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Journal of Medical Biography

Martyn Thomas
Alfred Caleb Taylor was the first radiographer at the Peterborough Infirmary and Dispensary from 1896 to 1923. He constructed the first X-ray apparatus and oversaw the development of the X-ray service in Peterborough. He contracted a chronic radiation dermatitis from exposure to X-rays which was a source of considerable suffering for him. When he died in 1927, X-ray dermatitis was considered to have contributed to his death, and he was recognised as an X-ray martyr and a victim of science. In spite of his achievements and his ill-health from working with X-rays, his name is not included on the Martyrs Memorial in Hamburg...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Biography
A J Larner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Biography
Armond S Goldman, Frank C Schmalsteig
Karl Landsteiner applied the sciences of biochemistry, pathology, microbiology, and immunology in medical research to great success during the first half of the 20th century. Although he is principally known for elucidating the major blood group antigens A and B and their isoantibodies for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Landsteiner made many other important medical discoveries. In that respect, he ascertained that paralytic poliomyelitis was due to a virus, the pancreas was damaged in cystic fibrosis, simple chemicals called haptens were able to combine with antibodies, and the Rh antigen that was later found to be the principal cause of hemolytic anemia of the newborn was found in most humans...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Henry Connor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Khushbir Bath, Sourabh Aggarwal, Vishal Sharma
Sushruta has been regarded as one of the pioneers of surgery. He performed procedures with crude surgical instruments that paved the path for today's operations. However, his existence is shrouded in myth and mystery. Sushruta belonged to a rich heritage of learned scholars and practiced and taught surgery at Benares University around 600BC. His work is assembled into a monumental thesis, possibly the first text book on surgery, the 'Sushruta Samhita' where he describes surgical instruments, procedures, illnesses, medicinal plants and preparation, dissection and the study of human anatomy, embryology and fractures...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Richard Biddle
Doctor William Gunn had a long and varied career in the Royal Navy. After spending time on anti-slavery patrols along the west coast of Africa, he was posted to the south Pacific. At Pitcairn Island, he treated the inhabitants during an influenza epidemic, proving himself to be a determined and dedicated practitioner. Subsequently, he was appointed head of the medical department at Chatham Royal Dockyard (1859-1865), an appointment that coincided with the final stages of the Royal Navy's transition from sail and wood to steam and iron...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Ka-Wai Fan
This article is about a Japanese parasitologist, Yoshitaka Komiya (1900-1976), who was invited to China for a schistosomiasis investigation in 1956. In 1955, Chairman Mao initiated a national campaign to eliminate schistosomiasis, which at that time was still common in southern China, and for this purpose, the People's Republic of China invited Yoshitaka Komiya to China. He published a report based on his observations during this visit. This article aims to explore the meaning of Komiya's visit to the People's Republic of China and his observations about the anti-schistosomiasis campaign...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Vincent de Parades
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Penelope Hunting
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Henry Connor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Bengt-Ola S Bengtsson
In the mid-nineteenth century, three events coincided to make California the 31st state of the USA: The Mexican-American war of 1846-1848, The Bear Flag Revolt of 1846 and the discovery of gold in 1848. Within a few years a population explosion had occurred and with it came the need for organization of the practice of medicine. This paper outlines the biographies of some physicians who were instrumental in the early years of the Golden State.
November 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Armond S Goldman, Elisabeth J Schmalstieg, Charles F Dreyer, Frank C Schmalstieg, Daniel A Goldman
In 2003, we published evidence that the most likely cause of FDR's 1921 neurological disease was Guillain-Barré syndrome. Afterwards, several historians and neurologists stated in their publications that FDR had paralytic poliomyelitis. However, significant criticism of our article or new support for that diagnosis was not revealed. One critic claimed that FDR's cerebrospinal fluid indicated poliomyelitis, but we did not find evidence that a lumbar puncture was performed. The diagnosis of FDR's neurological disease still depends upon documented clinical abnormalities...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Jenna M Dittmar, Piers D Mitchell
This paper aims to highlight the practice of body snatching from graves in the 1700s for the purpose of providing corpses for anatomical dissection, and for stocking anatomy museums. To do this, we examine the exhumation and dissection of the famous eighteenth-century novelist Laurence Sterne and explore the involvement of Charles Collignon, Professor of Anatomy at the University of Cambridge. We also show that osteological and cut-mark analysis of a skull purported to be that of Sterne, currently housed in the Duckworth Collection at Cambridge, provides the key to solving the mystery surrounding why Sterne was resurrected...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Fiona Davidson
From the 13th to the 18th centuries, a small village in Umbria produced a remarkable multifamily dynasty of highly proficient surgeons. Skilled in lithotomy (cutting for the stone), couching cataracts, repair of hernias, and castration, the Surgeons of Preci or the Norcini, were preeminent in Europe, famous, and wealthy. Sophisticated instruments, use of cautery, knowledge of analgesics, and narcotics were passed down from father to son over 400 years: the most dextrous were summoned by crowned heads, including Charles V1 of France and Elizabeth of England...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Quenton Wessels, Janine Carla Correia, Adam M Taylor
Sir William Turner, a Lancastrian, was renowned as a scientist, anatomist and a great reformer of medical education. His students became anatomists at various international institutions, which consequently shaped the future of anatomy as a subject matter both in the United Kingdom and in South Africa. Although Turner's accomplishments have been documented, little is known about the details that determined his career path and the individuals that shaped his future. Here the authors aim to highlight some aspects of Turner's academic achievements and his personal life as well as how he crossed paths with other great minds of the Victorian era including Richard Owen, Charles Darwin, James Paget and Joseph Lister...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Rosemary Shields, Linda Shields
Emma Maud McCarthy was one of the most decorated nurses of the First World War. Born in Sydney in 1859, she trained as a nurse at The London Hospital in England. She was one of the first nurses to go to the South African War and in 1914 was one of the first members of Queen Alexandra's Imperial Nursing Service. Maud McCarthy went to France as Matron-in-Chief of British, Colonial and US nursing services until the end of hostilities in 1918. After the First World War she became Matron-in-Chief of the Territorial Army Nursing Service and retired five years later...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Antonis A Kousoulis, Iakovos Armenis, Charikleia Papandreou, Alexandros Marinelis, Filio Marineli, Gregory Tsoucalas, George Androutsos
During the 17th century, Ludovico Maria Barbieri from Imola, Italy, discussed the requirement of a gas, seemingly oxygen, for living beings to function. On 6 December 1680, he published his only known work 'Spiritus nitro-aerei operations in microcosmo' in which he reviewed the function of oxygen and the apparatus he used based on the use of experiments rather than just theory. The scarcity of information about his life and work has resulted usually in him being a neglected figure in Italy. In this manuscript we uncover the extant information about his life and reveal that he had been a restless spirit and a great example to the 17th century scientific method...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Stephen Pow, Frank W Stahnisch
Already emerging as an original thinker in the field of classical philology and history of medicine, German scholar Ludwig Edelstein became one of many scholars who lost his academic position when the National Socialists came to power in early 1933. This paper details his life before and after his difficult transition from Europe to North America, while reviewing the lasting significance of his translation and commentary on the Hippocratic Oath.
November 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Jane Coutts
Sir William Watson Cheyne is largely known to medical history as Lord Lister's 'trusted assistant'.(1) He spent a lifetime defending Joseph Lister's (1827-1912) antiseptic principle in the wake of scepticism and misunderstanding. However, his main contribution to Lister's work was in the embryonic field of bacteriology in the 1870s-1890s, which brought him into contact with continental researchers, particularly Robert Koch (1843-1910). In this field, Cheyne built an independent reputation as an assessor, chronicler and promoter of continental laboratory methodology...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
John Russell Silver, Marie-France Weiner
Operative nerve-stretching was first described in 1872 to relieve incurable pain from sciatica and tabes dorsalis. It became popular for 20 years and numerous articles were published on the subject. It had many complications but relief was only transient and, consequently, it fell into disuse. This paper analyses the literature, contemporary views on the benefits of nerve stretching and its influence on more recent neurological practice.
November 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
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