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Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151403/mouse-oocytes-nucleoli-rescue-embryonic-development-of-porcine-enucleolated-oocytes
#1
Martin Morovic, Frantisek Strejcek, Shoma Nakagawa, Rahul S Deshmukh, Matej Murin, Michal Benc, Helena Fulka, Hirohisa Kyogoku, Lazo Pendovski, Josef Fulka, Jozef Laurincik
It is well known that nucleoli of fully grown mammalian oocytes are indispensable for embryonic development. Therefore, the embryos originated from previously enucleolated (ENL) oocytes undergo only one or two cleavages and then their development ceases. In our study the interspecies (mouse/pig) nucleolus transferred embryos (NuTE) were produced and their embryonic development was analyzed by autoradiography, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunofluorescence (C23 and upstream binding factor (UBF))...
November 20, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082857/embryonic-development-and-larval-growth-of-brycon-nattereri-g%C3%A3-nther-1864-characidae-and-its-implications-for-captive-rearing
#2
Alexandre N Maria, Alexandre Ninhaus-Silveira, Laura H Orfão, Ana T M Viveiros
The aim of this study was to describe, for the first time, the embryogenesis and larval growth of the Paraitinga Brycon nattereri Günther, 1864 reared in captivity. After artificial fertilization, eggs were incubated at constant temperature (~19°C) and collected every 15 min during the first 3 h and then every 3 h until hatching. Five larvae were collected daily over 15 days for evaluation of the length, yolk sac volume and specific growth rate. The following stages of embryonic development were identified: zygote, cleavage, gastrula, segmentation and larval...
October 30, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032784/spent-culture-medium-analysis-from-individually-cultured-bovine-embryos-demonstrates-metabolomic-differences
#3
Kayla J Perkel, Pavneesh Madan
Spent culture medium can provide valuable information regarding the physiological state of a bovine preimplantation embryos through non-invasive analysis of the sum/depleted metabolite constituents. Metabolomics has become of great interest as an adjunct technique to morphological and cleavage-rate assessment, but more importantly, in improving our understanding of metabolism. In this study, in vitro produced bovine embryos developing at different rates were evaluated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)...
October 16, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032774/the-potential-roles-of-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-jnk-during-the-maturation-and-aging-of-oocytes-produced-by-a-marine-protostome-worm
#4
Stephen A Stricker, Niharika Ravichandran
Previous investigations have indicated that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) regulates the maturation and aging of oocytes produced by deuterostome animals. In order to assess the roles of this kinase in a protostome, oocytes of the marine nemertean worm Cerebratulus were stimulated to mature and subsequently aged before being probed with phospho-specific antibodies against active forms of JNK and maturation-promoting factor (MPF). Based on blots of maturing oocytes, a 40-kD putative JNK is normally activated during germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), which begins at 30 min post-stimulation with seawater, whereas treating immature oocytes with JNK inhibitors downregulates both the 40-kD JNK signal and GVBD, collectively suggesting a 40-kD JNK may facilitate oocyte maturation...
October 16, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032770/developmental-competence-of-dromedary-camel-camelus-dromedarius-oocytes-selected-using-brilliant-cresyl-blue-staining-erratum
#5
Mohamed Fathi, Mohamed Ashry, Ali Salama, Magdy R Badr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929986/the-effect-of-temperature-on-the-initial-development-of-brycon-amazonicus-spix-agassiz-1829-as-tool-for-micromanipulation-of-embryos
#6
Regiane Cristina da Silva, Matheus Pereira Dos Santos, José Augusto Senhorini, Maria do Carmo Faria Paes, Fernanda Nogueira Valentin, Takafumi Fujimoto, Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, George Shigueki Yasui, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi
Primordial germ cell (PGC) transplant is a promising tool in aquaculture; however, successful use of this technique requires in depth knowledge of the early stages of embryo and larval development. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of different temperatures (22, 26, and 30°C) on the early development of B. amazonicus. The newly fertilized eggs were distributed into tanks with controlled temperature and oxygenation. Samples were collected at pre-established times and analysed under light and fluorescence microscopy...
September 20, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929981/the-presence-of-acylated-ghrelin-during-in-vitro-maturation-of-bovine-oocytes-induces-cumulus-cell-dna-damage-and-apoptosis-and-impairs-early-embryo-development
#7
Matias A Sirini, Juan Mateo Anchordoquy, Juan Patricio Anchordoquy, Ana M Pascua, Noelia Nikoloff, Ana Carranza, Alejandro E Relling, Cecilia C Furnus
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acylated ghrelin supplementation during in vitro maturation (IVM) of bovine oocytes. IVM medium was supplemented with 20, 40 or 60 pM acylated ghrelin concentrations. Cumulus expansion area and oocyte nuclear maturation were studied as maturation parameters. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were assessed with the comet, apoptosis and viability assays. The in vitro effects of acylated ghrelin on embryo developmental capacity and embryo quality were also evaluated...
September 20, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929980/during-capacitation-in-bull-spermatozoa-actin-and-plc-%C3%AE-undergo-dynamic-interactions
#8
Itzayana Mejía-Flores, Natalia Chiquete-Félix, Icela Palma-Lara, Salvador Uribe-Carvajal, María de Lourdes Juárez-Mosqueda
The migration pattern of sperm-specific phospholipase C-ζ (PLC-ζ) was followed and the role of this migration in actin cytoskeleton dynamics was determined. We investigated whether PLC-ζ exits sperm, opening the possibility that PLC-ζ is the 'spermatozoidal activator factor' (SOAF). As capacitation progresses, the highly dynamic actin cytoskeleton bound different proteins to regulate their location and activity. PLC-ζ participation at the start of fertilization was established. In non-capacitated spermatozoa, PLC-ζ is in the perinuclear theca (PT) and in the flagellum, therefore it was decided to determine whether bovine sperm actin interacts with PLC-ζ to direct its relocation as it progresses from non-capacitated (NC) to capacitated (C) and to acrosome-reacted (AR) spermatozoa...
September 20, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929977/exposure-to-follicular-fluid-during-oocyte-maturation-and-oviductal-fluid-during-post-maturation-does-not-improve-in-vitro-embryo-production-in-the-horse
#9
Cécile Douet, Olivia Parodi, Nicola Antonio Martino, Giovanni Michele Lacalandra, Michele Nicassio, Fabrice Reigner, Stefan Deleuze, Maria Elena Dell'Aquila, Ghylène Goudet
Most wild equids and many domestic horse breeds are at risk of extinction, so there is an urgent need for genome resource banking. Embryos cryopreservation allows the preservation of genetics from male and female and is the fastest method to restore a breed. In the equine, embryo production in vitro would allow the production of several embryos per cycle. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is used to generate horse embryos, but it requires expensive equipment and expertise in micromanipulation, and blastocyst development rates remain low...
September 20, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929987/cell-and-genetic-predictors-of-human-blastocyst-hatching-success-in-assisted-reproduction
#10
Anastasiya G Syrkasheva, Nataliya V Dolgushina, Andrey Yu Romanov, Olga V Burmenskaya, Nataliya P Makarova, Espet O Ibragimova, Elena A Kalinina, Gennady T Sukhikh
The aim was to identify cell and genetic predictors of human blastocyst hatching success in assisted reproduction programmes via a prospective case-control study. Blastocysts, donated by couples in assisted reproduction programmes were used. Hatching success assessment was performed after 144-146 h post-fertilization. The mRNA expression levels of cathepsin V (CTSV), GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) and human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit 3, 5, 7 and 8 (CGB) genes were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
October 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835303/mitotic-index-and-morphological-characteristics-of-ovarian-small-follicles-from-goats-submitted-to-nutritionally-unbalanced-regimens
#11
Davide Rondina, Vicente J F Freitas, Jamily B Bruno, Juliana J H Celestino, Regiane R Santos
The objective of this study was to assess the influence of nutritional regimens such as adequate feeding, restricted feeding, and underfeeding-refeeding on the follicle growth and development from caprine ovaries. Goats were divided into three different groups (n = 5 per group). For 24 weeks, goats received elephant grass plus concentrate to provide 1.5 (n = 5) and 0.72 (n = 10) times the energy requirements for maintenance of live weight. Underfed goats were subsequently refed for 6 weeks with the diet of the nourished group (1...
August 24, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835302/successful-vitrification-of-whole-juvenile-testis-in-the-critically-endangered-cyprinid-honmoroko-gnathopogon-caerulescens
#12
Shogo Higaki, Natsue Kuwata, Kotaro Tanaka, Ikuo Tooyama, Yasuhiro Fujioka, Noriyoshi Sakai, Tatsuyuki Takada
Sperm cryopreservation is a valuable conservation method for endangered fish species. Here we report an easy and efficient cryopreservation method for juvenile whole testis by vitrification and successful sperm production from the vitrified whole testis via in vitro spermatogenesis in the critically endangered cyprinid honmoroko (Gnathopogon caerulescens). Juvenile testis (approximately 10 mm in length and 1 mm in width), consisting predominantly of spermatogonia, were aseptically dissected out and adherent fatty and non-testicular tissues were subsequently removed...
August 24, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835294/factors-affecting-storage-of-slovak-native-rabbit-semen-in-the-gene-bank
#13
Barbora Kulíková, Marta Oravcová, Andrej Baláži, Peter Supuka, Peter Chrenek
In this study, fresh and frozen-thawed semen of Nitra and Zobor rabbit breeds were evaluated for potential inter-breed or inter-male differences in sperm quality traits. Individual male semen from four rabbits of each breed were diluted (v:v; 1:1) in a freezing medium composed of a commercial diluent, 16% of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), 4% of Ficoll 70 and 2% of sucrose and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapours before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Different motility traits, viability and plasma membrane integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed semen were evaluated in vitro using computer-assisted sperm analysis and flow cytometry...
August 24, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835292/reproduction-biotechnologies-in-germplasm-banking-of-livestock-species-a-review
#14
J M Morrell, I Mayer
Many biotechnologies are currently used in livestock breeding with the aim of improving reproductive efficiency and increasing the rate of genetic progress in production animals. Semen cryopreservation is the most widely used cryobiotechnology, although vitrification techniques now allow embryos and oocytes to be banked in ever-increasing numbers. Cryopreservation of other types of germplasm (reproductive tissue in general) is also possible, although the techniques are still in the early stages of development for use in livestock species...
August 24, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786369/relationship-between-apoptosis-and-survival-molecules-in-human-cumulus-cells-as-markers-of-oocyte-competence
#15
Liana Bosco, Roberto Chiarelli, Maria Carmela Roccheri, Domenica Matranga, Giovanni Ruvolo
To select from a single patient the best oocytes able to reach the blastocyst stage, we searched for valuable markers for oocytes competence. We evaluated the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and the level of some survival molecules, such as AKT, pAKT and pERK1/2, in individual cumulus cell-oocyte complexes (COC). The study included normo-responder women. The average age of the patients was 34.3. DFI in cumulus cells was evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay in situ...
August 8, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766472/stereological-analysis-of-gonads-from-diploid-and-triploid-fish-yellowtail-tetra-astyanax-altiparanae-garutti-britski-in-laboratory-conditions
#16
Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, Diógenes Henrique de Siqueira-Silva, Matheus Pereira-Santos, Takafumi Fujimoto, José Augusto Senhorini, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi, George Shigueki Yasui
This study aimed to examine the gonadal morphology of diploid and triploid fish through stereological analysis. Triploid individuals were obtained after temperature shock (40°C for 2 min) at 2 min post-fertilization and reared until 175 days post-fertilization (dpf). Intact eggs were used to obtain the diploids. Gonads were collected for histological analysis at 83, 114, 144 and 175 dpf. Diploid females and males presented normal oogenesis and spermatogenesis through all the experimental period. Conversely, stereological analysis revealed that triploid females were sterile and oogonia were the prevalent cell type in the ovaries...
August 2, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780921/neo-oogenesis-in-mammals
#17
Tania Janeth Porras-Gómez, Norma Moreno-Mendoza
Recently, the existence of a mechanism for neo-oogenesis in the ovaries of adult mammals has generated much controversy within reproductive biology. This mechanism, which proposes that the ovary has cells capable of renewing the follicular reserve, has been described for various species of mammals. The first evidence was found in prosimians and humans. However, these findings were not considered relevant because the predominant dogma for reproductive biology at the time was that of Zuckerman. This dogma states that female mammals are born with finite numbers of oocytes that decline throughout postnatal life...
August 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766468/expectations-and-limitations-of-ovarian-tissue-transplantation
#18
N J Donfack, K A Alves, V R Araújo, A Cordova, J R Figueiredo, J Smitz, A P R Rodrigues
Constant progress in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer disease has increased the number and prognosis of cancer survivors. However, the toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy on ovarian function have resulted in premature ovarian failure. Patients are, therefore, still expecting methods to be developed to preserve their fertility successfully. Several potential options are available to preserve fertility in patients who face premature ovarian failure, including immature or mature oocyte and embryo cryopreservation...
August 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712378/treatment-of-allicin-improves-maturation-of-immature-oocytes-and-subsequent-developmental-ability-of-preimplantation-embryos
#19
Sang-Gi Jeong, Seung-Eun Lee, Yun-Gwi Park, Yeo-Jin Son, Min-Young Shin, Eun-Young Kim, Se-Pill Park
Allicin (AL) regulates the cellular redox, proliferation, viability, and cell cycle of different cells against extracellular-derived stress. This study investigated the effects of allicin treatment on porcine oocyte maturation and developmental competence. Porcine oocytes were cultured in medium supplemented with 0 (control), 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 or 100 μM AL, respectively, during in vitro maturation (IVM). The rate of polar body emission was higher in the 0.1 AL-treated group (74.5% ± 2.3%) than in the control (68...
August 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712374/parthenogenetic-activation-and-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-of-porcine-oocytes-activated-by-an-electric-pulse-and-azd5438-treatment
#20
Xiao-Chen Li, Qing Guo, Hai-Ying Zhu, Long Jin, Yu-Chen Zhang, Guang-Lei Zhang, Xiao-Xu Xing, Mei-Fu Xuan, Qi-Rong Luo, Zhao-Bo Luo, Jun-Xia Wang, Cheng-Du Cui, Wen-Xue Li, Zheng-Yun Cui, Xi-Jun Yin, Jin-Dan Kang
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype...
July 17, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
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