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Journal of Medical Biography

A J Larner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
I D Conacher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Theodore N Pappas, Sven Swanson
Harry Hopkins was the most important nontitled allied leader in World War II. He was the advisor to President Roosevelt who managed the diplomacy between Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin from 1941 to 1946. Throughout these times, Hopkins was ill and required transfusions, admissions to the hospital, and nutritional supplementation to keep him well enough to travel the world and manage the allied war diplomacy. There has been no unifying theory to account for all his symptoms and his reported pathologic and autopsy findings...
February 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Michael MacCallan
Arthur Ferguson MacCallan was an ophthalmic surgeon who undertook his pioneering work in Egypt between 1903 and 1923. He established the Egyptian ophthalmic infrastructure which, on his departure, consisted of 23 operational hospital units, treating 134,000 new patients, having trained some 100 ophthalmic surgeons. He also established the Memorial Ophthalmic Laboratory at Giza which is still operational today. MacCallan became a world authority on trachoma. He pioneered the 'MacCallan Classification' which was the first grading system to standardise the stages of trachoma...
February 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Martyn Thomas
Thomas James Walker was a surgeon and general practitioner who worked in the city of Peterborough at a time when there were changes and innovations in the practice of medicine. After training in medicine and surgery at Edinburgh University, he qualified in London in 1857. He was a pioneer of laryngoscopy. He played an important role in introducing antiseptic surgery to the Peterborough Infirmary and was instrumental in the development of the operating theatre which opened in 1894. He was a philanthropist and collector of Roman and Saxon artefacts...
February 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Inge F Hendriks, James G Bovill, Peter A van Luijt, Pancras Cw Hogendoorn
Nikolay Pirogov qualified as a physician from Moscow University in 1828 and then studied surgery and anatomy at University of Dorpat. He developed new surgical techniques, including the eponymous osteoplastic foot amputation. His application of scientifically based techniques extended surgery from a craft to a science. During the Crimean War he initiated the deployment of women as nurses and used triage for dealing with mass casualties. His textbook on field surgery became the standard reference on the subject and his principles remained virtually unchanged until the Second World War...
February 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Heather Burton Raff
Julian Lewis was a gifted medical researcher and writer. His early background was the Classics; then Physics and Math; finally, Molecular Cell Biology. He worked on important questions in early embryonic patterning and the cell communication system, and so cancer research, at King's College London, the Imperial Cancer Research Fund Oxford, and finally, Cancer Research UK London. He was a lifelong coauthor of the international textbook Molecular Biology of the Cell. His final personal battle with cancer was brave and not hidden...
February 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Christopher C Miller, Georg A Petroianu
German gynecologist Alphons Mermann (1852-1908) is best known for establishing the Luisenheim Woechnerinnenasyl (lying-in asylum) at the end of the 19th century in Mannheim. The Luisenheim, owing its name to HRH the Grand Duchess Luise of Baden (1838-1923), was a significant step forward in the provision of a safe delivery environment for mothers of modest means. During his life, Mermann used his position as the Luisenheim's director to promote both the training of midwives and a strict maintenance of asepsis in the hospital...
February 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Peter Heywood
Moses Wharton Young, MD, PhD (1904-1986), was an African American Professor of Neuroanatomy at Howard University College of Medicine from 1934 to 1973, during which time he authored about 100 publications on topics that included baldness, asthma, glaucoma, and, most importantly, the structure and function of the inner ear and the pathophysiology of blast injuries. Much of Young's research was ignored during his lifetime, raising the question whether this professional neglect was an instance of "academic racism...
February 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Peter Selley
Farmer's son William Cooke completed his medical training at Barts before embarking on a 60-year career as a general practitioner in and around London. In 1819, he was a co-founder, and for 20 years secretary, of the Hunterian Society which continues to provide education to its members. He was the author of several books where his views on the importance of post-mortem examinations and the interrelationships of body and mind in disease were discussed. He was a prominent non-conformist and became a deacon in the Congregational Church...
February 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
H R Guly
Archibald McLean qualified in Sydney in 1910 and in the following year joined Douglas Mawson's Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911-1914). He took a full part in the expedition and was forced to stay an extra year when Mawson failed to return to the base before the ship left. During this time he edited the expedition newspaper, The Adelie Blizzard. His writing impressed Mawson who invited him to work on the book about the expedition. This necessitated visiting England to liaise with publishers and promote the book...
February 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Mackson Strayer
The time period from 1840 to 1950 was one of rapid, dramatic change in the experience of suffering from and receiving treatment for obsessional disorder in the United States. Several patient case histories are discussed in detail, including those of a theology professor's acquaintance (1844), a wealthy gentleman (1880), a hosiery shop proprietor (1938), and a former college student (1949). Although the focus here is on the patients' experience, many broader aspects of the history of obsessional disorder are also explored...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Gilbert Shama
Hans Emmanuel Enoch (1896-1991) was born in Hamburg, the son of a manufacturer of sera and vaccines. Upon his father's death, he took charge of the Hamburg Serum Werke. Following the rise of Hitler, he came to be pilloried in the Nazi press for allegedly having poisoned the population of Hamburg and was imprisoned for a time. He immigrated to England in 1935 where he had secured a position with the International Serum Company in Norwich. Following the outbreak of war, he was interned as an enemy alien, eventually ending up in Canada...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Samuel R Donnenfeld
The nineteenth century Mormon Prophet, Brigham Young, has long been lauded as progressive for sending dozens of Mormon women from the Utah territory to receive a formal medical education at The Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania. This manuscript comes to a contrary conclusion through close reading of diaries and journals created by these same women and the public speeches of the Prophet himself. These texts have historically been held up as evidence of Prophet Young's encouragement of women as physicians...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Douglas Smith
The War of 1812-1814 between the United States of America and Great Britain gave rise to several journals relating the sufferings of prisoners of war confined in prison ships and gaols in England. One of these is A journal of a young man of Massachusetts, said to have been written by Dr Amos G Babcock, an American ship's surgeon, and first published in 1816. This article sets out arguments for and against the truth of this assertion.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
John Morgan-Guy
This paper provides a biographical outline of the career of Thomas Secker, MD, who from 1758-68 was Archbishop of Canterbury. Although much has been written on Secker, this study seeks to highlight his training in medicine, which has been largely overlooked hitherto by historians.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
José Berciano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Marie-France Weiner, John Russell Silver
Recently discovered primary sources in the form of letters, memoranda and private communications between George Riddoch and Ludwig Guttmann provide much information on the setting up of spinal units in the United Kingdom during the Second World War. The two men developed a close relationship and in Guttmann, Riddoch found a man who had the knowledge, the ability and the energy to implement this shared vision.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Todd M Olszewski
In 1910, James Bryan Herrick published the first clinical and laboratory description of sickle cell anemia. Two years later, he published a case report on coronary thrombosis. Together, these case reports solidified his reputation as one of the premier diagnosticians of his generation. Now regarded as a central figure in the history of American medicine, Herrick played an integral role in the clinical adoption of the electrocardiograph and the professionalization of cardiology in the United States. Although a full decade passed before the medical profession recognized his clinical description of coronary thrombosis and myocardial infarction, it has had profound implications for cardiovascular medicine and prevention over the past hundred years...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Daryl Ramai, Karl Zakhia, Denzil Etienne, Madhavi Reddy
The widespread use of endoscopy in today's clinical arena underscores its utility and growing significance within the field of medicine. Primitive forms of endoscopy have existed for hundreds of years, but it was not until the early 19th century that Dr Philipp Bozzini invented an endoscope that would form the basis of modern endoscopy. Born into an influential Italian family, Bozzini practiced medicine in a time and place of conflict and political unrest. His passion, ingenuity, and important social connections allowed him to create and introduce to the medical profession the Lichtleiter (light-conductor), which overcame two key issues plaguing endoscopy: inadequate lighting and poor penetration...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
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