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Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088929/morphologic-analysis-of-sperm-from-two-neotropical-primate-species-comparisons-between-the-squirrel-monkeys-saimiri-collinsi-and-saimiri-vanzolinii
#1
Wlaisa V Sampaio, Karol G Oliveira, Danuza L Leão, Maria C Caldas-Bussiere, Helder L Queiroz, Fernanda P Paim, Regiane R Santos, Sheyla F S Domingues
Sperm morphometry can be applied to identify different animal groups and species and to evaluate sperm quality. Furthermore, knowledge on species-specific differences will help to enhance biological information, as well as to develop efficient reproductive technologies. The aims in the present study were to describe sperm morphometry from the recently characterized species S. collinsi and S. vanzolinii, to verify if the morphometric sperm patterns are similar or different between both species, and to determine if the sperm morphometry is affected by the levels of sperm defects using the S...
January 16, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069092/reduced-competence-of-immature-and-mature-oocytes-vitrified-by-cryotop-method-assessment-by-in-vitro-fertilization-and-parthenogenetic-activation-in-a-bovine-model
#2
Daiane L Bulgarelli, Alessandra A Vireque, Caroline P Pitangui-Molina, Marcos F Silva-de-Sá, Ana Carolina J de Sá Rosa-E-Silva
This study aimed to evaluate the embryo development competence, the nuclear maturation and the viability of germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II (MII) oocytes vitrified by the Cryotop method. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were derived from bovine ovaries and three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, GV oocytes were vitrified and underwent in vitro maturation (IVM) or not and their nuclear maturation was assessed by orcein staining. In Experiment 2, GV oocytes and MII oocytes were vitrified or not and the viability was assessed by calcein/ethidium homodimer-1 staining...
January 10, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007046/maternal-effect-gene-expression-in-porcine-metaphase-ii-oocytes-and-embryos-in-vitro-effect-of-epidermal-growth-factor-interleukin-1%C3%AE-and-leukemia-inhibitory-factor
#3
Marta Wasielak, Teresa Więsak, Iwona Bogacka, Beenu Moza Jalali, Marek Bogacki
Maternal effect genes (MEG) play a crucial role in early embryogenesis. In vitro culture conditions may affect MEG expression in porcine oocytes and embryos. We investigated whether in vitro culture medium supplementation with epidermal growth factor (EGF), IL-1β or LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor) affects the mRNA level of ZAR-1 (zygote arrest 1), NPM2 (nucleoplasmin 2) and DPPA3 (developmental associated protein 3) in porcine MII oocytes and embryos. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in NCSU-37 medium (control) or in NCSU-37 with EGF 10 ng/ml, IL-1β 10 ng/ml or LIF 50 ng/ml...
December 23, 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955719/promotion-of-glucose-utilization-by-insulin-enhances-granulosa-cell-proliferation-and-developmental-competence-of-porcine-oocyte-grown-in-vitro
#4
Nobuhiko Itami, Yasuhisa Munakata, Koumei Shirasuna, Takehito Kuwayama, Hisataka Iwata
In vitro culture of the oocyte granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) from early antral follicles (EAFs) shows granulosa cell (GC) proliferation, but to a lesser extent than that observed in vivo during follicle development. As the number of GCs closely relates to energy sufficiency of the oocytes, enhancement of GC proliferation influences oocyte development. GC proliferation depends on glycolysis and insulin-mediated AKT/mTOR signaling pathway; therefore, addition of culture medium containing insulin and glucose may potentially promote GC proliferation and hence improve oocyte development...
February 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955714/selection-of-porcine-oocytes-in-vitro-through-brilliant-cresyl-blue-staining-in-distinct-incubation-media
#5
Elisa C S Santos, Jorgea Pradieé, Elisângela M Madeira, Miriane M Pereira, Bruna Mion, Rafael G Mondadori, Arnaldo D Vieira, Ligia M C Pegoraro, Thomaz Lucia
Staining with brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) may be used for oocyte selection, but BCB staining itself and the most commonly used selection medium (DMPBS) may compromise the development of porcine oocytes in vitro. This study evaluated DNA fragmentation, nuclear maturation, the area of migration of cortical granules (CG) and embryo development for stained (BCB+) and unstained (BCB-) oocytes incubated in DMPBS and in a modified medium (ReproPel) tested for the first time. Unexposed (UN), BCB+ and BCB- oocytes were incubated composing six groups: DMPBS/UN; DMPBS/BCB+; DMPBS/BCB-; ReproPel/UN; ReproPel/BCB+; and ReproPel/BCB-...
February 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928979/feed-restriction-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-igf-i-affect-the-oocyte-maturation-in-matrinx%C3%A3-brycon-amazonicus
#6
Luís Henrique Montrezor, Elisabeth Criscuolo Urbinati
The feeding and nutrition of breeders are crucial aspects in the reproductive process. During the maturation period, metabolic changes occur aiming at mobilizing energy for growth and follicular development. The involvement of IGF-1 in metabolic and reproductive events is important. The aim of this work was to evaluate if alternate feed restriction and re-feeding have permissive effects on in vitro actions of IGF-1 on oocytes development of matrinxã. In vivo experiments were performed during vitellogenesis period...
February 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928970/effect-of-transfection-and-co-incubation-of-bovine-sperm-with-exogenous-dna-on-sperm-quality-and-functional-parameters-for-its-use-in-sperm-mediated-gene-transfer
#7
María Elena Arias, Esther Sánchez-Villalba, Andrea Delgado, Ricardo Felmer
Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is based on the capacity of sperm to bind exogenous DNA and transfer it into the oocyte during fertilization. In bovines, the progress of this technology has been slow due to the poor reproducibility and efficiency of the production of transgenic embryos. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different sperm transfection systems on the quality and functional parameters of sperm. Additionally, the ability of sperm to bind and incorporate exogenous DNA was assessed...
February 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923420/a-preliminary-study-of-the-effects-of-organic-farming-on-oocyte-quality-in-ewe-lambs
#8
A Casao, G A María, J A Abecia
This study tested whether feeding Rasa Aragonesa ewes certified organic feed, from 15 days before mating until lamb weaning, improved oocyte quality and in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) performances of the offspring. In a second experiment, ovaries from ewe lambs that were bred on an organic farm and were of the same breed were compared with those from conventionally bred animals. The number (± standard error of the mean) of healthy oocytes per ewe lamb did not differ significantly between organic (12...
February 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923416/charles-georges-thibault-1919-2003-inspirational-leader-in-french-reproductive-biology
#9
R H F Hunter
The contribution of Charles Thibault in creating and developing a major international centre of animal research at Jouy-en-Josas (near Versailles) in post Second World War France is recorded in detail. Not only did he select a team of gifted young chercheurs, but he stimulated and supported their research in diverse ways. The projects covered were not only primarily of significance to animal reproduction, but they also became relevant to human infertility studies and to IVF treatments. Members of the team in Physiologie Animale gained international research reputations and seasoned overseas researchers were attracted to Jouy-en-Josas for their sabbaticals...
February 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923412/effects-of-vitrification-on-blastomere-viability-and-cytoskeletal-integrity-in-mouse-embryos
#10
Zenon Oikonomou, Katerina Chatzimeletiou, Antonia Sioga, Louisa Oikonomou, Basil C Tarlatzis, Efstratios Kolibianakis
Vitrification is widely used to cryopreserve supernumerary embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF). The mouse model was used to investigate the effects of vitrification on blastomere viability, using viability markers, and on the cytoskeleton, by analysing spindle/chromosome configurations, using confocal scanning microscopy. Ninety cleavage and morula stage dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO)/EG vitrified mouse embryos were either processed immediately following warming for viability assessment by labelling with the fluorescent markers carboxyfluorescein-diacetate succinimidylester (CFSE) and propidium iodide (PI) or were cultured to the blastocyst stage and immunostained with α-tubulin antibody to visualize microtubules and DAPI or PI to visualize DNA...
February 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873567/early-germinal-vesicle-breakdown-is-a-predictor-of-high-preimplantation-developmental-competent-oocytes-in-mice
#11
Shogo Higaki, Masao Kishi, Keisuke Koyama, Masashi Nagano, Seiji Katagiri, Tatsuyuki Takada, Yoshiyuki Takahashi
The preselection of highly developmentally competent oocytes for in vitro maturation (IVM) is crucial for improving assisted reproductive technology. Although several intrinsic markers of oocyte quality are known to be closely related to the onset of nuclear maturation (germinal vesicle break down, GVBD), a direct comparison between GVBD timing and oocyte quality has never been reported. In this study, we established a non-invasive oocyte evaluation method based on GVBD timing for preselecting more developmental competent oocytes in mice...
February 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873560/embryonic-development-in-zungaro-jahu
#12
Camila Marques, Francine Faustino, Bruno Bertolucci, Maria do Carmo Faria Paes, Regiane Cristina da Silva, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi
The aim of this study was to characterize the embryonic development of Zungaro jahu, a fresh water teleostei commonly known as 'jaú'. Samples were collected at pre-determined times from oocyte release to larval hatching and analysed under light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. At the first collection times, the oocytes and eggs were spherical and yellowish, with an evident micropyle. Embryo development took place at 29.4 ± 1.5°C and was divided into seven stages: zygote, cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, organogenesis, and hatching...
February 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806737/effect-of-guaianolides-in-the-meiosis-reinitiation-of-amphibian-oocytes
#13
J Zapata-Martínez, G Sánchez-Toranzo, F Chaín, C A N Catalán, M I Bühler
Sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) are a large and structurally diverse group of plant metabolites generally found in the Asteraceae family. STLs exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities and it is generally accepted that their major mechanism of action is the alkylation of the thiol groups of biological molecules. The guaianolides is one of various groups of STLs. Anti-tumour and anti-migraine effects, an allergenic agent, an inhibitor of smooth muscle cells and of meristematic cell proliferation are only a few of the most commonly reported activities of STLs...
February 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780485/meiotic-arrest-as-an-alternative-to-increase-the-production-of-bovine-embryos-by-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer
#14
F M C Caixeta, R V Sousa, A L Guimarães, L O Leme, J F W Sprícigo, S B Senna Netto, I Pivato, M A N Dode
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of meiotic arrest using phosphodiesterase type 3A (PDE 3A) inhibitors, cilostamide and C-type natriuretic peptide (NPPC), on pre-maturation (PM) of oocytes to be used in the production of cloned embryos. Nuclear maturation, in vitro embryo production (IVP), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetic activation (PA), and total cells number of cloned embryos were evaluated. The results were analysed by chi-squared and Kruskal-Wallis test with a P-value 0.05) between control and PM, both for cleavage (78...
February 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805546/autophagy-is-required-for-sea-urchin-oogenesis-and-early-development
#15
Maria Agnello, Roberto Chiarelli, Chiara Martino, Liana Bosco, Maria Carmela Roccheri
Autophagy is a major intracellular pathway for the degradation and recycling of cytosolic components. Emerging evidence has demonstrated its crucial role during the embryo development of invertebrates and vertebrates. We recently demonstrated a massive activation of autophagy in Paracentrotus lividus embryos under cadmium stress conditions, and the existence of a temporal relationship between induced autophagy and apoptosis. Although there have been numerous studies on the role of autophagy in the development of different organisms, information on the autophagic process during oogenesis or at the start of development in marine invertebrates is very limited...
December 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805545/effect-of-sperm-preparation-on-development-of-bovine-blastocyst-in-vitro
#16
Maria Celina Abraham, Anders Johannisson, Jane M Morrell
Sperm preparation is an important step in the in vitro production of embryos. Centrifugation through colloids has been used to select normal sperm for assisted reproduction in several species. Animal models can sometimes be used as a preliminary step to investigate sperm preparation methods that are potentially of use for human fertility treatments. In this study bovine semen was prepared using three variants of the single-layer centrifugation sperm selection technique (Small, Mini, Mini-EP) with Bovicoll (Androcoll-B)...
December 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805544/analyses-of-apoptosis-and-dna-damage-in-bovine-cumulus-cells-after-in-vitro-maturation-with-different-copper-concentrations-consequences-on-early-embryo-development
#17
D E Rosa, J M Anchordoquy, J P Anchordoquy, M A Sirini, J A Testa, G A Mattioli, C C Furnus
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of copper (Cu) during in vitro maturation (IVM) on apoptosis and DNA integrity of cumulus cells (CC); and oocyte viability. Also, the role of CC in the transport of Cu during IVM was evaluated on oocyte developmental capacity. Damage of DNA was higher in CC matured without Cu (0 µg/dl Cu, P < 0.01) with respect to cells treated with Cu for cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) exposed to 0, 20, 40, or 60 µg/dl Cu). The percentage of apoptotic cells was higher in CC matured without Cu than in CC matured with Cu...
December 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748220/effect-of-insulin-transferrin-selenium-its-and-l-ascorbic-acid-aa-during-in-vitro-maturation-on-in-vitro-bovine-embryo-development
#18
A L S Guimarães, S A Pereira, M N Diógenes, M A N Dode
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding a combination of insulin, transferrin and selenium (ITS) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) during in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro culture (IVC) on in vitro embryo production. To verify the effect of the supplements, cleavage and blastocyst rates, embryo size and total cell number were performed. Embryonic development data, embryo size categorization and kinetics of maturation were analyzed by chi-squared test, while the total cell number was analyzed by a Kruskal-Wallis test (P < 0...
December 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733212/combination-of-spindle-and-first-polar-body-chromosome-images-for-the-enhanced-prediction-of-developmental-potency-of-mouse-metaphase-ii-oocytes
#19
Yukou Sugano, Manami Yazawa, Sachio Takino, Sueo Niimura, Hideaki Yamashiro
The objective of this study was to classify spindle and first polar body (PB1) chromosome images in ovulated mouse oocytes over time to predict the developmental competence of metaphase II (MII) oocytes. Oocytes were collected at 12, 15, 20, and 25 h after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection, and stained for spindle tubulin, chromosomes, and PB1 chromosomes. MII spindle morphology was classified as tapered type or barrel type and PB1 chromosomes were categorized as aggregated, separated, dot, or collapsed...
December 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702423/soce-proteins-stim1-and-orai1-are-localized-to-the-cleavage-furrow-during-cytokinesis-of-the-first-and-second-cell-division-cycles-in-zebrafish-embryos
#20
Ching Man Chan, Jacqueline T M Aw, Sarah E Webb, Andrew L Miller
In zebrafish embryos, distinct Ca2+ transients are localized to the early cleavage furrows during the first few cell division cycles. These transients are generated mainly by release via IP3Rs in the endoplasmic reticulum, and they are necessary for furrow positioning, propagation, deepening and apposition. We previously showed, via the use of inhibitors, that store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) also appears to be essential for maintaining the IP3R-mediated elevated levels of [Ca2+]i for the extended periods required for the completion of successful furrow deepening and daughter cell apposition in these large embryonic cells...
December 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
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