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Plant, Cell & Environment

Lia Ooi, Takakazu Matsuura, Shintaro Munemasa, Yoshiyuki Murata, Maki Katsuhara, Takashi Hirayama, Izumi C Mori
Plants closing stomata in the presence of harmful gases is believed to be a stress avoidance mechanism. SO2 , one of the major airborne pollutants, has long been reported to induce stomatal closure, yet the mechanism remains unknown. Little is known about the stomatal response to airborne pollutants besides O3 . SLOW ANION CHANNEL-ASSOCIATED 1 (SLAC1) and OPEN STOMATA 1 (OST1) were identified as genes mediating O3 -induced closure. SLAC1 and OST1 are also known to mediate stomatal closure in response to CO2 , together with RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOGs (RBOHs)...
July 16, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Tamar Avin-Wittenberg
Being unable to move, plants are regularly exposed to changing environmental conditions, among which various types of abiotic stress, such as heat, drought, salt, etc. These might have deleterious effects on plant performance and yield. Plants thus need to adapt using appropriate the stress responses. One of the outcomes of abiotic stress is the need to degrade and recycle damaged proteins and organelles. Autophagy is a conserved eukaryotic mechanism functioning in the degradation of proteins, protein aggregates, and whole organelles...
July 11, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Jie Liang, Jonathan S Wright, Xiaowei Cui, Leonel Sternberg, Weixiu Gan, Guanghui Lin
Anatomical adaptations to high-salinity environments in mangrove leaves may be recorded in leaf water isotopes. Recent studies observed lower 18 O enrichment (∆L ) of leaf water with respect to source water in three mangrove species relative to adjacent freshwater trees, but the factors that govern this phenomenon remain unclear. To resolve this issue, we investigated leaf traits and ∆L in 15 species of true mangrove plants, 14 species of adjacent freshwater trees and 4 species of semi-mangrove plants at five study sites along southeastern coast of China...
July 11, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Soumaya Belmecheri, William E Wright, Paul Szejner, Kiyomi A Morino, Russell K Monson
We developed novel approaches for using the isotope composition of tree-ring subdivisions to study seasonal dynamics in tree-climate relations. Across a thirty-year time-series, the δ13 C and δ18 O values of the earlywood (EW) cellulose in the annual rings of Pinus ponderosa reflected relatively high intrinsic water-use efficiencies (iWUE) and high evaporative fractionation of 18 O/16 O, respectively, compared to the false latewood (FLW), summerwood (SW) and latewood (LW) subdivisions. This result is counter-intuitive, given the spring origins of the EW source water and mid-summer origins of the FLW, SW and LW...
July 11, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Xiaxiang Zhang, Yi Xu, Bingru Huang
Stress priming by exposing plants to a mild or moderate drought could enhance plant tolerance to subsequent heat stress. Lipids play vital roles in stress adaptation, but how lipidomic profiles change, affecting the cross-stress tolerance is largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to perform lipidomics, analyzing the content, composition, and saturation levels of lipids in leaves of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) following drought priming and subsequent heat stress and to identify major lipids and molecular species associated with priming-enhanced heat tolerance...
July 10, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Yi Feng, Jing Liu, Longmei Zhai, Zengyu Gan, Guifen Zhang, Shuhua Yang, Yi Wang, Ting Wu, Xinzhong Zhang, Xuefeng Xu, Zhenhai Han
Plants experiencing salt-induced stress often reduce cytokinin levels during the early phases of stress-response. Interestingly, we found that the cytokinin content in the apple rootstock 'robusta' was maintained at a high level under salt stress. Through screening genes involved in cytokinin biosynthesis and catabolism, we found that the high expression levels of IPT5b in robusta roots were involved in maintaining the high cytokinin content. We identified a 42bp deletion in the promoter region of IPT5b, which elevated IPT5b expression levels, and this deletion was linked to salt tolerance in robusta×M...
July 10, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Lijie Xuan, Cuicui Zhang, Tao Yan, Dezhi Wu, Nazim Hussain, Zhilan Li, Mingxun Chen, Jianwei Pan, Lixi Jiang
Flavonoids are involved in many physiological processes in plants. TRANSPARENT TESTA 4 (TT4) acts at the first step of flavonoid biosynthesis, and the loss of TT4 function causes a lack of flavonoid. Flavonoid deficiency is reportedly the main cause of increased fatty acid content in pale-colored oilseeds, but details regarding the relationship between seed flavonoids and fatty acid biosynthesis are elusive. In this work, we applied a genetic strategy combined with biochemical and cytological assays to determine the effect of seed flavonoids on the biosynthesis of fatty acids in Arabidopsis thaliana...
July 7, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Kate M Johnson, Gregory J Jordan, Timothy J Brodribb
New techniques now make it possible to precisely and accurately determine the failure threshold of the plant vascular system during water stress. This creates an opportunity to understand the vulnerability of species to drought, but first it must be determined whether damage to leaf function associated with xylem cavitation is reparable or permanent. This question is particularly relevant in crop plants such as wheat, which may have the capacity to repair xylem embolism with positive root pressure. Using wheat (Triticum aestivum, Heron) we employed non-invasive imaging to find the water potential causing 50% xylem embolism (-2...
July 7, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Fanmiao Wang, Toshisangba Longkumer, Sheryl C Catausan, Carla Lenore F Calumpang, Jeshurun A Tarun, Jerome Cattin-Ortola, Takuma Ishizaki, Juan Pariasca Tanaka, Terry Rose, Matthias Wissuwa, Tobias Kretzschmar
Elucidation of the genetic control of rice seedling vigour is now paramount with global shifts towards direct seeding of rice and the consequent demand for early vigor traits in breeding programs. In a genome wide association study using an indica-predominant diversity panel we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root length and root number in rice seedlings. Among the identified QTLs, one QTL for lateral root number on chromosome 11, qTIPS-11, explained was associated with a 32.4% increase in lateral root number...
July 6, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Tyler G Dowd, David M Braun, Robert E Sharp
Lateral root developmental plasticity induced by mild water stress was examined across a high-resolution series of growth media water potentials (Ψw ) in two genotypes of maize. The suitability of several media for imposing near-stable Ψw treatments on transpiring plants over prolonged growth periods was assessed. Genotypic differences specific to responses of lateral root growth from the primary root system occurred between cultivars FR697 and B73 over a narrow series of water stress treatments ranging in Ψw from -0...
July 6, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Grace P John, Christian Henry, Lawren Sack
Clarifying the mechanisms of leaf and whole plant drought responses is critical to predict the impacts of ongoing climate change. The loss of rehydration capacity has been used for decades as a metric of leaf dehydration tolerance but has not been compared with other aspects of drought tolerance. We refined methods for quantifying the percent loss of rehydration capacity (PLRC), and for 18 southern California woody species we determined the relative water content and leaf water potential at PLRC of 10%, 25% and 50%, and, additionally, the PLRC at important stages of dehydration including stomatal closure and turgor loss...
July 5, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Charlotte Grossiord, Arthur Gessler, Sasha C Reed, Isaac Borrego, Adam D Collins, Lee T Dickman, Max Ryan, Leonie Schönbeck, Sanna Sevanto, Alberto Vilagrosa, Nate G McDowell
Climate warming should result in hotter droughts of unprecedented severity in this century. Such droughts have been linked with massive tree mortality and data suggest warming interacts with drought to aggravate plant performance. Yet, how forests will respond to hotter droughts remains unclear, as does the suite of mechanisms trees use to deal with hot droughts. We used an ecosystem-scale manipulation of precipitation and temperature on piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) trees to investigate nitrogen (N) cycling-induced mitigation processes related to hotter droughts...
July 5, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Margarete Baier, Andras Bittner, Andreas Prescher, Jörn van Buer
Cold is a major stressor, which limits plant growth and development in many parts of the world, especially in the temperate climate zones. A large number of experimental studies has demonstrated that not only acclimation and entrainment, but also the experience of single short stress events of various abiotic or biotic kinds (priming stress) can improve the tolerance of plants to chilling temperatures. This process, called priming, depends on a stress "memory". It does not change cold-sensitivity per se, but beneficially modifies the response to cold, and can last for days, months or even longer...
July 5, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Bin Li, Elizabeth K Neumann, Junyue Ge, Wen Gao, Hua Yang, Ping Li, Jonathan V Sweedler
Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest extant seed plants and has a number of unique properties and uses. Numerous efforts have characterized metabolites within the ginkgo plant and their corresponding biosynthesis pathways, but spatio-chemical information on ginkgo metabolites is lacking. Mass spectrometry (MS) imaging was used to interrogate the spatio-chemical localization of metabolites with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and laser desorption/ionization Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (MALDI and LDI FT-ICR) MS across the ginkgo leaf...
July 2, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Fanrong Zeng, Sergey Shabala, Jelena Dragišić Maksimović, Vuk Maksimović, Edgar Bonales-Alatorre, Lana Shabala, Min Yu, Guoping Zhang, Branka D Živanović
Efforts to breed salt tolerant crops could benefit from investigating previously unexplored traits. One of them is a tissue succulency. In this work, we have undertaken an electrophysiological and biochemical comparison of properties of mesophyll and storage parenchyma leaf tissues of a succulent halophyte species Carpobrotus rosii ('pigface'). We show that storage parenchyma cells of C. rossii act as Na+ sink and possessed both higher Na+ sequestration (298 vs 215 mM NaCl in mesophyll) and better K+ retention ability...
June 28, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Jian-Ping An, Ji-Fang Yao, Rui-Rui Xu, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
Phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) induces anthocyanin biosynthesis, however, the underlying molecular mechanism is less known. In this study, we found that the apple MYB transcription factor MdMYB1 activated anthocyanin biosynthesis in response to ABA. Using a yeast screening technique, we isolated MdbZIP44, an ABA-induced bZIP transcription factor in apple, as a co-partner with MdMYB1. MdbZIP44 promoted anthocyanin accumulation in response to ABA by enhancing the binding of MdMYB1 to the promoters of downstream target genes...
June 25, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Cécile Lefoulon, Sakharam Waghmare, Rucha Karnik, Michael R Blatt
Vesicle traffic is tightly coordinated with ion transport for plant cell expansion through physical interactions between subsets of vesicle-trafficking (so-called SNARE) proteins and plasma membrane Kv channels, including the archetypal inward-rectifying K+ channel, KAT1 of Arabidopsis. Ion channels open and close rapidly over milliseconds, whereas vesicle fusion events require many seconds. Binding has been mapped to conserved motifs of both the Kv channels and the SNAREs, but knowledge of the temporal kinetics of their interactions, especially as it might relate to channel gating and its coordination with vesicle fusion remains unclear...
June 25, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Julia A Richter, Jan Helge Behr, Alexander Erban, Joachim Kopka, Christian Zörb
Salt-affected farmlands are increasingly burdened by chlorides, carbonates, and sulfates of sodium, calcium, and magnesium. Intriguingly, the underlying physiological processes are studied almost always under NaCl stress. Two faba bean cultivars were subjected to low and high salt treatments of NaCl, Na2 SO4 , and KCl. Assimilation rate and leaf water vapor conductance were reduced to ca. 25-30 % without biomass reduction after 7d salt stress, but this did not cause severe carbon shortage. The equimolar treatments of Na+ , K+ , and Cl- showed comparable accumulation patterns in leaves and roots, except for SO4 2- which did not accumulate...
June 25, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Patricia Gil-Díez, Manuel Tejada-Jiménez, Javier León-Mediavilla, Jiangqi Wen, Kirankumar S Mysore, Juan Imperial, Manuel González-Guerrero
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legume root nodules requires a steady supply of molybdenum for synthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase. This nutrient has to be provided by the host plant from the soil, crossing several symplastically disconnected compartments through molybdate transporters, including members of the MOT1 family. MtMOT1.2 is a Medicago truncatula MOT1 family member located in the endodermal cells in roots and nodules. Immunolocalization of a tagged MtMOT1.2 indicates that it is associated to the plasma membrane and to intracellular membrane systems, where it would be transporting molybdate towards the cytosol, as indicated in yeast transport assays...
June 25, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Stephanie J Watts-Williams, Timothy R Cavagnaro, Stephen D Tyerman
Association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can impact on plant water relations; mycorrhizal plants can exhibit increased stomatal conductance (gs ) and root hydraulic conductance (normalised to root dry weight, Lo ), and altered expression of aquaporins (AQP). Many factors regulate such responses, however, plant intraspecific diversity effects have yet to be explored. Twenty geographically diverse accessions of Medicago truncatula were inoculated with the AMF Funneliformis mosseae or mock-inoculated, and grown under well-watered conditions...
June 22, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
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