Read by QxMD icon Read

Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos

A L S Guimarães, S A Pereira, M N Diógenes, M A N Dode
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding a combination of insulin, transferrin and selenium (ITS) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) during in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro culture (IVC) on in vitro embryo production. To verify the effect of the supplements, cleavage and blastocyst rates, embryo size and total cell number were performed. Embryonic development data, embryo size categorization and kinetics of maturation were analyzed by chi-squared test, while the total cell number was analyzed by a Kruskal-Wallis test (P < 0...
October 17, 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Yukou Sugano, Manami Yazawa, Sachio Takino, Sueo Niimura, Hideaki Yamashiro
The objective of this study was to classify spindle and first polar body (PB1) chromosome images in ovulated mouse oocytes over time to predict the developmental competence of metaphase II (MII) oocytes. Oocytes were collected at 12, 15, 20, and 25 h after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection, and stained for spindle tubulin, chromosomes, and PB1 chromosomes. MII spindle morphology was classified as tapered type or barrel type and PB1 chromosomes were categorized as aggregated, separated, dot, or collapsed...
October 13, 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Ching Man Chan, Jacqueline T M Aw, Sarah E Webb, Andrew L Miller
In zebrafish embryos, distinct Ca2+ transients are localized to the early cleavage furrows during the first few cell division cycles. These transients are generated mainly by release via IP3Rs in the endoplasmic reticulum, and they are necessary for furrow positioning, propagation, deepening and apposition. We previously showed, via the use of inhibitors, that store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) also appears to be essential for maintaining the IP3R-mediated elevated levels of [Ca2+]i for the extended periods required for the completion of successful furrow deepening and daughter cell apposition in these large embryonic cells...
October 5, 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Sylvia J Bedford-Guaus, François Chauvigné, Eva Mejía-Ramírez, Mercè Martí, Antoni Ventura-Rubio, Ángel Raya, Joan Cerdà, Anna Veiga
While vitrification has become the method of choice for preservation of human oocytes and embryos, cryopreservation of complex tissues and of large yolk-containing cells, remains largely unsuccessful. One critical step in such instances is appropriate permeation while avoiding potentially toxic concentrations of cryoprotectants. Permeation of water and small non-charged solutes, such as those used as cryoprotectants, occurs largely through membrane channel proteins termed aquaporins (AQPs). Substitution of a Thr by an Ala residue in the pore-forming motif of the zebrafish (Dario rerio) Aqp3b paralog resulted in a mutant (DrAqp3b-T85A) that when expressed in Xenopus or porcine oocytes increased their permeability to ethylene glycol at pH 7...
October 5, 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Dong-Kyung Lee, Chi-Hun Park, Kwang-Hwan Choi, Yeon-Ik Jeong, Kyung-Jun Uh, Jae Yeon Hwang, Sang-Goo Lee, Chang-Kyu Lee
The development of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from large animal species has become an important model for therapeutic cloning using ESCs derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, poor embryo quality and blastocyst formation have been major limitations for derivation of cloned ESCs (ntESCs). In this study, we have tried to overcome these problems by treating these cells with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and aggregating porcine embryos. First, cloned embryos were treated with Scriptaid to confirm the effect of HDACi on cloned embryo quality...
October 3, 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Isao Takahashi, Keiichiro Kyozuka
An important step for successful fertilization and further development is the increase in intracellular Ca2+ in the activated oocyte. It has been known that starfish oocytes become increasingly sensitive to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) during meiotic maturation to exhibit highly efficient IP3-induced Ca2+ release (IICR) by the time of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). However, we noted that the peak level of intracellular Ca2+ increase after insemination is already high in the maturing oocytes before GVBD...
October 3, 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Miyako Sugiyama, Mei Sumiya, Koumei Shirasuna, Takehito Kuwayama, Hisataka Iwata
The main aim of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that an increase in the number of granulosa cells surrounding developing bovine oocytes results in both high ATP levels and an increase in the acetylation level of H4K12 in oocytes grown in vitro. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) were collected from early antral follicles (EAFs, 0.4-0.7 mm in diameter), and individually cultured on 96-well plates with or without additional granulosa cell mass that had been prepared from other OGCs. After 16 days of culture, we examined: (i) the rate of antrum formation of the OGCs; (ii) the diameter, maturation, and fertilization rate of the oocytes; and (iii) the ATP content and acetylation level of H4K12 in the oocytes grown in vitro...
October 3, 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Xue Wang, Jingran Zhen, Zhengyi Sun, Qi Yu, Chengyan Deng, Yuanzheng Zhou, Hanbi Wang, Fangfang He
This study aimed to compare the neonatal outcomes of transplanted fifth day (D5) or sixth day (D6) frozen-thawed blastocysts, aiming to provide guidance when choosing blastocyst recovery methods. The clinical data of 1109 patients that were performed for recovered blastocyst transplantation, as well as the data of 515 patients who had already delivered were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into single- or twins-birth groups according to blastocyst formation time (D5 or D6) and the number of fetus(es)...
October 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Nathália L M Lara, Ivan C Santos, Guilherme M J Costa, Dirceu A Cordeiro-Junior, Antônio C G Almeida, Ana P Madureira, Marcos S Zanini, Luiz R França
The spiny rat (Proechimys guyannensis) is a neotropical rodent that is used in biomedical research, particularly research related to chronic resistance to epilepsy and infectious diseases. To our knowledge, there are few reports concerning the reproductive biology of this species. Therefore, besides providing basic biometric and morphometric data, in the present study we investigated testis function and spermatogenesis in adult spiny rats. The mean testis weight and gonadosomatic index obtained were 1.63 ± 0...
October 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Zuowu Cao, Chuncheng Nie, Yan Xie, Dongqin Cai
In order to understand the role of the protein zona pellucida 2 in fertilization, an antibody against a central segment of the zona pellucida 2 peptide, segment 190-505 (Z2eH), was prepared. The influence of the antibody on sperm-zona interaction was tested using the sperm-egg binding assay. The effect of the antibody on fertility was evaluated by passive immunization with anti-Z2eH antibody. Immunohistochemical assay showed that an antibody from rabbit reacted specifically with the natural zona pellucida on mouse ovarian sections...
October 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Heghush Aleksanyan, Jing Liang, Stan Metzenberg, Steven B Oppenheimer
The sea urchin embryo is a United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) designated model system to study mechanisms that may be involved in human health and disease. In order to examine the importance of high-mannose glycans and polysaccharides in gastrulation, Lytechinus pictus embryos were incubated with Jack bean α-mannosidase (EC, an enzyme that cleaves terminal mannose residues that have α1-2-, α1-3-, or α1-6-glycosidic linkages. The enzyme treatment caused a variety of morphological deformations in living embryos, even with α-mannosidase activities as low as 0...
October 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
K Kishida, H Harayama, F Kimura, T Murakami
The aims of this study were to show the existence of individual differences in the distribution of sperm acrosome-associated 1 (SPACA1) among male patients of infertile couples and to examine their possible impact on the outcomes of conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF). The spermatozoa were collected from male patients of infertile couples, washed by centrifugation, collected by the swim-up method, and then used for clinical treatments of conventional IVF. The surplus sperm samples were fixed and stained with an anti-SPACA1 polyclonal antibody for the immunocytochemistry...
October 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
M A Filatov, Y V Khramova, M V Kiseleva, I V Malinova, E V Komarova, M L Semenova
In the present review, the main strategies of female fertility preservation are covered. Procedures of fertility preservation are necessary for women who suffer from diseases whose treatment requires the use of aggressive therapies, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These kinds of therapy negatively influence the health of gametes and their progenitors. The most commonly used method of female fertility preservation is ovarian tissue cryopreservation, followed by the retransplantation of thawed tissue. Another approach to female fertility preservation that has been actively developed lately is the ovarian tissue in vitro culture...
October 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Jian Xu, Yan Li, Yizi Wang, Yanwen Xu, Canquan Zhou
Biological clock genes expressed in reproductive tissues play important roles in maintaining the normal functions of reproductive system. However, disruption of female circadian rhythm on oocyte fertilization, preimplantation embryo development and blastocyst implantation potential is still unclear. In this study, ovulation, in vivo and in vitro oocyte fertilization, embryo development, implantation and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in ovary and oviduct were studied in female Bmal1+/+ and Bmal1-/- mice...
October 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Samuel Louzada Pereira, Dalcio Ricardo de Andrade, Marcella Costa Radael, João Carlos Fosse Filho, Rafael Vieira de Azevedo, Douglas da Cruz Mattos, Manuel Vazquez Vidal Junior
Temperature is an environmental factor that influences the development of fish, and when changed abruptly can lead to high mortality. Some species of fish are influenced by this factor, exhibiting a longer time for embryonic development and time to first feeding. This study aims to evaluate the effect of water temperature on embryonic and larval development up to first feeding, to describe the time in hours post fertilization (hpf) of the emergence of different structures and to determine the best hatching rate and survival of animals under different treatments...
October 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
María Elena Arias, Raúl Sánchez, Ricardo Felmer
Increasing the efficiency of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in domestic animals has been attempted by many researchers, however embryonic development to the blastocyst stage remains low compared with that of in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. One of the main problems observed in cattle is inadequate oocyte activation after ICSI. The present study compared the effect of cycloheximide (CHX), 6-dimethylaminopurine (DMAP), and anisomycin (ANY) on the fertilization rate, development, ploidy and quality of bovine embryos generated by ICSI...
October 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Agnieszka Partyka, Dorota Bonarska-Kujawa, Marta Sporniak, Maciej Strojecki, Wojciech Niżański
This study was conducted to determine the changes in chicken sperm plasma membranes fluidity and polarity as lipid packing arrangement induced by cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBCD) and how sperm cryopreservation outcomes are improved by these changes. Treatment with 2 mg HBCD supported the highest (P < 0.01) percentage of viable spermatozoa compared with the control and CLCs groups after cryopreservation. The percentage of post-thaw progressive and rapid sperm motility was highest in 2 mg HBCD (P < 0...
October 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
M Martínez-Sales, F García-Ximénez, F J Espinós
Organic pollutants are present in drinking waters due to inefficient detection and removal treatments. For this reason, zebrafish is proposed as a complementary indicator in conventional potabilization treatments. Based on the most sensitive parameters detected in our previous work, in this study we attempted to examine the possible cumulative effect between generations of environmental pollutants likely present in drinking waters, when specimens were cultured in the same water and/or the possible reversibility of these effects when cultured in control water...
October 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Krishna C Pavani, Erica Baron, Pedro Correia, Joana Lourenço, Bruno Filipe Bettencourt, Madalena Sousa, Fernando Moreira da Silva
Three assays were performed. In assay 1, oocytes harvested during the winter months were subjected to kinetic heat shock by stressing the oocytes at 39.5°C (HS1) or at 40.5°C (HS2) for either 6, 12, 18 or 24 h and then matured at control temperature (38.5°C). The nuclear maturation rates (NMR) of all oocytes were recorded after 24 h. In assay 2, oocytes collected year-round maturated, were implanted via in vitro fertilization (IVF) and developed for 9 days. Gene expression analysis was performed on target genes (Cx43, CDH1, DNMT1, HSPA14) with reference to the two housekeeping genes (GAPDH and SDHA) in embryos...
October 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Maria Sabés-Alsina, Núria Planell, Sílvia Gil, Oriol Tallo-Parra, Maria José Maya-Soriano, Ester Taberner, Miriam Piles, Manel Sabés, Manel Lopez-Bejar
The resazurin reduction test (RRT) is a useful technique to assess the metabolic rate of sperm cells. RRT depends on the ability of metabolically active cells to reduce the non-fluorescent dye resazurin to the fluorescent resorufin. The aim of this study was to develop a vital fluorometric method to evaluate metabolic activity of rabbit sperm cells. Twenty-five rabbit males were included in the study. Viability and morphology, motility and metabolic activity were evaluated using an eosin-nigrosin staining, a computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) and the RRT, respectively...
October 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"