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Journal of Medical Biography

Henry Connor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Ka-Wai Fan
This article is about a Japanese parasitologist, Yoshitaka Komiya (1900-1976), who was invited to China for a schistosomiasis investigation in 1956. In 1955, Chairman Mao initiated a national campaign to eliminate schistosomiasis, which at that time was still common in southern China, and for this purpose, the People's Republic of China invited Yoshitaka Komiya to China. He published a report based on his observations during this visit. This article aims to explore the meaning of Komiya's visit to the People's Republic of China and his observations about the anti-schistosomiasis campaign...
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Kleonikos A Tsakiris
Saint Ioannis Lampadistis is a Cypriot saint of the Greek Orthodox Church, widely venerated in his island of origin. He lived during the 11th century and was blinded by ingesting contaminated fish in the mountainous area of Galata, withdrew from civil life when he was 18, and died at the age of 22. The reason for his blindness remains unknown, though it is widely attributed to an unknown poison related to the copper mines of the region. As fish is the end reservoir of organic mercury, it is quite possible that his blindness was the result of heavy metal toxicity...
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Ronald P Rubin
Alfred Gilman was best known for his co-authorship with Louis Goodman of the seminal textbook on pharmacology The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics in 1941. The book made the discipline of pharmacology relevant to clinical medicine by providing a link between the basic medical sciences and the practice of medicine. Gilman was also instrumental in establishing the use of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer and made important contributions in areas related to renal function, acid-base balance, and diuretics...
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Rami Bou Khalil, Ruwan Jayatunge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Anders Gaarn du Jardin Nielsen, Neil H Metcalfe
The 150th anniversary of the birth of the Danish nutritionist Mikkel Hindhede (1862-1945) fell on 13 February 2012. He was brought up in a farming family and despite family traditions he chose an academic path and became a medical doctor in 1888 and he was ahead of his time and emphasized a healthy life style rather than polypharmacy. He was convinced that the Danish population ate far too much meat and investigated and debated this matter frequently. In 1910, the Danish government allocated Hindhede a laboratory to study human nutrition where he carried out several nutritional experiments on humans...
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Louis Fu
With the introduction of Western medicine into China by Anglo-American medical missionaries in the early 19th century, Reverend Dr Peter Parker at the Canton Ophthalmic Hospital pioneered surgical operations in Chinese patients. The subsequent development of surgery for bladder stones at this institute by Parker's successor Dr John Kerr and colleagues is described.
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Dinara G Uzbekova
The article reviews the life and work of an outstanding Russian pharmacologist Professor Nikolai Kravkov (1865-1924). Among his many scientific achievements, he worked on an extract from the pancreas of animals in the early 1920s and was successful in isolating the internal secretion, which he named "pancreotoxine." This reduced blood glucose levels in animals and diabetic humans. Kravkov's work on the isolation of pancreotoxine was going on coincidentally with F. Banting's and C. Best's research of insulin, but their methods of isolation of the hormone were quite different...
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
MaryKate Driscoll, Hyun Kee Chung, Manisha S Desai
Surgeons influence the introduction and development of anesthesia in many ways. Robert Emmett Farr is frequently cited as the first to describe the use of brachial plexus anesthesia in children. A surgeon based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, he passionately believed that regional anesthesia was superior to general anesthesia for many surgical procedures. He wrote extensively promoting other regional techniques, including local infiltration of local anesthetics for pyloromyotomy and harelip repairs, as well as caudal blocks for lower abdominal procedures...
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Katarzyna Pekacka-Falkowska, Halina Bogusz
Maksymilian Rutkowski (1867-1947) was a distinguished graduate of the Jagiellonian University and a pioneer in the early days of surgery in interwar Poland. He was a long-standing leader in both clinical and academic surgery. In addition, he played an important role in the founding of the School for Nurses and Healthcare Workers in Cracow supported by the Rockefeller Foundation. Among his best known surgical techniques, one may list the novel procedure of bladder exstrophy, new techniques of gastroenterostomy and plastic restoration of the oesophagus...
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Henry Connor
Medical dynasties are not uncommon, but medical dynasties which serve royalty are rare. This paper describes the work and responsibilities of three successive generations of the Chase family who served as apothecaries to a total of seven British monarchs. Two of them were also Masters of the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London, as also was a later member of the family.
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Stéphan R Duchesne, Christopher Naugler, James R Wright
Benjamin Taylor Terry (1876-1955), a little-known pathologist, played a critical role in the popularization of intraoperative diagnostic techniques in the 1920s and 1930s. He developed both a stain and his own rapid razor section method. Intraoperative diagnostic techniques were ultimately responsible for the transition of the practice of pathology and laboratory medicine from private commercial laboratories to a hospital-based practice, forever changing the history of pathology and surgery in North America...
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
(no author information available yet)
The article A Memoir of Sir John Forbes (1787-1861) (DOI: 10.1177/0967772013504859 ) by Robin Agnew, which appeared in the Journal of Medical Biography Volume 22, Issue 4, included a date error. On page 190 of the issue, 'Auenbrugger (1722-1821)' should be Auenbrugger (1722-1809)'.
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
(no author information available yet)
The article Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) and Sir John Forbes (1787-1861): Neighbours in Old Burlington Street, Westminster (DOI: 10.1177/0967772013505051 ) by Robin Agnew, which appeared in the Journal of Medical Biography Volume 23, Issue 2, included a date error. On page 95 of the issue, 'promulgated by Auenbrugger in 1876 […]' should be 'promulgated by Auenbrugger in 1761 […]'.
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Nadeem Toodayan
The year 2014 marks the bicentenary of the birth of Sir James Paget (1814-1899), the celebrated English surgeon and pathologist. Although best known for his work on bone and breast disease, Paget also played an important role in the institution of Australia's first medical school. In this article, that involvement and Paget's other antipodean influences are summarised. The naming of Paget's disease of the bone is also discussed.
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Mackson Strayer
The time period from 1840 to 1950 was one of rapid, dramatic change in the experience of suffering from and receiving treatment for obsessional disorder in the United States. Several patient case histories are discussed in detail, including those of a theology professor's acquaintance (1844), a wealthy gentleman (1880), a hosiery shop proprietor (1938), and a former college student (1949). Although the focus here is on the patients' experience, many broader aspects of the history of obsessional disorder are also explored...
May 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Gilbert Shama
Hans Emmanuel Enoch (1896-1991) was born in Hamburg, the son of a manufacturer of sera and vaccines. Upon his father's death, he took charge of the Hamburg Serum Werke. Following the rise of Hitler, he came to be pilloried in the Nazi press for allegedly having poisoned the population of Hamburg and was imprisoned for a time. He immigrated to England in 1935 where he had secured a position with the International Serum Company in Norwich. Following the outbreak of war, he was interned as an enemy alien, eventually ending up in Canada...
May 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Samuel R Donnenfeld
The nineteenth century Mormon Prophet, Brigham Young, has long been lauded as progressive for sending dozens of Mormon women from the Utah territory to receive a formal medical education at The Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania. This manuscript comes to a contrary conclusion through close reading of diaries and journals created by these same women and the public speeches of the Prophet himself. These texts have historically been held up as evidence of Prophet Young's encouragement of women as physicians...
May 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Todd M Olszewski
In 1910, James Bryan Herrick published the first clinical and laboratory description of sickle cell anemia. Two years later, he published a case report on coronary thrombosis. Together, these case reports solidified his reputation as one of the premier diagnosticians of his generation. Now regarded as a central figure in the history of American medicine, Herrick played an integral role in the clinical adoption of the electrocardiograph and the professionalization of cardiology in the United States. Although a full decade passed before the medical profession recognized his clinical description of coronary thrombosis and myocardial infarction, it has had profound implications for cardiovascular medicine and prevention over the past hundred years...
May 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Daryl Ramai, Karl Zakhia, Denzil Etienne, Madhavi Reddy
The widespread use of endoscopy in today's clinical arena underscores its utility and growing significance within the field of medicine. Primitive forms of endoscopy have existed for hundreds of years, but it was not until the early 19th century that Dr Philipp Bozzini invented an endoscope that would form the basis of modern endoscopy. Born into an influential Italian family, Bozzini practiced medicine in a time and place of conflict and political unrest. His passion, ingenuity, and important social connections allowed him to create and introduce to the medical profession the Lichtleiter (light-conductor), which overcame two key issues plaguing endoscopy: inadequate lighting and poor penetration...
May 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
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