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Plant, Cell & Environment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548242/enhanced-root-growth-in-phosphate-starved-arabidopsis-by-stimulating-de-novo-phospholipid-biosynthesis-through-the-overexpression-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-acyltransferase-2-lpat2
#1
Artik Elisa Angkawijaya, Van Cam Nguyen, Yuki Nakamura
Upon phosphate starvation, plants retard shoot growth but promote root development presumably to enhance phosphate assimilation from the ground. Membrane lipid remodeling is a metabolic adaptation that replaces membrane phospholipids by non-phosphorous galactolipids, thereby allowing plants to obtain scarce phosphate yet maintain the membrane structure. However, stoichiometry of this phospholipid-to-galactolipid conversion may not account for the massive demand of membrane lipids that enables active growth of roots under phosphate starvation, thereby suggesting the involvement of de novo phospholipid biosynthesis, which is not represented in the current model...
May 26, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548208/quantification-of-excitation-energy-distribution-between-photosystems-based-on-a-mechanistic-model-of-photosynthetic-electron-transport
#2
Keach Murakami, Ryo Matsuda, Kazuhiro Fujiwara
Absorbed light energy is converted into excitation energy. The excitation energy is distributed to photosystems depending on the wavelength and drives photochemical reactions. A non-destructive, mechanistic, and quantitative method for estimating the fraction of the excitation energy distributed to photosystem II (f) was developed. To estimate the f values for two simultaneously provided actinic lights (ALs) with different spectral distributions, photochemical yields of the photosystems were measured under the ALs and were then fitted to an electron transport model assuming the balance between the electron transport rates through the photosystems...
May 26, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545156/the-boron-transporter-bnac4-bor1-1c-is-critical-for-inflorescence-development-and-fertility-under-boron-limitation-in-brassica-napus
#3
Quan Zhang, Haifei Chen, Mingliang He, Zhuqing Zhao, Hongmei Cai, Guangda Ding, Lei Shi, Fangsen Xu
Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for plants, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the uptake and distribution of B in allotetraploid rapeseed (Brassica napus) are unclear. Here, we identified a B transporter of rapeseed, BnaC4.BOR1;1c, which expressed in shoot nodes and involved in distributing B to the reproductive organs. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants containing a BnaC4.BOR1;1c promoter-driven GUS reporter gene showed strong GUS activity in roots, nodal regions of the shoots and immature floral buds...
May 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543133/defense-syndromes-in-lodgepole-whitebark-pine-ecosystems-relate-to-degree-of-historical-exposure-to-mountain-pine-beetles
#4
Kenneth F Raffa, Charles J Mason, Pieruluigi Bonello, Stephen Cook, Nadir Erbilgin, Ken Keefover-Ring, Jennifer G Klutsch, Caterina Villari, Philip A Townsend
Warming climate is allowing tree-killing bark beetles to expand their ranges and access naïve and semi-naïve conifers. Conifers respond to attack using complex mixtures of chemical defenses that can impede beetle success, but beetles exploit some compounds for host location and communication. Outcomes of changing relationships will depend on concentrations and compositions of multiple host compounds, which are largely unknown. We analyzed constitutive and induced chemistries of Dendroctonus ponderosae's primary historical host, Pinus contorta, and P...
May 24, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543054/mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-and-calcium-dependent-protein-kinases-are-involved-in-wounding-induced-ethylene-biosynthesis-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#5
Sen Li, Xiaofei Han, Liuyi Yang, Xiangxiong Deng, Hongjiao Wu, Mengmeng Zhang, Yidong Liu, Shuqun Zhang, Juan Xu
Ethylene, an important hormone in plant growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli, is rapidly induced by mechanical injury or wounding. Although induction of ACS (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) gene expression has been associated with this process, the detailed regulatory mechanism is unclear. Here, we report that the wounding-induced ethylene production is modulated by both mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) pathway. Study using acs mutants demonstrated that four ACS isoforms, including ACS2, ACS6, ACS7, and ACS8, contribute to ethylene production in response to wounding...
May 24, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503782/quantification-of-root-water-uptake-in-soil-using-x-ray-computed-tomography-and-image-based-modelling
#6
Keith R Daly, Saoirse R Tracy, Neil M J Crout, Stefan Mairhofer, Tony P Pridmore, Sacha J Mooney, Tiina Roose
Spatially averaged models of root-soil interactions are often used to calculate plant water uptake. Using a combination of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) and image based modelling we tested the accuracy of this spatial averaging by directly calculating plant water uptake for young wheat plants in two soil types. The root system was imaged using X-ray CT at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 days after transplanting. The roots were segmented using semi-automated root tracking for speed and reproducibility. The segmented geometries were converted to a mesh suitable for the numerical solution of Richards' equation...
May 14, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477442/arabidopsis-ketoacyl-coa-synthase-16-forms-c36-c38-acyl-precursors-for-leaf-trichome-and-pavement-surface-wax
#7
Daniela Hegebarth, Christopher Buschhaus, Jérôme Joubès, Didier Thoraval, David Bird, Reinhard Jetter
The aliphatic waxes sealing plant surfaces against environmental stress are generated by fatty acid elongase complexes, each containing a β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) enzyme that catalyzes a crucial condensation forming a new C-C bond to extend the carbon backbone. The relatively high abundance of C35 and C37 alkanes derived from C36 and C38 acyl-CoAs in Arabidopsis leaf trichomes (relative to other epidermis cells) suggests differences in the elongation machineries of different epidermis cell types, possibly involving KCS16, a condensing enzyme expressed preferentially in trichomes (Marks et al...
May 6, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474399/l-cysteine-desulfhydrase-related-h2-s-production-is-involved-in-osse5-promoted-ammonium-tolerance-in-roots-of-oryza-sativa
#8
Hongming Guo, Heng Zhou, Jing Zhang, Wenxue Guan, Sheng Xu, Wenbiao Shen, Guohua Xu, Yanjie Xie, Christine Helen Foyer
Previous studies revealed that rice heme oxygenase PHOTOPERIOD SENSITIVITY 5 (OsSE5) is involved in the regulation of tolerance to excess ammonium by enhancing antioxidant defence. In this study, the relationship between OsSE5 and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), a well-known signalling molecule was investigated. Results showed that NH4 Cl triggered the induction of L -cysteine desulfhydrase (L -DES)-related H2 S production in rice seedling roots. A H2 S donor, not only alleviated the excess ammonium-triggered inhibition of root growth, but also reduced endogenous ammonium, both of which were aggravated by the hypotaurine (HT, a H2 S scavenger) or DL -propargylglycine (PAG, a L -DES inhibitor)...
May 5, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452058/barley-transcriptome-analyses-upon-interaction-with-different-aphid-species-identifies-thionins-contributing-to-resistance
#9
Carmen Escudero, J A Morris, P E Hedley, J I B Bos
Aphids are phloem-feeding insects that cause yield loss on a wide range of crops, including cereals such as barley. While most aphid species are limited to one or few host species, some are able to reproduce on many plants belonging to different families. Interestingly, aphid probing-behaviour can be observed on both host and non-host species indicating that interactions take place at the molecular level that may impact host range. Here, we aimed to gain insight into the interaction of barley with aphid species differing in their ability to infest this crop by analysing transcriptional responses...
April 27, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447364/the-ja-and-aba-signaling-pathways-crosstalk-during-one-but-not-repeated-dehydration-stresses-a-non-specific-panicky-or-a-meaningful-response
#10
Zoya Avramova
Experiencing diverse and recurring biotic and abiotic stresses throughout life, plants have evolved mechanisms to respond, survive and, eventually, adapt to changing habitats. The initial response to drought involves a large number of genes that are involved also in response to other stresses. According to current models, this initial response is non-specific, becoming stress-specific only at later time points. The question, then, is whether non-specific activation of various stress-signaling systems leading to the expression of numerous stresses-regulated genes is a false-alarm ('panicky') response or whether it has biologically relevant consequences for the plant...
April 26, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444690/strobilurins-as-growth-promoting-compounds-how-stroby-regulates-arabidopsis-leaf-growth
#11
Judith Van Dingenen, Chrystalla Antoniou, Panagiota Filippou, Jacob Pollier, Nathalie Gonzalez, Stijn Dhondt, Alain Goossens, Vasileios Fotopoulos, Dirk Inzé
Strobilurins are an important class of agrochemical fungicides used throughout the world on a wide variety of crops as protection against fungal pathogens. In addition to this protective role, they are reported to also positively influence plant physiology. In this study, we analyzed the effect of Stroby® WG, a commercially available fungicide consisting of 50% (w/w) kresoxim-methyl (KM) as active strobilurin compound, on Arabidopsis leaf growth. Treatment of seedlings with Stroby resulted in larger leaves due to an increase in cell number...
April 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440563/the-sumo-e3-ligase-mdsiz1-promotes-anthocyanin-accumulation-by-sumoylating-mdmyb1-under-low-temperature-conditions-in-apple
#12
Li-Jie Zhou, Yuan-Yuan Li, Rui-Fen Zhang, Chun-Ling Zhang, Xing-Bin Xie, Cheng Zhao, Yu-Jin Hao
MdMYB1 acts as a crucial component of the MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) complex to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-skinned apples (Malus domestica), but little is known about its posttranslational regulation. Here, a SUMO E3 ligase MdSIZ1 was screened out as an MdMYB1-interacting protein with a yeast two-hybridization approach. The interaction between MdSIZ1 and MdMYB1 was further verified with pull-down and CoIP assays. Furthermore, it was found that MdSIZ1 directly sumoylated MdMYB1 proteins in vivo and in vitro, especially under moderately low temperature (17 °C) conditions, and that this sumoylation was required for MdMYB1 protein stability...
April 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437590/plant-dual-specificity-tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated-kinase-optimizes-light-regulated-growth-and-development-in-arabidopsis
#13
Wen-Yu Huang, Yi-Chen Wu, Hsin-Yi Pu, Ying Wang, Geng-Jen Jang, Shu-Hsing Wu
Light controls vegetative and reproductive development of plants. For a plant, sensing the light input properly ensures coordination with the ever-changing environment. Previously, we found that LIGHT-REGULATED WD1 (LWD1) and LWD2 regulate the circadian clock and photoperiodic flowering. Here we identified Arabidopsis YET ANOTHER KINASE1 (AtYAK1), an evolutionarily conserved protein and a member of dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinases (DYRKs), as an interacting protein of LWDs. Our study revealed that AtYAK1 is an important regulator for various light responses, including the circadian clock, photomorphogenesis and reproductive development...
April 24, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436093/genome-wide-association-studies-to-identify-rice-salt-tolerance-markers
#14
Juan Patishtan, Tom N Hartley, Raquel Fonseca de Carvalho, Frans Jm Maathuis
Salinity is an ever increasing menace that affects agriculture world-wide. Crops such as rice are salt sensitive but its degree of susceptibility varies widely between cultivars pointing to extensive genetic diversity which can be exploited to identify genes and proteins that are relevant in the response of rice to salt stress. We used a diversity panel of 306 rice accessions and collected phenotypic data after short (6 h), medium (7d) and long (30d) salinity treatment (50 mM NaCl). A genome wide association study (GWAS) was subsequently performed which identified around 1200 candidate genes from many functional categories but this was treatment period dependent...
April 23, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436078/oxygen-isotope-fractionations-across-individual-leaf-carbohydrates-in-grass-and-tree-species
#15
Marco M Lehmann, Bruno Gamarra, Ansgar Kahmen, Rolf T W Siegwolf, Matthias Saurer
Almost no δ(18) O data are available for leaf carbohydrates, leaving a gap in the understanding of the δ(18) O relationship between leaf water and cellulose. We measured δ(18) O values of bulk leaf water (δ(18) OLW ) and individual leaf carbohydrates (e.g. fructose, glucose, sucrose) in grass and tree species, and δ(18) O of leaf cellulose in grasses. The grasses were grown under two relative humidity (rH) conditions. Sucrose was generally (18) O-enriched compared to hexoses across all species with an apparent biosynthetic fractionation factor (εbio ) of more than 27‰ relative to δ(18) OLW , which might be explained by isotopic leaf water and sucrose synthesis gradients...
April 23, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436049/elevated-carbon-dioxide-reduces-emission-of-herbivore-induced-volatiles-in-zea-mays
#16
Anna Block, Martha M Vaughan, Shawn A Christensen, Hans T Alborn, James H Tumlinson
Terpene volatiles produced by sweet corn (Zea mays) upon infestation with pests such as beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) function as part of an indirect defense mechanism by attracting parasitoid wasps; yet little is known about the impact of climate change on this form of plant defense. To investigate how a central component of climate change affects indirect defense, we measured herbivore induced volatile emissions in plants grown under elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ). We found that S. exigua infested or elicitor treated Z...
April 23, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433003/the-plastid-outer-membrane-localized-lptd1-is-important-for-glycerolipid-remodeling-under-phosphate-starvation
#17
Yi-Ching Hsueh, Christian Ehmann, Nadine Flinner, Roman Ladig, Enrico Schleiff
Glycerolipid synthesis in plants is coordinated between plastids and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A central step within the glycerolipid synthesis is the transport of phosphatidic acid from ER to chloroplasts. The chloroplast outer envelope protein TGD4 belongs to the LptD family conserved in bacteria and plants and selectively binds and may transports phosphatidic acid. We describe a second LptD-family protein in A. thaliana (atLPTD1; At2g44640) characterized by a barrel domain with an amino acid signature typical for cyanobacterial LptDs...
April 22, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432768/the-fate-of-recently-fixed-carbon-after-drought-release-towards-unravelling-c-storage-regulation-in-tilia-platyphyllos-and-pinus-sylvestris
#18
Lucía Galiano Pérez, Galina Timofeeva, Matthias Saurer, Rolf Siegwolf, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Robert Hommel, Arthur Gessler
Carbon reserves are important for maintaining tree function during and after stress. Increasing tree mortality driven by drought globally has renewed the interest in how plants regulate allocation of recently fixed C to reserve formation. Three year-old seedlings of two species (Tilia platyphyllos, Pinus sylvestris) were exposed to two intensities of experimental drought during ~ 10 weeks and (13) C pulse labelling was subsequently applied with rewetting. Tracking the (13) C-label across different organs and C compounds (soluble sugars, starch, myo-inositol, lipids and cellulose), together with the monitoring of gas exchange and C mass balances over time, allowed for the identification of variations in C allocation priorities and tree C balances that are associated to drought effects and subsequent drought release...
April 22, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426157/effects-of-ambient-temperature-in-association-with-photoperiod-on-phenology-and-on-the-expressions-of-major-plant-developmental-genes-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#19
Tibor Kiss, Laura E Dixon, Alexandra Soltész, Judit Bányai, Marianna Mayer, Krisztina Balla, Vincent Allard, Gábor Galiba, Gustavo A Slafer, Simon Griffiths, Ottó Veisz, Ildikó Karsai
In addition to its role in vernalization, temperature is an important environmental stimulus in determining plant growth and development. We used factorial combinations of two photoperiods (16H, 12H) and three temperature levels (11, 18 and 25 °C) to study the temperature responses of 19 wheat cultivars with established genetic relationships. Temperature produced more significant effects on plant development than photoperiod, with strong genotypic components. Wheat genotypes with PPD-D1 photoperiod sensitive allele were sensitive to temperature; their development was delayed by higher temperature, which intensified under non-inductive conditions...
April 20, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426140/stomatal-kinetics-and-photosynthetic-gas-exchange-along-a-continuum-of-iso-to-anisohydric-regulation-of-plant-water-status
#20
Frederick C Meinzer, Duncan D Smith, David R Woodruff, Danielle E Marias, Katherine A McCulloh, Ava R Howard, Alicia L Magedman
Species' differences in the stringency of stomatal control of plant water potential represent a continuum of iso- to anisohydric behavior. However, little is known about how quasi-steady state stomatal regulation of water potential may relate to dynamic behavior of stomata and photosynthetic gas exchange in species operating at different positions along this continuum. Here we evaluated kinetics of light-induced stomatal opening, activation of photosynthesis and features of quasi-steady state photosynthetic gas exchange in ten woody species selected to represent different degrees of anisohydry...
April 20, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
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