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Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos

João Diego de Agostini Losano, Daniel de Souza Ramos Angrimani, Roberta Ferreira Leite, Bárbara do Carmo Simões da Silva, Valquíria Hyppolito Barnabe, Marcilio Nichi
SummaryDespite sperm mitochondrial relevance to the fertilization capacity, the processes involved in the production of ATP and functional dynamics of sperm mitochondria are not fully understood. One of these processes is the paradox involved between function and formation of reactive oxygen species performed by the organelle. Therefore, this review aimed to provide data on the role of sperm mitochondria in oxidative homeostasis and functionality as well the tools to assess sperm mitochondrial function.
September 18, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Luciana Nakaghi Ganeco-Kirschnik, Irene Bastos Franceschini-Vicentini, Maria do Carmo Faria Paes, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi
Brycon orbignyanus is an important large teleost that is currently on the list of endangered species, therefore studies on its reproductive biology and embryology are fundamental to help species conservation and recovery. The objective of this research was to characterize the events that occur during extrusion, fertilization and embryonic development of the species. The samples were collected at predetermined times, fixed and processed for light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The greenish oocytes were spherical, had translucent chorion and a mean diameter of 1...
September 18, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Rosilane Gomes de Souza de Oliveira, Arley Faria José de Oliveira, Marle Angélica Villacorta Correa
SummaryThe aim of this study was to evaluate if hormonal treatment causes changes in the morphology of matrinxã Brycon amazonicus spermatozoa. Twelve males were randomized into three treatment groups: 1, Ovaprim™ (0.5 ml/kg); 2, carp pituitary extract (CPE; 2.0 mg/kg); and 3, NaCl solution 0.9% - control group (0.5 ml/kg); with four replicates. Morphological sperm analysis was performed using an optical and scanning electron microscope. The percentage of normal spermatozoa (49.6±4.6% to 60.8±2.8%), with primary (26...
September 17, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Seda Karabulut, Asuman Demiroğlu-Zergeroğlu, Elif Yılmaz, Pelin Kutlu, İlknur Keskin
SummaryThe negative effects of cryopreservation on sperm parameters are well documented but little information is known about molecular basis of the process. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effects of sperm cryopreservation on main apoptotic signs including DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation and to determine if these effects vary according to sperm parameters. Sperm samples of 72 patients were cryopreserved. The patients were sub-grouped as normozoospermic or non-normozoospermic patients according to their semen parameters...
September 17, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
José A B Bezerra, Andréia M Silva, Patrícia C Sousa, Lívia B Campos, Érica C G Praxedes, Luana G P Bezerra, Thibério S Castelo, Ana L P Souza, Alexandre R Silva
SummaryThe aim of this study was to establish a functional freezing-thawing protocol for epididymal sperm of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu L., 1758) by comparing different extenders. The epididymal sperm from 12 sexually mature males was recovered by retrograde flushing using Tris-based or coconut water-based (ACP®-116c) extenders. After initial evaluation, samples were diluted and frozen with the same extenders to which 20% egg yolk and 6% glycerol were added. After 2 weeks, thawing was performed at 37°C/60 s and sperm motility, vigour, morphology, functional membrane integrity, sperm viability, sperm plasma membrane integrity, and a computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) were assessed...
September 17, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Zigomar da Silva, Andressa Pereira de Souza, José Rodrigo Claudio Pandolfi, Francisco Noé da Fonseca, Carlos André da Veiga Lima-Rosa, Mariana Groke Marques
SummaryThe aim of this study was to optimize protocols for electroporation (EP) and polyfection (PLF) using polyethyleneimine (PEI) for pig sperm transfection and to determine which method was the most efficient. For EP standardization, different voltages, amounts and times of electric pulses were tested using propidium iodide (PI) as reporter. For PLF standardization, different concentrations of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled PEI (PEI/FITC) were incubated with sperm for different periods of time...
September 13, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Camila M Cavalcanti, Iana S Campelo, Mirelly M A S Silva, João V S Albuquerque, Luciana M Melo, Vicente J F Freitas
SummaryThis study aimed to compare the efficiency of different incubation systems for in vitro embryo production in bovine. Oocytes/embryos were cultured in three incubators: conventional - CONV, mini bench - MINI and portable - PORT. After in vitro maturation (IVM), oocytes were verified for maturation rate. The remaining structures were submitted to in vitro fertilization and culture to verify cleavage (day 2) and blastocyst (day 7) rates. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated in post-IVM oocytes and embryos (days 2 and 7) using arbitrary fluorescence units (AFUs)...
September 12, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
P G C Silva, M T Moura, R L O Silva, P S Nascimento, J B Silva, J C Ferreira-Silva, L F Cantanhêde, M S Chaves, A M Benko-Iseppon, M A L Oliveira
SummaryPluripotency-associated transcription factors (PATFs) modulate gene expression during early mammalian embryogenesis. Despite a strong understanding of PATFs during mouse embryogenesis, limited progress has been made in ruminants. This work aimed to describe the temporal expression of eight PATFs during both sheep and cattle preimplantation development. Transcript availability of PATFs was evaluated by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in eggs, cleavage-stage embryos, morulae, and blastocysts...
July 23, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Xia-Guang Duan, Zai-Qing Huang, Chun-Guang Hao, Xiao-Jun Zhi, Xiao-Bing Qi, Ling Ren, Sheng-Hui Luan, Cheng-Guang Liang
SummaryPropofol is a intravenous anaesthetic most commonly used in ultrasound oocyte retrieval. We studied if the use of propofol had an effect on mouse oocyte maturation, pregnancy, childbirth and progeny and investigated the correlation between propofol side effects and reproductive performance in mice. There was no statistical difference in mating, pregnancy, childbirth, litter size, the number of stillbirths and survival between each group (P>0.05). Propofol also had no effect on polar body extrusion in oocyte maturation as well as on pronucleus formation and, subsequently, early embryo development (P>0...
July 16, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Dilberto Ribeiro Arashiro, George Shigueki Yasui, Leonardo Luiz Calado, Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, Matheus Pereira Dos Santos, Silvio Carlos Alves do Santos, Nycolas Levy-Pereira, Paulo Sérgio Monzani, Diógenes Henrique Siqueira-Silva, José Augusto Senhorini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Neda Taghizabet, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Fatemeh Anbari, Azam Agha-Rahimi, Stefania Annarita Nottola, Guido Macchiarelli, Maria Grazia Palmerini
SummaryCumulus cells (CCs) play an important role in the regulation of female gamete development, meiotic maturation, oocyte-sperm interaction, capacitation and acrosome reaction. However, their role in maintaining oocyte competence after vitrification is unclear as controversial data on their protecting action against oocyte cryoinjuries are available. Here we described the effects of vitrification on the ultrastructure of human CCs collected from women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs)...
June 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Yu Xiao, Zhengmu Wu, Min Wang
SummaryThe effects of adding fulvic acids (FAs) to semen extenders on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed goat buck spermatozoa remain undetermined. Buck semen samples collected from six mature goat bucks once a week were diluted with Tris-egg yolk-based extenders. The diluted semen samples were supplemented with FAs (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6%, w/w), cryopreserved, and evaluated for sperm-quality parameters. Addition of FAs to the extender increased progressive motility, acrosome integrity, membrane integrity, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and decreased percentage abnormality and sperm malondialdehyde level compared with the control group...
June 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Antonio D Barrera, Elina V García, Dora C Miceli
SummaryDuring preimplantation development, embryos are exposed and have the capacity to respond to different growth factors present in the maternal environment. Among these factors, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is a well known modulator of embryonic growth and development. However, its action during the first stages of development, when the embryo transits through the oviduct, has not been yet elucidated. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of early exposure to exogenous TGF-β1 on embryo development and expression of pluripotency (OCT4, NANOG) and DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B) genes in bovine embryos produced in vitro...
June 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Daniela C García, Agostina Russo-Maenza, Dora C Miceli, Pablo A Valdecantos, Mariela Roldán-Olarte
SummaryThe mammalian oviduct plays a pivotal role in the success of early reproductive events. The urokinase plasminogen activator system (uPAS) is present in the bovine oviduct and is involved in extracellular matrix remodelling through plasmin generation. This system can be regulated by several members of the vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and their receptors. In this study, the VEGF-D effect on the regulation of uPAS was evaluated. First, RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses were used to evidence the expression of VEGF-D and its receptors in oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC)...
June 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Lluc Coll, Mònica Parriego, Montserrat Boada, Marta Devesa, Gemma Arroyo, Ignacio Rodríguez, Bonaventura Coroleu, Francesca Vidal, Anna Veiga
SummaryShortly after the implementation of comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) techniques for preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A), the discussion about the transition from day 3 to blastocyst stage biopsy was initiated. Trophectoderm biopsy with CCS is meant to overcome the limitations of cleavage-stage biopsy and single-cell analysis. The aim of this study was to assess the results obtained in our PGT-A programme after the implementation of this new strategy. Comparisons between the results obtained in 179 PGT-A cycles with day 3 biopsy (D+3) and fresh embryo transfer, and 204 cycles with trophectoderm biopsy and deferred (frozen-thawed) embryo transfer were established...
June 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
João D A Losano, Daniel S R Angrimani, Bruno R Rui, Luana C Bicudo, Andressa Dalmazzo, Bárbara C S Silva, Carlos H C Viana, Camilla M Mendes, Mayra E O A Assumpção, Valquiria H Barnabe, Marcilio Nichi
SummaryThe cryopreservation of epididymal sperm is an important technique that allows genetic material to be preserved, even post mortem. However, cryopreservation leads to increased oxidative stress and impaired sperm viability. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation may improve certain sperm characteristics, but it also makes sperm more susceptible to oxidative stress, therefore adding antioxidants that counteract oxidative stress has become an option. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of the interaction between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and antioxidants on the quality after the cryopreservation of epididymal bull sperm...
June 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Rasoul Kowsar, Fatemeh Izadi, Nima Sadeghi, Ahmad Riasi, Faezeh Ghazvini Zadegan, Mehdi Hajian, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani, Hossein Farrokhpour, Akio Miyamoto
SummaryNutrition influences the microenvironment in the proximity of oocyte and affects early embryonic development. Elevated blood urea nitrogen, even in healthy dairy cows, is associated with reduced fertility and there is high correlation between blood urea levels and follicular fluid urea levels. Using a docking calculation (in silico), urea showed a favorable binding activity towards the ZP-N domain of ZP3, that of ZP2, and towards the predicted full-length sperm receptor ZP3. Supplementation of oocyte maturation medium with nutrition-related levels of urea (20 or 40 mg/dl as seen in healthy dairy cows fed on low or high dietary protein, respectively) dose-dependently increased: (i) the proportion of oocytes that remained uncleaved; and (ii) oocyte degeneration; and reduced cleavage, blastocyst and hatching rates...
June 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Mohamed Fathi, A Salama, Magdy R Badr
SummaryThe aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of caffeine supplementation during in vitro maturation (IVM) for different maturation times on the developmental potential of canine oocytes recovered from ovariohysterectomized bitches. The recovered cumulus-oocytes complexes were in vitro matured for 72 h. Here, 10 mM caffeine was added to the maturation medium for different incubation times (caffeine from 0-72 h maturation, caffeine for the first 24 h of maturation only, caffeine addition from 24 to 48 h maturation time, caffeine addition from 48 to 72 h maturation or in caffeine-free medium, control group)...
April 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Ashraf El-Sayed, Rehab Nagy, Amal K El-Asheeri, Liala N Eid
SummaryTo investigate the effects of physiologically relevant heat shock during oocyte maturation, buffalo cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured at 38.5°C (control) or were exposed to 39.5°C (T1) or 40.5°C (T2) for the first 6 h of in vitro maturation (IVM), followed by 38.5°C through the next 18 h/IVM and early embryonic development up to the blastocyst stage. Gene expression analysis was performed on selected target genes (HSF-1, HSF-2, HSP-70, HSP-90, BAX, p53, SOD1, COX1, MAPK14) in denuded oocytes and their isolated cumulus cells resulting from control COCs as well as from COCs exposed to a temperature of 39...
April 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Caroline Costa Lucas, Luana Rolim Melo, Míriam Luzia Nogueira Martins de Sousa, Glayciane Bezerra de Morais, Moisés Fernandes Martins, Francisco Antônio Félix Xavier, Janaina Serra Azul Monteiro Evangelista, Célia Maria de Souza Sampaio
SummaryThere are few reports of cryopreservation and injuries in Macrobrachium amazonicum embryos. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of cryoprotectants agents and cooling on stage VIII of this species. Fertilized eggs from ovigerous females were removed from the incubation chamber, then placed in 10 ml Falcon tubes with a cryoprotectant solution and saline-free calcium solution. Thus, the embryos underwent a cooling curve of 1°C per min until reaching 5°C, and then were stored for 2 h...
April 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
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