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Journal of Physiology, Paris

Ulrike Halsband, Thomas Gerhard Wolf
Visiting the dentist is often accompanied by apprehension or anxiety. People, who suffer from specific dental phobia, a disproportional fear of dental procedures show psychological and physiological symptoms which make dental treatments difficult or impossible. For such purposes, hypnosis is often used in dental practice as an alternative for a number of treatments adjuvant or instead of sedation or general anesthetic, as medication is often associated with risks and side effects. This is the first study to address the effects of a brief dental hypnosis on the fear processing structures of the brain in dental phobics using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Holger Dannenberg, James R Hinman, Michael E Hasselmo
Behavioral data suggest that cholinergic modulation may play a role in certain aspects of spatial memory, and neurophysiological data demonstrate neurons that fire in response to spatial dimensions, including grid cells and place cells that respond on the basis of location and running speed. These neurons show firing responses that depend upon the visual configuration of the environment, due to coding in visually-responsive regions of the neocortex. This review focuses on the physiological effects of acetylcholine that may influence the sensory coding of spatial dimensions relevant to behavior...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Satoshi Shimegi, Akihiro Kimura, Akinori Sato, Chisa Aoyama, Ryo Mizuyama, Keisuke Tsunoda, Fuyuki Ueda, Sera Araki, Ryoma Goya, Hiromichi Sato
The brain dynamically changes its input-output relationship depending on the behavioral state and context in order to optimize information processing. At the molecular level, cholinergic/monoaminergic transmitters have been extensively studied as key players for the state/context-dependent modulation of brain function. In this paper, we review how cortical visual information processing in the primary visual cortex (V1) of macaque monkey, which has a highly differentiated laminar structure, is optimized by serotonergic and cholinergic systems by examining anatomical and in vivo electrophysiological aspects to highlight their similarities and distinctions...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Jennifer J Coppola, Nicholas J Ward, Monika P Jadi, Anita A Disney
Neuromodulatory signaling is generally considered broad in its impact across cortex. However, variations in the characteristics of cortical circuits may introduce regionally-specific responses to diffuse modulatory signals. Features such as patterns of axonal innervation, tissue tortuosity and molecular diffusion, effectiveness of degradation pathways, subcellular receptor localization, and patterns of receptor expression can lead to local modification of modulatory inputs. We propose that modulatory compartments exist in cortex and can be defined by variation in structural features of local circuits...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Martin Sarter, Cindy Lustig, Randy D Blakely, Ajeesh Koshy Cherian
The basal forebrain cholinergic projection system to the cortex mediates essential aspects of visual attention performance, including the detection of cues and the response to performance challenges (top-down control of attention). Higher levels of top-down control are mediated via elevated levels of cholinergic neuromodulation. The neuronal choline transporter (CHT) strongly influences the synthesis and release of acetylcholine (ACh). As the capacity of the CHT to import choline into the neuron is a major, presynaptic determinant of cholinergic neuromodulation, we hypothesize that genetically-imposed CHT capacity variation impacts the balance of bottom-up versus top-down control of visual attention...
July 9, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Antonio Del Casale, Stefano Ferracuti, Chiara Rapinesi, Pietro De Rossi, Gloria Angeletti, Gabriele Sani, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Paolo Girardi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Several studies reported that hypnosis can modulate pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. We conducted an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on functional neuroimaging studies of pain perception under hypnosis to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring during hypnotic suggestions aiming at pain reduction, including hypnotic analgesic, pleasant, or depersonalization suggestions (HASs)...
January 8, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Denise Potthoff, Rüdiger J Seitz
Humans typically make probabilistic inferences about another person's affective state based on her/his bodily movements when viewing body language like emotional facial expressions, emblematic gestures and whole body movements. Furthermore, they deduce tentative predictions about the other person's intentions. Such interpretations reflect the valuating first person perspective of humans which allows the subject to adopt a second person perspective as in theory of mind and in empathy. Neuroimaging investigations have shown that the medial frontal cortex is a critical node in the circuits underlying theory of mind, empathy, and intention of action...
December 18, 2015: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Thilo Hinterberger
This article presents a few models and aspects of the phenomenon consciousness that are emerging from modern neuroscience and might serve as a basis for scientific discourse in the field of Applied Consciousness Sciences. A first model describes the dynamics of information processing in the brain. The evoked electric brain potentials represent a hierarchical sequence of functions playing an important role in conscious perception. These range from primary processing, attention, pattern recognition, categorization, associations to judgments, and complex thoughts...
December 18, 2015: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Anita Beck, Gábor Fábián, Pál Fejérdy, Wolf-Rainer Krause, Péter Hermann, Károly Módos, Gábor Varga, Tibor Károly Fábián
Long-term photo-acoustic stimulation is used for the induction of altered states of consciousness for both therapeutic and experimental purposes. Long-term photo-acoustic stimulation also leads to changes in the composition of saliva which have a key contribution to the efficiency of this technique in easing mucosal symptoms of oral psychosomatic patients. The aim of this study is to find out whether there is any cumulative effect of repeated stimulation and whether there are any detectable differences between diverse stimulatory patterns of long lasting photo-acoustic stimulation on the phenomenology of the appearing trance state and on salivary secretion...
December 18, 2015: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Giuseppe De Benedittis
Hypnosis has been an elusive concept for science for a long time. However, the explosive advances in neuroscience in the last few decades have provided a "bridge of understanding" between classical neurophysiological studies and psychophysiological studies. These studies have shed new light on the neural basis of the hypnotic experience. Furthermore, an ambitious new area of research is focusing on mapping the core processes of psychotherapy and the neurobiology/underlying them. Hypnosis research offers powerful techniques to isolate psychological processes in ways that allow their neural bases to be mapped...
November 10, 2015: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Athena Demertzi, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Quentin Noirhomme, Marie-Elisabeth Faymonville, Steven Laureys
In altered subjective states, the behavioral quantification of external and internal awareness remains challenging due to the need for reports on the subjects' behalf. With the aim to characterize the behavioral counterpart of external and internal awareness in a modified subjective condition, we used hypnosis during which subjects remain fully responsive. Eleven right-handed subjects reached a satisfactory level of hypnotisability as evidenced by subjective reports on arousal, absorption and dissociation. Compared to normal wakefulness, in hypnosis a) participants' self-ratings for internal awareness increased and self- ratings for external awareness decreased, b) the two awareness components tended to anticorrelate less and the switches between external and internal awareness self-ratings were less frequent, and c) participants' reaction times were higher and lapses in key presses were more frequent...
November 6, 2015: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Andrew B Newberg, Nancy A Wintering, David Yaden, Mark R Waldman, Janet Reddin, Abass Alavi
This paper presents a case series with preliminary data regarding the neurophysiological effects of specific prayer practices associated with the Islamic religion. Such practices, like other prayer practices, are likely associated with several coordinated cognitive activities and a complex pattern of brain physiology. However, there may also be changes specific to the goals of Islamic prayer which has, as its most fundamental concept, the surrendering of one's self to God. To evaluate Islamic prayer practices, we measured changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in three Islamic individuals while practicing two different types of Islamic prayer...
August 19, 2015: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Andrew A Fingelkurts, Alexander A Fingelkurts, Tarja Kallio-Tamminen
The therapeutic potential of meditation for physical and mental well-being is well documented, however the possibility of adverse effects warrants further discussion of the suitability of any particular meditation practice for every given participant. This concern highlights the need for a personalized approach in the meditation practice adjusted for a concrete individual. This can be done by using an objective screening procedure that detects the weak and strong cognitive skills in brain function, thus helping design a tailored meditation training protocol...
March 21, 2015: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Mark Laubach, Sebastien Bouret, Jerome Sallet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2015: Journal of Physiology, Paris
K Richard Ridderinkhof, Marcel Brass
Kinesthetic Motor Imagery (KMI) is an important technique to acquire and refine motor skills. KMI is widely used by professional athletes as an effective way to improve motor performance without overt motor output. Despite this obvious relevance, the functional mechanisms and neural circuits involved in KMI in sports are still poorly understood. In the present article, which aims at bridging the sport sciences and cognitive neurophysiology literatures, we give a brief overview of relevant research in the field of KMI...
February 2015: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Veit Stuphorn
The medial frontal cortex has been suggested to play a role in the control, monitoring, and selection of behavior. The supplementary eye field (SEF) is a cortical area within medial frontal cortex that is involved in the regulation of eye movements. Neurophysiological studies in the SEF of macaque monkeys have systematically investigated the role of SEF in various behavioral control and monitoring functions. Inhibitory control studies indicate that SEF neurons do not directly participate in the initiation of eye movements...
February 2015: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Anne-Marike Schiffer, Florian Waszak, Nick Yeung
Humans adaptively perform actions to achieve their goals. This flexible behaviour requires two core abilities: the ability to anticipate the outcomes of candidate actions and the ability to select and implement actions in a goal-directed manner. The ability to predict outcomes has been extensively researched in reinforcement learning paradigms, but this work has often focused on simple actions that are not embedded in hierarchical and sequential structures that are characteristic of goal-directed human behaviour...
February 2015: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Mark Laubach, Marcelo S Caetano, Nandakumar S Narayanan
Studies in rats, monkeys and humans have established that the medial prefrontal cortex is crucial for the ability to exert adaptive control over behavior. Here, we review studies on the role of the rat medial prefrontal cortex in adaptive control, with a focus on simple reaction time tasks that can be easily used across species and have clinical relevance. The performance of these tasks is associated with neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex that reflects stimulus detection, action timing, and outcome monitoring...
February 2015: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Christopher M Warren, James M Hyman, Jeremy K Seamans, Clay B Holroyd
The feedback-related negativity (FRN) refers to a difference in the human event-related potential (ERP) elicited by feedback indicating success versus failure: the difference appears negative when subtracting the success ERP from the failure ERP (Miltner et al., 1997). Although source localization techniques (e.g., BESA) suggest that the FRN is produced in the ACC, the inverse problem (that any given scalp distribution can be produced by an infinite number of possible dipole configurations) limits the certainty of this conclusion...
February 2015: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Simon P Kelly, Redmond G O'Connell
In the last two decades, animal neurophysiology research has made great strides towards explaining how the brain can enable adaptive action in the face of noisy sensory information. In particular, this work has identified neural signals that perform the role of a 'decision variable' which integrates sensory information in favor of a particular outcome up to an action-triggering threshold, consistent with long-standing predictions from mathematical psychology. This has provoked an intensive search for similar neural processes at work in the human brain...
February 2015: Journal of Physiology, Paris
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