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Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos

Xia-Guang Duan, Zai-Qing Huang, Chun-Guang Hao, Xiao-Jun Zhi, Xiao-Bing Qi, Ling Ren, Sheng-Hui Luan, Cheng-Guang Liang
SummaryPropofol is a intravenous anaesthetic most commonly used in ultrasound oocyte retrieval. We studied if the use of propofol had an effect on mouse oocyte maturation, pregnancy, childbirth and progeny and investigated the correlation between propofol side effects and reproductive performance in mice. There was no statistical difference in mating, pregnancy, childbirth, litter size, the number of stillbirths and survival between each group (P>0.05). Propofol also had no effect on polar body extrusion in oocyte maturation as well as on pronucleus formation and, subsequently, early embryo development (P>0...
July 16, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Neda Taghizabet, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Fatemeh Anbari, Azam Agha-Rahimi, Stefania Annarita Nottola, Guido Macchiarelli, Maria Grazia Palmerini
SummaryCumulus cells (CCs) play an important role in the regulation of female gamete development, meiotic maturation, oocyte-sperm interaction, capacitation and acrosome reaction. However, their role in maintaining oocyte competence after vitrification is unclear as controversial data on their protecting action against oocyte cryoinjuries are available. Here we described the effects of vitrification on the ultrastructure of human CCs collected from women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs)...
July 3, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Yu Xiao, Zhengmu Wu, Min Wang
SummaryThe effects of adding fulvic acids (FAs) to semen extenders on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed goat buck spermatozoa remain undetermined. Buck semen samples collected from six mature goat bucks once a week were diluted with Tris-egg yolk-based extenders. The diluted semen samples were supplemented with FAs (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6%, w/w), cryopreserved, and evaluated for sperm-quality parameters. Addition of FAs to the extender increased progressive motility, acrosome integrity, membrane integrity, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and decreased percentage abnormality and sperm malondialdehyde level compared with the control group...
June 28, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Antonio D Barrera, Elina V García, Dora C Miceli
SummaryDuring preimplantation development, embryos are exposed and have the capacity to respond to different growth factors present in the maternal environment. Among these factors, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is a well known modulator of embryonic growth and development. However, its action during the first stages of development, when the embryo transits through the oviduct, has not been yet elucidated. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of early exposure to exogenous TGF-β1 on embryo development and expression of pluripotency (OCT4, NANOG) and DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B) genes in bovine embryos produced in vitro...
June 8, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Daniela C García, Agostina Russo-Maenza, Dora C Miceli, Pablo A Valdecantos, Mariela Roldán-Olarte
SummaryThe mammalian oviduct plays a pivotal role in the success of early reproductive events. The urokinase plasminogen activator system (uPAS) is present in the bovine oviduct and is involved in extracellular matrix remodelling through plasmin generation. This system can be regulated by several members of the vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and their receptors. In this study, the VEGF-D effect on the regulation of uPAS was evaluated. First, RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses were used to evidence the expression of VEGF-D and its receptors in oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC)...
June 8, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Lluc Coll, Mònica Parriego, Montserrat Boada, Marta Devesa, Gemma Arroyo, Ignacio Rodríguez, Bonaventura Coroleu, Francesca Vidal, Anna Veiga
SummaryShortly after the implementation of comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) techniques for preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A), the discussion about the transition from day 3 to blastocyst stage biopsy was initiated. Trophectoderm biopsy with CCS is meant to overcome the limitations of cleavage-stage biopsy and single-cell analysis. The aim of this study was to assess the results obtained in our PGT-A programme after the implementation of this new strategy. Comparisons between the results obtained in 179 PGT-A cycles with day 3 biopsy (D+3) and fresh embryo transfer, and 204 cycles with trophectoderm biopsy and deferred (frozen-thawed) embryo transfer were established...
May 25, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
João D A Losano, Daniel S R Angrimani, Bruno R Rui, Luana C Bicudo, Andressa Dalmazzo, Bárbara C S Silva, Carlos H C Viana, Camilla M Mendes, Mayra E O A Assumpção, Valquiria H Barnabe, Marcilio Nichi
SummaryThe cryopreservation of epididymal sperm is an important technique that allows genetic material to be preserved, even post mortem. However, cryopreservation leads to increased oxidative stress and impaired sperm viability. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation may improve certain sperm characteristics, but it also makes sperm more susceptible to oxidative stress, therefore adding antioxidants that counteract oxidative stress has become an option. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of the interaction between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and antioxidants on the quality after the cryopreservation of epididymal bull sperm...
May 21, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Rasoul Kowsar, Fatemeh Izadi, Nima Sadeghi, Ahmad Riasi, Faezeh Ghazvini Zadegan, Mehdi Hajian, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani, Hossein Farrokhpour, Akio Miyamoto
SummaryNutrition influences the microenvironment in the proximity of oocyte and affects early embryonic development. Elevated blood urea nitrogen, even in healthy dairy cows, is associated with reduced fertility and there is high correlation between blood urea levels and follicular fluid urea levels. Using a docking calculation (in silico), urea showed a favorable binding activity towards the ZP-N domain of ZP3, that of ZP2, and towards the predicted full-length sperm receptor ZP3. Supplementation of oocyte maturation medium with nutrition-related levels of urea (20 or 40 mg/dl as seen in healthy dairy cows fed on low or high dietary protein, respectively) dose-dependently increased: (i) the proportion of oocytes that remained uncleaved; and (ii) oocyte degeneration; and reduced cleavage, blastocyst and hatching rates...
April 30, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Dilberto Ribeiro Arashiro, George Shigueki Yasui, Leonardo Luiz Calado, Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, Matheus Pereira Dos Santos, Silvio Carlos Alves do Santos, Nycolas Levy-Pereira, Paulo Sérgio Monzani, Diógenes Henrique Siqueira-Silva, José Augusto Senhorini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Caroline Costa Lucas, Luana Rolim Melo, Míriam Luzia Nogueira Martins de Sousa, Glayciane Bezerra de Morais, Moisés Fernandes Martins, Francisco Antônio Félix Xavier, Janaina Serra Azul Monteiro Evangelista, Célia Maria de Souza Sampaio
SummaryThere are few reports of cryopreservation and injuries in Macrobrachium amazonicum embryos. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of cryoprotectants agents and cooling on stage VIII of this species. Fertilized eggs from ovigerous females were removed from the incubation chamber, then placed in 10 ml Falcon tubes with a cryoprotectant solution and saline-free calcium solution. Thus, the embryos underwent a cooling curve of 1°C per min until reaching 5°C, and then were stored for 2 h...
April 15, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
A Mishra, I J Reddy, A Dhali, P K Javvaji
SummaryThe objective of the study was to investigate the effect of l-ergothioneine (l-erg) (5 mM or 10 mM) supplementation in maturation medium on the developmental potential and OCTN1-dependant l-erg-mediated (10 mM) change in mRNA abundance of apoptotic (Bcl2, Bax, Casp3 and PCNA) and antioxidant (GPx, SOD1, SOD2 and CAT) genes in sheep oocytes and developmental stages of embryos produced in vitro. Oocytes matured with l-erg (10 mM) reduced their embryo toxicity by decreasing intracellular ROS and increasing intracellular GSH in matured oocytes that in turn improved developmental potential, resulting in significantly (P < 0...
April 2, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Laíza Maria de Jesus-Silva, Pricila Viana de Oliveira, Cristiéle da Silva Ribeiro, Alexandre Ninhaus-Silveira, Rosicleire Veríssimo-Silveira
SummaryThis study aimed to understand how germ cell development occurs in females of Devario aequipinnatus, by morphologically describing oogenesis and the reproductive phases. Sexually mature females of D. aequipinnatus (n = 70) were obtained from commercial fisheries and delivered to the Laboratório de Ictiologia Neotropical, UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. The ovaries were removed, fragmented and fixed following the usual techniques for light microscopy. The stages of ovarian development in D. aequipinnatus begin with the oogonia, which proliferate into new cells or differentiate into prophasic oocytes that, at the end of this process, form the ovarian follicle and end folliculogenesis...
April 2, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Mohamed Fathi, A Salama, Magdy R Badr
SummaryThe aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of caffeine supplementation during in vitro maturation (IVM) for different maturation times on the developmental potential of canine oocytes recovered from ovariohysterectomized bitches. The recovered cumulus-oocytes complexes were in vitro matured for 72 h. Here, 10 mM caffeine was added to the maturation medium for different incubation times (caffeine from 0-72 h maturation, caffeine for the first 24 h of maturation only, caffeine addition from 24 to 48 h maturation time, caffeine addition from 48 to 72 h maturation or in caffeine-free medium, control group)...
April 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Ashraf El-Sayed, Rehab Nagy, Amal K El-Asheeri, Liala N Eid
SummaryTo investigate the effects of physiologically relevant heat shock during oocyte maturation, buffalo cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured at 38.5°C (control) or were exposed to 39.5°C (T1) or 40.5°C (T2) for the first 6 h of in vitro maturation (IVM), followed by 38.5°C through the next 18 h/IVM and early embryonic development up to the blastocyst stage. Gene expression analysis was performed on selected target genes (HSF-1, HSF-2, HSP-70, HSP-90, BAX, p53, SOD1, COX1, MAPK14) in denuded oocytes and their isolated cumulus cells resulting from control COCs as well as from COCs exposed to a temperature of 39...
April 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Dilberto Ribeiro Arashiro, George Shigueki Yasui, Leonardo Luiz Calado, Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, Matheus Pereira Dos Santos, Silvio Carlos Alves do Santos, Nycolas Levy-Pereira, Paulo Sérgio Monzani, Diógenes Henrique Siqueira-Silva, José Augusto Senhorini
SummaryThe aim of this study was to describe the effect of temperature on the fertilization, early developmental stages, and survival rate of two Neotropical catfishes Pimelodus maculatus and Pseudopimelodus mangurus. After fertilization, the eggs were incubated at 22°C, 26°C, and 30°C, which resulted in fertilization rates of 96.95 ± 1.79%, 98.74 ± 0.76%, and 98.44 ± 0.19% for P. maculatus and 96.10 ± 1.58%, 98.00 ± 0.63%, and 94.60 ± 2.09% for P. mangurus, respectively. For P. maculatus, hatching occurred after 22 h 30 min post-fertilization at 22°C, 16 h 30 min at 26°C, and 11 h 20 min at 30°C, and the hatching rates were 43...
March 28, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Candela Rocío González, Luciana Moverer, Ricardo Saúl Calandra, Silvia Inés González-Calvar, Alfredo Daniel Vitullo
The Deleted in AZoospermia (DAZ) gene family regulates the development, maturation and maintenance of germ cells and spermatogenesis in mammals. The DAZ family consists of two autosomal genes, Boule and Dazl (Daz-like), and the Daz gene on chromosome Y. The aim of this study was to analyze the localization of DAZL and BOULE during testicular ontogeny of the seasonal-breeding Syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. We also evaluated the testicular expression of DAZ family genes under short- or long-photoperiod conditions...
March 25, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Joanna Kochan, Agnieszka Nowak, Wojciech Niżański, Sylwia Prochowska, Anna Migdał, Wiesława Młodawska, Agnieszka Partyka, Maciej Witkowski
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of various activating factors on feline oocytes. The study included activation within the ovary (natural), activation during in vitro maturation (spontaneous activation), chemical activation (ionomycin + 6-DMAP), activation by spermatozoa and injection (ICSI) and mechanical activation (sham ICSI). According to our results, parthenogenetic embryos could emerge at every step of in vitro embryo production (IVP) procedures. After oocyte collection, 6% of parthenogenetic embryos were observed, mainly at the 2-4-blastomere stages...
February 22, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Matheus Pereira Dos Santos, Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, George Shigueki Yasui, Nycolas Levy Pereira, Takafumi Fujimoto, José Augusto Senhorini, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi
In fish, many factors can affect reproduction during in vitro fertilization, therefore determination of the factors that affect affecting gamete quality is needed. However, few studies have focused on gamete quality and the ploidy status. This study was conducted to elucidate whether oocyte storage can affect ploidy status, survival, and embryo viability in the characid species Astyanax altiparanae. Oocytes were stored in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 26°C, then aliquots were fertilized immediately after extrusion (control) and also after 60, 120, 180, and 240 min of storage...
February 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Esther Sánchez-Villalba, María Elena Arias, Fabiola Zambrano, Pía Loren, Ricardo Felmer
Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is a simple, fast, and economical biotechnological tool for producing transgenic animals. However, transgene expression with this technique in bovine embryos is still inefficient due to low uptake and binding of exogenous DNA in spermatozoa. The present study evaluated the effects of sperm membrane destabilization on the binding capacity, location and quantity of bound exogenous DNA in cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa using Triton X-100 (TX-100), lysolecithin (LL) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH)...
February 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
J F Souza, C M Oliveira, L L Lienou, T V Cavalcante, E Alexandrino, R R Santos, A P R Rodrigues, C C Campello, J R Figueiredo, F E F Dias
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of bovine embryo vitrification by applying three different vitrification solutions containing ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) at different concentrations (10, 20 or 25% each) combined with 1.0 M glucose or 1.0 M sucrose, on the in vitro hatching and expansion rates. Healthy oocytes were selected for in vitro maturation and fertilization from 200 bovine ovaries, and subsequently cultured up to the blastocyst stage (n = 800). Control (n = 200) and vitrified cells (n = 100 per treatment; 600 in total) were cultured for an extra 24 or 48 h to evaluate hatching and expansion, respectively...
February 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
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