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Plant, Cell & Environment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351361/pathways-of-nitric-oxide-metabolism-and-operation-of-phytoglobins-in-legume-nodules-missing-links-and-future-directions
#1
Antoine Berger, Renaud Brouquisse, Pradeep Kumar Pathak, Imène Hichri, Inderjit Singh, Sabhyata Bhatia, Alexandre Boscari, Abir U Igamberdiev, Kapuganti Jagadis Gupta
The interaction between legumes and rhizobia leads to the establishment of a beneficial symbiotic relationship. Recent advances in legume - rhizobium symbiosis revealed that various reactive oxygen and nitrogen species including nitric oxide (NO) play important roles during this process. Nodule development occurs with a transition from a normoxic environment during the establishment of symbiosis to a microoxic environment in functional nodules. Such oxygen dynamics are required for activation and repression of various NO production and scavenging pathways...
January 19, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346835/two-citrate-transporters-coordinately-regulate-citrate-secretion-from-rice-bean-root-tip-under-aluminum-stress
#2
Mei Ya Liu, He Qiang Lou, Wei Wei Chen, Miguel A Piñeros, Jia Meng Xu, Wei Fan, Leon V Kochian, Shao Jian Zheng, Jian Li Yang
Al-induced organic acid secretion from the root apex is an important Al resistance mechanism. However, it remains unclear how plants fine-tune root organic acid secretion which can contribute significantly to the loss of fixed carbon from the plant. Here, we demonstrate that Al-induced citrate secretion from the rice bean root apex is biphasic, consisting of an early phase with low secretion and a later phase of large citrate secretion. We isolated and characterized VuMATE2 as a possible second citrate transporter in rice bean functioning in tandem with VuMATE1, which we previously identified...
January 18, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341173/strigolactones-positively-regulate-chilling-tolerance-in-pea-and-in-arabidopsis
#3
James W Cooper, Yan Hu, Leila Beyyoudh, H Yildiz Dasgan, Karl Kunert, Christine A Beveridge, Christine H Foyer
Strigolactones (SL) fulfil important roles in plant development and stress tolerance. Here we characterised the role of SL in the dark chilling tolerance of pea and Arabidopsis by analysis of mutants that are defective in either SL synthesis or signalling. Pea mutants (rms3, rms4, rms5) had significantly greater shoot branching with higher leaf chlorophyll a/b ratios and carotenoid contents than the wild type. Exposure to dark chilling significantly decreased shoot fresh weights but increased leaf numbers in all lines...
January 17, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341143/loss-of-alkaline-ceramidase-inhibits-autophagy-in-arabidopsis-and-plays-an-important-role-during-environmental-stress-response
#4
Ping Zheng, Jian-Xin Wu, Sunil Kumar Sahu, Hong-Yun Zeng, Li-Qun Huang, Zhe Liu, Shi Xiao, Nan Yao
Sphingolipids, a class of bioactive lipids found in cell membranes, can modulate the biophysical properties of the membranes and play a critical role in signal transduction. Sphingolipids are involved in autophagy in humans and yeast, but their role in autophagy in plants is not well understood. In this study, we reported that the AtACER, an alkaline ceramidase that hydrolyzes ceramide to LCB, functions in autophagy process in Arabidopsis. Our empirical data showed that the loss of AtACER inhibited autophagy, while its overexpression promoted autophagy under nutrient, salinity, and oxidative stresses...
January 17, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336033/h2-o2-mediates-nitrate-induced-iron-chlorosis-by-regulating-iron-homeostasis-in-rice
#5
Haifei Chen, Quan Zhang, Hongmei Cai, Wei Zhou, Fangsen Xu
The uptake of nitrate by plant roots causes a pH increment in rhizosphere and leads to iron (Fe) deficiency in rice. However, little is known about the mechanism how the nitrate uptake-induced high rhizosphere pH causes Fe deficiency. Here, we found that rice showed severe leaf chlorosis and large amounts of Fe plaque were aggregated on the root surface and intercellular space outside the exodermis in a form of ferrihydrite under alkaline conditions. In this case, there was significantly decreased Fe concentration in shoots and the Fe deficiency responsive genes were strongly induced in the roots...
January 16, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336039/pollen-germination-and-in-vivo-fertilization-in-response-to-high-temperature-during-flowering-in-hybrid-and-inbred-rice
#6
Wanju Shi, Xiang Li, Ralf C Schmidt, Paul C Struik, Xinyou Yin, S V Krishna Jagadish
High temperature during flowering in rice causes spikelet sterility and is a major threat to rice productivity in tropical and subtropical regions, where hybrid rice development is increasingly contributing to sustain food security. However, the sensitivity of hybrids to increasing temperature and physiological responses in terms of dynamic fertilization processes are unknown. To address these questions, several promising hybrids and inbreds were exposed to control and high day-time temperature (HDT) in Experiment 1 and hybrids having contrasting heat tolerance were selected for Experiment 2 for further physiological investigation under high day and night temperature treatments...
January 15, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336037/developmental-control-of-hypoxia-during-bud-burst-in-grapevine
#7
Karlia Meitha, Patricia Agudelo-Romero, Santiago Signorelli, Daniel J Gibbs, John A Considine, Christine H Foyer, Michael J Considine
Dormant or quiescent buds of woody perennials are often dense, and in the case of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) have a low tissue oxygen status. The precise timing of the decision to resume growth is difficult to predict, but once committed the increase in tissue oxygen status is rapid and developmentally regulated. Here we show that more than a third of the grapevine homologues of widely conserved hypoxia-responsive genes, and nearly a fifth of all grapevine genes possessing a plant hypoxia-responsive promoter element were differentially regulated during bud burst, in apparent harmony with resumption of meristem identity and cell-cycle gene regulation...
January 15, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333607/arabidopsis-mlo2-is-a-negative-regulator-of-sensitivity-to-extracellular-ros
#8
Fuqiang Cui, Hongpo Wu, Omid Safronov, Panpan Zhang, Rajeev Kumar, Hannes Kollist, Jarkko Salojärvi, Ralph Panstruga, Kirk Overmyer
The atmospheric pollutant ozone (O3 ) is a strong oxidant that causes extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, has significant ecological relevance, and is used here as a non-invasive ROS inducer to study plant signalling. Previous genetic screens identified several mutants exhibiting enhanced O3- sensitivity, but few with enhanced tolerance. We found that loss-of-function mutants in Arabidopsis MLO2, a gene implicated in susceptibility to powdery mildew disease, exhibit enhanced dose-dependent tolerance to O3 and extracellular ROS, but a normal response to intracellular ROS...
January 15, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327360/aboveground-herbivory-induced-jasmonates-disproportionately-reduce-plant-reproductive-potential-by-facilitating-root-nematode-infestation
#9
Ricardo A R Machado, Carla C M Arce, Michael A McClure, Ian T Baldwin, Matthias Erb
Different plant-feeders, including insects and parasitic nematodes, can influence each other by triggering systemic changes in their shared host plants. In most cases however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear, and the consequences for plant fitness are not well understood. We studied the interaction between leaf feeding Manduca sexta caterpillars and root parasitic nematodes in Nicotiana attenuata. Simulated Manduca sexta attack increased the abundance of root parasitic nematodes in the field and facilitated Meloidogyne incognita reproduction in the glasshouse...
January 12, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323411/demographic-quantification-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-dynamics-associated-with-root-turnover-in-white-clover
#10
Gavin D Scott, John A Baddeley, Christine A Watson, David Robinson
As well as capturing resources, roots lose resources during their lives. We quantified carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses associated with root turnover in white clover (Trifolium repens L.). We grew contrasting cultivars for 18 weeks in soil microcosms. Using repeated in situ observations, destructive sampling, and demographic analysis, we measured changes in C and N concentrations in dry matter of 1st - or 2nd -order (terminal) roots to derive C and N fluxes into and out of root cohorts. C and N fluxes from roots during turnover depended on cohort age and order...
January 11, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320607/functional-analysis-of-the-seven-in-absentia-sina-ubiquitin-ligase-family-in-tomato
#11
Wenjie Wang, Youhong Fan, Xiangli Niu, Min Miao, Joanna Kud, Bangjun Zhou, Lirong Zeng, Yongsheng Liu, Fangming Xiao
Seven in absentia (SINA) protein is one subgroup of ubiquitin ligases possessing an N-terminal cysteine-rich Really Interesting New Gene (RING) domain, two zinc-finger motifs and a C-terminal domain responsible for substrate-binding and dimerization. In tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum), the SINA gene family has six members and we characterize in this study all tomato SINA (SlSINA) genes and the gene products. Our results show that SlSINA genes are differentially regulated in leaf, bud, stem, flower and root. All SlSINA proteins possess RING-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, exhibiting similar specificity towards the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme...
January 10, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320605/activation-of-seminal-root-primordia-during-wheat-domestication-reveals-underlying-mechanisms-of-plant-resilience
#12
Guy Golan, Elisha Hendel, Gabriel E Méndez Espitia, Nimrod Schwartz, Zvi Peleg
Seminal roots constitute the initial wheat root system and provide the main route for water absorption during early stages of development. Seminal root number (SRN) varies among species. However, the mechanisms through which SRN is controlled and in turn contribute to environmental adaptation are poorly understood. Here we show that SRN increased upon wheat domestication from three to five due to the activation of two root primordia which are suppressed in wild wheat, a trait controlled by loci expressed in the germinating embryo...
January 10, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315636/leaf-transpiration-plays-a-role-in-phosphorus-acquisition-among-a-large-set-of-chickpea-genotypes
#13
Jiayin Pang, Hongxia Zhao, Ruchi Bansal, Emilien Bohuon, Hans Lambers, Megan H Ryan, Kadambot H M Siddique
Low availability of inorganic phosphorus (P) is considered a major constraint for crop productivity worldwide. A unique set of 266 chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes, originating from 29 countries and with diverse genetic background were used to study P-use efficiency. Plants were grown in pots containing sterilised river sand supplied with P at a rate of 10 μg P g-1 soil as FePO4 , a poorly soluble form of P. The results showed large genotypic variation in plant growth, shoot P content, physiological P-use efficiency and P-utilisation efficiency in response to low-P supply...
January 9, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315644/solar-uv-light-regulates-flavonoid-metabolism-in-apple-malus-x-domestica
#14
Rebecca A Henry-Kirk, Blue Plunkett, Miriam Hall, Tony McGhie, Andrew C Allan, Jason J Wargent, Richard V Espley
Ultraviolet-B light (UV-B) is one environmental signal perceived by plants that affects the flavonoid pathway and influences the levels of anthocyanins, flavonols and proanthocyanidins. To understand the mechanisms underlying UV exposure, apple trees were grown under spectral filters that altered transmission of solar UV light. Fruit analysis showed that UV induced changes in physiology, metabolism and gene expression levels during development over a season. These changes were sustained after storage. Under low UV ripening was delayed, fruit size decreased, and anthocyanin and flavonols were reduced...
January 6, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314066/entrainment-of-arabidopsis-roots-to-the-light-dark-cycle-by-light-piping
#15
Hugh G Nimmo
Correct operation of the plant circadian clock is crucial for optimal growth and development. Recent evidence has shown that the plant clock is tissue-specific and potentially hierarchical, implying that there are signalling mechanisms that can synchronise the clock in different tissues. Here I have addressed the mechanism that allows the shoot and root clocks to be synchronised in light:dark cycles but not in continuous light. Luciferase imaging data from two different Arabidopsis accessions with two different markers show that the period of the root clock is much less sensitive to blue light than to red light...
January 5, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314052/osprr37-confers-an-expanded-regulation-of-the-diurnal-rhythms-of-the-transcriptome-and-photoperiodic-flowering-pathways-in-rice
#16
Chuan Liu, Xuefeng Qu, Yanhao Zhou, Gaoyuan Song, Naghmeh Abiri, Yuhui Xiao, Fan Liang, Daiming Jiang, Zhongli Hu, Daichang Yang
The circadian clock enables organisms to rapidly adapt to the ever-changing environmental conditions that are caused by daily light/dark cycles. Circadian clock genes universally affect key agricultural traits, particularly flowering time. Here, we show that OsPRR37, a circadian clock gene, delays rice flowering time in an expression level-dependent manner. Using high-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq) on an OsPRR37 overexpressing transgenic line (OsPRR37-OE5) and the recipient parent Guangluai4 (GL) that contains the loss-of-function Osprr37, we identify 14,992 genes that display diurnal rhythms, which account for 52...
January 5, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314047/plasticity-of-photosynthetic-heat-tolerance-in-plants-adapted-to-thermally-contrasting-biomes
#17
Lingling Zhu, Keith J Bloomfield, Charles H Hocart, John J G Egerton, Odhran S O'Sullivan, Aurore Penillard, Lasantha K Weerasinghe, Owen K Atkin
In many biomes, plants are subject to heat-waves, potentially causing irreversible damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. Field surveys have documented global, temperature-dependent patterns in photosynthetic heat tolerance (PHT ); however, it remains unclear if these patterns reflect acclimation in PHT or inherent differences among species adapted to contrasting habitats. To address these unknowns, we quantified seasonal variations in Tcrit (high temperature where minimal chlorophyll-a fluorescence rises rapidly, reflecting disruption to photosystem II) in 62 species native to six sites from five thermally-contrasting biomes across Australia...
January 5, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314044/reduced-expression-of-selected-fasciclin-like-arabinogalactan-protein-genes-associates-with-the-abortion-of-kernels-in-field-crops-of-zea-mays-maize-and-of-arabidopsis-seeds
#18
Juan Ignacio Cagnola, Gonzalo Javier Dumont de Chassart, Silvia Elizabeth Ibarra, Claudio Chimenti, Martiniano María Ricardi, Brent Delzer, Hernán Ghiglione, Tong Zhu, María Elena Otegui, José Manuel Estevez, Jorge José Casal
Abortion of fertilised ovaries at the tip of the ear can generate significant yield losses in maize crops. To investigate the mechanisms involved in this process, two maize hybrids were grown in field crops at two sowing densities and under three irrigation regimes (well-watered control, drought before pollination and drought during pollination), in all possible combinations. Samples of ear tips were taken 2-6 days after synchronous hand pollination and used for the analysis of gene expression and sugars. Glucose and fructose levels increased in kernels with high abortion risk...
January 5, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314043/evolution-of-the-biosynthesis-of-two-hydroxyacetophenones-in-plants
#19
Geneviève J Parent, Isabelle Giguère, Melissa Mageroy, Joerg Bohlmann, John J MacKay
Acetophenones are phenolic metabolites of plant species. A metabolic route for the biosynthesis and release of two defense-related hydroxyacetophenones in white spruce (Picea glauca) was recently proposed to involve three phases: (i) biosynthesis of the acetophenone aglycons catalyzed by a currently unknown set of enzymes, (ii) formation and accumulation of the corresponding glycosides catalyzed by a glucosyltransferase, and (iii) release of the aglycons catalyzed by a glucosylhydrolase (PgβGLU-1). We tested if this biosynthetic model is conserved across Pinaceae and land plant species...
January 5, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314084/proteaceae-from-phosphorus-impoverished-habitats-preferentially-allocate-phosphorus-to-photosynthetic-cells-an-adaptation-improving-phosphorus-use-efficiency
#20
Patrick E Hayes, Peta L Clode, Rafael S Oliveira, Hans Lambers
Plants allocate nutrients to specific leaf cell types; eudicots are thought to predominantly allocate phosphorus (P) to epidermal/bundle-sheath cells. However, three Proteaceae species have been shown to preferentially allocate P to mesophyll cells instead. These Proteaceae species are highly adapted to P-impoverished habitats, with exceptionally high photosynthetic P-use efficiencies (PPUE). We hypothesised that preferential allocation of P to photosynthetic mesophyll cells is an important trait in species adapted to extremely P-impoverished habitats, contributing to their high PPUE...
January 4, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
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