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Journal of Medical Biography

Richard Thompson
Dr Gilbert Kymer (d. 1463) was a leading royal physician, scholar, cleric and university administrator of the first half of the 15th century. He was physician to Henry V & VI, and principally to Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, for whom he wrote an extensive Dietarium. He collected medical books and facilitated their translation, and helped to set up Duke Humfrey's library at Oxford. He became Dean of Salisbury, and for 11 years was Chancellor of the University of Oxford.
November 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Mahboobeh Farkhondehzadeh, Mostafa Gohari Fakhrabad
The medical history of Iran and Islam is marked by the presence of renowned physicians, some of whom are not well known outside Iran. Ab[Formula: see text] Man⋅[Formula: see text]r ῌasan ibn N[Formula: see text]ḥ Qamarī Bukhārā 'ī was an Iranian physician living in the fourth century AH (10th century CE). The scientific works of this sage indicate his skill and expertise in medical science. He was a man of such scientific stature that the renowned Iranian philosopher and physician, Avicenna, use may have been one of his disciples...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Charles T Ambrose
The morbidity and mortality of soldiers injured during the First World War stemmed in large part from infections of battle wounds. Preventing and treating such infections was a major challenge for the medical corps. Alexis Carrel, a French-American surgeon, advocated irrigating open wounds with a hypochlorite solution (the Carrel-Dakin solution) to prevent the growth of bacteria contaminating them. His method of treatment was complicated and time consuming and was not well followed by surgeons who doubted the necessity of such an exacting protocol...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
A Ross Lorimer, Francis G Dunn, Carol A Parry
John Marshall Cowan (1870-1947) descended from a long line of Glasgow medical practitioners. He was at the forefront in the great advances made in cardiology during the first quarter of the 20th century. He was a founder member of the Cardiac Club and the principal author of a major text book Diseases of the Heart, first published in 1914. He had a distinguished military career and was physician in charge of wards in the Royal Infirmary, Glasgow and Professor of Medicine at Anderson's College, Glasgow. This article outlines Cowan's life, career and publications and also provides an examination of his magnum opus, Diseases of the Heart...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Rebecca Pinnelas
American physician Emanuel Libman (1872-1946) was a generalist with Sherlockian diagnostic skills ("secret-divining eyes" according to Einstein) whose achievements were recognized by the scientific community and the public. Personal aspects of Libman were revealed in an oral history conducted with psychiatrist George L. Engel, a nephew who was raised in his house, and show Libman to be an intensely private person, contrasting with the image of him as a mentor and teacher. Yet Libman as a young physician and investigator remains absent in these opposing biographical reflections...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Sajjad Sadeghi, Farzaneh Ghaffari, Mehdi Alizadeh
The golden age of Islamic medicine (800 to 1300 CE) is a notable period in medical history. Medical education in this period of time was significant and systematic in Islamic territory. In the early Golden Age of Islamic Medicine, Abū Zayd Ḥunain ibn Isḥāq al-'Ibādī, an exceptional scholar and translator, emerged. He was known as Johannitius in medieval Europe. Al-Masā'il fī al-tibb lil-Mutāllimīn ( Questions on Medicine for Students) was written by Hunain ibn Isḥāq. This book remains a definitive text on Islamic medicine and has been printed and published widely in Europe...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Charles S Bryan
On 16 May 1919, Sir William Osler (1849-1919) gave what would be his last public address, 'The Old Humanities and the New Science,' to the Classical Association of which he was president. British educators were locked in a struggle between classics teachers, who wished to preserve their dominance in public schools and universities, and science teachers, who wanted more time in the curriculum. Osler had supported the science teachers' position three years earlier in his presidential address to the Association of Public School Science Masters...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Dugald Gardner
William Rutherford Sanders spent a childhood and early student days divided between Edinburgh and Montpelier, France before graduating in Medicine in Edinburgh. An early interest in the spleen was encouraged by a two-year period in Europe where he became familiar with the work of Helmholtz, Bernard and Henle. Returning to Edinburgh, his growing experience led to the position of assistant in the Infirmary pathology department. He conducted classes in the University of Edinburgh and on behalf of the Royal Colleges became familiar with the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons where he was chosen as Conservator in 1853...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
J V Hirschmann
Paul Bruce Beeson (1908-2006) was a preeminent academic physician in both the United States and Great Britain. He attended medical school at McGill University in Canada and then trained at the University of Pennsylvania and Harvard University. During his career, he was Chairman of the Departments of Medicine at Emory University and at Yale University and then became Nuffield Professor at Oxford University. He ended his career at the Veterans Administration in Seattle as a Distinguished Physician. He was a skilled administrator and an excellent and admired clinician...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
A J Larner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Penelope Hunting
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Henry Connor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Alexandra C Istl, Vivian C McAlister
At the turn of the 20th century, Dr Edwin Seaborn was starting his surgical and academic career at Western University in Ontario. When war was declared in 1914, Seaborn prevailed upon the university's president to offer the Canadian government a fully staffed hospital for deployment overseas. Initially declined by the War Office in Ottawa, the university's offer was later accepted after mounting casualties stretched the capacity of the Canadian Army Medical Corps, and Seaborn was granted command of the new No...
November 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
George McHardy
John Hunter died in 1793 and was buried in the vaults of the church of St Martin-in-the-Fields, London. In 1859, the vaults were required to be cleared and Hunter's coffin was found and his remains were reinterred in Westminster Abbey beneath a memorial brass. In the course of research on several such memorials in a Worcestershire village church, a letter was found that a clerk, having misread the writer's signature, consequently misfiled. Following this lead, it is now possible to tell something not only of the genesis of Weekes's statue of Hunter but also of the making and cost of the brass over his grave...
November 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Peter D Mohr
Catherine Corbett was the second woman to gain a medical degree from the University of Manchester Medical School in 1905; however, little was known about her life or work, apart from the fact that she was a School Medical Inspector (SMI) and never married. The rediscovery of her Diary in Serbia (1916) has revealed her work for the Scottish Women's Hospitals (SWH) during the First World War in Serbia (1915-1916). Her time alongside her female colleagues was a good experience, however the harsh conditions, especially those she experienced during a further period working in Russia (1916-1917), left her exhausted and psychologically stressed...
November 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Susan Benedict, Linda Shields, Colin Holmes, Julia Kurth
Eugenics underpinned the Nazi race theories which saw the murder of over 10 million people from "undesirable" groups, including Sinti (referred to in Nazi times as "Gypsies"), during the Holocaust. Eva Justin, from Dresden, completed a doctoral dissertation which examined a group of Sinti children of St Josef's Home in Mulfingen, Germany. She aimed to prove the racial inferiority of these children; her work was done with no informed consent, and the children were sent to Auschwitz after her experiments...
November 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Jonathan Rt Davidson
The effect of World War 1 military service on composers has been neglected in comparison with poets and artists. This article describes the wartime service of Arthur Bliss, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Ivor Gurney, EJ Moeran, Gordon Jacob, Patrick Hadley, and Maurice Ravel. The relationship between experiences of combat and the psychological health of these men is examined, with consideration being given to predisposition and possible causative influences of military service on their later careers, examined from individual and societal perspectives...
November 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Carlo Patriarca, Carlo Alfredo Clerici
Agostino Gemelli (1878-1959) is known as the founder of the Catholic University in Italy. Franciscan monk and doctor he had a central role in promoting studies on human behavior, thanks to his solid scientific training as a student of Camillo Golgi at the University of Pavia. His research activities during the years of the First World War involved studying the motivation, courage and psychological adaptation of the soldiers, engaged in trench warfare, laying the foundations of modern studies of behavior and trauma...
November 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Edward A Driggers
This article will argue that Edward Darrell Smith engaged in chemical analysis in order to broaden his understanding of the body, particularly stones, in a humoral framework. At the time, Antoine Lavoisier's chemical innovations were exciting the medical world, and Lavoisier himself was pursuing medical questions in his chemical research. Medical students from Philadelphia to Charleston were writing dissertations on the different types of stones and concretions found in the body. Smith practiced medicine in a world in which the remedy for the stone was compelling and a long awaited discovery...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Maria Ioanna Stefanou
In the first half of the 3rd-century BC in Alexandria, the Greek physicians Herophilus of Chalcedon (ca. 330 to ca. 260 BC) and Erasistratus of Chios (ca. 315 to ca. 240 BC) became the first scientists in antiquity to comprehensively study the anatomical underpinnings and the physiological properties of mind processes. Their scientific theories were based on experimental evidence arising from anatomical human dissection studies. Among their neuroscientific achievements were the discovery of the cranial nerves, the meninges, the dural sinuses and the ventricles; the delineation of the motor and sensory nerves; the appraisal of the brain as the seat of consciousness and human intellect; and the attribution of neurological disease to dysfunction of the nervous system...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
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