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Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334036/short-term-storage-of-the-oocytes-affects-the-ploidy-status-in-the-yellowtail-tetra-astyanax-altiparanae
#1
Matheus Pereira Dos Santos, Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, George Shigueki Yasui, Nycolas Levy Pereira, Takafumi Fujimoto, José Augusto Senhorini, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi
In fish, many factors can affect reproduction during in vitro fertilization, therefore determination of the factors that affect affecting gamete quality is needed. However, few studies have focused on gamete quality and the ploidy status. This study was conducted to elucidate whether oocyte storage can affect ploidy status, survival, and embryo viability in the characid species Astyanax altiparanae. Oocytes were stored in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 26°C, then aliquots were fertilized immediately after extrusion (control) and also after 60, 120, 180, and 240 min of storage...
January 15, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334034/improved-exogenous-dna-uptake-in-bovine-spermatozoa-and-gene-expression-in-embryos-using-membrane-destabilizing-agents-in-icsi-smgt
#2
Esther Sánchez-Villalba, María Elena Arias, Fabiola Zambrano, Pía Loren, Ricardo Felmer
Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is a simple, fast, and economical biotechnological tool for producing transgenic animals. However, transgene expression with this technique in bovine embryos is still inefficient due to low uptake and binding of exogenous DNA in spermatozoa. The present study evaluated the effects of sperm membrane destabilization on the binding capacity, location and quantity of bound exogenous DNA in cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa using Triton X-100 (TX-100), lysolecithin (LL) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH)...
January 15, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249213/vitrification-of-bovine-embryos-followed-by-in-vitro-hatching-and-expansion
#3
J F Souza, C M Oliveira, L L Lienou, T V Cavalcante, E Alexandrino, R R Santos, A P R Rodrigues, C C Campello, J R Figueiredo, F E F Dias
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of bovine embryo vitrification by applying three different vitrification solutions containing ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) at different concentrations (10, 20 or 25% each) combined with 1.0 M glucose or 1.0 M sucrose, on the in vitro hatching and expansion rates. Healthy oocytes were selected for in vitro maturation and fertilization from 200 bovine ovaries, and subsequently cultured up to the blastocyst stage (n = 800). Control (n = 200) and vitrified cells (n = 100 per treatment; 600 in total) were cultured for an extra 24 or 48 h to evaluate hatching and expansion, respectively...
December 18, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248025/post-cooling-survival-growth-and-deformity-rates-in-zebrafish-embryos-danio-rerio
#4
Maria do Carmo Faria Paes, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi
This study investigated and analysed survival, growth and macro- and microscopic damage during the development of zebrafish embryos up to the adult stage after undergoing cooling. The embryos at 50% epiboly stage were selected, submerged in cryoprotectant solution of methanol and sucrose, cooled gradually to 0 ± 2°C temperature, and divided into two groups with different storage times (6 and 18 h). Subsequently, the embryos were reheated, rehydrated and incubated normally. The experiment lasted 5 months and, from hatching onward, the larvae were examined, collected and processed at pre-established time intervals...
December 18, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244016/oleic-acid-in-the-modulation-of-oocyte-and-preimplantation-embryo-development
#5
Shabnam Fayezi, Jo L M R Leroy, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Masoud Darabi
Potential reproductive effects are considered as the major aspect of biomolecules functionality in an organism. The recent identification of differential patterns of fatty acids across ovarian follicles and their association with levels of sexual maturity highlights the importance of these biomolecules. It is well known that fatty acids are highly diverse in terms of their functional properties. Oleic acid is chemically classified as an unsaturated omega-9 fatty acid. Besides serving as an important energy source, oleic acid is involved in metabolic and structural roles...
December 15, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239295/kdm6a-overexpression-improves-the-development-of-cloned-mouse-embryos
#6
Guang-Yu Bai, Si-Hang Song, Yu-Wei Zhang, Xiang Huang, Xing-Wei Huang, Rui-Zhen Sun, Lei Lei
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is an important technique for life science research. However, most SCNT embryos fail to develop to term due to undefined reprogramming defects. Here, we show that abnormal Xi occurs in somatic cell NT blastocysts, whereas in female blastocysts derived from cumulus cell nuclear transfer, both X chromosomes were inactive. H3K27me3 removal by Kdm6a mRNA overexpression could significantly improve preimplantation development of NT embryos, and even reached a 70.2% blastocyst rate of cleaved embryos compared with the 38...
December 14, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233229/effects-of-pi3k-and-fsh-on-steroidogenesis-viability-and-embryo-development-of-the-cumulus-oocyte-complex-after-in-vitro-culture
#7
Danielle Kaiser de Souza, Loise Pedrosa Salles, Ricardo Camargo, Laura Vanessa Mourão Gulart, Suellen Costa E Silva, Beatriz Dolabela de Lima, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves Torres, Alzira Amélia Martins Rosa E Silva
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of FSH and PI3K on the nuclear maturation, viability, steroidogenesis and embryo development of bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Oocyte maturation was achieved with MIV B, MIV B+100 µM LY294002, MIV B+10 ng/mL follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), or MIV B+10 ng/mL FSH+100 µM LY294002 treatments for 22-24 h. After the cultured COCs were denuded, oocytes were separated into those that extruded polar bodies (mature) and those that did not, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for BAX, BCL2, LHR, FSHR, CYP11A1, CYP19A1 and HSD17B1 genes was performed...
December 13, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233211/toxicity-of-marine-pollutants-on-the-ascidian-oocyte-physiology-an-electrophysiological-approach
#8
Alessandra Gallo
In marine animals with external fertilization, gametes are released into seawater where fertilization and embryo development occur. Consequently, pollutants introduced into the marine environment by human activities may affect gametes and embryos. These xenobiotics can alter cell physiology with consequent reduction of fertilization success. Here the adverse effects on the reproductive processes of the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (ascidian) of different xenobiotics: lead, zinc, an organic tin compound and a phenylurea herbicide were evaluated...
December 13, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233207/the-dynamic-pattern-of-plin3-in-pig-oocytes-and-cumulus-cells-during-in-vitro-maturation
#9
Mingzhu Xu, Yaqiong Zeng, Daming Chi, Linan Si, Xiao Qu, Juan Li
Lipid droplets (LDs) are the main energy resource for porcine preimplantation embryonic development. PLIN3 has been implicated in LD formation and regulation. Therefore, this study aimed to detect the dynamic pattern of PLIN3 in pig oocytes and cumulus cells (CC) during in vitro maturation (IVM), and to determine the relationship between PLIN3 and LD content. IVM with cumulus-enclosed oocytes (CEO), cumulus-denuded oocytes (DO) and the CCs denuded from the corresponding oocytes (DCC) was performed in porcine follicular fluid (PFF) or PFF-free optimized medium...
December 13, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231151/in-vitro-effect-of-various-cryoprotectants-on-the-semen-quality-of-endangered-oravka-chicken
#10
Andrea Svoradová, Lenka Kuželová, Jaromír Vašíček, Andrej Baláži, Emília Hanusová, Peter Chrenek
We aimed to compare the effect of three different permeating cryoprotectants on the post-thaw spermatozoa quality. Pooled semen from Oravka cock line (n = 6) was diluted in Kobidil+ extender and frozen in cryoprotectant solutions containing 8% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), 8% ethylene glycol (EG) or 8% glycerol (GL) in liquid nitrogen vapours before being plunged into the liquid nitrogen. Spermatozoa motility parameters were assessed in vitro after freezing-thawing by a computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) system and viability status was examined using fluorescent probes...
December 12, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229010/relative-importance-of-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-pi3k-akt-and-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-mapk3-1-signaling-during-maturational-steroid-induced-meiotic-g2-m1-transition-in-zebrafish-oocytes
#11
Debabrata Das, Poulomi Nath, Soumojit Pal, Sudip Hajra, Pritha Ghosh, Sudipta Maitra
Participation and relative importance of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling, either alone or in combination, have been investigated during 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP)-induced meiotic G2-M1 transition in denuded zebrafish oocyte. Results demonstrate that concomitant with rapid phosphorylation (activation) of Akt (Ser473) and MAPK (ERK1/2) at as early as 15 min of incubation, DHP stimulation promotes enhanced an GVBD response and histone H1 kinase activation between 1 and 5 h in full-grown oocytes in vitro...
December 12, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179787/sperm-derived-factors-enhance-the-in-vitro-developmental-potential-of-haploid-parthenotes
#12
Ramya Nair, Shahin Aboobacker, Srinivas Mutalik, Guruprasad Kalthur, Satish Kumar Adiga
Parthenotes are characterized by poor in vitro developmental potential either due to the ploidy status or the absence of paternal factors. In the present study, we demonstrate the beneficial role of sperm-derived factors (SDF) on the in vitro development of mouse parthenotes. Mature (MII) oocytes collected from superovulated Swiss albino mice were activated using strontium chloride (SrCl2) in the presence or absence of various concentrations of SDF in M16 medium. The presence of SDF in activation medium did not have any significant influence on the activation rate...
November 28, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179786/a-chemical-compound-based-on-methylxanthine-polyphenols-lowers-nitric-oxide-levels-and-increases-post-thaw-human-sperm-viability
#13
Cleiton Werner, Francine Carla Cadoná, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz, Eliza Ribas da Silveira Flôres, Alencar Kolinski Machado, Mara Rejane Fantinel, Grazielle Castagna Cezimbra Weis, Charles Elias Assmann, Audrei de Oliveira Alves, Beatriz da Silva Rosa Bonadiman, Euler Esteves Ribeiro, Marco Aurélio Echart Montano
We produced a new chemical compound based on methylxanthines and polyphenols (CCMP) present in the chemical matrix of guaraná (Paullinia cupana), a seed extract with antioxidant properties. After supplementation with the standard extract of resveratrol, a well documented antioxidant found in other plant sources, we investigated whether this resveratrol-enriched compound could improve sperm viability and modulate differentially reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in thawed sperm. Sperm samples obtained from healthy young donors were treated with different concentrations of guaraná extract (0...
November 28, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173240/overweight-negatively-affects-outcome-of-superovulation-treatment-in-female-mice
#14
Dušan Fabian, Janka Babeľová, Štefan Čikoš, Zuzana Šefčíková
Superovulatory response is characterized by a high degree of variability and unpredictability. The aim of the present experimental study was to examine whether the amount of maternal body fat can influence the efficiency of ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins. Female mice of two body condition types, normal and obese, produced in a standardized two-generation model, were subjected to ovarian stimulation using eCG and hCG followed by natural mating. Produced ova and embryos were recovered on day 1 and day 4 of pregnancy respectively, and several quantitative, qualitative and developmental parameters were evaluated in them...
November 27, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173235/delaying-meiotic-resumption-during-transportation-of-bovine-cumulus-oocyte-complexes-effects-on-development-apoptosis-and-caspases-activity-of-in-vitro-produced-embryos
#15
Priscila Chediek Dall'Acqua, Beatriz Caetano da Silva Leão, Nathália Alves de Souza Rocha-Frigoni, Fernanda Patrícia Gottardi, Gisele Zoccal Mingoti
This study examined the effects of meiosis inhibition during bovine oocyte transportation on developmental competence and quality of produced embryos. The transportation medium was supplemented with: 100 μM butyrolactone I (BL), 500 μM IBMX + 100 μM forskolin (mSPOM), 100 μM milrinone (MR) or follicular fluid (bFF), and was carried out in a portable incubator for 6 h. Next, oocytes were in vitro matured (IVM) for 18 h, without the meiotic inhibitors, with the exception of mSPOM group, in which was added 20 μM cilostamide...
November 27, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173229/prothymosin-alpha-expression-in-the-vertebrate-testis-a-comparative-review
#16
Massimo Venditti, Sergio Minucci
Prothymosin alpha (PTMA) is a highly acidic, intrinsically disordered protein that was first extracted from rat thymus and characterized as an immunogenic factor but soon detected in a variety of mammalian tissues. The presence of a nuclear localization signal and the adoption of a peculiar random-coil conformation are among the reasons behind its interaction with several molecular partners, hence at this time PTMA is known to be a very conserved and widely expressed molecule, involved in numerous and diverse biological processes...
November 27, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151403/mouse-oocytes-nucleoli-rescue-embryonic-development-of-porcine-enucleolated-oocytes
#17
Martin Morovic, Frantisek Strejcek, Shoma Nakagawa, Rahul S Deshmukh, Matej Murin, Michal Benc, Helena Fulka, Hirohisa Kyogoku, Lazo Pendovski, Josef Fulka, Jozef Laurincik
It is well known that nucleoli of fully grown mammalian oocytes are indispensable for embryonic development. Therefore, the embryos originated from previously enucleolated (ENL) oocytes undergo only one or two cleavages and then their development ceases. In our study the interspecies (mouse/pig) nucleolus transferred embryos (NuTE) were produced and their embryonic development was analyzed by autoradiography, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunofluorescence (C23 and upstream binding factor (UBF))...
November 20, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082857/embryonic-development-and-larval-growth-of-brycon-nattereri-g%C3%A3-nther-1864-characidae-and-its-implications-for-captive-rearing
#18
Alexandre N Maria, Alexandre Ninhaus-Silveira, Laura H Orfão, Ana T M Viveiros
The aim of this study was to describe, for the first time, the embryogenesis and larval growth of the Paraitinga Brycon nattereri Günther, 1864 reared in captivity. After artificial fertilization, eggs were incubated at constant temperature (~19°C) and collected every 15 min during the first 3 h and then every 3 h until hatching. Five larvae were collected daily over 15 days for evaluation of the length, yolk sac volume and specific growth rate. The following stages of embryonic development were identified: zygote, cleavage, gastrula, segmentation and larval...
October 30, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191251/grooves-surrounding-the-micropyle-decrease-the-inseminating-dose-in-fish
#19
Matheus Pereira-Santos, Eduardo Shimoda, André Furugen Cesar de Andrade, Luciano Andrade Silva, Takafumi Fujimoto, José Augusto Senhorini, George Shigueki Yasui, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi
In fish with external fertilization, sperm must reach the oocyte through the micropyle to enter the cytoplasm. Fertilization success is then influenced by characteristics of oocytes or sperm. In this study, we evaluated oocyte morphology and sperm motility parameters and their effects on the inseminating dose in a teleost fish Astyanax altiparanae. Interestingly, we found one of the lowest yet described inseminating doses in teleosts (2390 spermatozoa oocyte-1 ml-1). Such a fertilization efficacy may be explained by the long duration of sperm motility (>75 s), the small oocyte diameter (695...
December 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032784/spent-culture-medium-analysis-from-individually-cultured-bovine-embryos-demonstrates-metabolomic-differences
#20
Kayla J Perkel, Pavneesh Madan
Spent culture medium can provide valuable information regarding the physiological state of a bovine preimplantation embryos through non-invasive analysis of the sum/depleted metabolite constituents. Metabolomics has become of great interest as an adjunct technique to morphological and cleavage-rate assessment, but more importantly, in improving our understanding of metabolism. In this study, in vitro produced bovine embryos developing at different rates were evaluated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)...
October 16, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
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