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Plant, Cell & Environment

Jing Cui, Cyril Abadie, Adam Carroll, Emmanuelle Lamade, Guillaume Tcherkez
K deficiency and waterlogging are common stresses that can occur simultaneously and impact on crop development and yield. They are both known to affect catabolism, with rather opposite effects: inhibition of glycolysis and higher glycolytic fermentative flux, respectively. But surprisingly, the effect of their combination on plant metabolism has never been examined precisely. Here, we applied a combined treatment (K availability, waterlogging) to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants under controlled greenhouse conditions, and performed elemental quantitation, metabolomics and isotope analyses at different sampling times...
September 22, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Tingting Fan, Lena Roling, Anna Meiers, Lea Brings, Patricia Ortega-Rodés, Boris Hedtke, Bernhard Grimm
Ferrochelatase (FC) is the final enzyme for heme formation in the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway and encoded by two genes in higher plants. FC2 exists predominantly in green tissue, while FC1 is constitutively expressed. We intended to substantiate the specific roles of FC1. The embryo-lethal fc1-2 mutant was used to express the two genomic FC-encoding sequences under the FC1 and FC2 promoter and explore the complementation of the FC1 deficiency. Apart from the successful complementation with FC1, expression of FC2 under control of the FC1 promoter (pFC1::FC2) compensates for missing FC1, but not by FC2 promoter expression...
September 22, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Romina Sellaro, Robert W Smith, Martina Legris, Christian Fleck, Jorge J Casal
Vegetation shade is characterised by marked decreases in the red/far-red ratio and photosynthetic irradiance. The activity of phytochrome in the field has typically been described by its photoequilibrium, defined by the photochemical properties of the pigment in combination with the spectral distribution of the light. This approach represents an oversimplification because phytochrome B (phyB) activity depends not only on its photochemical reactions but also on its rates of synthesis, degradation, translocation to the nucleus and thermal reversion...
September 14, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Anna L Jacobsen, R Brandon Pratt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Changtian Pan, Dandan Yang, Xiaolin Zhao, Chen Jiao, Yanqiu Yan, Anthony Tumbeh Lamin-Samu, Qiaomei Wang, Xiangyang Xu, Zhangjun Fei, Gang Lu
High temperature (HT) is becoming an increasingly serious factor in limiting crop production with global climate change. During hot seasons, owing to prevailing HT, cultivated tomatoes are prone to exhibiting stigma exsertion, which hampers pollination and causes fruit set failure. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms of the HT-induced stigma exsertion remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that stigma exsertion induced by HT in cultivated tomato is caused by more seriously shortened stamens than pistils, which is different from the stigma exsertion observed in wild tomato species...
September 11, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Vijay Kumar, Lara Vogelsang, Thorsten Seidel, Romy Schmidt, Michael Weber, Michael Reichelt, Andreas Meyer, Stephan Clemens, Shanti S Sharma, Karl-Josef Dietz
Plants often face combinatorial stresses in their natural environment. Here arsenic (As) toxicity was combined with hypoxia (Hpx) in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana as it often occurs in nature. Arsenic inhibited growth of both roots and leaves, while root growth almost entirely ceased in Hpx. Growth efficiently resumed, and hypoxia marker transcripts decreased upon re-aeration. Compromised recovery from HpxAs treatment following re-aeration indicated some persistent effects of combined stress despite lower As-accumulation...
September 9, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Lingfei Hu, Meng Ye, Matthias Erb
Plants can use induced volatiles to detect herbivore- and pathogen-attacked neighbors and prime their defenses. Several individual volatile priming cues have been identified, but whether plants are able to integrate multiple cues from stress-related volatile blends remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated how maize plants respond to two herbivore-induced volatile priming cues with complementary information content, the green leaf volatile (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate (HAC) and the aromatic volatile indole...
September 8, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Z Carter Berry, Nathan C Emery, Sybil G Gotsch, Gregory R Goldsmith
Nearly all plant families, represented across most major biomes, absorb water directly through their leaves. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as foliar water uptake. Recent studies have suggested that foliar water uptake provides a significant water subsidy that can influence both plant water and carbon balance across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Despite this, our mechanistic understanding of when, where, how, and to what end water is absorbed through leaf surfaces remains limited. We first review the evidence for the biophysical conditions necessary for foliar water uptake to occur, focusing on the plant and atmospheric water potentials necessary to create a gradient for water flow...
September 8, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Dandan Hu, Shudong Zhang, Jerry M Baskin, Carol C Baskin, Zhaoren Wang, Rong Liu, Juan Du, Xuejun Yang, Zhenying Huang
Seedling emergence is a critical stage in the establishment of desert plants. Soil microbes participate in plant growth and development, but information is lacking with regard to the role of microbes on seedling emergence. We applied the biocides (captan and streptomycin) to assess how seed mucilage interacts with soil microbial community and physiochemical processes to affect seedling emergence of Artemisia sphaerocephala on the desert sand dune. Fungal and bacterial community composition and diversity and fungal-bacterial interactions were changed by both captan and streptomycin...
September 7, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Sotirios Fragkostefanakis, Stefan Simm, Asmaa El-Shershaby, Yangjie Hu, Daniela Bublak, Anida Mesihovic, Katrin Darm, Shravan Kumar Mishra, Bettina Tschiersch, Klaus Theres, Christian Scharf, Enrico Schleiff, Klaus-Dieter Scharf
Plants code for a multitude of heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs). Three of them act as central regulators of heat stress (HS) response in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). HsfA1a regulates the initial response and HsfA2 controls acquired thermotolerance. HsfB1 is a transcriptional repressor, but can also act as co-activator of HsfA1a. Currently the mode of action and the relevance of the dual function of HsfB1 remain elusive. We examined this in HsfB1 overexpression or suppression transgenic tomato lines...
September 6, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Anna Flis, Virginie Mengin, Alexander A Ivakov, Sam T Mugford, Hans-Michael Hubberten, Beatrice Encke, Nicole Krohn, Melanie Höhne, Regina Feil, Rainer Hoefgen, John E Lunn, Andrew J Millar, Alison M Smith, Ronan Sulpice, Mark Stitt
Plants accumulate reserves in the daytime to support growth at night. Circadian regulation of diel reserve turnover was investigated by profiling starch, sugars, glucose 6-phosphate, organic acids and amino acids during a light-dark cycle and after transfer to continuous light in Arabidopsis wild-types and in mutants lacking dawn (lhy cca1), morning (prr7 prr9), dusk (toc1, gi) or evening (elf3) clock components. The metabolite time-series were integrated with published time-series for circadian clock transcripts to identify circadian outputs that regulate central metabolism...
September 5, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Xianjun Deng, Shu Yuan, Huasheng Cao, Sin Man Lam, Guanghou Shui, Yueyun Hong, Xuemin Wang
Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) is involved in stress signaling but its signaling function remains largely unknown in crop plants. Here we report that the PI-PLC4 from rice (Oryza sativa cv), OsPLC4, plays a positive role in osmotic stress response. Two independent knockout mutants, plc4-1 and plc4-2, exhibited decreased seedling growth and survival rate whereas overexpression of OsPLC4 improved survival rate under high salinity and water deficiency, compared with wild-type (WT). OsPLC4 hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 ) to generate diacylglycerol (DAG) in vitro...
September 3, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Jonas Hilty, Chris Pook, Sebastian Leuzinger
High resolution leaf growth is rarely studied despite its importance as a metric for plant performance and resource use efficiency. This is in part due to methodological challenges. Here, we present a method for in situ leaf growth measurements in a natural environment. We measured instantaneous leaf growth on a mature Avicennia marina subsp. australasica tree over several weeks. We measured leaf expansion by taking time-lapse images, and analysing them using marker tracking software. A custom made instrument was designed to enable long-term field studies...
September 1, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Gurcharn S Brar, Chithra Karunakaran, Toby Bond, Jarvis Stobbs, Na Liu, Pierre J Hucl, Hadley R Kutcher
Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum (Fg), is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat. Host resistance in wheat is classified into five types (Type-I to Type-V) and a majority of moderately resistant genotypes carry Type-II resistance (resistance to pathogen spread in the rachis) alleles, mainly from the Chinese cultivar Sumai 3. Histopathological studies in the past failed to identify the key tissue in the spike conferring resistance to pathogen spread and most of the studies used destructive techniques, potentially damaging the tissue (s) under study...
August 30, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Silvana Righini, Eduardo José Rodriguez, Carla Berosich, Erich Grotewold, Paula Casati, María Lorena Falcone Ferreyra
Flavones, one of the largest groups of flavonoids, have beneficial effects on human health and are considered of high nutritional value. Previously, we demonstrated that maize type I flavone synthase (ZmFNSI) is one of the enzymes responsible for the synthesis of O-glycosyl flavones in floral tissues. However, in related species like rice and sorghum, type II FNS enzymes also contribute to flavone biosynthesis. In this work, we provide evidence that maize has both one FNSI and one FNSII flavone synthases. Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing each FNS enzyme were generated to validate the role of flavones in protecting plants against UV-B radiation...
August 30, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Sylwia Struk, Anse Jacobs, Elena Sanchez Martín-Fontecha, Kris Gevaert, Pilar Cubas, Sofie Goormachtig
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) represent an essential aspect of plant systems biology. Identification of key protein players and their interaction networks provide crucial insights into the regulation of plant developmental processes as well as into interactions of plants with their environment. Despite the great advance in the methods for the discovery and validation of PPIs, still several challenges remain. First, the PPI networks are usually highly dynamic and the in vivo interactions are often transient and difficult to detect...
August 29, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Mina Ghahremani, Hue Tran, Sanaz G Biglou, Bryden O'Gallagher, Yi-Min She, William C Plaxton
The purple acid phosphatase AtPAP26 plays a central role in Pi-scavenging by Pi-starved (-Pi) Arabidopsis. Mass spectrometry (MS) of AtPAP26-S1 and AtPAP26-S2 glycoforms secreted by -Pi suspension cells demonstrated that N-glycans at Asn365 and Asn422 were modified in AtPAP26-S2 to form high-mannose glycans. A 55 kDa protein that co-purified with AtPAP26-S2 was identified as a Galanthus nivalis agglutinin-related and apple domain lectin-1 (AtGAL1; At1g78850). MS revealed that AtGAL1 was bisphosphorylated at Tyr38 and Thr39 , and glycosylated at four conserved Asn residues...
August 29, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Charles J Mason, Asher G Jones, Gary W Felton
Plants possess a suite of traits that make them challenging to consume by insect herbivores. Plant tissues are recalcitrant, have low levels of protein, and may be well defended by chemicals. Insects use diverse strategies for overcoming these barriers, including co-opting metabolic activities from microbial associates. In this review, we discuss the co-option of bacteria and fungi in the herbivore gut. We particularly focus upon chewing, folivorous insects (Coleoptera and Lepidoptera), and discuss the impacts of microbial co-option on herbivore performance and plant responses...
August 27, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Katharina Hake, Tina Romeis
'Priming' in plant phytopathology describes a phenomenon where the 'experience' of primary infection by microbial pathogens leads to enhanced and beneficial protection of the plant against secondary infection. The plant is able to establish an immune memory, a state of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), in which the information of 'having been attacked' is integrated with the action of 'being prepared to defend when it happens again'. Accordingly, primed plants are often characterized by faster and stronger activation of immune reactions that ultimately result in a reduction of pathogen spread and growth...
August 27, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Mastoureh Sedaghatmehr, Venkatesh P Thirumalaikumar, Iman Kamranfar, Anne Marmagne, Celine Masclaux-Daubresse, Salma Balazadeh
As sessile life forms, plants are repeatedly confronted with adverse environmental conditions, which can impair development, growth and reproduction. During evolution, plants have established mechanisms to orchestrate the delicate balance between growth and stress tolerance, to reset cellular biochemistry once stress vanishes, or to keep a molecular memory, which enables survival of a harsher stress that may arise later. Although there are several examples of memory in diverse plants species, the molecular machinery underlying the formation, duration and resetting of stress memories is largely unknown so far...
August 22, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
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