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Veterinary Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30424807/small-ruminant-lentivirus-infection-influences-expression-of-acute-phase-proteins-and-cathelicidin-genes-in-milk-somatic-cells-and-peripheral-blood-leukocytes-of-dairy-goats
#1
Daria Reczyńska, Magdalena Zalewska, Michał Czopowicz, Jarosław Kaba, Lech Zwierzchowski, Emilia Bagnicka
The aim of the study was to analyze acute phase protein and cathelicidin gene responses to small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection in goats. In uninfected goats, we found higher Cp and lower Fbγ mRNA levels in blood leucocytes (BL) than in milk somatic cells (MSC), as well as lower SAA, Hp, and CRP and higher Cp and AGP concentrations in blood serum than in milk. In SRLV-infected goats, we found higher Fbγ and MAP28 and lower Cp expression in MSC than in BL, and higher SAA, Hp, Fb, and MAP28 and lower AGP concentrations in milk than in blood serum...
November 13, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382906/gene-silencing-by-rna-interference-in-the-ectoparasitic-mite-psoroptes-ovis
#2
Edward J Marr, Harry W Wright, Neil D Sargison, Alasdair J Nisbet, Stewart T G Burgess
The presence of components of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in Psoroptes ovis, an ectoparasitic mite responsible for psoroptic mange, was investigated through interrogation of the P. ovis genome. Homologues of transcripts representing critical elements for achieving effective RNAi in the mite, Tetranychus urticae and the model organisms Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster were identified and, following the development of a non-invasive immersion method of double stranded RNA delivery, gene silencing by RNAi was successfully demonstrated in P...
November 1, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373670/associations-between-digital-dermatitis-lesion-grades-in-dairy-cattle-and-the-quantities-of-four-treponema-species
#3
Caroline Beninger, Syed Ali Naqvi, Sohail Naushad, Karin Orsel, Chris Luby, Hooman Derakhshani, Ehsan Khafipour, Jeroen De Buck
Digital dermatitis (DD) presents as painful, ulcerative or proliferative lesions that lead to bovine lameness affecting economic efficiency and animal welfare. Although DD etiological agent(s) have not been established, it is widely accepted that DD is a polymicrobial disease significantly associated with species of Treponema and the non-linear disease progression may be attributed to interactions among infecting bacteria. We postulated the morphological changes associated with DD lesion grades are related to interactions among infecting species of Treponema...
October 29, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373662/alternate-routes-of-influenza-a-virus-infection-in-mallard-anas-platyrhynchos
#4
Michelle Wille, Caroline Bröjer, Åke Lundkvist, Josef D Järhult
The natural reservoir for all influenza A viruses (IAVs) is wild birds, particularly dabbling ducks. During the autumn, viral prevalence can be very high in dabbling ducks (> 30%) in the Northern Hemisphere, and individuals may be repeatedly infected. Transmission and infection is through the fecal-oral route, whereby birds shed viruses in feces and conspecifics are infected though feeding in virus-contaminated water. In this study we wanted to assess two alternative infection routes: cloacal drinking and preening...
October 29, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373658/characterization-of-the-zinc-metalloprotease-of-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2
#5
Audrey Dumesnil, Jean-Philippe Auger, David Roy, Désirée Vötsch, Maren Willenborg, Peter Valentin-Weigand, Pyong Woo Park, Daniel Grenier, Nahuel Fittipaldi, Josée Harel, Marcelo Gottschalk
Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen and zoonotic agent responsible for meningitis and septic shock. Although several putative virulence factors have been described, the initial steps of the S. suis pathogenesis remain poorly understood. While controversial results have been reported for a S. suis serotype 2 zinc metalloprotease (Zmp) regarding its IgA protease activity, recent phylogenetic analyses suggested that this protein is homologous to the ZmpC of Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is not an IgA protease...
October 29, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30348190/the-adjuvant-g3-promotes-a-th1-polarizing-innate-immune-response-in-equine-pbmc
#6
Stina Hellman, Bernt Hjertner, Bror Morein, Caroline Fossum
The immunomodulatory effect of a new particulate adjuvant, G3, alone or in combination with agonists to TLR2/1 or TLR5 was evaluated in cultures of equine PBMC. Exposure to the G3 adjuvant up-regulated genes encoding IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40 and IL-23p19 in the majority of the horses tested, indicating that the G3 adjuvant induced a pro-inflammatory and Th1 dominated profile. In accordance, genes encoding IL-13, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β remained unaffected and genes encoding IFN-α, IL-17A and TNF-α were only occasionally and weakly induced...
October 22, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340626/bottlenecks-in-the-transmission-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv1-to-na%C3%A3-ve-pigs-and-the-quasi-species-variation-of-the-virus-during-infection-in-vaccinated-pigs
#7
Martí Cortey, Gastón Arocena, Emanuela Pileri, Gerard Martín-Valls, Enric Mateu
This paper describes the results of two experiments regarding porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV1): the first one studied the existence of bottlenecks in an experimental one-to-one model of transmission in pigs; while the second analysed the differences between viral quasi-species in vaccinated pigs that developed shorter or longer viraemias after natural challenge. Serum samples, as well as the initial inoculum, were deep-sequenced and a viral quasi-species was constructed per sample...
October 19, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333061/endogenous-transplacental-transmission-of-neospora-caninum-during-successive-pregnancies-across-three-generations-of-naturally-infected-sheep
#8
Marta González-Warleta, José Antonio Castro-Hermida, Carmen Calvo, Valentín Pérez, Daniel Gutiérrez-Expósito, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Mercedes Mezo
Endogenous transplacental transmission, which occurs during pregnancy as the result of reactivation of a latent infection in the dam, is the main mechanism of propagation of Neospora caninum within cattle herds. However, the importance of this propagation mechanism has not yet been evaluated in relation to ovine neosporosis. In this study, involving three generations of ewes naturally infected by N. caninum, we demonstrated that endogenous transplacental transmission may also be highly efficient in the ovine host since transmission of infection occurred in 96...
October 17, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309390/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-plant-produced-african-horse-sickness-virus-like-particles-in-horses
#9
Susan J Dennis, Martha M O'Kennedy, Daria Rutkowska, Tsepo Tsekoa, Carina W Lourens, Inga I Hitzeroth, Ann E Meyers, Edward P Rybicki
African horse sickness (AHS) is caused by multiple serotypes of the dsRNA AHSV and is a major scourge of domestic equids in Africa. While there are well established commercial live attenuated vaccines produced in South Africa, risks associated with these have encouraged attempts to develop new and safer recombinant vaccines. Previously, we reported on the immunogenicity of a plant-produced AHS serotype 5 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine, which stimulated high titres of AHS serotype 5-specific neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs...
October 11, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305141/visualisation-and-characterisation-of-mononuclear-phagocytes-in-the-chicken-respiratory-tract-using-csf1r-transgenic-chickens
#10
Kate Sutton, Taiana Costa, Andreas Alber, Karen Bryson, Dominika Borowska, Adam Balic, Pete Kaiser, Mark Stevens, Lonneke Vervelde
The respiratory tract is a key organ for many avian pathogens as well as a major route for vaccination in the poultry industry. To improve immune responses after vaccination of chickens through increased uptake of vaccines and targeting to antigen presenting cells, a better understanding of the avian respiratory immune system is required. Transgenic MacReporter birds were used expressing a reporter gene (eGFP or mApple) under the control of the CSF1R promoter and enhancer in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) lineage to visualize the ontogeny of the lymphoid tissue, macrophages and dendritic cells, in the trachea, lung and air sac of birds from embryonic day 18-63 weeks of age...
October 10, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30290850/correction-to-annexin-a2-binds-to-vimentin-and-contributes-to-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-multiplication
#11
Xiao-Bo Chang, Yong-Qian Yang, Jia-Cong Gao, Kuan Zhao, Jin-Chao Guo, Chao Ye, Cheng-Gang Jiang, Zhi-Jun Tian, Xue-Hui Cai, Guang-Zhi Tong, Tong-Qing An
In the original publication of this article [1], the author found the brand of vimentin antibody was wrong in Fig. 3. The legend of Fig. 3, 'mouse anti-vimentin mAb (Cell Signaling Technology) at 4 °C overnight' should be 'mouse anti-vimentin mAb (Sigma-Aldrich) at 4 °C overnight'.
October 5, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30290847/newcastle-disease-virus-v-protein-inhibits-apoptosis-in-df-1-cells-by-downregulating-txnl1
#12
Caiying Wang, Zhili Chu, Wenkai Liu, Yu Pang, Xiaolong Gao, Qiuxia Tang, Jiangang Ma, Kejia Lu, Fathalrhman E A Adam, Ruyi Dang, Sa Xiao, Xinglong Wang, Zengqi Yang
Many viral proteins are related to suppressing apoptosis in target cells and are hence beneficial to viral replication. The V protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one such protein that plays an important role in inhibiting apoptosis in a species-specific manner. However, to date, there have been no reports clarifying the antiapoptotic mechanisms of the V protein. The present study was undertaken to determine the apoptotic potential of the V protein in a chicken embryo fibroblast cell line (DF-1 cell) and to elucidate its molecular mechanisms of action...
October 5, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286813/inhibition-of-salmonella-typhimurium-adhesion-invasion-and-intracellular-survival-via-treatment-with-methyl-gallate-alone-and-in-combination-with-marbofloxacin
#13
Biruk Tesfaye Birhanu, Na-Hye Park, Seung-Jin Lee, Md Akil Hossain, Seung-Chun Park
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infects intestinal epithelia and macrophages, which is prevented by inhibiting adhesion and cell invasion. This study aimed to investigate the role of methyl gallate (MG) in adhesion, invasion, and intracellular survival of Salmonella Typhimurium in Caco-2 and RAW 264.7 cells via a gentamicin protection assay, confocal microscopy, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. MG (30 µg/mL) inhibited adhesion and invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium by 54...
October 4, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286809/therapeutic-and-immunoregulatory-effects-of-water-soluble-alkaloids-e2-a-from-sophora-moorcroftiana-seeds-as-a-novel-potential-agent-against-echinococcosis-in-experimentally-protoscolex-infected-mice
#14
Yanping Luo, Guochao Zhang, Xun Liu, Miaomiao Yuan, Qi Gao, Haijun Gao, Lixin Ke, Xinxing Zhang, Yanbin Shi, Xingming Ma, Lifeng Zhang, Kaizhong Dong
Novel compounds and more efficient treatment options are urgently needed for the treatment of cystic echinococcosis (CE), which is caused by Echinococcus granulosus. The decoction of Sophora moorcroftiana (Fabaceae) has been used to treat parasitosis for years in traditional Tibetan medicine. The aim of this study was to screen insecticidal water-soluble alkaloids from S. moorcroftiana seeds and evaluate the therapeutic effects against CE and the immune response induced by the alkaloidal fraction. Low polarity compounds (E2-a) were isolated from water-soluble alkaloid (E2) and matrine and sophocarpine were identified as major components...
October 4, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285871/identification-of-two-residues-within-the-ns1-of-h7n9-influenza-a-virus-that-critically-affect-the-protein-stability-and-function
#15
Song Wang, Lanlan Zhang, Rong Zhang, Xiaojuan Chi, Zhou Yang, Yanhui Xie, Sicheng Shu, Yuan Liao, Ji-Long Chen
The emerging avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus, which causes mild to lethal human respiratory disease, continues to circulate in China, posing a great threat to public health. Influenza NS1 protein plays a key role in counteracting host innate immune responses, allowing the virus to efficiently replicate in the host. In this study, we compared NS1 amino acid sequences of H7N9 influenza A virus with those of other strains, and determined NS1 protein variability within the H7N9 virus and then evaluated the impact of amino acid substitutions on ability of the NS1 proteins to inhibit host innate immunity...
October 1, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285855/salmonella-gallinarum-delivering-m2ecd40l-in-protein-and-dna-formats-acts-as-a-bivalent-vaccine-against-fowl-typhoid-and-h9n2-infection-in-chickens
#16
Irshad Ahmed Hajam, Jehyoung Kim, John Hwa Lee
Fowl typhoid (FT), a septicemic disease caused by Salmonella Gallinarum (SG), and H9N2 influenza infection are two economically important diseases that affect poultry industry worldwide. Herein, we exploited a live attenuated SG mutant (JOL967) to deliver highly conserved extracellular domains of H9N2 M2 (M2e) to induce protective immunity against both H9N2 infection and FT. To increase the immunogenicity of M2e, we physically linked it with CD40L and cloned the fusion gene into either prokaryotic constitutive expression vector pJHL65 or mammalian expression vector pcDNA3...
October 1, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30253796/multi-organ-spreading-of-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-serovar-7-in-weaned-pigs-during-the-first-week-after-experimental-infection
#17
Doris Hoeltig, Judith Rohde, Renate Frase, Florian Nietfeld, Karl-Heinz Waldmann, Peter Valentin-Weigand, Jochen Meens
Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae is normally considered strictly adapted to the respiratory tract of swine. Despite this, scattered case reports of arthritis, osteomyelitis, hepatitis, meningitis or nephritis exist, in which A. pleuropneumoniae remained the only detectable pathogen. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether spreading to other organs than the lungs is incidental or may occur more frequently. For this, organ samples (blood, liver, spleen, kidney, tarsal and carpal joints, meninges, pleural and pericardial fluids) from weaners (n = 47) infected experimentally with A...
September 25, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30241566/analysis-of-peptide-sla-binding-by-establishing-immortalized-porcine-alveolar-macrophage-cells-with-different-sla-class-ii-haplotypes
#18
Quy Van Chanh Le, Thong Minh Le, Hye-Sun Cho, Won-Il Kim, Kwonho Hong, Hyuk Song, Jin-Hoi Kim, Chankyu Park
Primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) are useful for studying viral infections and immune response in pigs; however, long-term use of these cells is limited by the cells' short lifespan. We immortalized primary PAMs by transfecting them with both hTERT and SV40LT and established two immortalized cell lines (iPAMs) actively proliferating even after 35 passages. These cells possessed the characteristics of primary PAMs, including strong expression of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class II genes and the inability to grow anchorage-independently...
September 21, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236161/transmissible-gastroenteritis-virus-infection-decreases-arginine-uptake-by-downregulating-cat-1-expression
#19
Lu Xia, Lei Dai, Qian Yang
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a coronavirus that causes severe diarrhea in suckling piglets. TGEV primarily targets and infects porcine intestinal epithelial cells, which play an important role in nutrient absorption. However, the effects of TGEV infection on nutrient absorption in swine have not yet been investigated. In this study, we evaluated the impact of TGEV infection on arginine uptake using the porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 as a model system. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses showed that TGEV infection leads to reduced arginine uptake at 48 hours post-infection (hpi)...
September 20, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30231933/pathobiology-of-avian-avulavirus-1-special-focus-on-waterfowl
#20
REVIEW
Zaib Ur Rehman, Chunchun Meng, Yingjie Sun, Khalid M Mahrose, Sajid Umar, Chan Ding, Muhammad Munir
Avian avulaviruses serotype 1 (abbreviated as APMV-1 for the historical name avian paramyxovirus 1) are capable of infecting a wide spectrum of avian species with variable clinical symptoms and outcomes. Ease of transmission has allowed the virus to spread worldwide with varying degrees of virulence depending upon the virus strain and host species. The emergence of new virulent genotypes from global epizootics, and the year-to-year genomic changes in low and high virulence APMV-1 imply that distinct genotypes of APMV-1 are simultaneously evolving at different geographic locations across the globe...
September 19, 2018: Veterinary Research
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