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Veterinary Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209206/rethinking-the-role-of-alpha-toxin-in-clostridium-perfringens-associated-enteric-diseases-a-review-on-bovine-necro-haemorrhagic-enteritis
#1
REVIEW
Evy Goossens, Bonnie R Valgaeren, Bart Pardon, Freddy Haesebrouck, Richard Ducatelle, Piet R Deprez, Filip Van Immerseel
Bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis is an economically important disease caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains. The disease mainly affects calves under intensive rearing conditions and is characterized by sudden death associated with small intestinal haemorrhage, necrosis and mucosal neutrophil infiltration. The common assumption that, when causing intestinal disease, C. perfringens relies upon specific, plasmid-encoded toxins, was recently challenged by the finding that alpha toxin, which is produced by all C...
February 16, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179028/betanodavirus-like-particles-enter-host-cells-via-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis-in-a-cholesterol-ph-and-cytoskeleton-dependent-manner
#2
Runqing Huang, Guohua Zhu, Jing Zhang, Yuxiong Lai, Yu Xu, Jianguo He, Junfeng Xie
Betanodavirus, also referred to nervous necrosis virus (NNV), is the causative agent of the fatal disease, viral nervous necrosis and has brought significant economic losses in marine and freshwater cultured fish, especially larvae and juveniles. Here, we used an established invasion model with virus-like particle (VLP)-cells, mimicking orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV), to investigate the crucial events of virus entry. VLP were observed in the perinuclear regions of Asian sea bass (SB) cells within 1...
February 8, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166835/frequency-of-th17-cells-correlates-with-the-presence-of-lung-lesions-in-pigs-chronically-infected-with-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae
#3
Elena L Sassu, Andrea Ladinig, Stephanie C Talker, Maria Stadler, Christian Knecht, Heiko Stein, Janna Frömbling, Barbara Richter, Joachim Spergser, Monika Ehling-Schulz, Robert Graage, Isabel Hennig-Pauka, Wilhelm Gerner
Porcine contagious pleuropneumonia caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) remains one of the major causes of poor growth performance and respiratory disease in pig herds. While the role of antibodies against APP has been intensely studied, the porcine T cell response remains poorly characterized. To address this, pigs were intranasally infected with APP serotype 2 and euthanized during the acute phase [6-10 days post-infection (dpi)] or the chronic phase of APP infection (27-31 dpi). Lymphocytes isolated from blood, tonsils, lung tissue and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were analyzed by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) for IL-17A, IL-10 and TNF-α production after in vitro stimulation with crude capsular extract (CCE) of the APP inoculation strain...
February 6, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166830/the-t160a-hemagglutinin-substitution-affects-not-only-receptor-binding-property-but-also-transmissibility-of-h5n1-clade-2-3-4-avian-influenza-virus-in-guinea-pigs
#4
Min Gu, Qunhui Li, Ruyi Gao, Dongchang He, Yunpeng Xu, Haixu Xu, Lijun Xu, Xiaoquan Wang, Jiao Hu, Xiaowen Liu, Shunlin Hu, Daxin Peng, Xinan Jiao, Xiufan Liu
We generated and characterized site-directed HA mutants on the genetic backbone of H5N1 clade 2.3.4 virus preferentially binding to α-2,3 receptors in order to identify the key determinants in hemagglutinin rendering the dual affinity to both α-2,3 (avian-type) and α-2,6 (human-type) linked sialic acid receptors of the current clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX subtype avian influenza reassortants. The results show that the T160A substitution resulted in the loss of a glycosylation site at 158N and led not only to enhanced binding specificity for human-type receptors but also transmissibility among guinea pigs, which could be considered as an important molecular marker for assessing pandemic potential of H5 subtype avian influenza isolates...
February 6, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166822/disruption-of-the-m949_rs01915-gene-changed-the-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-pattern-pathogenicity-and-gene-expression-of-riemerella-anatipestifer
#5
Yafeng Dou, Xiaolan Wang, Guijing Yu, Shaohui Wang, Mingxing Tian, Jingjing Qi, Tao Li, Chan Ding, Shengqing Yu
Riemerella anatipestifer is an important pathogen that causes septicemia anserum exsudativa in ducks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is considered to be a major virulence factor of R. anatipestifer. To identify genes involved in LPS biosynthesis, we screened a library of random Tn4351 transposon mutants using a monoclonal antibody against R. anatipestifer serotype 1 LPS (anti-LPS MAb). A mutant strain RA1067 which lost the reactivity in an indirect ELISA was obtained. Southern blot and sequencing analyses indicated a single Tn4351 was inserted at 116 bp in the M949_RS01915 gene in the RA1067 chromosomal DNA...
February 6, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166810/correlating-bacterial-shedding-with-fecal-corticosterone-levels-and-serological-responses-from-layer-hens-experimentally-infected-with-salmonella-typhimurium
#6
Pardeep Sharma, Vivek V Pande, Talia S Moyle, Andrea R McWhorter, Kapil K Chousalkar
Salmonella Enteriditis and Salmonella Typhimurium are commonly isolated during egg-related outbreaks of salmonellosis and represent a significant international public health issue. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is the most common serovar identified in egg product related foodborne outbreaks. While a number of studies have investigated Salmonella shedding and host responses to infection, they have been conducted over a short time period. The present study sought to characterise bacterial shedding and host responses to infection in hens infected with only Salmonella Typhimurium or co-infected with both Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Mbandaka over a 16 week period...
February 6, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122589/escherichia-coli-o78-isolated-from-septicemic-lambs-shows-high-pathogenicity-in-a-zebrafish-model
#7
Cecilie K Kjelstrup, Amelia E Barber, J Paul Norton, Matthew A Mulvey, Trine M L'Abée-Lund
The pathogenicity of Escherichia coli O78 strain K46, originally isolated from an outbreak of septicemia in neonatal lambs, was investigated in zebrafish embryo and murine models of infection. Its biofilm potential, cellulose production, and the expression of type 1 pili and curli fimbriae were measured by in vitro assays. The strain was highly pathogenic in the zebrafish embryo model of infection, where it killed all embryos within 24 h post inoculation (hpi) at doses as low as 1000 colony forming units. Zebrafish embryos inoculated with similar doses of commensal E...
January 25, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095890/impact-of-diversity-of-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-strains-on-lung-lesions-in-slaughter-pigs
#8
Annelies Michiels, Katleen Vranckx, Sofie Piepers, Rubén Del Pozo Sacristán, Ioannis Arsenakis, Filip Boyen, Freddy Haesebrouck, Dominiek Maes
The importance of diversity of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) strains is not yet fully known. This study investigated the genetic diversity of M. hyopneumoniae strains in ten pig herds, and assessed associations between the presence of different strains of M. hyopneumoniae and lung lesions at slaughter. Within each herd, three batches of slaughter pigs were investigated. At slaughter, from each batch, 20 post mortem bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected for multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and lung lesions (Mycoplasma-like lesions, fissures) were examined...
January 17, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057061/congenital-infection-with-atypical-porcine-pestivirus-appv-is-associated-with-disease-and-viral-persistence
#9
Lukas Schwarz, Christiane Riedel, Sandra Högler, Leonie J Sinn, Thomas Voglmayr, Bettina Wöchtl, Nora Dinhopl, Barbara Rebel-Bauder, Herbert Weissenböck, Andrea Ladinig, Till Rümenapf, Benjamin Lamp
In 2013, several Austrian piglet-producing farms recorded outbreaks of action-related repetitive myoclonia in newborn piglets ("shaking piglets"). Malnutrition was seen in numerous piglets as a complication of this tremor syndrome. Overall piglet mortality was increased and the number of weaned piglets per sow decreased by more than 10% due to this outbreak. Histological examination of the CNS of affected piglets revealed moderate hypomyelination of the white substance in cerebellum and spinal cord. We detected a recently discovered pestivirus, termed atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) in all these cases by RT-PCR...
January 6, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912792/evaluation-of-natural-porcine-circovirus-type-2-pcv2-subclinical-infection-and-seroconversion-dynamics-in-piglets-vaccinated-at-different-ages
#10
Salvador Oliver-Ferrando, Joaquim Segalés, Sergio López-Soria, Antonio Callén, Olivier Merdy, François Joisel, Marina Sibila
This study aimed to determine the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) serological and virological dynamics in piglets vaccinated at different ages in a PCV2 subclinical infection (PCV2-SI) scenario. Six hundred and forty-four 2 week-old healthy piglets were selected and distributed into four treatment groups: vaccination at 3, 6 or 10 weeks of age (3W-VAC, 6W-VAC and 10W-VAC groups, respectively) and unvaccinated pigs (NON-VAC group). Blood (n = 112 pigs) and oral fluid (OF) (n = 40 pens) samples were taken throughout the study to assess PCV2 load, humoral immunity and viral genotyping...
December 3, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899159/p53-signaling-modulation-of-cell-cycle-arrest-and-viral-replication-in-porcine-circovirus-type-2-infection-cells
#11
Dan Xu, Qian Du, Cong Han, Zengguo Wang, Xiujuan Zhang, Tongtong Wang, Xiaomin Zhao, Yong Huang, Dewen Tong
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a ubiquitous pathogen in the swine industry worldwide. Previous studies have shown that PCV2 infection induces host cell apoptosis through up-regulation of p53. To further identify the regulatory roles of p53 signaling in the process of PCV2 infection, we established p53 gene knockout PK15 cell lines using the genomic editor tool CRISPR/Cas9, and further investigated the roles of p53 in modulating the cell cycle and viral replication in this study. The results show that PCV2 infection induced obvious S phase accumulation in wild-type PK15 cells and a compromised S phase accumulation in the p53 gene mutation cells (813PK15 (p53m/m) ), but did not induce obvious S phase accumulation in the p53 gene knockout cells (148PK15 (p53-/-)) compared with the respective mock infection...
November 29, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894330/marek-s-disease-in-chickens-a-review-with-focus-on-immunology
#12
REVIEW
Nitish Boodhoo, Angila Gurung, Shayan Sharif, Shahriar Behboudi
Marek's disease (MD), caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), is a commercially important neoplastic disease of poultry which is only controlled by mass vaccination. Importantly, vaccines that can provide sterile immunity and inhibit virus transmission are lacking; such that vaccines are only capable of preventing neuropathy, oncogenic disease and immunosuppression, but are unable to prevent MDV transmission or infection, leading to emergence of increasingly virulent pathotypes. Hence, to address these issues, developing more efficacious vaccines that induce sterile immunity have become one of the important research goals for avian immunologists today...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871330/age-is-not-a-determinant-factor-in-susceptibility-of-broilers-to-h5n2-clade-2-3-4-4-high-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-virus
#13
Kateri Bertran, Dong-Hun Lee, Charles Balzli, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, Erica Spackman, David E Swayne
In 2014-2015, the US experienced an unprecedented outbreak of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. The H5N2 HPAI virus outbreak in the Midwest in 2015 affected commercial turkey and layer farms, but not broiler farms. To assess any potential genetic resistance of broilers and/or age-related effects, we investigated the pathogenesis and transmission of A/turkey/Minnesota/12582/2015 (H5N2) (Tk/MN/15) virus in commercial 5-week-old broilers, 8-week-old broilers, and >30-week-old broiler breeders...
November 21, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871316/heterogeneous-antigenic-properties-of-the-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-nucleocapsid
#14
Julie C F Rappe, Obdulio García-Nicolás, Franziska Flückiger, Barbara Thür, Martin A Hofmann, Artur Summerfield, Nicolas Ruggli
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus responsible for a widespread contagious disease of domestic pigs with high economic impact. Switzerland is one of the rare PRRSV-free countries in Europe, although sporadic outbreaks have occurred in the past. The PRRSV isolate IVI-1173 from the short outbreak in Switzerland in 2012 was entirely sequenced, and a functional full-length cDNA clone was constructed. Genetic and antigenic characterization of IVI-1173 revealed the importance of amino acid 90 of the nucleocapsid protein N as part of a conformational epitope...
November 21, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871312/increased-frequency-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-shedding-and-lesions-in-suckling-pigs-compared-to-nursery-pigs-and-protective-immunity-in-nursery-pigs-after-homologous-re-challenge
#15
Priscilla F Gerber, Chao-Ting Xiao, Kelly Lager, Kimberly Crawford, Vikas Kulshreshtha, Dianjun Cao, Xiang-Jin Meng, Tanja Opriessnig
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes enteric disease in pigs and spreads rapidly after entering naïve pig populations. The objectives were to (1) compare the disease course following inoculation with PEDV isolate US/Colorado/2013 in naïve 10 day and 8 week-old pigs, and (2) contrast the naïve response to homologous challenge in 8 week-old pigs. Pigs were randomly assigned into group 1 (n = 40, no PEDV exposure), group 2 (n = 43, PEDV inoculation at 10 days of age) and group 3 (n = 48, PEDV inoculation at 8 weeks of age)...
November 21, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846859/attenuation-of-the-virulence-of-a-recombinant-influenza-virus-expressing-the-naturally-truncated-ns-gene-from-an-h3n8-equine-influenza-virus-in-mice
#16
Woonsung Na, Kwang-Soo Lyoo, Sun-Woo Yoon, Minjoo Yeom, Bokyu Kang, Hyoungjoon Moon, Hye Kwon Kim, Dae Gwin Jeong, Jeong-Ki Kim, Daesub Song
Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids. Recently, we isolated an H3N8 EIV (A/equine/Kyonggi/SA1/2011) from a domestic horse in South Korea that exhibited symptoms of respiratory disease, and found that the EIV strain contained a naturally mutated NS gene segment encoding a truncated NS1 protein. In order to determine whether there was an association between the NS gene truncation and viral virulence, a reverse genetics system was applied to generate various NS gene recombinant viruses using the backbone of the H1N1 A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR/8) virus...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829462/immunomodulation-in-the-canine-endometrium-by-uteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#17
Sofia Henriques, Elisabete Silva, Marta F Silva, Sandra Carvalho, Patrícia Diniz, Luís Lopes-da-Costa, Luisa Mateus
This study was designed to evaluate the role of E. coli α-hemolysin (HlyA) in the pathogenesis of canine pyometra, and on the immune response of canine endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. In Experiment 1, the clinical, hematological, biochemical and uterine histological characteristics of β-hemolytic and non-hemolytic E. coli pyometra bitches were compared. More (p < 0.05) metritis cases were observed in β-hemolytic E. coli pyometra uteri than in non-hemolytic E. coli pyometra uteri. β-hemolytic E...
November 9, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825391/oestrous-cycle-dependent-equine-uterine-immune-response-to-induced-infectious-endometritis
#18
Christina D Marth, Simon M Firestone, Lisa Y Glenton, Glenn F Browning, Neil D Young, Natali Krekeler
Infectious endometritis is a major cause of reduced pregnancy rates in horses. The objectives of this study were to establish a timeline of the innate immune response in the uterus of healthy horses and to investigate the oestrous cycle effect on this. Endometrial biopsies were collected from five horses before and at 3, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after inoculation of Escherichia coli, once in oestrus and once in dioestrus. They were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR, microbiology and histology. Neutrophil numbers increased from very low levels in the absence of inflammation to severe neutrophilia 3 h after inoculation...
November 8, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825377/combination-of-probiotics-and-coccidiosis-vaccine-enhances-protection-against-an-eimeria-challenge
#19
Miranda M Ritzi, Wael Abdelrahman, Kobus van-Heerden, Michaela Mohnl, Nathaniel W Barrett, Rami A Dalloul
Coccidiosis is endemic in the commercial broiler industry capable of inflicting devastating economic losses to poultry operations. Vaccines are relatively effective in controlling the disease; their efficacy could potentially be improved with concurrent use of probiotics as evaluated in this study using an Eimeria challenge. Day of hatch 400 Cobb-500 male broilers were assigned to one of four treatment groups including control (CON), vaccine-only gel application (VNC), probiotic-only gel application (NPC), and vaccine-plus-probiotic gel application (VPC)...
November 8, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825367/involvement-of-the-different-lung-compartments-in-the-pathogenesis-of-ph1n1-influenza-virus-infection-in-ferrets
#20
Beatriz Vidaña, Jorge Martínez, Jaime Martorell, María Montoya, Lorena Córdoba, Mónica Pérez, Natàlia Majó
Severe cases after pH1N1 infection are consequence of interstitial pneumonia triggered by alveolar viral replication and an exacerbated host immune response, characterized by the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the influx of inflammatory leukocytes to the lungs. Different lung cell populations have been suggested as culprits in the unregulated innate immune responses observed in these cases. This study aims to clarify this question by studying the different induction of innate immune molecules by the distinct lung anatomic compartments (vascular, alveolar and bronchiolar) of ferrets intratracheally infected with a human pH1N1 viral isolate, by means of laser microdissection techniques...
November 8, 2016: Veterinary Research
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