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Plant, Cell & Environment

Verena Liedschulte, Hélène Laparra, James Nicolas Duncan Battey, Joanne Deborah Schwaar, Hervé Broye, Régis Mark, Markus Klein, Simon Goepfert, Lucien Bovet
In tobacco, the heavy metal P1B-ATPases HMA4.1 and HMA4.2 function in root-to-shoot zinc and cadmium transport. We present greenhouse and field data that dissect the possibilities to impact the two homeologous genes in order to define the best strategy for leaf cadmium reduction. In a first step, both genes were silenced using an RNAi approach leading to >90% reduction of leaf cadmium content. To modulate HMA4 function more precisely, mutant HMA4.1 and HMA4.2 alleles of a TILLING population were combined...
November 23, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Michele Faralli, Ivan G Grove, Martin C Hare, Peter S Kettlewell, Fabio Fiorani
The productivity of many important crops is significantly threatened by water shortage and the elevated atmospheric CO2 can significantly interact with physiological processes and crop responses to drought. We examined the effects of three different CO2 concentrations (historical ~300 ppm, ambient ~400 ppm and elevated ~700 ppm) on physiological traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) seedlings subjected to well-watered and reduced water availability. Our data show i) that, as expected, increasing CO2 level positively modulates leaf photosynthetic traits, leaf water-use efficiency and growth under non-stressed conditions although a pronounced acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO2 occurred; ii) that the predicted elevated CO2 concentration does not reduce total evapotranspiration under drought when compared to the present (400 ppm) and historical (300 ppm) concentrations because of a larger leaf area that does not buffer transpiration; iii) that accordingly the physiological traits analysed decreased similarly under stress for all CO2 concentrations...
November 18, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Noriyuki Suetsugu, Takeshi Higa, Masamitsu Wada
Light-induced chloroplast movement is found in most plant species, including algae and land plants. In land plants with multiple small chloroplasts, under weak light conditions, the chloroplasts move towards the light and accumulate on the periclinal cell walls to efficiently perceive light for photosynthesis (the accumulation response). Under strong light conditions, chloroplasts escape from light to avoid photodamage (the avoidance response). In most plant species, blue light induces chloroplast movement and phototropin receptor kinases are the blue light receptors...
November 17, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Maurizio Mencuccini, Yann Salmon, Patrick Mitchell, Teemu Hölttä, Brendan Choat, Patrick Meir, Anthony O'Grady, David Tissue, Roman Zweifel, Sanna Sevanto, Sebastian Pfautsch
Substantial uncertainty surrounds our knowledge of tree stem growth, with some of the most basic questions, such as when stem radial growth occurs through the daily cycle, still unanswered. We employed high-resolution point dendrometers, sap flow sensors, and developed theory and statistical approaches, to devise a novel method separating irreversible radial growth from elastic tension-driven and elastic osmotically-driven changes in bark water content. We tested this method using data from five case study species...
November 12, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Ian Kaplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Karen E Loucos, Kevin A Simonin, Margaret M Barbour
Stomata represent one resistor in a series of resistances for carbon and water exchange between the leaf and the atmosphere; the remaining resistors occurring within the leaf, commonly represented as mesophyll conductance to CO2 , gm , and leaf hydraulic conductance, kLeaf . Recent studies have proposed that gm and kLeaf may be coordinated across species due to shared pathways. We assessed the correlation between gm and kLeaf within cotton, under growth CO2 partial pressure and irradiance treatments and also with short-term variation in irradiance and humidity...
November 9, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Kazutaka Kusunoki, Yuki Nakano, Keisuke Tanaka, Yoichi Sakata, Hiroyuki Koyama, Yuriko Kobayashi
Differences in the expression levels of aluminium (Al) tolerance genes are a known determinant of Al tolerance among plant varieties. We combined transcriptomic analysis of six Arabidopsis thaliana accessions with contrasting Al tolerance and a reverse genetics approach to identify Al-tolerance genes responsible for differences in Al tolerance between accession groups. Gene expression variation increased in the signal transduction process under Al stress and in growth-related processes in the absence of stress...
November 9, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Santiago Trueba, Robin Pouteau, Frederic Lens, Taylor S Feild, Sandrine Isnard, Mark E Olson, Sylvain Delzon
Increases in drought-induced tree mortality are being observed in tropical rainforests worldwide, and are also likely to affect the geographical distribution of tropical vegetation. However, the mechanisms underlying the drought vulnerability and environmental distribution of tropical species have been little studied. We measured vulnerability to xylem embolism (P50 ) of 13 woody species endemic to New Caledonia and with different xylem conduit morphologies. We examined the relation between P50 , along with other leaf and xylem functional traits, and a range of habitat variables...
November 8, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Dongmei Yang, Junhui Li, Yiting Ding, Melvin T Tyree
The physiological advantages of negative turgor pressure, Pt , in leaf cells are water saving and homeostasis of reactants. This paper advances methods for detecting the occurrence of negative Pt in leaves. Biomechanical models of pressure-volume (PV) curves predict that negative Pt does not change the linearity of PV curve plots of inverse balance pressure, PB , versus relative water loss, but it does predict changes in either the y-intercept or the x-intercept of the plots depending on where cell collapse occurs in the PB domain because of negative Pt ...
November 8, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Dongmei Yang, Shaoan Pan, Yiting Ding, Melvin T Tyree
This paper provides a mini-review of evidence for negative turgor pressure in leaf cells starting with experimental evidence in the late 1950's and ending with biomechanical models published in 2014. In the present study, biomechanical models were used to predict how negative turgor pressure might be manifested in dead tissue and experiments were conducted to test the predictions. The main findings were: (i) Tissues killed by heating to 60 or 80 °C or by freezing in liquid nitrogen all became equally leaky to cell sap solutes and all seemed to pass freely through the cell walls...
November 8, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
R Brandon Pratt, Anna L Jacobsen
The secondary xylem of woody plants transports water, mechanically supports the plant body, and stores resources. These three functions are interdependent giving rise to tradeoffs in function. Understanding the relationships among these functions and their structural basis forms the context in which to interpret xylem evolution. The tradeoff between xylem transport efficiency and safety from cavitation has been carefully examined with less focus on other functions, particularly storage. Here, we synthesize data on all three xylem functions in angiosperm branch xylem in the context of tradeoffs...
November 8, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Leonard Shumbe, Stefano D'Alessandro, Ning Shao, Anne Chevalier, Brigitte Ksas, Ralph Bock, Michel Havaux
Singlet oxygen ((1) O2 ) signaling in plants is essential to trigger both acclimatory mechanisms and programmed cell death under high light stress. However, due to its chemical features, (1) O2 requires mediators, and the players involved in this pathway are largely unknown. The β-carotene oxidation product, β-cyclocitral, is one such mediator. Produced in the chloroplast, β-cyclocitral induces changes in nuclear gene expression leading to photoacclimation. Recently, the METHYLENE BLUE SENSITIVITY protein MBS has been identified as a key player in (1) O2 signaling leading to tolerance to high light...
November 4, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Xiaoli Yang, Gang Dong, K Palaniappan, Guohua Mi, Tobias I Baskin
To understand how root growth responds to temperature, we used kinematic analysis to quantify division and expansion parameters in the root of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown at temperatures from 15 to 30 °C, given continuously from germination. Over these temperatures, root length varies more than three-fold in the wild type but by only two-fold in a double mutant for phytochrome-interacting factor 4 & 5. For kinematics, the spatial profile of velocity was obtained with new software, Stripflow. We find that 30 °C truncates the elongation zone and curtails cell production, responses that probably reflect the elicitation of a common pathway for handling severe stresses...
November 3, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Ying Zhang, Qinqin Yu, Nan Jiang, Xu Yan, Chao Wang, Qingmei Wang, Jianzhong Liu, Muyuan Zhu, Sebastian Y Bednarek, Jian Xu, Jianwei Pan
Phototropism is the process by which plants grow towards light in order to maximize the capture of light for photosynthesis, which is particularly important for germinating seedlings. In Arabidopsis, hypocotyl phototropism is predominantly triggered by blue light (BL), which has a profound effect on the establishment of asymmetric auxin distribution, essential for hypocotyl phototropism. Two auxin efflux transporters ATP-BINDING CASSETTE B19 (ABCB19) and PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3), are known to mediate the effect of BL on auxin distribution in the hypocotyl, but the details for how BL triggers PIN3 lateralization remain poorly understood...
October 22, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
M Asaduzzaman Prodhan, Ricarda Jost, Mutsumi Watanabe, Rainer Hoefgen, Hans Lambers, Patrick M Finnegan
Hakea prostrata (Proteaceae) has evolved in an extremely phosphorus (P)-limited environment. This species exhibits an exceptionally low ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and low protein and nitrogen (N) concentration in its leaves. Little is known about the N requirement of this species and its link to P metabolism, despite this being the key to understanding how it functions with a minimal P budget. H. prostrata plants were grown with various N supplies. Metabolite and elemental analyses were performed to determine its N requirement...
October 20, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
John S Sperry, Martin D Venturas, William R L Anderegg, Maurizio Mencuccini, D Scott Mackay, Yujie Wang, David M Love
Stomatal regulation presumably evolved to optimize CO2 for H2 O exchange in response to changing conditions. If the optimization criterion can be readily measured or calculated, then stomatal responses can be efficiently modeled without recourse to empirical models or underlying mechanism. Previous efforts have been challenged by the lack of a transparent index for the cost of losing water. Yet it is accepted that stomata control water loss to avoid excessive loss of hydraulic conductance from cavitation and soil drying...
October 20, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Kohtaro Watanabe, Hirokazu Takahashi, Saori Sato, Shunsaku Nishiuchi, Fumie Omori, Al Imran Malik, Timothy David Colmer, Yoshiro Mano, Mikio Nakazono
A radial oxygen loss (ROL) barrier in roots of waterlogging-tolerant plants promotes oxygen movement via aerenchyma to the root tip, and impedes soil phytotoxin entry. The molecular mechanism and genetic regulation of ROL barrier formation are largely unknown. Zea nicaraguensis, a waterlogging-tolerant wild relative of maize (Z. mays ssp. mays), forms a tight ROL barrier in its roots when waterlogged. We used Z. nicaraguensis chromosome segment introgression lines (ILs) in maize (inbred line Mi29) to elucidate the chromosomal region involved in regulating root ROL barrier formation...
October 20, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Mina Momayyezi, Robert D Guy
In Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood), net photosynthesis (An ) varies with latitude and, in northern genotypes, is supported by higher stomatal conductance (gs ). We report here a parallel cline in mesophyll conductance (gm ) and link this variation to carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity. Using concurrent carbon isotope discrimination and chlorophyll fluorescence methods, we examined the effects of acetazolamide, an inhibitor of CA, on gm in six representative genotypes (three from either end of the north-south cline)...
October 20, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Ulrike Glaubitz, Xia Li, Sandra Schaedel, Alexander Erban, Ronan Sulpice, Joachim Kopka, Dirk K Hincha, Ellen Zuther
Transcript and metabolite profiling were performed on leaves from six rice cultivars under high night temperature (HNT) condition. Six genes were identified as central for HNT response encoding proteins involved in transcription regulation, signal transduction, protein-protein interactions, jasmonate response, and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Sensitive cultivars showed specific changes in transcript abundance including abiotic stress responses, changes of cell wall related genes, of ABA signaling and secondary metabolism...
October 20, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Wieland Fricke
Water transport in plants occurs along various paths and is driven by gradients in its free energy. It is generally considered that the mode of transport, being either diffusion or bulk flow, is a passive process, though energy may be required to sustain the forces driving water flow. This review aims at putting water flow at the various organisational levels (cell, organ, plant) in the context of the energy that is required to maintain these flows. In addition, the question is addressed (i) whether water can be transported against a difference in its chemical free energy, 'water potential' (Ψ), through, directly or indirectly, active processes; and (ii) whether the energy released when water is flowing down a gradient in its energy, for example during day-time transpiration and cell expansive growth, is significant compared to the energy budget of plant and cell...
October 18, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
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