew Rycroft, Peter Johannes Holst, Anders Miki Bojesen
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is a Gram-negative bacterium that represents the main cause of porcine pleuropneumonia in pigs, causing significant economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. A. pleuropneumoniae, as the majority of Gram-negative bacteria, excrete vesicles from its outer membrane (OM), accordingly defined as outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Thanks to their antigenic similarity to the OM, OMVs have emerged as a promising tool in vaccinology. In this study we describe the in vivo testing of several vaccine prototypes for the prevention of infection by all known A...
January 9, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316972/genomic-comparisons-of-streptococcus-suis-serotype-9-strains-recovered-from-diseased-pigs-in-spain-and-canada
#4
Han Zheng, Pengchen Du, Xiaotong Qiu, Anusak Kerdsin, David Roy, Xuemei Bai, Jianguo Xu, Ana I Vela, Marcelo Gottschalk
Streptococcus suis is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in the porcine industry and also a zoonotic agent. Serotype 9 is becoming one of the most prevalent serotypes within the S. suis population in certain European countries. In the present study, serotype 9 strains isolated from a country where infection due to this serotype is endemic (Spain), were compared to those recovered from Canada, where this serotype is rarely isolated from diseased pigs. For comparison purposes, strains from Brazil and the only strain isolated from a human case, in Thailand, were also incorporated...
January 9, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316971/mycoplasma-bovis-co-infection-with-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-in-bovine-macrophages
#5
Nina Bürgi, Christoph Josi, Sibylle Bürki, Matthias Schweizer, Paola Pilo
Several studies suggest that synergisms between Mycoplasma bovis and other microorganisms might exacerbate disease outcome of bovine mycoplasmosis. Screening several bovine cell types to assess their potential use as in vitro infection models for M. bovis, it was observed that a widely used cell line of bovine macrophages (Bomac cells) is in fact persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The cell line was first cured of this virus allowing comparative studies between both cell lines. Subsequently, uptake and co-culture of two M...
January 9, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268787/salmonella-enterica-serovar-choleraesuis-vector-delivering-saoa-antigen-confers-protection-against-streptococcus-suis-serotypes-2-and-7-in-mice-and-pigs
#6
Yu-An Li, Zhenying Ji, Xiaobo Wang, Shifeng Wang, Huoying Shi
Streptococcus suis is one of the major pathogens that cause economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. However, current bacterins only provide limited prophylactic protection in the field. An ideal vaccine against S. suis should protect pigs against the clinical diseases caused by multiple serotypes, or at least protect against the dominant serotype in a given geographic region. A new recombinant Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis vaccine vector, rSC0011, that is based on the regulated delayed attenuation system and regulated delayed antigen synthesis system, was developed recently...
December 21, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258602/detection-of-prpbse-and-prion-infectivity-in-the-ileal-peyer-s-patch-of-young-calves-as-early-as-2%C3%A2-months-after-oral-challenge-with-classical-bovine-spongiform-encephalopathy
#7
Ivett Ackermann, Anne Balkema-Buschmann, Reiner Ulrich, Kerstin Tauscher, James C Shawulu, Markus Keller, Olanrewaju I Fatola, Paul Brown, Martin H Groschup
In classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE), an orally acquired prion disease of cattle, the ileal Peyer's patch (IPP) represents the main entry port for the BSE agent. In earlier C-BSE pathogenesis studies, cattle at 4-6 months of age were orally challenged, while there are strong indications that the risk of infection is highest in young animals. In the present study, unweaned calves aged 4-6 weeks were orally challenged to determine the earliest time point at which newly formed PrPBSE and BSE infectivity are detectable in the IPP...
December 19, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228988/a-vp24-truncated-isolate-of-white-spot-syndrome-virus-is-inefficient-in-per-os-infection
#8
Yali Han, Fang Li, Limei Xu, Feng Yang
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen of penaeid shrimp. Here we identified a new WSSV strain, WSSV-CN04, from naturally infected Marsupenaeus japonicus. Whole genomic sequencing results indicate that the WSSV-CN04 genome was 281 054 bp in length, and encoded 157 hypothetic proteins. The genome sequence of WSSV-CN04 was most closely related to the low-virulent strain WSSV-CN03, sharing 97.5% sequence identity. Notably, in WSSV-CN04, the major envelop protein VP24 was not only truncated but also absent in the virions...
December 11, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216932/nanobodies-targeting-conserved-epitopes-on-the-major-outer-membrane-protein-of-campylobacter-as-potential-tools-for-control-of-campylobacter-colonization
#9
Charlotte Vanmarsenille, Inés Díaz Del Olmo, Jelle Elseviers, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh Ghassabeh, Kristof Moonens, Didier Vertommen, An Martel, Freddy Haesebrouck, Frank Pasmans, Jean-Pierre Hernalsteens, Henri De Greve
Campylobacter infections are among the most prevalent foodborne infections in humans, resulting in a massive disease burden worldwide. Broilers have been identified as the major source of campylobacteriosis and reducing Campylobacter loads in the broiler caeca has been proposed as an effective measure to decrease the number of infections in humans. Failure of current methods to control Campylobacter in broilers stresses the urgency to develop novel mitigation measures. We obtained six nanobodies with a broad specificity, that recognize strains belonging to the two most relevant species, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli...
December 8, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202873/gene-expression-in-the-chicken-caecum-is-dependent-on-microbiota-composition
#10
Jiri Volf, Ondrej Polansky, Zuzana Sekelova, Philippe Velge, Catherine Schouler, Bernd Kaspers, Ivan Rychlik
Gut microbiota is of considerable importance for each host. Despite this, germ-free animals can be obtained and raised to sexual maturity and consequences of the presence or absence of gut microbiota on gene expression of the host remain uncharacterised. In this study, we performed an unbiased study of protein expression in the caecum of germ-free and colonised chickens. The major difference between these two groups was in the expression of immunoglobulins which were essentially absent in the germ-free chickens...
December 4, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183401/primary-replication-and-invasion-of-the-bovine-gammaherpesvirus-bohv-4-in-the-genital-mucosae
#11
Bo Yang, Yewei Li, Osvaldo Bogado Pascottini, Jiexiong Xie, Ruifang Wei, Geert Opsomer, Hans Nauwynck
Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a gammaherpesvirus that is widespread in cattle. Ex vivo models with bovine genital tract mucosa explants were set up to study molecular/cellular BoHV-4-host interactions. Bovine posterior vagina, cervix and uterus body were collected from cows at two stages of the reproductive cycle for making mucosa explants. The BoHV-4 replication kinetics and characteristics within the three different mucosae of animals in the follicular and luteal phase were assessed by virus titration...
November 28, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183365/african-and-classical-swine-fever-similarities-differences-and-epidemiological-consequences
#12
REVIEW
Katja Schulz, Christoph Staubach, Sandra Blome
For the global pig industry, classical (CSF) and African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks are a constantly feared threat. Except for Sardinia, ASF was eradicated in Europe in the late 1990s, which led to a research focus on CSF because this disease continued to be present. However, ASF remerged in eastern Europe in 2007 and the interest in the disease, its control and epidemiology increased tremendously. The similar names and the same susceptible species suggest a similarity of the two viral diseases, a related biological behaviour and, correspondingly, similar epidemiological features...
November 28, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169390/genomic-analysis-of-bluetongue-virus-episystems-in-australia-and-indonesia
#13
Cadhla Firth, Kim R Blasdell, Rachel Amos-Ritchie, Indrawati Sendow, Kalpana Agnihotri, David B Boyle, Peter Daniels, Peter D Kirkland, Peter J Walker
The distribution of bluetongue viruses (BTV) in Australia is represented by two distinct and interconnected epidemiological systems (episystems)-one distributed primarily in the north and one in the east. The northern episystem is characterised by substantially greater antigenic diversity than the eastern episystem; yet the forces that act to limit the diversity present in the east remain unclear. Previous work has indicated that the northern episystem is linked to that of island South East Asia and Melanesia, and that BTV present in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and East Timor, may act as source populations for new serotypes and genotypes of BTV to enter Australia's north...
November 23, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162154/pigeon-paramyxovirus-type-1-from-a-fatal-human-case-induces-pneumonia-in-experimentally-infected-cynomolgus-macaques-macaca-fascicularis
#14
Thijs Kuiken, Pascal Buijs, Peter van Run, Geert van Amerongen, Marion Koopmans, Bernadette van den Hoogen
Although avian paramyxovirus type 1 is known to cause mild transient conjunctivitis in human beings, there are two recent reports of fatal respiratory disease in immunocompromised human patients infected with the pigeon lineage of the virus (PPMV-1). In order to evaluate the potential of PPMV-1 to cause respiratory tract disease, we inoculated a PPMV-1 isolate (hPPMV-1/Netherlands/579/2003) from an immunocompromised human patient into three healthy cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and examined them by clinical, virological, and pathological assays...
November 21, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162128/glycosylation-at-11asn-on-hemagglutinin-of-h5n1-influenza-virus-contributes-to-its-biological-characteristics
#15
Yuncong Yin, Xiaojian Zhang, Yiyi Qiao, Xiao Wang, Yangyang Su, Sujuan Chen, Tao Qin, Daxin Peng, Xiufan Liu
A stem glycosylation site of hemagglutinin (HA) is important to the stability of the HA trimmer. A previous study shows that the stem 10/11 overlap glycosylation site of the H5 subtype avian influenza virus may influence the cleavage of HA, whereas the exact site and its effect on virulence remain unclear. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate single or double mutant rSY-Δ10(10NNAT), rSY-Δ11(10NNSA), and rSY-Δ10/11(10NNAA) of the overlapping glycosylation site (10NNST) on the HA of A/Mallard/Huadong/S/2005(SY)...
November 21, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157309/recent-knowledge-on-hepatitis-e-virus-in-suidae-reservoirs-and-transmission-routes-to-human
#16
REVIEW
Nicole Pavio, Virginie Doceul, Eugénie Bagdassarian, Reimar Johne
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes self-limiting acute hepatitis in humans that can eventually result in acute liver failures or progress to chronic infections. While in tropical and sub-tropical areas, HEV infections are associated with important waterborne epidemics, in Northern countries, HEV infections are autochthonous with a zoonotic origin. In the past decade, it has become clear that certain HEV genotypes are zoonotic and that swine, and more generally Suidae, are the main reservoir. Zoonotic transmissions of the virus may occur via direct contact with infected pigs, wild boars or consumption of contaminated meat...
November 21, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157291/vaccination-with-recombinant-adenovirus-expressing-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-f-or-h-proteins-elicits-t-cell-responses-to-epitopes-that-arises-during-pprv-infection
#17
José Manuel Rojas, Miguel Avia, Elena Pascual, Noemí Sevilla, Verónica Martín
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an economically important disease that limits productivity in small domestic ruminants and often affects the livestock of the poorest populations in developing countries. Animals that survive PPRV develop strong cellular and humoral responses, which are probably necessary for protection. Vaccination should thus aim at mimicking these natural responses. Immunization strategies against this morbillivirus using recombinant adenoviruses expressing PPRV-F or -H proteins can protect PPRV-challenged animals and permit differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals...
November 21, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145872/correction-to-a-review-of-virulent-newcastle-disease-viruses-in-the-united-states-and-the-role-of-wild-birds-in-viral-persistence-and-spread
#18
Vienna R Brown, Sarah N Bevins
After publication of the article [1], it has been brought to our attention that Newcastle disease virus was incorrectly labeled as a Tier 1 USDA Select Agent. Newcastle disease virus is a USDA Select Agent but it is not a Tier 1 agent.
November 16, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137669/blocked-expression-of-key-genes-of-the-angiogenic-pathway-in-jsrv-induced-pulmonary-adenocarcinomas
#19
Maryline Gomes, Fabienne Archer, Nicolas Girard, Barbara Gineys, Christine Dolmazon, Alexandra Bobet Erny, Jean-François Mornex, Caroline Leroux
JSRV (Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus) is a retrovirus inducing a transmissible lung adenocarcinoma in sheep and goats with predominantly lepidic and papillary lesions. This naturally occurring lung cancer in large animals shares many features with human pneumonic-type lung adenocarcinomas with predominant lepidic growth. The metastatic spread is rare in both human and animal cancers. This unique feature prompted us to decipher the angiogenesis pathway in these cancers. We focused on the levels of mRNA and proteins of genes implicated in the extension of JSRV-induced lung adenocarcinomas by studying their expression in lung cancers (n = 10) and normal lungs (n = 10) and in primary epithelial alveolar type II cells derived from cancers (n = 10) or normal lungs (n = 6)...
November 14, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126442/effect-of-enriched-housing-on-levels-of-natural-auto-antibodies-in-pigs-co-infected-with-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-and-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae
#20
Lu Luo, Ingrid Daniëlle Ellen van Dixhoorn, Inonge Reimert, Bas Kemp, Jantina Elizabeth Bolhuis, Hendrik Karel Parmentier
Housing of pigs in barren, stimulus-poor housing conditions may influence their immune status, including antibody responses to (auto-)antigens, and thus affect immune protection, which will influence the onset and outcome of infection. In the present study, we investigated the effects of environmental enrichment versus barren housing on the level of natural (auto-)antibodies (NA(A)b) and their isotypes (IgM and IgG) binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), myelin basic protein (MBP), and phosphorycholine conjugated to bovine serum albumin (PC-BSA) in pigs co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A...
November 10, 2017: Veterinary Research
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