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Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos

Ashraf El-Sayed, Rehab Nagy, Amal K El-Asheeri, Liala N Eid
SummaryTo investigate the effects of physiologically relevant heat shock during oocyte maturation, buffalo cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured at 38.5°C (control) or were exposed to 39.5°C (T1) or 40.5°C (T2) for the first 6 h of in vitro maturation (IVM), followed by 38.5°C through the next 18 h/IVM and early embryonic development up to the blastocyst stage. Gene expression analysis was performed on selected target genes (HSF-1, HSF-2, HSP-70, HSP-90, BAX, p53, SOD1, COX1, MAPK14) in denuded oocytes and their isolated cumulus cells resulting from control COCs as well as from COCs exposed to a temperature of 39...
May 22, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
João D A Losano, Daniel S R Angrimani, Bruno R Rui, Luana C Bicudo, Andressa Dalmazzo, Bárbara C S Silva, Carlos H C Viana, Camilla M Mendes, Mayra E O A Assumpção, Valquiria H Barnabe, Marcilio Nichi
SummaryThe cryopreservation of epididymal sperm is an important technique that allows genetic material to be preserved, even post mortem. However, cryopreservation leads to increased oxidative stress and impaired sperm viability. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation may improve certain sperm characteristics, but it also makes sperm more susceptible to oxidative stress, therefore adding antioxidants that counteract oxidative stress has become an option. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of the interaction between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and antioxidants on the quality after the cryopreservation of epididymal bull sperm...
May 21, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Rasoul Kowsar, Fatemeh Izadi, Nima Sadeghi, Ahmad Riasi, Faezeh Ghazvini Zadegan, Mehdi Hajian, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani, Hossein Farrokhpour, Akio Miyamoto
SummaryNutrition influences the microenvironment in the proximity of oocyte and affects early embryonic development. Elevated blood urea nitrogen, even in healthy dairy cows, is associated with reduced fertility and there is high correlation between blood urea levels and follicular fluid urea levels. Using a docking calculation (in silico), urea showed a favorable binding activity towards the ZP-N domain of ZP3, that of ZP2, and towards the predicted full-length sperm receptor ZP3. Supplementation of oocyte maturation medium with nutrition-related levels of urea (20 or 40 mg/dl as seen in healthy dairy cows fed on low or high dietary protein, respectively) dose-dependently increased: (i) the proportion of oocytes that remained uncleaved; and (ii) oocyte degeneration; and reduced cleavage, blastocyst and hatching rates...
April 30, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Caroline Costa Lucas, Luana Rolim Melo, Míriam Luzia Nogueira Martins de Sousa, Glayciane Bezerra de Morais, Moisés Fernandes Martins, Francisco Antônio Félix Xavier, Janaina Serra Azul Monteiro Evangelista, Célia Maria de Souza Sampaio
SummaryThere are few reports of cryopreservation and injuries in Macrobrachium amazonicum embryos. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of cryoprotectants agents and cooling on stage VIII of this species. Fertilized eggs from ovigerous females were removed from the incubation chamber, then placed in 10 ml Falcon tubes with a cryoprotectant solution and saline-free calcium solution. Thus, the embryos underwent a cooling curve of 1°C per min until reaching 5°C, and then were stored for 2 h...
April 15, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
A Mishra, I J Reddy, A Dhali, P K Javvaji
SummaryThe objective of the study was to investigate the effect of l-ergothioneine (l-erg) (5 mM or 10 mM) supplementation in maturation medium on the developmental potential and OCTN1-dependant l-erg-mediated (10 mM) change in mRNA abundance of apoptotic (Bcl2, Bax, Casp3 and PCNA) and antioxidant (GPx, SOD1, SOD2 and CAT) genes in sheep oocytes and developmental stages of embryos produced in vitro. Oocytes matured with l-erg (10 mM) reduced their embryo toxicity by decreasing intracellular ROS and increasing intracellular GSH in matured oocytes that in turn improved developmental potential, resulting in significantly (P < 0...
April 2, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Laíza Maria de Jesus-Silva, Pricila Viana de Oliveira, Cristiéle da Silva Ribeiro, Alexandre Ninhaus-Silveira, Rosicleire Veríssimo-Silveira
SummaryThis study aimed to understand how germ cell development occurs in females of Devario aequipinnatus, by morphologically describing oogenesis and the reproductive phases. Sexually mature females of D. aequipinnatus (n = 70) were obtained from commercial fisheries and delivered to the Laboratório de Ictiologia Neotropical, UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. The ovaries were removed, fragmented and fixed following the usual techniques for light microscopy. The stages of ovarian development in D. aequipinnatus begin with the oogonia, which proliferate into new cells or differentiate into prophasic oocytes that, at the end of this process, form the ovarian follicle and end folliculogenesis...
April 2, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Dilberto Ribeiro Arashiro, George Shigueki Yasui, Leonardo Luiz Calado, Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, Matheus Pereira Dos Santos, Silvio Carlos Alves do Santos, Nycolas Levy-Pereira, Paulo Sérgio Monzani, Diógenes Henrique Siqueira-Silva, José Augusto Senhorini
SummaryThe aim of this study was to describe the effect of temperature on the fertilization, early developmental stages, and survival rate of two Neotropical catfishes Pimelodus maculatus and Pseudopimelodus mangurus. After fertilization, the eggs were incubated at 22°C, 26°C, and 30°C, which resulted in fertilization rates of 96.95 ± 1.79%, 98.74 ± 0.76%, and 98.44 ± 0.19% for P. maculatus and 96.10 ± 1.58%, 98.00 ± 0.63%, and 94.60 ± 2.09% for P. mangurus, respectively. For P. maculatus, hatching occurred after 22 h 30 min post-fertilization at 22°C, 16 h 30 min at 26°C, and 11 h 20 min at 30°C, and the hatching rates were 43...
March 28, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Candela Rocío González, Luciana Moverer, Ricardo Saúl Calandra, Silvia Inés González-Calvar, Alfredo Daniel Vitullo
The Deleted in AZoospermia (DAZ) gene family regulates the development, maturation and maintenance of germ cells and spermatogenesis in mammals. The DAZ family consists of two autosomal genes, Boule and Dazl (Daz-like), and the Daz gene on chromosome Y. The aim of this study was to analyze the localization of DAZL and BOULE during testicular ontogeny of the seasonal-breeding Syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. We also evaluated the testicular expression of DAZ family genes under short- or long-photoperiod conditions...
March 25, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Joanna Kochan, Agnieszka Nowak, Wojciech Niżański, Sylwia Prochowska, Anna Migdał, Wiesława Młodawska, Agnieszka Partyka, Maciej Witkowski
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of various activating factors on feline oocytes. The study included activation within the ovary (natural), activation during in vitro maturation (spontaneous activation), chemical activation (ionomycin + 6-DMAP), activation by spermatozoa and injection (ICSI) and mechanical activation (sham ICSI). According to our results, parthenogenetic embryos could emerge at every step of in vitro embryo production (IVP) procedures. After oocyte collection, 6% of parthenogenetic embryos were observed, mainly at the 2-4-blastomere stages...
February 22, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Matheus Pereira Dos Santos, Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, George Shigueki Yasui, Nycolas Levy Pereira, Takafumi Fujimoto, José Augusto Senhorini, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi
In fish, many factors can affect reproduction during in vitro fertilization, therefore determination of the factors that affect affecting gamete quality is needed. However, few studies have focused on gamete quality and the ploidy status. This study was conducted to elucidate whether oocyte storage can affect ploidy status, survival, and embryo viability in the characid species Astyanax altiparanae. Oocytes were stored in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 26°C, then aliquots were fertilized immediately after extrusion (control) and also after 60, 120, 180, and 240 min of storage...
February 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Esther Sánchez-Villalba, María Elena Arias, Fabiola Zambrano, Pía Loren, Ricardo Felmer
Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is a simple, fast, and economical biotechnological tool for producing transgenic animals. However, transgene expression with this technique in bovine embryos is still inefficient due to low uptake and binding of exogenous DNA in spermatozoa. The present study evaluated the effects of sperm membrane destabilization on the binding capacity, location and quantity of bound exogenous DNA in cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa using Triton X-100 (TX-100), lysolecithin (LL) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH)...
February 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
J F Souza, C M Oliveira, L L Lienou, T V Cavalcante, E Alexandrino, R R Santos, A P R Rodrigues, C C Campello, J R Figueiredo, F E F Dias
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of bovine embryo vitrification by applying three different vitrification solutions containing ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) at different concentrations (10, 20 or 25% each) combined with 1.0 M glucose or 1.0 M sucrose, on the in vitro hatching and expansion rates. Healthy oocytes were selected for in vitro maturation and fertilization from 200 bovine ovaries, and subsequently cultured up to the blastocyst stage (n = 800). Control (n = 200) and vitrified cells (n = 100 per treatment; 600 in total) were cultured for an extra 24 or 48 h to evaluate hatching and expansion, respectively...
February 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Maria do Carmo Faria Paes, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi
This study investigated and analysed survival, growth and macro- and microscopic damage during the development of zebrafish embryos up to the adult stage after undergoing cooling. The embryos at 50% epiboly stage were selected, submerged in cryoprotectant solution of methanol and sucrose, cooled gradually to 0 ± 2°C temperature, and divided into two groups with different storage times (6 and 18 h). Subsequently, the embryos were reheated, rehydrated and incubated normally. The experiment lasted 5 months and, from hatching onward, the larvae were examined, collected and processed at pre-established time intervals...
February 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Shabnam Fayezi, Jo L M R Leroy, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Masoud Darabi
Potential reproductive effects are considered as the major aspect of biomolecules functionality in an organism. The recent identification of differential patterns of fatty acids across ovarian follicles and their association with levels of sexual maturity highlights the importance of these biomolecules. It is well known that fatty acids are highly diverse in terms of their functional properties. Oleic acid is chemically classified as an unsaturated omega-9 fatty acid. Besides serving as an important energy source, oleic acid is involved in metabolic and structural roles...
February 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Guang-Yu Bai, Si-Hang Song, Yu-Wei Zhang, Xiang Huang, Xing-Wei Huang, Rui-Zhen Sun, Lei Lei
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is an important technique for life science research. However, most SCNT embryos fail to develop to term due to undefined reprogramming defects. Here, we show that abnormal Xi occurs in somatic cell NT blastocysts, whereas in female blastocysts derived from cumulus cell nuclear transfer, both X chromosomes were inactive. H3K27me3 removal by Kdm6a mRNA overexpression could significantly improve preimplantation development of NT embryos, and even reached a 70.2% blastocyst rate of cleaved embryos compared with the 38...
February 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Danielle Kaiser de Souza, Loise Pedrosa Salles, Ricardo Camargo, Laura Vanessa Mourão Gulart, Suellen Costa E Silva, Beatriz Dolabela de Lima, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves Torres, Alzira Amélia Martins Rosa E Silva
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of FSH and PI3K on the nuclear maturation, viability, steroidogenesis and embryo development of bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Oocyte maturation was achieved with MIV B, MIV B+100 µM LY294002, MIV B+10 ng/mL follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), or MIV B+10 ng/mL FSH+100 µM LY294002 treatments for 22-24 h. After the cultured COCs were denuded, oocytes were separated into those that extruded polar bodies (mature) and those that did not, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for BAX, BCL2, LHR, FSHR, CYP11A1, CYP19A1 and HSD17B1 genes was performed...
February 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Alessandra Gallo
In marine animals with external fertilization, gametes are released into seawater where fertilization and embryo development occur. Consequently, pollutants introduced into the marine environment by human activities may affect gametes and embryos. These xenobiotics can alter cell physiology with consequent reduction of fertilization success. Here the adverse effects on the reproductive processes of the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (ascidian) of different xenobiotics: lead, zinc, an organic tin compound and a phenylurea herbicide were evaluated...
February 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Mingzhu Xu, Yaqiong Zeng, Daming Chi, Linan Si, Xiao Qu, Juan Li
Lipid droplets (LDs) are the main energy resource for porcine preimplantation embryonic development. PLIN3 has been implicated in LD formation and regulation. Therefore, this study aimed to detect the dynamic pattern of PLIN3 in pig oocytes and cumulus cells (CC) during in vitro maturation (IVM), and to determine the relationship between PLIN3 and LD content. IVM with cumulus-enclosed oocytes (CEO), cumulus-denuded oocytes (DO) and the CCs denuded from the corresponding oocytes (DCC) was performed in porcine follicular fluid (PFF) or PFF-free optimized medium...
February 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Andrea Svoradová, Lenka Kuželová, Jaromír Vašíček, Andrej Baláži, Emília Hanusová, Peter Chrenek
We aimed to compare the effect of three different permeating cryoprotectants on the post-thaw spermatozoa quality. Pooled semen from Oravka cock line (n = 6) was diluted in Kobidil+ extender and frozen in cryoprotectant solutions containing 8% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), 8% ethylene glycol (EG) or 8% glycerol (GL) in liquid nitrogen vapours before being plunged into the liquid nitrogen. Spermatozoa motility parameters were assessed in vitro after freezing-thawing by a computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) system and viability status was examined using fluorescent probes...
February 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Debabrata Das, Poulomi Nath, Soumojit Pal, Sudip Hajra, Pritha Ghosh, Sudipta Maitra
Participation and relative importance of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling, either alone or in combination, have been investigated during 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP)-induced meiotic G2-M1 transition in denuded zebrafish oocyte. Results demonstrate that concomitant with rapid phosphorylation (activation) of Akt (Ser473) and MAPK (ERK1/2) at as early as 15 min of incubation, DHP stimulation promotes enhanced an GVBD response and histone H1 kinase activation between 1 and 5 h in full-grown oocytes in vitro...
February 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
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