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Plant, Cell & Environment

Ying Zhang, Qinqin Yu, Nan Jiang, Xu Yan, Chao Wang, Qingmei Wang, Jianzhong Liu, Muyuan Zhu, Sebastian Y Bednarek, Jian Xu, Jianwei Pan
Phototropism is the process by which plants grow towards light in order to maximize the capture of light for photosynthesis, which is particularly important for germinating seedlings. In Arabidopsis, hypocotyl phototropism is predominantly triggered by blue light (BL), which has a profound effect on the establishment of asymmetric auxin distribution, essential for hypocotyl phototropism. Two auxin efflux transporters ATP-BINDING CASSETTE B19 (ABCB19) and PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3), are known to mediate the effect of BL on auxin distribution in the hypocotyl, but the details for how BL triggers PIN3 lateralization remain poorly understood...
October 22, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
M Asaduzzaman Prodhan, Ricarda Jost, Mutsumi Watanabe, Rainer Hoefgen, Hans Lambers, Patrick M Finnegan
Hakea prostrata (Proteaceae) has evolved in an extremely phosphorus- (P) limited environment. This species exhibits an exceptionally low ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and low protein and nitrogen (N) concentration in its leaves. Little is known about the N requirement of this species, and its link to P metabolism, despite this being the key to understanding how it functions with a minimal P budget. Hakea prostrata plants were grown with various N supplies. Metabolite and elemental analyses were performed to determine its N requirement...
October 20, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
John S Sperry, Martin D Venturas, William R L Anderegg, Maurizio Mencuccini, D Scott Mackay, Yujie Wang, David M Love
Stomatal regulation presumably evolved to optimize CO2 for H2 O exchange in response to changing conditions. If the optimization criterion can be readily measured or calculated, then stomatal responses can be efficiently modeled without recourse to empirical models or underlying mechanism. Previous efforts have been challenged by the lack of a transparent index for the cost of losing water. Yet it is accepted that stomata control water loss to avoid excessive loss of hydraulic conductance from cavitation and soil drying...
October 20, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Kohtaro Watanabe, Hirokazu Takahashi, Saori Sato, Shunsaku Nishiuchi, Fumie Omori, Al Imran Malik, Timothy David Colmer, Yoshiro Mano, Mikio Nakazono
A radial oxygen loss (ROL) barrier in roots of waterlogging-tolerant plants promotes oxygen movement via aerenchyma to the root tip, and impedes soil phytotoxin entry. The molecular mechanism and genetic regulation of ROL barrier formation are largely unknown. Zea nicaraguensis, a waterlogging-tolerant wild relative of maize (Z. mays ssp. mays), forms a tight ROL barrier in its roots when waterlogged. We used Z. nicaraguensis chromosome segment introgression lines (ILs) in maize (inbred line Mi29) to elucidate the chromosomal region involved in regulating root ROL barrier formation...
October 20, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Mina Momayyezi, Robert D Guy
In Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood), net photosynthesis (An ) varies with latitude and, in northern genotypes, is supported by higher stomatal conductance (gs ). We report here a parallel cline in mesophyll conductance (gm ) and link this variation to carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity. Using concurrent carbon isotope discrimination and chlorophyll fluorescence methods, we examined the effects of acetazolamide, an inhibitor of CA, on gm in six representative genotypes (three from either end of the north-south cline)...
October 20, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Ulrike Glaubitz, Xia Li, Sandra Schaedel, Alexander Erban, Ronan Sulpice, Joachim Kopka, Dirk K Hincha, Ellen Zuther
Transcript and metabolite profiling were performed on leaves from six rice cultivars under high night temperature (HNT) condition. Six genes were identified as central for HNT response encoding proteins involved in transcription regulation, signal transduction, protein-protein interactions, jasmonate response, and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Sensitive cultivars showed specific changes in transcript abundance including abiotic stress responses, changes of cell wall related genes, of ABA signaling and secondary metabolism...
October 20, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Wieland Fricke
Water transport in plants occurs along various paths and is driven by gradients in its free energy. It is generally considered that the mode of transport, being either diffusion or bulk flow, is a passive process, though energy may be required to sustain the forces driving water flow. This review aims at putting water flow at the various organisational levels (cell, organ, plant) in the context of the energy that is required to maintain these flows. In addition, the question is addressed (i) whether water can be transported against a difference in its chemical free energy, 'water potential' (Ψ), through, directly or indirectly, active processes; and (ii) whether the energy released when water is flowing down a gradient in its energy, for example during day-time transpiration and cell expansive growth, is significant compared to the energy budget of plant and cell...
October 18, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Margarita Torres-Aquino, Adeline Becquer, Christine Le Guernevé, Julien Louche, Laurie K Amenc, Siobhan Staunton, Hervé Quiquampoix, Claude Plassard
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) association can improve plant phosphorus (P) nutrition. Polyphosphates (polyP), synthesized in distant fungal cells after P uptake may contribute to P supply from the fungus to the host plant if they are hydrolyzed to phosphate in ECM roots then transferred to the host plant when required. In this study, we addressed this hypothesis for the ECM fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum grown in vitro and incubated without plant or with host (Pinus pinaster) and non-host (Zea mays) plants, using an experimental system simulating the symbiotic interface...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
José M Torres-Ruiz, Hervé Cochard, Maurizio Mencuccini, Sylvain Delzon, Eric Badel
Xylem embolism is one of the main processes involved in drought-related plant mortality. Although its consequences for plant physiology are already well described, embolism formation and spread are poorly evaluated and modelled, especially for tracheid-based species. The aim of this study was to assess the embolism formation and spread in Pinus sylvestris as a case study using X-ray microtomography and hydraulics methods. We also evaluated the potential effects of cavitation fatigue on vulnerability to embolism and the micro-morphology of the bordered pits using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to test for possible links between xylem anatomy and embolism spread...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Jean-Christophe Domec, Duncan D Smith, Kate McCulloh
Here we summarize studies on the effects of elevated [CO2 ] (CO2(e) ) on the structure and function of plant hydraulic architecture, and explore the implications of those changes using a model. Changes in conduit diameter and hydraulic conductance due to CO2(e) vary among species. Ring-porous species tend toward an increase in conduit size and consequently conductivity. The effect in diffuse-porous species is much more limited. In conifers the results are mixed, some species showing minor changes in xylem structure, while other studies found increases in tracheid density and diameter...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Núria Garcia-Forner
In this review we address the relationship between stomatal behaviour, water potential regulation and hydraulic transport in plants, focusing on the implications for the iso/anisohidric classification of plant drought responses at seasonal timescales. We first revise the history of the isohydry concept and its possible definitions. Then, we use published data to answer two main questions: (1) is greater stomatal control in response to decreasing water availability associated with a tighter regulation of leaf water potential (ΨL ) across species? And (2) is there an association between tighter ΨL regulation (~isohydric behaviour) and lower leaf conductance over time during a drought event? These two questions are addressed at two levels: across species growing in different sites and comparing only species coexisting at a given site...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
M M Barbour, G D Farquhar, T N Buckley
How water moves through leaves, and where the phase change from liquid to vapour occurs within leaves, remain largely mysterious. Some time ago we suggested that the stable isotope composition of leaf water may contain information on transport pathways beyond the xylem, through differences in the development of gradients in enrichment within the various pathways. Subsequent testing of this suggestion provided ambiguous results, and even questioned the existence of gradients in enrichment within the mesophyll...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Michael Groszmann, Hannah L Osborn, John R Evans
Aquaporins are channel proteins that function to increase the permeability of biological membranes. In plants, aquaporins are encoded by multigene families that have undergone substantial diversification in land plants. The Plasma membrane Intrinsic Proteins (PIPs) subfamily of aquaporins are of particular interest given their potential to improve plant water relations and photosynthesis. Flowering plants have between 7 and 28 PIP genes. Their expression varies with tissue and cell type, through development and in response to a variety of factors, contributing to the dynamic and tissue specific control of permeability...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Ilaria Forieri, Carsten Sticht, Michael Reichelt, Norbert Gretz, Malcolm J Hawkesford, Mario Malagoli, Markus Wirtz, Ruediger Hell
Deprivation of mineral nutrients causes significant retardation of plant growth. This retardation is associated with nutrient specific and general stress-induced transcriptional responses. In this study we adjusted the external supply of iron, potassium and sulfur to cause the same retardation of shoot growth. Nevertheless, limitation by individual nutrients resulted in specific morphological adaptations and distinct shifts within the root metabolite fingerprint. The metabolic shifts affected key metabolites of primary metabolism and the stress-related phytohormones, jasmonic-, salicylic- and abscisic acid...
October 10, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Courtney E Campany, Mark G Tjoelker, Susanne von Caemmerer, Remko A Duursma
Light gradients within tree canopies play a major role in the distribution of plant resources that define the photosynthetic capacity of sun and shade leaves. However, the biochemical and diffusional constraints on gas exchange in sun and shade leaves in response to light remain poorly quantified, but critical for predicting canopy carbon and water exchange. To investigate the CO2 diffusion pathway of sun and shade leaves, leaf gas exchange was coupled with concurrent measurements of carbon isotope discrimination to measure net leaf photosynthesis (An ), stomatal conductance (gs ) and mesophyll conductance (gm ) in Eucalyptus tereticornis trees grown in climate controlled whole-tree chambers...
October 10, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Neil C Turner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Sylvia Bolt, Ellen Zuther, Stefanie Zintl, Dirk K Hincha, Thomas Schmülling
Tolerance of and acclimation to low temperatures are important for plant performance. Transcriptional regulation is part of the plant´s response to low temperatures but only a portion of the relevant transcription factors are known. In this work, we report the characterization of a transcription factor, ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR105 (ERF105), which has a particularly relevant function in the cold stress response. Expression analyses revealed that ERF105 is early and transiently upregulated by cold. In electrolyte leakage and plant survival tests, loss-of-function and gain-of-function (overexpressing) plants of ERF105 showed reduced and enhanced freezing tolerance, respectively...
October 10, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Rongbin Hu, Yinfeng Zhu, Jia Wei, Jian Chen, Huazhong Shi, Guoxin Shen, Hong Zhang
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is an enzyme consisting of three subunits: a scaffolding A subunit, a regulatory B subunit, and a catalytic C subunit. PP2As were shown to play diverse roles in eukaryotes. In this study, the function of the Arabidopsis PP2A-C5 gene that encodes the catalytic subunit 5 of PP2A was studied using both loss-of-function and gain-of-function analyses. Loss-of-function mutant pp2a-c5-1 displayed more impaired growth during root and shoot development, whereas overexpression of PP2A-C5 conferred better root and shoot growth under different salt treatments, indicating that PP2A-C5 plays an important role in plant growth under salt conditions...
September 27, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Yoshio Inoue, Martine Guérif, Frédéric Baret, Andrew Skidmore, Anatoly Gitelson, Martin Schlerf, Roshanak Darvishzadeh, Albert Olioso
Canopy chlorophyll content (CCC) is an essential ecophysiological variable for photosynthetic functioning. Remote sensing of CCC is vital for a wide range of ecological and agricultural applications. The objectives of this study were to explore simple and robust algorithms for spectral assessment of CCC. Hyperspectral datasets for six vegetation types (rice, wheat, corn, soybean, sugar beet and natural grass) acquired in four locations (Japan, France, Italy and USA) were analysed. To explore the best predictive model, spectral index approaches using the entire wavebands and multivariable regression approaches were employed...
September 21, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Thomas N Buckley, Lawren Sack, Graham D Farquhar
It was shown over 40 years ago that plants maximize carbon gain for a given rate of water loss if stomatal conductance, gs , varies in response to external and internal conditions such that the marginal carbon revenue of water, ∂A/∂E, remains constant over time. This theory has long held promise for understanding the physiological ecology of water use and for informing models of plant-atmosphere interactions. Full realization of this potential hinges on three questions: (i) Are analytical approximations adequate for applying the theory at diurnal time scales? (ii) At what time scale is it realistic and appropriate to apply the theory? (iii) How should gs vary to maximize growth over long time scales? We review the current state of understanding for each of these questions and describe future research frontiers...
September 19, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
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