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Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635583/cigarette-smoke-is-associated-with-altered-expression-of-antioxidant-enzymes-in-granulosa-cells-from-women-undergoing-in-vitro-fertilization
#1
Maria Cristina Budani, Erminia Carletti, Gian Mario Tiboni
This study was undertaken to evaluate whether cigarette smoke is associated with changes in the expression of antioxidant enzymes in granulosa cells of women undergoing IVF treatments. For this aim, the expression of three antioxidant enzymes (SOD1, SOD2 and catalase) in non-smokers (n = 20) and smokers (n = 20) was analyzed. There was a statistically significant overexpression of SOD2 and catalase mRNA levels in smokers in comparison with non-smokers. Cigarette smoking was associated with a lower fertilization rate, implantation rate and pregnancy rate in comparison with non-smokers...
June 21, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635582/protective-effects-of-ethanol-extracts-of-artemisia-asiatica-nakai-ex-pamp-on-ageing-induced-deterioration-in-mouse-oocyte-quality
#2
Hyuk-Joon Jeon, Seung Yeop You, Dong Hyun Kim, Hong Bae Jeon, Jeong Su Oh
Following ovulation, oocytes undergo a time-dependent deterioration in quality referred to as post-ovulatory ageing. Although various factors influence the post-ovulatory ageing of oocytes, oxidative stress is a key factor involved in deterioration of oocyte quality. Artemisia asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. has been widely used in East Asia as a food ingredient and traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation, cancer, and microbial infections. Recent studies have shown that A. asiatica exhibits antioxidative effects...
June 21, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635581/first-report-on-the-successful-hybridization-of-pangasianodon-hypophthalmus-sauvage-1878-and-clarias-gariepinus-burchell-1822
#3
V T Okomoda, I C C Koh, M S Shahreza
Breeding and larval performance of novel hybrids from reciprocal crosses of Asian catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878) and African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) were investigated in this study. Spawning was by hormonal injection of brood fish, artificial fertilization, and incubation in triplicate aquarium tanks (0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 m3) with continuous aeration. Reciprocal crosses (♀C. gariepinus × ♂P. hypophthalmus and ♀P. hypophthalmus × ♂C. gariepinus) had lower hatchability (≤50%) than their pure siblings (≥75%)...
June 21, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631588/spawning-performance-of-clarias-gariepinus-burchell-1822-induced-with-ethanol-preserved-and-fresh-catfish-pituitary-extract
#4
V T Okomoda, L O Tiamiyu, D Kwaghger
This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of preserved and fresh pituitary extract of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) to induced spawning in the same species. Growth performance of fry was also monitored for 15 days to determine the possible effect of natural hormone treatment on the fry. Pituitary glands (PG) were obtained from 12 male broodstocks, six extracted PG were preserved in 96% ethanol 24 h before injection, while the other were extracted and used in their fresh state. The PG solutions (1 g ml-1 of saline water) were injected at 1 ml kg-1 of the female broodstock...
June 20, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592345/the-effect-of-kinetic-heat-shock-on-bovine-oocyte-maturation-and-subsequent-gene-expression-of-targeted-genes
#5
Krishna C Pavani, António Rocha, Erica Baron, Joana Lourenço, Marwa Faheem, Fernando Moreira da Silva
The exposure of oocytes to heat stress during the maturation process results in harmful effects to their internal organelles, low fertilization capability and higher embryonic losses. In the present experiment the effect of heat shock (HS) during the maturation process was assessed. In Assay 1, oocytes from winter (December-March; n = 100) and summer (June-September; n = 100) months were collected and matured to analyse their HS tolerance. Total RNA was extracted from matured oocytes and cDNA synthesis was performed, followed by qPCR for selected genes (Cx43, CDH1, DNMT1, HSPA14), compared with two reference genes (GAPDH and SDHA)...
June 8, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592340/influence-of-gonadotropins-on-ovarian-follicle-growth-and-development-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#6
Maxim Filatov, Yulia Khramova, Elena Parshina, Tatiana Bagaeva, Maria Semenova
Gonadotropins are the key regulators of ovarian follicles development. They are applied in therapeutic practice in assisted reproductive technology clinics. In the present review we discuss the basic gonadotropic hormones - recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone, its derivatives, luteinizing hormone and gonadotropin serum of pregnant mares, their origin, and application in ovarian follicle systems in in vitro culture systems.
June 8, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592334/impact-of-oocyte-secreted-factors-on-its-developmental-competence-in-buffalo
#7
Swati Gupta, Sriti Pandey, Mehtab S Parmar, Anjali Somal, Avishek Paul, Bibhudatta S K Panda, Irfan A Bhat, Indu Baiju, Mukesh K Bharti, G Saikumar, Mihir Sarkar, Vikash Chandra, G Taru Sharma
Oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs) play an important role in the acquisition of oocyte developmental competence through bidirectional cross-talk between oocyte and cumulus cells via gap junctions. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of two OSFs, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), on the developmental competence of buffalo oocytes derived from two different follicle sizes. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from large follicles (LF, >6 mm) or small follicles (SF, 0...
June 8, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587687/physiological-importance-of-polyamines
#8
Yasser Y Lenis, Mohammed A Elmetwally, Juan G Maldonado-Estrada, Fuller W Bazer
Polyamines are polycationic molecules that contain two or more amino groups (-NH3 +) and are present in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Polyamines are synthesized from arginine, ornithine, and proline, and from methionine as the methyl-group donor. In the traditional pathway for polyamine synthesis, arginase converts arginine into ornithine, which is decarboxylated by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) to generate putrescine. The latter is converted to spermidine and spermine. Recent studies have indicated the existence of 'non-classical pathways' for the generation of putrescine from arginine and proline in animal cells...
June 7, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583220/expression-and-localization-of-tubulin-cofactors-tbcd-and-tbce-in-human-gametes
#9
Victoria Jiménez-Moreno, Ekaitz Agirregoitia
The tubulin cofactors TBCD and TBCE play an essential role in regulation of the microtubule dynamics in a wide variety of somatic cells, but little information is known about the expression of these cofactors in human sperm and oocytes. In this study, we focused on the investigation of the presence of, and the differential distribution of, the tubulin cofactors TBCD and TBCE in human sperm and during human oocyte maturation. We performed expression assays for TBCD and TBCE by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot and immunofluorescence and verified the presence of both cofactors in human gametes...
June 6, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534463/gene-expression-analysis-of-bovine-embryonic-disc-trophoblast-and-parietal-hypoblast-at-the-start-of-gastrulation
#10
Peter L Pfeffer, Craig S Smith, Paul Maclean, Debra K Berg
In cattle early gastrulation-stage embryos (Stage 5), four tissues can be discerned: (i) the top layer of the embryonic disc consisting of embryonic ectoderm (EmE); (ii) the bottom layer of the disc consisting of mesoderm, endoderm and visceral hypoblast (MEH); (iii) the trophoblast (TB); and (iv) the parietal hypoblast. We performed microsurgery followed by RNA-seq to analyse the transcriptome of these four tissues as well as a developmentally earlier pre-gastrulation embryonic disc. The cattle EmE transcriptome was similar at Stages 4 and 5, characterised by the OCT4/SOX2/NANOG pluripotency network...
May 23, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534450/population-estimate-and-morphometry-of-ovarian-preantral-follicles-from-three-recently-recognized-squirrel-monkey-species-a-comparative-study
#11
Gerson P Lopes, Regiane R Santos, Débora V Almeida, Adriel B Brito, Helder L Queiroz, Sheyla F S Domingues
We describe morphological and morphometrical characteristics of preantral ovarian follicles from three recently recognized Saimiri species: S. macrodon, S. cassiquiarensis and S. vanzolinii; the last one a threatened species. Ovaries from four adult monkeys were evaluated: one pair from a pregnant S. macrodon, two ovarian pairs from S. cassiquiarensis females (one of them pregnant), and one left ovary from a senile S. vanzolinii, applying classical histology. Follicular preantral population was quantified and morphology and morphometry of primordial, primary and secondary follicles were evaluated...
May 23, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399947/survival-of-macrobrachium-amazonicum-embryos-submitted-to-cooling
#12
Arthur Vinícius Lourenço Ferreira, Moisés Fernandes Martins, Míriam Luzia Nogueira Martins de Sousa, Aldeney Andrade Soares Filho, Célia Maria de Souza Sampaio
Cooling techniques have several applications for reproduction in aquaculture. However, few studies have sought to create protocols for cooling and cryopreservation of Macrobrachium amazonicum embryos. Thus, the objective of this work was to verify the survival of M. amazonicum embryos and the correlation between embryonic volume and mortality of M. amazonicum embryos after cooling. Embryo pools were collected from three females and divided into two treatment groups: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) 3% and ethylene glycol (EG) 0...
April 12, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264747/oocyte-morphology-and-embryo-morphokinetics-in-an-intra-cytoplasmic-sperm-injection-programme-is-there-a-relationship
#13
Azita Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Sareh Ashourzadeh
The aim was to investigate the relationship between the morphological parameters of metaphase II (MII) oocytes with morphokinetic variables of embryos following an intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedure. Morphokinetic behaviour and abnormal cleavage patterns of 334 zygotes were analyzed using time-lapse monitoring (TLM). In addition, oocyte morphology was assessed in relation to embryo morphokinetic (absolute time point, including time to second polar body (PB) extrusion (ESPB), pronuclei (PN) appearance (PNA), PN fading (PNF), time to 2-cells (t2), 3c (t3), 4c (t4), 5c (t5), 6c (t6), 7c (t7), 8c (t8) and relative timing parameters (S1, S2, CC2 and CC3)...
April 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088929/morphologic-analysis-of-sperm-from-two-neotropical-primate-species-comparisons-between-the-squirrel-monkeys-saimiri-collinsi-and-saimiri-vanzolinii
#14
Wlaisa V Sampaio, Karol G Oliveira, Danuza L Leão, Maria C Caldas-Bussiere, Helder L Queiroz, Fernanda P Paim, Regiane R Santos, Sheyla F S Domingues
Sperm morphometry can be applied to identify different animal groups and species and to evaluate sperm quality. Furthermore, knowledge on species-specific differences will help to enhance biological information, as well as to develop efficient reproductive technologies. The aims in the present study were to describe sperm morphometry from the recently characterized species S. collinsi and S. vanzolinii, to verify if the morphometric sperm patterns are similar or different between both species, and to determine if the sperm morphometry is affected by the levels of sperm defects using the S...
April 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069092/reduced-competence-of-immature-and-mature-oocytes-vitrified-by-cryotop-method-assessment-by-in-vitro-fertilization-and-parthenogenetic-activation-in-a-bovine-model
#15
Daiane L Bulgarelli, Alessandra A Vireque, Caroline P Pitangui-Molina, Marcos F Silva-de-Sá, Ana Carolina J de Sá Rosa-E-Silva
This study aimed to evaluate the embryo development competence, the nuclear maturation and the viability of germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II (MII) oocytes vitrified by the Cryotop method. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were derived from bovine ovaries and three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, GV oocytes were vitrified and underwent in vitro maturation (IVM) or not and their nuclear maturation was assessed by orcein staining. In Experiment 2, GV oocytes and MII oocytes were vitrified or not and the viability was assessed by calcein/ethidium homodimer-1 staining...
April 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007046/maternal-effect-gene-expression-in-porcine-metaphase-ii-oocytes-and-embryos-in-vitro-effect-of-epidermal-growth-factor-interleukin-1%C3%AE-and-leukemia-inhibitory-factor
#16
Marta Wasielak, Teresa Więsak, Iwona Bogacka, Beenu Moza Jalali, Marek Bogacki
Maternal effect genes (MEG) play a crucial role in early embryogenesis. In vitro culture conditions may affect MEG expression in porcine oocytes and embryos. We investigated whether in vitro culture medium supplementation with epidermal growth factor (EGF), IL-1β or LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor) affects the mRNA level of ZAR-1 (zygote arrest 1), NPM2 (nucleoplasmin 2) and DPPA3 (developmental associated protein 3) in porcine MII oocytes and embryos. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in NCSU-37 medium (control) or in NCSU-37 with EGF 10 ng/ml, IL-1β 10 ng/ml or LIF 50 ng/ml...
April 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300526/effects-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-4-bmp4-on-in-vitro-development-and-survival-of-bovine-preantral-follicles-enclosed-in-fragments-ovarian-tissue
#17
Ellen de Vasconcelos da Cunha, Glaucinete Borges de Souza, José Renato de Sousa Passos, Anderson Weiny Barbalho Silva, Andressa Minussi Dau, Márcia Viviane Alves Saraiva, Raimundo Nonato Braga Lobo, José Roberto Viana Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of BMP4 on activation, development and mRNA expression of GDF9, BMP15, PCNA, Bax and Bcl2 in cultured bovine follicles enclosed in ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue fragments were cultured for 6 days in α-MEM+ alone or supplemented with different concentrations of BMP4 (10, 50 or 100 ng/ml). Classical histology was performed to analyze follicle growth and morphology, while real-time PCR was used to analyze mRNA levels in fresh and cultured tissues...
March 16, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274301/extender-supplementation-with-catalase-maintains-the-integrity-of-sperm-plasma-membrane-after-freezing-thawing-of-semen-from-capuchin-monkey
#18
Danuza L Leão, Adriel B Brito, Stefânia A Miranda, Karol G Oliveira, Débora V C Almeida, Regiane R Santos, Sheyla F S Domingues
We aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation of ACP-118® extender with the antioxidant catalase (10 and 50 µg/ml) on Sapajus apella sperm motility, vigour, and plasma membrane integrity during the processes of seminal liquefaction, cooling, and freezing. Catalase did not affect any of the evaluated parameters after semen dilution or cooling. Cryopreserved sperm in the presence of 50 µg/ml catalase presented a plasma membrane integrity similar to that fresh sperm, however.
March 9, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274295/quality-of-pinzgau-bull-spermatozoa-following-different-periods-of-cryostorage
#19
P Chrenek, E Spaleková, L Olexikova, A Makarevich, E Kubovicova
The aim of this work was to examine the influence of cryostorage duration of Pinzgau bull's insemination doses (IDs) on some sperm traits. The IDs were frozen by a slow freezing method and stored in liquid nitrogen for different periods: less than 8 years (group 1), 8-13 years (group 2) and 14-18 years (group 3). Motility (CASA), pathological sperm rate (Giemsa staining), apoptotic (Yo-Pro-1-positive) and necrotic (propidium iodide-positive) cell occurrence and fertilizing ability (penetration/fertilization test) of spermatozoa were evaluated post-thaw...
March 9, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274294/mitochondria-during-sea-urchin-oogenesis
#20
Maria Agnello, Maria Carmela Roccheri, Giovanni Morici, Anna Maria Rinaldi
Sea urchin represents an ideal model for studies on fertilization and early development, but the achievement of egg competence and mitochondrial behaviour during oogenesis remain to be enlightened. Oocytes of echinoid, such as sea urchin, unlike other echinoderms and other systems, complete meiotic maturation before fertilization. Mitochondria, the powerhouse of eukaryotic cells, contain a multi-copy of the maternally inherited genome, and are involved directly at several levels in the reproductive processes, as their functional status influences the quality of oocytes and contributes to fertilization and embryogenesis...
March 9, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
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