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Journal of Physiology, Paris

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823614/dyssynchrony-and-perinatal-psychopathology-impact-of-child-disease-on-parents-child-interactions-the-paradigm-of-prader-willi-syndrom
#1
Sylvie Viaux-Savelon, Ouriel Rosenblum, Antoine Guedeney, Gwenaelle Diene, Sophie Çabal-Berthoumieu, Pascale Fichaux-Bourin, Catherine Molinas, Sandy Faye, Marion Valette, Céline Bascoul, David Cohen, Maïthé Tauber
BACKGROUND: Infant-mother interaction is a set of bidirectional processes, where the baby is not only affected by the influences of his caregiver, but is also at the origin of considerable modifications. The recent discovery of biological correlates of synchrony during interaction validated its crucial value during child development. Here, we focus on the paradigmatic case of Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) where early endocrinal dysfunction is associated with severe hypotonia and early feeding disorder...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690149/creating-a-social-zeitgeber-to-synchronize-family-emotional-rhythms-a-new-therapeutic-approach-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry
#2
Matthias Wiss, Sylvie Tordjman
A family can be viewed as a system respecting the principle of homeostasis and therefore considered as a system in equilibrium or out of equilibrium, or even both simultaneously or consecutively. Within a family system, there are oscillatory phenomena and synchronization of the emotional, behavioral and relational rhythms of each member of the family system as well as synchronization of this system with others. A disruption of family synchronies, consisting of successive desynchronizations and resynchronizations, can take place in order for a change to occur...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756027/key-considerations-in-designing-a-speech-brain-computer-interface
#3
Florent Bocquelet, Thomas Hueber, Laurent Girin, Stéphan Chabardès, Blaise Yvert
Restoring communication in case of aphasia is a key challenge for neurotechnologies. To this end, brain-computer strategies can be envisioned to allow artificial speech synthesis from the continuous decoding of neural signals underlying speech imagination. Such speech brain-computer interfaces do not exist yet and their design should consider three key choices that need to be made: the choice of appropriate brain regions to record neural activity from, the choice of an appropriate recording technique, and the choice of a neural decoding scheme in association with an appropriate speech synthesis method...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698013/links-between-early-child-maltreatment-mental-disorders-and-cortisol-secretion-anomalies
#4
Bronsard Guillaume, Auquier Pascal, Boyer Laurent
Early child maltreatment has been widely associated with the development of mental disorders in both childhood and adulthood. However, such association cannot be systematically established, as only few factors are observed regularly, such as high prevalence of comorbidities and externalized disorders. Similarly, the association between early abuse and cortisol secretion anomalies has been well-documented. Whereas early hypercortisolism followed by hypocortisolism was often described, the results proved inconsistent and at times contradictory...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625683/a-developmental-and-clinical-perspective-of-rhythmic-interpersonal-coordination-from-mimicry-toward-the-interconnection-of-minds
#5
REVIEW
Jean Xavier, Julien Magnat, Alain Sherman, Soizic Gauthier, David Cohen, Laurence Chaby
Imitation plays a critical role in the development of intersubjectivity and serves as a prerequisite for understanding the emotions and intentions of others. In our review, we consider spontaneous motor imitation between children and their peers as a developmental process involving repetition and perspective-taking as well as flexibility and reciprocity. During childhood, this playful dynamic challenges developing visuospatial abilities and requires temporal coordination between partners. As such, we address synchrony as form of communication and social signal per se, that leads, from an experience of similarity, to the interconnection of minds...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625682/are-circadian-rhythms-new-pathways-to-understand-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
M-M Geoffray, A Nicolas, M Speranza, N Georgieff
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a frequent neurodevelopmental disorder. ASD is probably the result of intricate interactions between genes and environment altering progressively the development of brain structures and functions. Circadian rhythms are a complex intrinsic timing system composed of almost as many clocks as there are body cells. They regulate a variety of physiological and behavioral processes such as the sleep-wake rhythm. ASD is often associated with sleep disorders and low levels of melatonin...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564589/functional-monitoring-of-peripheral-nerves-from-electrical-impedance-measurements
#7
Alexandre Fouchard, Véronique Coizet, Valérie Sinniger, Didier Clarençon, Karin Pernet-Gallay, Stéphane Bonnet, Olivier David
Medical electrical stimulators adapted to peripheral nerves use multicontact cuff electrodes (MCC) to provide selective neural interfaces. However, neuroprostheses are currently limited by their inability to locate the regions of interest to focus. Intended until now either for stimulation or recording, MCC can also be used as a means of transduction to characterize the nerve by impedancemetry. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of using electrical impedance (EI) measurements as an in vivo functional nerve monitoring technique...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506881/altered-circadian-patterns-of-salivary-cortisol-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-a-critical-literature-review
#8
Nathalie Coulon, Sylvie Brailly-Tabard, Michel Walter, Sylvie Tordjman
This article focuses on stress vulnerability in schizophrenia through an integrated clinical and biological approach. The objective of this article is to better understand the relationships between vulnerability, stress and schizophrenia. First, the concept of vulnerability is defined and several models of vulnerability in schizophrenia are reviewed. Second, a section is developed on the biology of stress, and more specifically on the stress responses of the hypothalamo-pitutary adrenal (HPA) axis. Then, studies of cortisol circadian rhythms are summarized, suggesting hyper-reactivity of the HPA axis in patients with schizophrenia and high risk individuals for schizophrenia...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487255/disruption-of-adolescents-circadian-clock-the-vicious-circle-of-media-use-exposure-to-light-at-night-sleep-loss-and-risk-behaviors
#9
Yvan Touitou, David Touitou, Alain Reinberg
Although sleep is a key element in adolescent development, teens are spending increasing amounts of time online with health risks related to excessive use of electronic media (computers, smartphones, tablets, consoles…) negatively associated with daytime functioning and sleep outcomes. Adolescent sleep becomes irregular, shortened and delayed in relation with later sleep onset and early waking time due to early school starting times on weekdays which results in rhythm desynchronization and sleep loss. In addition, exposure of adolescents to the numerous electronic devices prior to bedtime has become a great concern because LEDs emit much more blue light than white incandescent bulbs and compact fluorescent bulbs and have therefore a greater impact on the biological clock...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323028/early-behavioural-facilitation-by-temporal-expectations-in-complex-visual-motor-sequences
#10
Simone G Heideman, Freek van Ede, Anna C Nobre
In daily life, temporal expectations may derive from incidental learning of recurring patterns of intervals. We investigated the incidental acquisition and utilisation of combined temporal-ordinal (spatial/effector) structure in complex visual-motor sequences using a modified version of a serial reaction time (SRT) task. In this task, not only the series of targets/responses, but also the series of intervals between subsequent targets was repeated across multiple presentations of the same sequence. Each participant completed three sessions...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288824/switching-markov-decoders-for-asynchronous-trajectory-reconstruction-from-ecog-signals-in-monkeys-for-bci-applications
#11
Marie-Caroline Schaeffer, Tetiana Aksenova
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) are systems which translate brain neural activity into commands for external devices. BCI users generally alternate between No-Control (NC) and Intentional Control (IC) periods. NC/IC discrimination is crucial for clinical BCIs, particularly when they provide neural control over complex effectors such as exoskeletons. Numerous BCI decoders focus on the estimation of continuously-valued limb trajectories from neural signals. The integration of NC support into continuous decoders is investigated in the present article...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237321/digital-hardware-implementation-of-a-stochastic-two-dimensional-neuron-model
#12
F Grassia, T Kohno, T Levi
This study explores the feasibility of stochastic neuron simulation in digital systems (FPGA), which realizes an implementation of a two-dimensional neuron model. The stochasticity is added by a source of current noise in the silicon neuron using an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. This approach uses digital computation to emulate individual neuron behavior using fixed point arithmetic operation. The neuron model's computations are performed in arithmetic pipelines. It was designed in VHDL language and simulated prior to mapping in the FPGA...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235667/automated-detection-of-high-frequency-oscillations-in-electrophysiological-signals-methodological-advances
#13
Miguel Navarrete, Jan Pyrzowski, Juliana Corlier, Mario Valderrama, Michel Le Van Quyen
In recent years, new recording technologies have advanced such that oscillations of neuronal networks can be identified from simultaneous, multisite recordings at high temporal and spatial resolutions. However, because of the deluge of multichannel data generated by these experiments, achieving the full potential of parallel neuronal recordings also depends on the development of new mathematical methods capable of extracting meaningful information related to time, frequency and space. In this review, we aim to bridge this gap by focusing on the new analysis tools developed for the automated detection of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs, >40Hz) in local field potentials...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161453/rhythms-dysregulation-a-new-perspective-for-understanding-ptsd
#14
Jacques Dayan, Géraldine Rauchs, Bérengère Guillery-Girard
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex syndrome that may occur after exposure to one or more traumatic events. It associates physiological, emotional, and cognitive changes Brain and hormonal modifications contribute to some impairments in learning, memory, and emotion regulation. Some of these biological dysfunctions may be analyzed in terms of rhythms dysregulation that would be expressed through endocrine rhythmicity, sleep organization, and temporal synchrony in brain activity. In the first part of this article, we report studies on endocrine rhythmicity revealing that some rhythms abnormalities are frequently observed, although not constantly, for both cortisol and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088499/initial-uncertainty-impacts-statistical-learning-in-sound-sequence-processing
#15
Juanita Todd, Alexander Provost, Lisa Whitson, Daniel Mullens
This paper features two studies confirming a lasting impact of first learning on how subsequent experience is weighted in early relevance-filtering processes. In both studies participants were exposed to sequences of sound that contained a regular pattern on two different timescales. Regular patterning in sound is readily detected by the auditory system and used to form "prediction models" that define the most likely properties of sound to be encountered in a given context. The presence and strength of these prediction models is inferred from changes in automatically elicited components of auditory evoked potentials...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927520/editorial
#16
EDITORIAL
Blaise Yvert, Antoine Depaulis, Cécile Delacour, Tetiana Aksenova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576554/absence-seizure-susceptibility-correlates-with-pre-ictal-%C3%AE-oscillations
#17
Jordan M Sorokin, Jeanne T Paz, John R Huguenard
Absence seizures are generalized, cortico-thalamo-cortical (CTC) high power electroencephalographic (EEG) or electrocorticographic (ECoG) events that initiate and terminate suddenly. ECoG recordings of absence seizures in animal models of genetic absence epilepsy show a sudden spike-wave-discharge (SWD) onset that rapidly emerges from normal ECoG activity. However, given that absence seizures occur most often during periods of drowsiness or quiet wakefulness, we wondered whether SWD onset correlates with pre-ictal changes in network activity...
November 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336305/from-point-process-observations-to-collective-neural-dynamics-nonlinear-hawkes-process-glms-low-dimensional-dynamics-and-coarse-graining
#18
REVIEW
Wilson Truccolo
This review presents a perspective on capturing collective dynamics in recorded neuronal ensembles based on multivariate point process models, inference of low-dimensional dynamics and coarse graining of spatiotemporal measurements. A general probabilistic framework for continuous time point processes reviewed, with an emphasis on multivariate nonlinear Hawkes processes with exogenous inputs. A point process generalized linear model (PP-GLM) framework for the estimation of discrete time multivariate nonlinear Hawkes processes is described...
November 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286237/retrospectively-supervised-click-decoder-calibration-for-self-calibrating-point-and-click-brain-computer-interfaces
#19
Beata Jarosiewicz, Anish A Sarma, Jad Saab, Brian Franco, Sydney S Cash, Emad N Eskandar, Leigh R Hochberg
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) aim to restore independence to people with severe motor disabilities by allowing control of acursor on a computer screen or other effectors with neural activity. However, physiological and/or recording-related nonstationarities in neural signals can limit long-term decoding stability, and it would be tedious for users to pause use of the BCI whenever neural control degrades to perform decoder recalibration routines. We recently demonstrated that a kinematic decoder (i.e. a decoder that controls cursor movement) can be recalibrated using data acquired during practical point-and-click control of the BCI by retrospectively inferring users' intended movement directions based on their subsequent selections...
November 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263793/recent-progress-in-multi-electrode-spike-sorting-methods
#20
REVIEW
Baptiste Lefebvre, Pierre Yger, Olivier Marre
In recent years, arrays of extracellular electrodes have been developed and manufactured to record simultaneously from hundreds of electrodes packed with a high density. These recordings should allow neuroscientists to reconstruct the individual activity of the neurons spiking in the vicinity of these electrodes, with the help of signal processing algorithms. Algorithms need to solve a source separation problem, also known as spike sorting. However, these new devices challenge the classical way to do spike sorting...
November 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
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