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Journal of Medical Biography

A Ross Lorimer, Francis G Dunn, Carol A Parry
John Marshall Cowan (1870-1947) descended from a long line of Glasgow medical practitioners. He was at the forefront in the great advances made in cardiology during the first quarter of the 20th century. He was a founder member of the Cardiac Club and the principal author of a major text book Diseases of the Heart, first published in 1914. He had a distinguished military career and was physician in charge of wards in the Royal Infirmary, Glasgow and Professor of Medicine at Anderson's College, Glasgow. This article outlines Cowan's life, career and publications and also provides an examination of his magnum opus, Diseases of the Heart...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Rebecca Pinnelas
American physician Emanuel Libman (1872-1946) was a generalist with Sherlockian diagnostic skills ("secret-divining eyes" according to Einstein) whose achievements were recognized by the scientific community and the public. Personal aspects of Libman were revealed in an oral history conducted with psychiatrist George L. Engel, a nephew who was raised in his house, and show Libman to be an intensely private person, contrasting with the image of him as a mentor and teacher. Yet Libman as a young physician and investigator remains absent in these opposing biographical reflections...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Sajjad Sadeghi, Farzaneh Ghaffari, Mehdi Alizadeh
The golden age of Islamic medicine (800 to 1300 CE) is a notable period in medical history. Medical education in this period of time was significant and systematic in Islamic territory. In the early Golden Age of Islamic Medicine, Abū Zayd Ḥunain ibn Isḥāq al-'Ibādī, an exceptional scholar and translator, emerged. He was known as Johannitius in medieval Europe. Al-Masā'il fī al-tibb lil-Mutāllimīn ( Questions on Medicine for Students) was written by Hunain ibn Isḥāq. This book remains a definitive text on Islamic medicine and has been printed and published widely in Europe...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Penelope Hunting
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Charles S Bryan
On 16 May 1919, Sir William Osler (1849-1919) gave what would be his last public address, 'The Old Humanities and the New Science,' to the Classical Association of which he was president. British educators were locked in a struggle between classics teachers, who wished to preserve their dominance in public schools and universities, and science teachers, who wanted more time in the curriculum. Osler had supported the science teachers' position three years earlier in his presidential address to the Association of Public School Science Masters...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Dugald Gardner
William Rutherford Sanders spent a childhood and early student days divided between Edinburgh and Montpelier, France before graduating in Medicine in Edinburgh. An early interest in the spleen was encouraged by a two-year period in Europe where he became familiar with the work of Helmholtz, Bernard and Henle. Returning to Edinburgh, his growing experience led to the position of assistant in the Infirmary pathology department. He conducted classes in the University of Edinburgh and on behalf of the Royal Colleges became familiar with the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons where he was chosen as Conservator in 1853...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
J V Hirschmann
Paul Bruce Beeson (1908-2006) was a preeminent academic physician in both the United States and Great Britain. He attended medical school at McGill University in Canada and then trained at the University of Pennsylvania and Harvard University. During his career, he was Chairman of the Departments of Medicine at Emory University and at Yale University and then became Nuffield Professor at Oxford University. He ended his career at the Veterans Administration in Seattle as a Distinguished Physician. He was a skilled administrator and an excellent and admired clinician...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Edward A Driggers
This article will argue that Edward Darrell Smith engaged in chemical analysis in order to broaden his understanding of the body, particularly stones, in a humoral framework. At the time, Antoine Lavoisier's chemical innovations were exciting the medical world, and Lavoisier himself was pursuing medical questions in his chemical research. Medical students from Philadelphia to Charleston were writing dissertations on the different types of stones and concretions found in the body. Smith practiced medicine in a world in which the remedy for the stone was compelling and a long awaited discovery...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Maria Ioanna Stefanou
In the first half of the 3rd-century BC in Alexandria, the Greek physicians Herophilus of Chalcedon (ca. 330 to ca. 260 BC) and Erasistratus of Chios (ca. 315 to ca. 240 BC) became the first scientists in antiquity to comprehensively study the anatomical underpinnings and the physiological properties of mind processes. Their scientific theories were based on experimental evidence arising from anatomical human dissection studies. Among their neuroscientific achievements were the discovery of the cranial nerves, the meninges, the dural sinuses and the ventricles; the delineation of the motor and sensory nerves; the appraisal of the brain as the seat of consciousness and human intellect; and the attribution of neurological disease to dysfunction of the nervous system...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Naveen Dhawan
The "iron lung," originally known as the Drinker respirator, was developed in 1928 by Dr Philip Drinker and Dr Louis Agassiz Shaw to improve the respiration of polio patients. In 1931, John Haven Emerson, an inventor from Cambridge, MA, enhanced the design of the Drinker respirator and introduced a new and highly improved model of the iron lung that was cheaper and significantly lighter. Dr Drinker eventually filed a lawsuit against Emerson for alleged patent infringement. In his defense, Emerson argued that devices that help save human lives should be widely accessible to all patients...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Sean Hughes, Christopher Gardner-Thorpe
Sir Charles Bell, a 19th century surgeon, anatomist and artist, was heavily influenced by the religious practice of Natural Theology, a belief which implied that the world is created by an Intelligent Designer. In the 18th century, William Paley, later Rector of Bishop Wearmouth, wrote the seminal book about Natural Theology. Charles Bell who practised in London and Edinburgh used his artistic skills to underline his teaching of anatomy and surgery. Later, Bell wrote one of the eight Bridgewater Treatises on the Hand...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Henry Connor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Ka-Wai Fan
This article is about a Japanese parasitologist, Yoshitaka Komiya (1900-1976), who was invited to China for a schistosomiasis investigation in 1956. In 1955, Chairman Mao initiated a national campaign to eliminate schistosomiasis, which at that time was still common in southern China, and for this purpose, the People's Republic of China invited Yoshitaka Komiya to China. He published a report based on his observations during this visit. This article aims to explore the meaning of Komiya's visit to the People's Republic of China and his observations about the anti-schistosomiasis campaign...
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Kleonikos A Tsakiris
Saint Ioannis Lampadistis is a Cypriot saint of the Greek Orthodox Church, widely venerated in his island of origin. He lived during the 11th century and was blinded by ingesting contaminated fish in the mountainous area of Galata, withdrew from civil life when he was 18, and died at the age of 22. The reason for his blindness remains unknown, though it is widely attributed to an unknown poison related to the copper mines of the region. As fish is the end reservoir of organic mercury, it is quite possible that his blindness was the result of heavy metal toxicity...
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Ronald P Rubin
Alfred Gilman was best known for his co-authorship with Louis Goodman of the seminal textbook on pharmacology The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics in 1941. The book made the discipline of pharmacology relevant to clinical medicine by providing a link between the basic medical sciences and the practice of medicine. Gilman was also instrumental in establishing the use of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer and made important contributions in areas related to renal function, acid-base balance, and diuretics...
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Rami Bou Khalil, Ruwan Jayatunge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Anders Gaarn du Jardin Nielsen, Neil H Metcalfe
The 150th anniversary of the birth of the Danish nutritionist Mikkel Hindhede (1862-1945) fell on 13 February 2012. He was brought up in a farming family and despite family traditions he chose an academic path and became a medical doctor in 1888 and he was ahead of his time and emphasized a healthy life style rather than polypharmacy. He was convinced that the Danish population ate far too much meat and investigated and debated this matter frequently. In 1910, the Danish government allocated Hindhede a laboratory to study human nutrition where he carried out several nutritional experiments on humans...
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Louis Fu
With the introduction of Western medicine into China by Anglo-American medical missionaries in the early 19th century, Reverend Dr Peter Parker at the Canton Ophthalmic Hospital pioneered surgical operations in Chinese patients. The subsequent development of surgery for bladder stones at this institute by Parker's successor Dr John Kerr and colleagues is described.
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Dinara G Uzbekova
The article reviews the life and work of an outstanding Russian pharmacologist Professor Nikolai Kravkov (1865-1924). Among his many scientific achievements, he worked on an extract from the pancreas of animals in the early 1920s and was successful in isolating the internal secretion, which he named "pancreotoxine." This reduced blood glucose levels in animals and diabetic humans. Kravkov's work on the isolation of pancreotoxine was going on coincidentally with F. Banting's and C. Best's research of insulin, but their methods of isolation of the hormone were quite different...
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
MaryKate Driscoll, Hyun Kee Chung, Manisha S Desai
Surgeons influence the introduction and development of anesthesia in many ways. Robert Emmett Farr is frequently cited as the first to describe the use of brachial plexus anesthesia in children. A surgeon based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, he passionately believed that regional anesthesia was superior to general anesthesia for many surgical procedures. He wrote extensively promoting other regional techniques, including local infiltration of local anesthetics for pyloromyotomy and harelip repairs, as well as caudal blocks for lower abdominal procedures...
August 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
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