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Journal of Physiology, Paris

Jayakrishnan Nair, Arndt-Lukas Klaassen, Jordan Poirot, Alexei Vyssotski, Björn Rasch, Gregor Rainer
The basal forebrain (BF) is an important regulator of cortical excitability and responsivity to sensory stimuli, and plays a major role in wake-sleep regulation. While the impact of BF on cortical EEG or LFP signals has been extensively documented, surprisingly little is known about LFP activity within BF. Based on bilateral recordings from rats in their home cage, we describe endogenous LFP oscillations in the BF during quiet wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) and slow wave sleep (SWS) states. Using coherence and Granger causality methods, we characterize directional influences between BF and visual cortex (VC) during each of these states...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Mira Chamoun, Marianne Groleau, Menakshi Bhat, Elvire Vaucher
Stimulation of the cholinergic system tightly coupled with periods of visual stimulation boosts the processing of specific visual stimuli via muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in terms of intensity, priority and long-term effect. However, it is not known whether more diffuse pharmacological stimulation with donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, is an efficient tool for enhancing visual processing and perception. The goal of the present study was to potentiate cholinergic transmission with donepezil treatment (0...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Milka Radmilovich, Isabel Barreiro, Leticia Iribarne, Kirsty Grant, Frank Kirschbaum, María E Castelló
The anatomical organization of African Mormyrids' brain is a clear example of departure from the average brain morphotype in teleosts, probably related to functional specialization associated to electrosensory processing and sensory-motor coordination. The brain of Mormyrids is characterized by a well-developed rhombencephalic electrosensory lobe interconnected with relatively large mesencephalic torus semicircularis and optic tectum, and a huge and complex cerebellum. This unique morphology might imply cell addition from extraventricular proliferation zones up to late developmental stages...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Yamila Asparch, Gina Pontes, Santiago Masagué, Sebastian Minoli, Romina B Barrozo
Animals make use of contact chemoreception structures to examine the quality of potential food sources. During this evaluation they can detect nutritious compounds that promote feeding and recognize toxins that trigger evasive behaviors. Although animals can easily distinguish between stimuli of different gustatory qualities (bitter, salty, sweet, etc.), their ability to discriminate between compounds of the same quality may be limited. Numerous plants produce alkaloids, compounds that elicit aversive behaviors in phytophagous insects and almost uniformly evoke a bitter taste for man...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Robert Güth, Matthew Pinch, Manoj P Samanta, Alexander Chaidez, Graciela A Unguez
Electrical activity is an important regulator of cellular function and gene expression in electrically excitable cell types. In the weakly electric teleost fishSternopygus macrurus, electrocytes, i.e., the current-producing cells of the electric organ, derive from a striated muscle lineage. Mature electrocytes are larger than muscle fibers, do not contain sarcomeres, and are driven continuously at frequencies higher than those exerted on muscle cells. Previous work showed that the removal of electrical activity by spinal cord transection (ST) for two and five weeks led to an upregulation of some sarcomeric proteins and a decrease in electrocyte size...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Daniella Agrati, Marcela Ferreño, Gabriella Marin, Natalia Uriarte, María José Zuluaga, Alonso Fernández-Guasti, Annabel Ferreira
This study extends the behavioral analysis of the postpartum estrus (PPE) which represents a unique period in the female rat's lifetime when maternal and sexual motivations co-exist. The aim of this study was to explore how previous and recent maternal experiences influence the maternal responses to pups when confronted with a male in a preference test or when they are presented independently in the home cage. To achieve this objective, we firstly compared the maternal behavior in the home cage and the preference for pups or a male in a Y-maze of primiparous and multiparous females approximately twelve hours after delivery...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Masato Sadahiro, Mari Sajo, Hirofumi Morishita
While the cholinergic neuromodulatory system and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) have been appreciated as permissive factors for developmental critical period plasticity in visual cortex, it was unknown why plasticity becomes limited after the critical period even in the presence of massive cholinergic projections to visual cortex. In this review we highlighted the recent progresses that started to shed light on the role of the nicotinic cholinergic neuromodulatory signaling on limiting juvenile form of plasticity in the adult brain...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Hiroki Sugihara, Naiyan Chen, Mriganka Sur
Acetylcholine (ACh) modulates diverse vital brain functions. Cholinergic neurons from the basal forebrain innervate a wide range of cortical areas, including the primary visual cortex (V1), and multiple cortical cell types have been found to be responsive to ACh. Here we review how different cell types contribute to different cortical functions modulated by ACh. We specifically focus on two major cortical functions: plasticity and cortical state. In layer II/III of V1, ACh acting on astrocytes and somatostatin-expressing inhibitory neurons plays critical roles in these functions...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Sandra Dangelmayer, Jan Benda, Jan Grewe
Weakly electric fish use electrosensory, visual, olfactory and lateral line information to guide foraging and navigation behaviors. In many cases they preferentially rely on electrosensory cues. Do fish also memorize non-electrosensory cues? Here, we trained individuals of gymnotiform weakly electric fish Apteronotus albifrons in an object discrimination task. Objects were combinations of differently conductive materials covered with differently colored cotton hoods. By setting visual and electrosensory cues in conflict we analyzed the sensory hierarchy among the electrosensory and the visual sense in object discrimination...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Benoit P Delhaye, Hannes P Saal, Sliman J Bensmaia
In recent years, a consensus has emerged that somatosensory feedback needs to be provided for upper limb neuroprostheses to be useful. An increasingly promising approach to sensory restoration is to electrically stimulate neurons along the somatosensory neuraxis to convey information about the state of the prosthetic limb and about contact with objects. To date, efforts towards artificial sensory feedback have consisted mainly of demonstrating that some sensory information could be conveyed using a small number of stimulation patterns, generally delivered through single electrodes...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
V Hollmann, J Engelmann, L Gómez-Sena
The Electrosensory Lateral Line lobe (ELL) is the first central target where the electrosensory information encoded in the spatiotemporal pattern electroreceptor afferent discharges is processed. These afferents encode the minute amplitude changes of the basal electric field through both a change in latency and discharge rate. In the ELL the time and rate-coded input pattern of the sensory periphery goes through the granular cell layer before reaching the main efferent cells of the network: large fusiform (LF) and large ganglion (LG) cells...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Joseph C Waddell, Alejo Rodríguez-Cattáneo, Angel A Caputi, William G R Crampton
Descriptions of the head-to-tail electric organ discharge (ht-EOD) waveform - typically recorded with electrodes at a distance of approximately 1-2 body lengths from the center of the subject - have traditionally been used to characterize species diversity in gymnotiform electric fish. However, even taxa with relatively simple ht-EODs show spatiotemporally complex fields near the body surface that are determined by site-specific electrogenic properties of the electric organ and electric filtering properties of adjacent tissues and skin...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Adam R Smith, Melissa R Proffitt, Winnie W Ho, Claire B Mullaney, Javier A Maldonado-Ocampo, Nathan R Lovejoy, José A Alves-Gomes, G Troy Smith
The electric communication signals of weakly electric ghost knifefishes (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) provide a valuable model system for understanding the evolution and physiology of behavior. Apteronotids produce continuous wave-type electric organ discharges (EODs) that are used for electrolocation and communication. The frequency and waveform of EODs, as well as the structure of transient EOD modulations (chirps), vary substantially across species. Understanding how these signals have evolved, however, has been hampered by the lack of a well-supported phylogeny for this family...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
William R Pitchers, Savvas J Constantinou, Mauricio Losilla, Jason R Gallant
Electric fish have served as a model system in biology since the 18th century, providing deep insight into the nature of bioelectrogenesis, the molecular structure of the synapse, and brain circuitry underlying complex behavior. Neuroethologists have collected extensive phenotypic data that span biological levels of analysis from molecules to ecosystems. This phenotypic data, together with genomic resources obtained over the past decades, have motivated new and exciting hypotheses that position the weakly electric fish model to address fundamental 21(st) century biological questions...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Ulrike Halsband, Thomas Gerhard Wolf
Visiting the dentist is often accompanied by apprehension or anxiety. People, who suffer from specific dental phobia (a disproportional fear of dental) procedures show psychological and physiological symptoms which make dental treatments difficult or impossible. For such purposes, hypnosis is often used in dental practice as an alternative for a number of treatments adjuvant or instead of sedation or general anaesthetics, as medication is often associated with risks and side effects. This is the first study to address the effects of a brief dental hypnosis on the fear processing structures of the brain in dental phobics using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Holger Dannenberg, James R Hinman, Michael E Hasselmo
Behavioral data suggest that cholinergic modulation may play a role in certain aspects of spatial memory, and neurophysiological data demonstrate neurons that fire in response to spatial dimensions, including grid cells and place cells that respond on the basis of location and running speed. These neurons show firing responses that depend upon the visual configuration of the environment, due to coding in visually-responsive regions of the neocortex. This review focuses on the physiological effects of acetylcholine that may influence the sensory coding of spatial dimensions relevant to behavior...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Satoshi Shimegi, Akihiro Kimura, Akinori Sato, Chisa Aoyama, Ryo Mizuyama, Keisuke Tsunoda, Fuyuki Ueda, Sera Araki, Ryoma Goya, Hiromichi Sato
The brain dynamically changes its input-output relationship depending on the behavioral state and context in order to optimize information processing. At the molecular level, cholinergic/monoaminergic transmitters have been extensively studied as key players for the state/context-dependent modulation of brain function. In this paper, we review how cortical visual information processing in the primary visual cortex (V1) of macaque monkey, which has a highly differentiated laminar structure, is optimized by serotonergic and cholinergic systems by examining anatomical and in vivo electrophysiological aspects to highlight their similarities and distinctions...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Jennifer J Coppola, Nicholas J Ward, Monika P Jadi, Anita A Disney
Neuromodulatory signaling is generally considered broad in its impact across cortex. However, variations in the characteristics of cortical circuits may introduce regionally-specific responses to diffuse modulatory signals. Features such as patterns of axonal innervation, tissue tortuosity and molecular diffusion, effectiveness of degradation pathways, subcellular receptor localization, and patterns of receptor expression can lead to local modification of modulatory inputs. We propose that modulatory compartments exist in cortex and can be defined by variation in structural features of local circuits...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Martin Sarter, Cindy Lustig, Randy D Blakely, Ajeesh Koshy Cherian
The basal forebrain cholinergic projection system to the cortex mediates essential aspects of visual attention performance, including the detection of cues and the response to performance challenges (top-down control of attention). Higher levels of top-down control are mediated via elevated levels of cholinergic neuromodulation. The neuronal choline transporter (CHT) strongly influences the synthesis and release of acetylcholine (ACh). As the capacity of the CHT to import choline into the neuron is a major, presynaptic determinant of cholinergic neuromodulation, we hypothesize that genetically-imposed CHT capacity variation impacts the balance of bottom-up versus top-down control of visual attention...
July 9, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Antonio Del Casale, Stefano Ferracuti, Chiara Rapinesi, Pietro De Rossi, Gloria Angeletti, Gabriele Sani, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Paolo Girardi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Several studies reported that hypnosis can modulate pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. We conducted an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on functional neuroimaging studies of pain perception under hypnosis to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring during hypnotic suggestions aiming at pain reduction, including hypnotic analgesic, pleasant, or depersonalization suggestions (HASs)...
January 8, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
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