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Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835303/mitotic-index-and-morphological-characteristics-of-ovarian-small-follicles-from-goats-submitted-to-nutritionally-unbalanced-regimens
#1
Davide Rondina, Vicente J F Freitas, Jamily B Bruno, Juliana J H Celestino, Regiane R Santos
The objective of this study was to assess the influence of nutritional regimens such as adequate feeding, restricted feeding, and underfeeding-refeeding on the follicle growth and development from caprine ovaries. Goats were divided into three different groups (n = 5 per group). For 24 weeks, goats received elephant grass plus concentrate to provide 1.5 (n = 5) and 0.72 (n = 10) times the energy requirements for maintenance of live weight. Underfed goats were subsequently refed for 6 weeks with the diet of the nourished group (1...
August 24, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835302/successful-vitrification-of-whole-juvenile-testis-in-the-critically-endangered-cyprinid-honmoroko-gnathopogon-caerulescens
#2
Shogo Higaki, Natsue Kuwata, Kotaro Tanaka, Ikuo Tooyama, Yasuhiro Fujioka, Noriyoshi Sakai, Tatsuyuki Takada
Sperm cryopreservation is a valuable conservation method for endangered fish species. Here we report an easy and efficient cryopreservation method for juvenile whole testis by vitrification and successful sperm production from the vitrified whole testis via in vitro spermatogenesis in the critically endangered cyprinid honmoroko (Gnathopogon caerulescens). Juvenile testis (approximately 10 mm in length and 1 mm in width), consisting predominantly of spermatogonia, were aseptically dissected out and adherent fatty and non-testicular tissues were subsequently removed...
August 24, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835294/factors-affecting-storage-of-slovak-native-rabbit-semen-in-the-gene-bank
#3
Barbora Kulíková, Marta Oravcová, Andrej Baláži, Peter Supuka, Peter Chrenek
In this study, fresh and frozen-thawed semen of Nitra and Zobor rabbit breeds were evaluated for potential inter-breed or inter-male differences in sperm quality traits. Individual male semen from four rabbits of each breed were diluted (v:v; 1:1) in a freezing medium composed of a commercial diluent, 16% of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), 4% of Ficoll 70 and 2% of sucrose and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapours before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Different motility traits, viability and plasma membrane integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed semen were evaluated in vitro using computer-assisted sperm analysis and flow cytometry...
August 24, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835292/reproduction-biotechnologies-in-germplasm-banking-of-livestock-species-a-review
#4
J M Morrell, I Mayer
Many biotechnologies are currently used in livestock breeding with the aim of improving reproductive efficiency and increasing the rate of genetic progress in production animals. Semen cryopreservation is the most widely used cryobiotechnology, although vitrification techniques now allow embryos and oocytes to be banked in ever-increasing numbers. Cryopreservation of other types of germplasm (reproductive tissue in general) is also possible, although the techniques are still in the early stages of development for use in livestock species...
August 24, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786369/relationship-between-apoptosis-and-survival-molecules-in-human-cumulus-cells-as-markers-of-oocyte-competence
#5
Liana Bosco, Roberto Chiarelli, Maria Carmela Roccheri, Domenica Matranga, Giovanni Ruvolo
To select from a single patient the best oocytes able to reach the blastocyst stage, we searched for valuable markers for oocytes competence. We evaluated the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and the level of some survival molecules, such as AKT, pAKT and pERK1/2, in individual cumulus cell-oocyte complexes (COC). The study included normo-responder women. The average age of the patients was 34.3. DFI in cumulus cells was evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay in situ...
August 8, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766472/stereological-analysis-of-gonads-from-diploid-and-triploid-fish-yellowtail-tetra-astyanax-altiparanae-garutti-britski-in-laboratory-conditions
#6
Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, Diógenes Henrique de Siqueira-Silva, Matheus Pereira-Santos, Takafumi Fujimoto, José Augusto Senhorini, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi, George Shigueki Yasui
This study aimed to examine the gonadal morphology of diploid and triploid fish through stereological analysis. Triploid individuals were obtained after temperature shock (40°C for 2 min) at 2 min post-fertilization and reared until 175 days post-fertilization (dpf). Intact eggs were used to obtain the diploids. Gonads were collected for histological analysis at 83, 114, 144 and 175 dpf. Diploid females and males presented normal oogenesis and spermatogenesis through all the experimental period. Conversely, stereological analysis revealed that triploid females were sterile and oogonia were the prevalent cell type in the ovaries...
August 2, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712374/parthenogenetic-activation-and-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-of-porcine-oocytes-activated-by-an-electric-pulse-and-azd5438-treatment
#7
Xiao-Chen Li, Qing Guo, Hai-Ying Zhu, Long Jin, Yu-Chen Zhang, Guang-Lei Zhang, Xiao-Xu Xing, Mei-Fu Xuan, Qi-Rong Luo, Zhao-Bo Luo, Jun-Xia Wang, Cheng-Du Cui, Wen-Xue Li, Zheng-Yun Cui, Xi-Jun Yin, Jin-Dan Kang
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype...
July 17, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701237/flow-cytometric-sex-sorting-affects-cd4-membrane-distribution-and-binding-of-exogenous-dna-on-bovine-sperm-cells
#8
William Borges Domingues, Tony Leandro Rezende da Silveira, Eliza Rossi Komninou, Leonardo Garcia Monte, Mariana Härter Remião, Odir Antônio Dellagostin, Carine Dahl Corcini, Antônio Sergio Varela Junior, Fabiana Kömmling Seixas, Tiago Collares, Vinicius Farias Campos
Bovine sex-sorted sperm have been commercialized and successfully used for the production of transgenic embryos of the desired sex through the sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) technique. However, sex-sorted sperm show a reduced ability to internalize exogenous DNA. The interaction between sperm cells and the exogenous DNA has been reported in other species to be a CD4-like molecule-dependent process. The flow cytometry-based sex-sorting process subjects the spermatozoa to different stresses causing changes in the cell membrane...
July 13, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693648/optimal-doses-of-egf-and-gdnf-act-as-biological-response-modifiers-to-improve-porcine-oocyte-maturation-and-quality
#9
Mehdi Vafaye Valleh, Nahid Karimi Zandi, Mikkel Aabech Rasmussen, Poul Hyttel
It is well documented that both epidermal growth factor (EGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) are critical for porcine oocyte maturation, however, little information is known about their mechanism of action in vitro. To gain insight into the mechanisms of action of the optimum doses of EGF and GDNF on porcine oocyte maturation, porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in defined porcine oocyte medium supplemented with EGF, GDNF or a combination of both at varying concentrations (0-100 ng/ml) for 44 h...
July 11, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693645/morphometrics-and-allometry-of-the-larvae-of-five-characiformes-species-in-the-para%C3%A3-ba-do-sul-river-basin
#10
Guilherme Souza, Erica P Caramaschi, Leandro R Monteiro
The aim of this study was to analyse the morphology and allometry of larvae belonging to five potamodromous species. Five breeding species belonging to the order Characiformes [Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816), Leporinus steindachneri, Eigenmann, 1907, Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1837), Prochilodus vimboides (Kner,1859) and Brycon insignis, Steindachner, 1877] were used to obtain larvae samples during the pre-flexing, post-flexing, and juvenile developmental stages. When we observed the degree-hour (DH) amplitude time values, we found three developmental groups based on allometry and morphometrics within the period between the pre-flexing and post-flexing phases...
July 11, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693635/acetylation-and-methylation-profiles-of-h3k27-in-porcine-embryos-cultured-in-vitro
#11
Luciana Simões Rafagnin Marinho, Vitor Braga Rissi, Andressa Guidugli Lindquist, Marcelo Marcondes Seneda, Vilceu Bordignon
Methylation and acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27) regulate chromatin structure and gene expression during early embryo development. While H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac) is associated with active gene expression, H3K27 methylation (H3K27me) is linked to transcriptional repression. The aim of this study was to assess the profile of H3K27 acetylation and methylation (mono-, di- and trimethyl) during oocyte maturation and early development in vitro of porcine embryos. Oocytes/embryos were fixed at different developmental stages from germinal vesicle to day 8 blastocysts and submitted to an immunocytochemistry protocol to identify the presence and quantify the immunofluorescence intensity of H3K27ac, H3K27me1, H3K27me2 and H3K27me3...
July 11, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693630/developmental-competence-of-dromedary-camel-camelus-dromedarius-oocytes-selected-using-brilliant-cresyl-blue-staining
#12
Mohamed Fathi, Mohamed Ashry, Ali Salama, Magdy R Badr
The objectives of the present studies were to investigate the developmental capacity of dromedary camel oocytes selected by brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining and to investigate the expression of select transcripts in germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes. These transcripts included BMP15 and GDF9 as important transcripts for folliculogenesis and oocyte development, Zar1 and Mater as maternal transcripts required for embryonic development, Cyclin B1 and CDK1 as cell cycle regulators and Oct4 and STAT3 as transcription factors...
July 11, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693629/resveratrol-has-dose-dependent-effects-on-dna-fragmentation-and-mitochondrial-activity-of-ovine-secondary-follicles-cultured-in-vitro
#13
T J S Macedo, V R P Barros, A P O Monte, B B Gouveia, M É S Bezerra, A Y P Cavalcante, R S Barberino, V G Menezes, M H T Matos
The worldwide consumption of red wine, nuts and grapes has resulted in increased human exposure to resveratrol, which could affect reproductive function. However, the effect of resveratrol on in vitro culture of early-stage ovarian follicles has never been investigated. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on sheep secondary follicle morphology, growth, DNA fragmentation, intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH) and active mitochondria. Secondary follicles were isolated from the ovaries and cultured for 18 days in supplemented α-MEM+ (control medium) or in control medium containing resveratrol (2, 10 or 30 µM)...
July 11, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693627/morphofunctional-evaluation-of-the-testis-duration-of-spermatogenesis-and-spermatogenic-efficiency-in-the-japanese-fancy-mouse-mus-musculus-molossinus
#14
Guilherme M J Costa, Marcelo C Leal, Luiz R França
Japanese fancy mouse, mini mouse or pet mouse are common names used to refer to strains of mice that present with different colour varieties and coat types. Although many genetic studies that involve spotting phenotype based on the coat have been performed in these mice, there are no reports of quantitative data in the literature regarding testis structure and spermatogenic efficiency. Hence, in this study we researched testis function and spermatogenesis in the adult Japanese fancy mouse. The following values of 68 ± 6 mg and 0...
July 11, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673369/the-yolk-syncytial-layer-of-loach-misgurnus-fossilis-teleostei-during-early-development
#15
Ekaterina Kondakova, Irina Neklyudova, Vladimir Efremov
The yolk syncytial layer (YSL) of Teleostei is a dynamic multifunctional temporary system. This paper describes the YSL structure of Misgurnus fossilis (Cobitidae) during its early developmental stages, studied using histological methods. YSL formation is prolonged. From the late blastula stage, the basal surface of the YSL is uneven and has protuberances, but becomes smoother during development. There are syncytial 'islands' with 1-2 yolk syncytial nuclei in the yolk mass. During epiboly, gastrulation and early segmentation, loach YSL is of different thickness in different regions along the dorso-ventral and antero-posterior axes of an embryo...
July 4, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669357/mbd1-and-mecp2-expression-in-embryos-and-placentas-from-transgenic-cloned-goats
#16
Ruoxin Jia, Guomin Zhang, Yixuan Fan, Zhengrong Zhou, Yongjie Wan, Yanli Zhang, Ziyu Wang, Feng Wang
DNA methylation is an important form of epigenetic regulation in mammalian development. Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 1 (MBD1) and methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MeCP2) are two members of the MBD subfamily of proteins that bind methylated CpG to maintain the silencing effect of DNA methylation. Given their important roles in linking DNA methylation with gene silencing, this study characterized the coordinated mRNA expression and protein localization of MBD1 and MeCP2 in embryos and placentas and aimed to analysis the effects of MBD1 and MeCP2 on transgenic cloned goats...
July 3, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780921/neo-oogenesis-in-mammals
#17
Tania Janeth Porras-Gómez, Norma Moreno-Mendoza
Recently, the existence of a mechanism for neo-oogenesis in the ovaries of adult mammals has generated much controversy within reproductive biology. This mechanism, which proposes that the ovary has cells capable of renewing the follicular reserve, has been described for various species of mammals. The first evidence was found in prosimians and humans. However, these findings were not considered relevant because the predominant dogma for reproductive biology at the time was that of Zuckerman. This dogma states that female mammals are born with finite numbers of oocytes that decline throughout postnatal life...
August 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766468/expectations-and-limitations-of-ovarian-tissue-transplantation
#18
N J Donfack, K A Alves, V R Araújo, A Cordova, J R Figueiredo, J Smitz, A P R Rodrigues
Constant progress in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer disease has increased the number and prognosis of cancer survivors. However, the toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy on ovarian function have resulted in premature ovarian failure. Patients are, therefore, still expecting methods to be developed to preserve their fertility successfully. Several potential options are available to preserve fertility in patients who face premature ovarian failure, including immature or mature oocyte and embryo cryopreservation...
August 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712378/treatment-of-allicin-improves-maturation-of-immature-oocytes-and-subsequent-developmental-ability-of-preimplantation-embryos
#19
Sang-Gi Jeong, Seung-Eun Lee, Yun-Gwi Park, Yeo-Jin Son, Min-Young Shin, Eun-Young Kim, Se-Pill Park
Allicin (AL) regulates the cellular redox, proliferation, viability, and cell cycle of different cells against extracellular-derived stress. This study investigated the effects of allicin treatment on porcine oocyte maturation and developmental competence. Porcine oocytes were cultured in medium supplemented with 0 (control), 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 or 100 μM AL, respectively, during in vitro maturation (IVM). The rate of polar body emission was higher in the 0.1 AL-treated group (74.5% ± 2.3%) than in the control (68...
August 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635582/protective-effects-of-ethanol-extracts-of-artemisia-asiatica-nakai-ex-pamp-on-ageing-induced-deterioration-in-mouse-oocyte-quality
#20
Hyuk-Joon Jeon, Seung Yeop You, Dong Hyun Kim, Hong Bae Jeon, Jeong Su Oh
Following ovulation, oocytes undergo a time-dependent deterioration in quality referred to as post-ovulatory ageing. Although various factors influence the post-ovulatory ageing of oocytes, oxidative stress is a key factor involved in deterioration of oocyte quality. Artemisia asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. has been widely used in East Asia as a food ingredient and traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation, cancer, and microbial infections. Recent studies have shown that A. asiatica exhibits antioxidative effects...
June 21, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
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