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Plant, Cell & Environment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743156/components-of-mesophyll-resistance-and-their-environmental-responses-a-theoretical-modeling-analysis
#1
Yi Xiao, Xin-Guang Zhu
Mesophyll resistance (rm ), together with stomatal resistance and biochemical limitations, are recognized as three critical factors limiting leaf photosynthesis. Contrary to the expectation of being a constant, rm not only varies with light and CO2 conditions but also shows different responses among species. To elucidate the mechanistic basis of these responses, we derived an analytical model of rm , which incorporates various anatomical and biochemical factors including permeabilities of cell wall and chloroplast envelope to CO2 and HCO3(-) , carbonic anhydrase activities in cytosol and stroma, Rubisco activities, and relative location of mitochondria and chloroplast...
July 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742940/functional-analysis-of-the-pepper-protein-phosphatase-caaipp1-and-its-interacting-partner-caairf1-modulation-of-aba-signaling-and-the-drought-stress-response
#2
Woonhee Baek, Chae Woo Lim, Sung Chul Lee
Plant adaptive responses to abiotic stress are coordinated by restriction of plant growth and development. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is the key regulator of the response to abiotic stress, and its sensitivity determines abiotic stress tolerance levels. We previously showed that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CaAIRF1 functions as a positive regulator of ABA and drought stress via modulation of transcription and stability of the type 2C protein phosphatase CaADIP1. Here, we report the identification and functional analysis of a novel type 2C phosphatase, CaAIPP1 (Capsicum annuum CaAIRF1 Interacting Protein Phosphatase 1)...
July 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741719/involvement-of-arabidopsis-glutaredoxin-s14-in-the-maintenance-of-chlorophyll-content
#3
Pascal Rey, Noëlle Becuwe, Sébastien Tourrette, Nicolas Rouhier
Plant class-II glutaredoxins (GRXs) are oxidoreductases carrying a CGFS active site signature and are able to bind iron-sulfur clusters in vitro. In order to explore the physiological functions of the two plastidial class-II isoforms, GRXS14 and GRXS16, we generated knockdown and overexpression Arabidopsis thaliana lines and characterized their phenotypes using physiological and biochemical approaches. Plants deficient in one GRX did not display any growth defect, whereas the growth of plants lacking both was slowed...
July 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741704/methylation-of-protein-phosphatase-2a-influence-of-regulators-and-environmental-stress-factors
#4
Maria T Creighton, Anna Kolton, Amr R A Kataya, Jodi Maple-Grødem, Irina O Averkina, Behzad Heidari, Cathrine Lillo
Protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2A-C) has a terminal leucine subjected to methylation, a regulatory mechanism conserved from yeast to mammals and plants. Two enzymes, LCMT1 and PME1, methylate and demethylate PP2A-C, respectively. The physiological importance of these posttranslational modifications is still enigmatic. We investigated these processes in Arabidopsis thaliana by mutant phenotyping, global expression analysis, and by monitoring methylation status of PP2A-C under different environmental conditions...
July 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741696/age-dependent-regulation-of-erf-vii-transcription-factor-activity-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#5
Beatrice Giuntoli, Vinay Shukla, Federica Maggiorelli, Federico M Giorgi, Lara Lombardi, Pierdomenico Perata, Francesco Licausi
The group VII Ethylene Responsive Factors (ERF-VII) RAP2.2 and RAP2.12 have been mainly characterized with regards to their contribution as activators of fermentation in plants. However, transcriptional changes measured in conditions that stabilise these transcription factors exceed the mere activation of this biochemical pathway, implying additional roles performed by the ERF-VIIs in other processes. We evaluated gene expression in transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing a stabilised form of RAP2.12, or hampered in ERF-VII activity, and identified genes affected by this transcriptional regulator and its homologs, including some involved in oxidative stress response, which are not universally induced under anaerobic conditions...
July 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741669/connecting-salt-stress-signalling-pathways-with-salinity-induced-changes-in-mitochondrial-metabolic-processes-in-c3-plants
#6
REVIEW
M Hafiz Che-Othman, A Harvey Millar, Nicolas L Taylor
Salinity exerts a severe detrimental effect on crop yields globally. Growth of plants in saline soils results in physiological stress, which disrupts the essential biochemical processes of respiration, photosynthesis and transpiration. Understanding the molecular responses of plants exposed to salinity stress can inform future strategies to reduce agricultural losses due to salinity however it is imperative that signalling and functional response processes are connected to tailor these strategies. Previous research has revealed the important role that plant mitochondria play in the salinity response of plants...
July 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732146/medicago-truncatula-zinc-iron-permease6-provides-zinc-to-rhizobia-infected-nodule-cells
#7
Isidro Abreu, Ángela Saéz, Rosario Castro-Rodríguez, Viviana Escudero, Benjamín Rodríguez-Haas, Marta Senovilla, Camille Larue, Daniel Grolimund, Manuel Tejada-Jiménez, Juan Imperial, Manuel González-Guerrero
Zinc is a micronutrient required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. It has been proposed that in model legume Medicago truncatula, zinc is delivered by the root vasculature into the nodule and released in the infection/differentiation zone. There, transporters must introduce this element into rhizobia-infected cells to metallate the apoproteins that use zinc as a cofactor. MtZIP6 (Medtr4g083570) is a M. truncatula Zinc-Iron Permease (ZIP) that is expressed only in roots and nodules, with the highest expression levels in the infection/differentiation zone...
July 21, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732105/shining-a-light-on-the-arabidopsis-circadian-clock
#8
REVIEW
Rachael J Oakenfull, Seth J Davis
The circadian clock provides essential timing information to ensure optimal growth to prevailing external environmental conditions. A major time-setting mechanism (zeitgeber) in clock synchronisation is light. Differing light wavelengths, intensities and photoperiodic duration are processed for the clock-setting mechanism. Many studies on light-input pathways to the clock have focused on Arabidopsis thaliana. Photoreceptors are specific chromic proteins that detect light signals and transmit this information to the central circadian oscillator through a number of different signalling mechanisms...
July 21, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722222/catalase2-functions-for-seedling-post-germinative-growth-by-scavenging-h2-o2-and-stimulating-acx2-3-activity-in-arabidopsis
#9
Wen-Cheng Liu, Tong-Tong Han, Hong-Mei Yuan, Zhen-Dong Yu, Lin-Yu Zhang, Bing-Lei Zhang, Shuang Zhai, Si-Qiu Zheng, Ying-Tang Lu
Increased fatty acid β-oxidation is essential for early post-germinative growth in seedlings, but high levels of H2 O2 produced by β-oxidation can induce oxidative stress. Whether and how catalase (CAT) functions in fine-tuning H2 O2 homeostasis during seedling growth remain unclear. Here, we report that CAT2 functions in early seedling growth. Compared to the wild type, the cat2-1 mutant, with elevated H2 O2 levels, exhibited reduced root elongation on sucrose (Suc)-free medium, mimicking soils without exogenous sugar supply...
July 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722115/transcriptional-profiling-of-mechanically-and-genetically-sink-limited-soybeans
#10
Anne V Brown, Karen A Hudson
The absence of a reproductive sink causes physiological and morphological changes in soybean plants. These include increased accumulation of nitrogen and starch in the leaves and delayed leaf senescence. To identify transcriptional changes that occur in leaves of these sink-limited plants, we used RNAseq to compare gene expression levels in trifoliate leaves from depodded and ms6 male sterile soybean plants and control plants. In both sink-limited tissues, we observed a deferral of the expression of senescence-associated genes and a continued expression of genes associated with leaf maturity...
July 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722114/uv-b-irradiation-differentially-regulates-terpene-synthases-and-terpene-content-of-peach
#11
Hongru Liu, Xiangmei Cao, Xiaohong Liu, Rui Xin, Jiaojiao Wang, Jie Gao, Boping Wu, Liuxiao Gao, Changjie Xu, Bo Zhang, Donald Grierson, Kunsong Chen
Plants generate protective molecules in response to UV light. In laboratory experiments, 48 h UV-B irradiation of peach fruit and leaves reduced the flavor-related monoterpene linalool by 60 %. No isoprene was detected but other terpenoids increased significantly, including a 3-fold accumulation of the sesquiterpene (E,E)-α-farnesene, which was also increased by jasmonic acid treatment. RNA-sequencing revealed altered transcript levels for two terpene synthases: PpTPS1, a TPS-g subfamily member, decreased by 86 % and PpTPS2, a TPS-b subfamily member, increased 80-fold...
July 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722113/specialised-stomatal-humidity-responses-underpin-ecological-diversity-in-c3-bromeliads
#12
Jamie Males, Howard Griffiths
The Neotropical Bromeliaceae display an extraordinary level of ecological variety, with species differing widely in habit, photosynthetic pathway, and growth form. Divergences in stomatal structure and function, hitherto understudied in treatments of bromeliad evolutionary physiology, could have been critical to the generation of variety in ecophysiological strategies among the bromeliads. Since humidity is a key factor in bromeliad niches, we focussed on stomatal responses to vapour pressure deficit (VPD)...
July 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718885/virulence-determines-beneficial-trade-offs-in-the-response-of-virus-infected-plants-to-drought-via-induction-of-salicylic-acid
#13
Emmanuel Aguilar, Carmen Cutrona, Francisco J Del Toro, José G Vallarino, Sonia Osorio, María Luisa Pérez-Bueno, Matilde Barón, Bong-Nam Chung, Tomás Canto, Francisco Tenllado
It has been hypothesized that plants can get beneficial trade-offs from viral infections when grown under drought conditions. However, experimental support for a positive correlation between virus-induced drought tolerance and increased host fitness is scarce. We investigated whether increased virulence exhibited by the synergistic interaction involving Potato virus X (PVX) and Plum pox virus (PPV) improves tolerance to drought and host fitness in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana. Infection by the pair PPV/PVX and by PPV expressing the virulence protein P25 of PVX conferred an enhanced drought-tolerant phenotype compared to single infections with either PPV or PVX...
July 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710812/temperature-heterogeneity-over-leaf-surfaces-the-contribution-of-the-lamina-microtopography
#14
Marc Saudreau, Amélie Ezanic, Boris Adam, Robin Caillon, Pascal Walser, Sylvain Pincebourde
Temperature is spatially heterogeneous over leaf surfaces, yet the underlying mechanisms are not fully resolved. We hypothesized that the 3D leaf microtopography determines locally the amount of incoming irradiation flux at leaf surface, thereby driving the temperature gradient over the leaf surface. This hypothesis was tested by developing a model of leaf temperature heterogeneity that includes the development of the leaf boundary layer, the microtopography of the leaf surface and the physiological response of the leaf...
July 14, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710809/the-uvb-photoreceptor-uvr8-mediates-accumulation-of-uv-absorbing-pigments-but-not-changes-in-plant-morphology-under-outdoor-conditions
#15
A Coffey, Els Prinsen, M A K Jansen, James Conway
UVB radiation is biologically active; in plants, it can induce a range of molecular, biochemical, morphological and developmental responses. Although much progress has been made in elucidating UVB perception and signalling pathways under controlled laboratory conditions, understanding of the adaptive, ecological role of UVB responses is still very limited. In this study, we looked at the functional role of UVR8 under outdoor light conditions, by studying growth, photosynthetic competence and accumulation of UV absorbing pigments in a mutant lacking functional UVR8 protein...
July 14, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710795/phospholipase-d-%C3%AE-negatively-regulates-plant-thermotolerance-by-destabilizing-cortical-microtubules-in-arabidopsis
#16
Qun Zhang, Ping Song, Yana Qu, Peipei Wang, Qianru Jia, Liang Guo, Chuanpeng Zhang, Tonglin Mao, Ming Yuan, Xuemin Wang, Wenhua Zhang
The pattern of cortical microtubule arrays plays an important role in plant growth and adaptation in response to hormonal and environmental changes. Cortical microtubules are connected with the plasma membrane (PM); however, how the membrane affects cortical microtubule organization is not well understood. Here, we showed that phospholipase Dδ (PLDδ) was associated with the PM and co-localized with microtubules in cells. In vitro analysis revealed that PLDδ bound to microtubules, resulting in microtubule disorganization...
July 14, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708934/botrytis-cinerea-b05-10-promotes-disease-development-in-arabidopsis-by-suppressing-wrky33-mediated-host-immunity
#17
Shouan Liu, Jörg Ziegler, Jürgen Zeier, Rainer P Birkenbihl, Imre E Somssich
The large WRKY transcription factor family is mainly involved in regulating plant immune responses. Arabidopsis WRKY33 is a key transcriptional regulator of hormonal and metabolic processes toward B. cinerea strain 2100 infection, and is essential for resistance. In contrast to B. cinerea strain 2100, the strain B05.10 is virulent on WT Col-0 Arabidopsis plants highlighting the genetic diversity within this pathogen species. We analyzed how early WRKY33-dependent responses are affected upon infection with strain B05...
July 14, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708264/redox-regulation-at-the-site-of-primary-growth-auxin-cytokinin-and-ros-crosstalk
#18
REVIEW
Vanesa B Tognetti, Agnieszka Bielach, Mónika Hrtyan
To maintain the activity of meristems is an absolute requirement for plant growth and development, and the role of the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin in apical meristem function is well established. Only little attention has been given, however, to the function of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) gradient along meristematic tissues and its interplay with hormonal regulatory networks. The interdependency between auxin-, cytokinin-, and ROS-related circuits controls primary growth and development while modulating plant morphology in response to detrimental environmental factors...
July 14, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707409/chilling-responsive-demeter-like-dna-demethylase-mediates-in-poplar-bud-break
#19
Daniel Conde, Anne-Laure Le Gac, Mariano Perales, Christopher Dervinis, Matias Kirst, Stéphane Maury, Pablo González-Melendi, Isabel Allona
Annual dormancy-growth cycle is a developmental and physiological process essential for the survival of deciduous trees in temperate and boreal forests. Seasonal control of shoot growth in woody perennials requires specific genetic programs responding to environmental signals. The environmental-controlled mechanisms that regulate the shift between winter dormancy and the growth promoting genetic programs are still unknown. Here, we show that dynamics in genomic DNA (gDNA) methylation levels are involved in the regulation of dormancy-growth cycle in poplar...
July 13, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707352/hydraulic-redistribution-limitations-for-plants-in-saline-soils
#20
Nadia Bazihizina, Erik J Veneklaas, Edward G Barrett-Lennard, Timothy D Colmer
Hydraulic redistribution (HR), the movement of water from wet to dry patches in the soil via roots, occurs in different ecosystems and plant species. By extension of the principle that HR is driven by gradients in soil water potential, HR has been proposed to occur for plants in saline soils. Despite the inherent spatial patchiness and salinity gradients in these soils, the lack of direct evidence of HR in response to osmotic gradients prompted us to ask the question: are there physical or physiological constraints to HR for plants in saline environments? We propose that build-up of ions in the root xylem sap and in the leaf apoplast, with the latter resulting in a large predawn disequilibrium of water potential in shoots compared with roots and soil, would both impede HR...
July 13, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
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